Title:
Spilway with improved dissipation efficiency
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
The purpose of the present invention is to obtain efficiency of dissipation or loss of the excess kinetic energy, at each required spillway of the even at relatively low approach of energy heads and relatively high discharges, which means at very low Froude numbers and by negligible decrease of the interior transversal cross-section of each required spillway by the designing of new hydraulic structures or even only on the basis of economically acceptable reparation each required of the already existing structures, the effective dissipation and/or loss of excess kinetic energy and thus prevent the bottom and banks of each required river channel downstream from the spillway against extensive erosion. The spillway consists of the consolidated stilling basin (2) positioned directly below/behind the spillway (1) and if/when required it is concluded with the end sill (3) and at the sides constrained with vertical or inclined side walls (4′, 4″). If required, in the area of such spillway there is an appropriate gate (6) or end sill (3) together with the side walls (4′, 4″), which represents a uniform, compact structure available to withdraw the hydraulic loadings and other phenomena, which occur between the impounding reservoir area of each stream flow arranged upstream/before the spillway and the tailwater river channel with the river banks below/behind the spillway area. According to the invention there, in the area at least one of the side walls (4′, 4″) of the spillway, at least one dissipation beam (5′, 5″) is foreseen, which extends at least essentially in the flow direction and protrudes from the side into the interior of the spillway.



Inventors:
Ciuha, Dusan (Ljubljana, SL)
Application Number:
10/496969
Publication Date:
05/26/2005
Filing Date:
11/25/2002
Assignee:
CIUHA DUSAN
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
405/114
International Classes:
E02B8/06; (IPC1-7): E02B8/06; E02B7/08
View Patent Images:
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Primary Examiner:
LEE, JONG SUK
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Richard R Ruble (San Antonio, TX, US)
Claims:
1. Spillway comprising a consolidated stilling basin (2), which is—when observed in the flow direction—placed directly below/behind the spillway chute (1) and if/when required concluded with the end sill (3) and at sides constrained with the at least essentially vertical or inclined side walls (4′, 4″), if necessary in the area of such spillway, an adequate gate (6) or similar closing structure, where the stilling basin together with the spillway (1) and if/when required with the end sill (3) together with the mentioned side walls (4′, 4″), represents an uniform, compact structure for regulating the hydraulic loads and other phenomena between the reservoir impounding area each desired stream, that is placed above or before the mentioned spillway and the tailwater river with the corresponding river banks behind/below the spillway, wherein at least two dissipation beams (5′, 5″) are provided, that are running along the belonging side walls (4′, 4″) from the spillway area (1) at least essentially horizontally in the flow direction and extend up to the end of the stilling basin (2), at least essentially to the end sill (3).

2. Spillway according to claim 1, wherein at least two straightly designed dissipation beams (5′, 5″) are provided, being inclined and raise from the spillway area (1) in the flow direction up to the end of the stilling basin (2), at least to the end sill (3).

3. Spillway according to claim 1, characterized by that at least two straightly designed dissipation beams (5′, 5″) are provided, extending from the spillway area (1) inclined and decreasing in the flow direction up to the end of stilling basin (2), at least to the end sill (3).

4. Spillway according to claim 1, wherein at least two dissipation beams (5′, 5″) are provided, which are broken and extend from the spillway (1) at least essentially horizontally in the flow direction up to the end of the stilling basin (2), at least to the end sill (3).

5. Spillway according to claim 1, wherein at least two dissipation beams (5′, 5″) are provided, which are broken and extend from the spillway area (1) inclined and raising up to the end of the stilling basin (2), at least to the end sill (3).

6. Spillway according to claim 1, wherein at least two dissipation beams (5′, 5″), which are broken and extend from the spillway area (1) inclined and decreasing in the flow direction up to the end of the stilling basin (2), at least to the end sill (3).

7. Spillway according to claim 1, wherein at least two straightly designed dissipation beams (5′, 5″) are provided, which extend from the spillway area (1) at least essentially horizontally in the flow direction over the end of the stilling basin (2), at least over the end sill (3).

8. Spillway according to claim 1, wherein at least two straightly designed dissipation beams (5′, 5″) are provided, which extend from the spillway area (1) inclined and raising in the flow direction over the end of the stilling basin (2), at least over the end sill (3).

9. Spillway according to claim 1, wherein at least two straightly designed dissipation beams (5′, 5″) are provided, which extend from the spillway area (1) inclined and decreasing in the flow direction over the end of the stilling basin (2), at least over the end sill (3).

10. Spillway according to claim 1, wherein at least two dissipation beams (5′, 5″) are provided, which are broken and extend from the spillway area (1) at least essentially horizontally in the flow direction over the end of the stilling basin (2), at least over the end sill (3).

11. Spillway according to claim 1, wherein at least two dissipation beams (5′, 5″) are provided, which are broken and extend from the spillway area (1) inclined and raising in the flow direction over the end of the stilling basin (2), at least over the end sill (3).

12. Spillway according to claim 1, wherein at least two dissipation beams (5′, 5″) are provided, which are broken and extend from the spillway area (1) inclined and decreasing in the flow direction over the end of the stilling basin (2), at least over the end sill (3).

13. Spillway according to claim 12, wherein at least two dissipation beams (5′, 5″) are provided, which are arranged parallel each to another in the flow direction.

14. Spillway according to claim 12, wherein at least two dissipation beams (5′, 5″) are provided, which are arranged at least essentially in the flow direction, but are inclined each to another and approach/converge each to other in the flow direction.

15. Spillway according to claim 12, wherein at least two dissipation beams (5′, 5″) are provided, which are arranged at least essentially in the flow direction, but are inclined each to another and digress/diverge each to other in the flow direction.

16. Spillway according to claim 15, comprising at least one dissipation beam (5′, 5″) having a square transversal profile.

17. Spillway according to claim 15, comprising at least one dissipation beam (5′, 5″) having a cut-off at least essentially rectangular or square transversal profile, where the lower and the upper surfaces (501, 502) of the beam (5′) are in principle hyperbolically hollowed, while the side surface (503) of the beam (5′) is flat, smooth and at least essentially vertical.

18. Spillway according to claim 15, comprising at least one dissipation beam (5′, 5″) having at least essentially trapezoidal transversal profile, by which the lower and the upper surfaces (501, 502) of the beam (5′) are flat and smooth and horizontal, the side surface (503) of the beam (5′) is otherwise flat and smooth, but inclined outwards and downwards.

19. Spillway according to claim 15, comprising at least one dissipation beam (5′, 5″) having a transversal profile, by which the lower and the upper surface (501, 502) of the beam (5′) are at least essentially hyperbolically widened in the direction against the corresponding side wall (4′), while the side surface (503) of the beam (5′) is flat and smooth and thoroughly vertical.

20. Spillway according to claim 15, comprising at least one dissipation beam (5′, 5″) having at least essentially trapezoidal transversal profile, by which the lower and the upper surface (501, 502) of the beam (5′) are flat and smooth and horizontal, the side surface (503) of the beam (5′) is otherwise flat and smooth, but inclined downwards and inwards.

21. Spillway according to claim 15, comprising at least one dissipation beam (5′, 5″) having a transversal profile, which is an upright rectangular profile, where the upper and the lower surfaces (501, 502) are flat and smooth and parallel, otherwise flat and vertical side surface (503) is equipped with a rectangular in longitudinal direction running groove (504).

22. Spillway according to claim 15, comprising at least one dissipation beam (5′, 5″) having at least essentially trapezoidal transversal profile, by which the upper and the lower surface (501, 502) are flat and smooth, but inclined so that they are approaching each other in the direction against the corresponding side wall (4′), while the side surface (503) is flat and smooth and at least essentially vertical.

23. Spillway according to claim 15, comprising at least one dissipation beam (5′, 5″) having a cut-off at least essentially rectangular or square transversal profile, where the lower and the upper surface (501, 502) of the beam (5′) are at least essentially hyperbolically hollowed, and the side surface (503) of the beam (5′) is hollowed in the similar manner as well.

24. Spillway according to claim 15, comprising at least one dissipation beam (5′, 5″) having at least essentially T-shaped transversal profile, by which the lower and the upper surface (501, 502) of the beam (5′) are gradually hollowed in the area next to the wall (4′), while the side surface (503) of the beam (5′) is flat, smooth and vertical.

25. Spillway according to claim 15, comprising at least one dissipation beam (5′, 5″) having at least essentially circular profile.

26. Spillway according to claim 15, comprising at least one dissipation beam (5′, 5″) having at least essentially trapezoidal transversal profile, by which the upper surface (501) and the side surface (503) of the beam (5′) are flat and smooth and orthogonal each to another, and by which the lower surface (502) of the beam (5′) is flat and smooth, but inclined inwardly towards the corresponding side wall (4′) and downwards.

27. Spillway according to claim 15, comprising at least one dissipation beam (5′, 5″) having at least essentially rectangular transversal profile, by which the upper and the lower surface (501, 502) are flat, smooth and extend essentially parallel each to other, while the vertically extending flat side surface (503) is equipped with a centrally arranged and in longitudinal direction extending rectangular groove (504), within which a further centrally arranged and also in the longitudinal direction running rectangular groove (505) is available.

28. Spillway according of claim 15, comprising at least one dissipation beam (5′, 5″) having at least essentially trapezoidal transversal profile, by which the bottom surface (502) and the side surface (503) of the beam (5′) are flat and smooth and orthogonal each to other, while the flat and smooth top surface (501) of the beam (5′) is inclined in the direction inwardly towards the wall (4′) and upwards.

29. Spillway according of claim 15, comprising at least one dissipation beam (5′, 5″) having at least essentially rhomboidal transversal profile, by which the flat and smooth top surface (501) and the bottom surface (502) are inclined and extend downwardly towards the corresponding wall (4′), while the side surface (503) is flat, smooth and vertical.

30. Spillway according to claim 15, comprising at least one dissipation beam (5′, 5″) having at least essentially E-shaped transversal profile, i.e. an upright rectangular profile with flat and smooth at least essentially horizontal surfaces (501, 502) extending parallel each to other, as well as with an essentially vertical side surface (503), which is equipped with two rectangular grooves (504, 505), which are parallel each to another and extend along the beam (5′).

31. Spillway according to claim 15, comprising at least one dissipation beam (5′, 5″) having at least essentially H-shaped transversal profile, i.e. an upright rectangular profile with flat and smooth horizontal surfaces (501, 502), which extend essentially parallel each to other, each of them is equipped with a rectangular groove (504, 505), and the said grooves being parallel each to other and extend along the beam (5′).

32. Spillway according to claim 15, comprising at least one dissipation beam (5′, 5″) having a modified H-shaped transversal profile, i.e. an upright rectangular profile with flat and smooth horizontal surfaces (501, 502), which extend essentially parallel each to other, further by a side surface (503), which is at least essentially flat, smooth and vertical, and in addition with a top surface (501), which is gradually hollowed in the direction towards the belonging side wall (4′), as well as with the bottom surface (502), which is equipped with a running rectangular groove (504), which extends in longitudinal direction.

33. Spillway according of claim 15, comprising at least one dissipation beam (5′, 5″) having a transversal profile, by which the top surface (501) and the bottom surface (502) are parallel each to other, while the side surface (503) is gradually inclined in direction downwards and towards the belonging side wall (4′).

34. Spillway according of claim 15, comprising at least one dissipation beam (5′, 5″) having at least essentially L-shaped transversal profile, i.e. an upright rectangular profile with flat and smooth horizontal surfaces (501, 502), which extend essentially parallel each to other, where the top surface (501) is gradually hollowed in the direction towards the belonging side wall (4′), while the lower surface (502) and vertical side surface (503) are flat and smooth.

35. Spillway according to claim 15, comprising at least one dissipation beam (5′, 5″) having at least essentially U-shaped transversal profile, i.e. an upright rectangular profile with horizontally extending and essentially each to other parallel top and bottom surface (501, 502), where the said top surface (501) is flat, but the said bottom surface (502) is equipped with a longitudinally extending rectangular groove (504), while the side surface (503) is at least essentially flat, smooth and vertical.

36. Spillway according to claim 15, comprising at least one dissipation beam (5′, 5″) having at least essentially X-shaped transversal profile, i.e. at least essentially rectangular or square profile, where the top surface (501) is gradually inclined downwardly and inwardly towards the belonging side wall (4′), while the side surface (503) and the lower surface (502) of the beam (5′) are trapezoidal and hollowed so that each of them includes a trapezoidal groove (504, 505), which extends in its longitudinal direction.

37. Spillway according to claim 15, comprising at least one complex dissipation beam (5′, 5″), which consists of at least two adjacent beams.

38. Spillway according to claim 15, comprising at least one complex dissipation beam (5′, 5″), which consists of at least two adjacent beams having expressly flattened rectangular transversal profile.

39. Spillway according to claim 15, comprising at least one dissipation beam (5′, 5″), the transversal profile of which remains essentially unchanged along the whole length of the beam (5′, 5″).

40. Spillway according to claim 15, comprising at least one dissipation beam (5′, 5″), the transversal profile of which changes along the length of the beam (5′, 5″).

41. Spillway according to claim 15, comprising at least one dissipation beam (5′, 5″), the transversal profile of which changes in a uniform manner along the length of the beam (5′, 5″).

42. Spillway according to claim 15, comprising at least one dissipation beam (5′, 5″), the transversal profile of which changes along the length of the beam (5′, 5″) in a not uniform manner.

Description:

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The invention generally belongs to the domain of civil engineering, namely the field of river regulations, or even more to the devices for the dissipation and/or loss of excess kinetic energy.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The present invention is based on the problem, how to achieve, at each required spillway of the hydro power plant weir or similar hydraulic structure, even at relatively small approach energy heads and relatively high discharges, i.e. at very low Froude numbers, and by negligible decrease of interior transversal cross-section of the spillway by the construction of new hydraulic structures or even only on the basis of an economically acceptable modification of an existing structure, the effective dissipation and/or loss of excess kinetic energy and thus prevent the bottom and banks of each required river channel downstream from the spillway against extensive erosion.

Hydraulic structures as hydro power plant weirs and similar structures as usually consist of a certain number of spillways, where each one spillway usually is positioned between vertical or inclined side walls, by which it is bounded transversely considering the water flow direction. In longitudinal direction the spillway is spread all the way from the upstream water surface i.e. the area above the weir and/or above the gate, to the area of the downstream water surface, i.e. behind the end of so-called stilling basin. Due to each time available difference between the upstream and downstream water surface, a portion of the potential approach energy in a spillway is transformed into kinetic energy that one strongly influences on the flow conditions, types of flow profiles and erosion, respectively. For this reason at the hydraulic structures, there always is a need for the loss of the excess kinetic energy, therefore must be dissipated, because the excess energy would cause extensive erosion effects of the downstream river channel bottom and banks, not only to/for immediately behind from the stilling basin, but also on a considerable downstream distance, as well. Loss of the excess kinetic energy, say dissipation, is generated in a hydraulic jump located in the consolidated structure resistant against erosion, namely in a stilling basin.

Those skilled in the art are aware, that by means of appropriate design of the longitudinal section of a spillway, it is possible to establish the hydraulic conditions, that are, in the predicted ranges of the energy heads and flows, preventing or at least minimizing the undesirable effects of erosion due to the kinetic energy portion. Therefore it is important, for instance, the design of the weir that is described for example in EP 0 477 745. The design of stilling basin, which is adequately formed, treated or concreted terminal hydraulic structure, located between the spillway chute of the barrage and above the tailwater, that is available behind/below the hydraulic structure, is also of the key importance. It should be considered, that the longitudinal profile of the spillway is always calculated and built for the defined operating conditions which may vary significantly in practice. The problems arise at an enormous increases of flow discharge, as at so changed conditions (at increased of flow discharge and at increased approach energy head, as well) the portion of the non-dissipated kinetic energy significantly increases and threatens the tailwater river channel behind the hydraulic structure.

To assure the most effective dissipation, i.e. loss of the excess or undesired portion of the kinetic energy of the water flow, a series of solutions are already known. Therefore the author of the invention is familiar with the solution where a concrete blocks, weighting several tones were placed behind the stilling basin area expecting the increased dissipating effect, but in fact by increased water flow due to intensive rain fall these blocks swept away from behind the stilling basin area and carried it out downstream from the hydraulic structure.

It is furthermore known from the U.S. Ser. No. 09/072,836 (WO 99/57377), that the spillway chute above the mentioned stilling basin may be equipped with the series of steps. Such arrangement may be effective to a certain degree at the adequately high difference between upstream and downstream water surface and/or at the adequately high stilling basin depths at the foot of spillway. When the differences in energy heads are present, the other solutions improving the dissipation and/or loss of the excess kinetic energy are available, as well. It is known that the so-called baffle blocks may be located in the stilling basin, namely a kind of vertical or inclined consoles fixed on the stilling basin bottom, or construction compose with parallel bars so-called racks, where the water flows down and/or withdrawal through the openings. The last one is among the others described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,032,038. The water flow over such structures, with which in general may be arrange even at already existing hydraulic structures and that are being up to the certain arrangement supplement in this way, may actually cause certain dissipation, but only in the case of the adequately discharge at the adequately head, what means at large enough Froude numbers. The theoretical calculations as well as the results acquired through practice are showing, that at the small heads or under the lower limit value of the Froude number such solutions have no effect and therefore they are meaningless. Such problematic is described also in the technical literature and in scientific publications, as e.g.:

    • 1. Peterka A. J.,—Spillway tests confirm model-prototype conformance (Engineering Monograph No. 16, Denver, Colo., 1954);
    • 2. Schröder W., Euler G., Knauf D.,—Grundlagen der Wasserbaus, (Wasserbau Werner Verlag, 1994);
    • 3. Novak P., Moffat A. L B., Nalluri C., Narayanan R.,—Hydraulic structures, (Chapman & Hall, Hampshire, England);
    • 4. Aisenbrey A. J. Jr., Hayes R. B., Warren H. J., Winsett D. L., Young R. B.,—Design of small canal structures, (United States Department of the Interior, Denver, Colo., 1978);
    • 5. Design of gravity dams, (United States Department of the Interior, Denver, Colo., 1976);
    • 6. Design of small dams, (United States Department of the Interior, Denver Colo., Third Edition, 1987).

By water flows with the relatively high discharge and small head (small altitude difference), which are characterized by low Froude number parameter, the necessary dissipation cannot be achieved by means of the above mentioned solutions. The only way in course of achieving required dissipation would be—at least theoretically—increasing the head with the lowering of the stilling basin bottom in artificial manner.

Such a solution is feasible only by the designing of new hydraulic structures. Modification of the existing structures using this approach, requires breaking of the huge quantities of concrete in the stilling basin area, lowering the bottom and repeated concreting, which is not economically feasible and is therefore irrational. It should be mentioned, that even the designing of the new structure with the adequately lowered stilling basin bottom tremendous increases the investment costs of the structure. Such a solution actually demands the preparation of the basement on the significantly larger depths as usually, and at the same time this solution demands considerably higher, more solid and more stable structure of construction.

A further attempt in course of achieving efficient dissipation is described in RU 479848. However, the described structure belongs to the domain of small canal structures, or even more to the domain of the devices for the dissipation the excess energy of storm runoff flows or irrigation or drainage water inflow in the reservoir lakes or the like, where in lakes always enough and to spare tailwater depth, at the chute outlet, exist.

Therein, the canal structure is foreseen, made of several different structural parts which together make up the complete structure. The structure consists of the flume inlet, the inclined chute i.e. drop section, the stilling pool, and the outlet section. The chute is an open rectangular inclined channel. It is rectangular in shape of constant width, the same as the inlet and the pool section.

The necessities in operation functions of the mentioned chute are not only to convey water from a higher to a lower elevation and dissipate excess energy resulting from this drop, but also to prevent reverse surface currents downstream from the outlet at tailwater section, what is the main addition attention i.e. the point of view for mentioned structure in operation. For satisfaction all this necessities in operation, the inclined rectangular chute is moreover equipped with several continuous transverse deflection steps along the inclined bottom, which were as evident from the said document already known before, and in addition also with several continuous transverse beams, which are positioned inside the inclined rectangular chute between the side walls at the fixed distance from the inclined bottom.

The transverse deflection steps together in pairs with transverse beams are generally an impact type energy dissipator. The transverse beams of inclined chute also stills the water after it has reached the lower water elevation and prevent reverse surface currents irrespective of downstream water level in accumulation lake between minimum and maximum. This last happens when the streams of water flow in submerged portion of the inclined section are thrown upwards by the bottom deflection steps, to the neighbouring transversal beams and so deflected streams hits the beams and are then returned by this obstacles back in the main flow. In this sequence of changing the direction, the strong turbulence is occur in water flow in the section between the bottom and under the beams of the inclined part of channel and essentially energy is dissipated simultaneously in the resulting turbulence. By using such transversal beams, the effect of reversible streaming should be essentially reduced regardless to certain variations of the level of the downstream lake and to certain variations of the water discharge in the chute.

At smaller tailwater depth and at smaller flow—discharge thru the chute, in the stilling pool, closed with side vertical and front inclined wall, installed at the lower end of rectangular inclined chute to obtain the required loss of energy between the lower end of the inclined channel and downstream water level.

At larger discharge, e.g. a full flow through the chute, certain amount of water flow passes over the beams. In this case the flow under and between the transversal beams joins the reservoir partly above its level. Because the main amount of excess energy is dissipate in water flow in the section between the bottom and under the beams of the inclined channel, also in this cases formation of reverse currents are prevented.

The use of the such mentioned constructions arrangement, may in fact result in smaller and more economical structure, which requires less riprap or gravel erosion protection at the neighbor earth banks section of reservoir lake.

However, an important disadvantage of the described construction has to be taken into account. The transversal beams unavoidable reduce the effective water cross profile and in fact more-less reduce discharge outflow capacity from the inclined rectangular channel. This is especially problematic, when appreciable amount of debris, trash, bushes, part of trees or tumbleweeds is accompanid to the flow, since these parts may become lodged between the beams and in inclined section under the beams, which leads to essential restricting the flow. In addition, removal of this material is sometimes very difficult.

Consequently, such chute is conditionally useful as a small hydraulic object, so that the size of such structure and its discharge capacity is essentially, in each case several times e.g. ten times or even more, smaller than by the spillway with improved dissipation efficiency in accordance with the present invention.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Accordingly, the present invention relates to a spillway of a hydro power plant weir or similar hydraulic structure, consisting the consolidated stilling basin, which is located—when observed in the flow-direction—directly behind the spillway chute and when desired also concluded with the end sill and on the sides constrained with at least essentially vertical or inclined side walls. When desired, in the area of such spillway, a suitable gate or similar closing structure is proposed. The above mentioned stilling basin with the spillway chute and if/when required with the end sill together with the mentioned side walls represents the uniform, compact structure for the control of the hydraulic forces and other phenomena, between the reservoir area of each river channel, that takes place above/before the mentioned spillway and the downstream river channel with the corresponding banks behind/below the dissipation area.

According to the invention, there is, in the area of at least one of the side-walls of each required spillway, proposed at least one essentially in the flow direction oriented and into the interior cross-section of the spillway from sidely protruding dissipation beam. Preferably, in the area of each side wall of each required spillway, at least one, especially preferable just always at least one, at least essentially in the flow direction oriented and into the interior cross-section of the spillway sidely protruding dissipation beam is available.

According to the invention there are considered as suitable foresee at least two straight or once or even more times broken formed dissipation beams, which are positioned along the area from the spillway chute either horizontally in the flow direction or inclined raising or descending, considering the horizontal section all the way to the lower end of the stilling basin or even to the end of the end sill. This dissipation beams are disposed at least essentially in the flow direction and either parallel between each other or inclined between each other so that they are converge or diverge each other.

Transverse profile of each required beam may be either square profile or at least essentially regular circular profile or also upright or flattened rectangular profile.

Furthermore, each dissipation beam may be shaped as at least rectangular or square cut-off profile in its transversal direction, where the lower and the upper surface of the beam is at least essentially hyperbolically hollowed, while side surface of the beam is flat and smooth and at least essentially vertical.

Furthermore, each dissipation beam may be shaped as at least trapezoidal profile in its transversal direction, where the lower and the upper beam surfaces are flat and smooth and horizontal as well, while side beam surface is flat and smooth, but at the same time inclined outwards and downwards.

Furthermore, each dissipation beam maybe shaped in its transversal direction, where the lower and the upper surfaces are at least hyperbolically widened in the direction against the corresponding side-wall, while the side-surface of the beam is flat, smooth and completely vertical.

Furthermore, each dissipation beam may be shaped as at least trapezoidal profile in its transversal direction, where the lower and the upper beam surfaces are flat and smooth and horizontal as well, while side beam surface is flat and smooth, but at the same time inclined downwards and inwards.

Furthermore, each dissipation beam may be shaped as an rectangular upright profile in its transversal direction, where the lower and the upper surfaces are flat and smooth and parallel, otherwise the flat and vertical side-surface is shaped with the rectangular, longitudinally oriented groove.

Furthermore each dissipation beam may be shaped as an trapezoidal profile in its transversal direction, where the lower and the upper beam surfaces are flat and smooth, but inclined so that they are converge between each other in the direction of the corresponding wall, while the flat and smooth side-surface is at least essentially vertical.

Furthermore, each dissipation beam may be shaped as at least rectangular or square cut-off profile in its transversal profile, where the lower and the upper surface of the beam is at least essentially hyperbolically hollowed, similarly the beam side surface is hollowed, as well.

Furthermore, each dissipation beam may be shaped as at least T-profile in its transversal direction, where the lower and the upper beam surfaces are gradually hollowed in the areas directly next to the wall, while the side surface of the beam is flat, smooth and vertical.

Furthermore, each dissipation beam may be shaped as at least trapezoidal profile in its transversal direction, where the upper surface and the side surfaces of beam are flat and smooth and normal to each other, while the lower surface of beam is flat and smooth, but inclined inwards against the corresponding side wall and upwards.

Furthermore, each dissipation beam may be shaped as at least rectangular upright profile in its transversal direction, where the upper and lower surface are flat and smooth and parallel to each other, while the side flat and smooth surface is equipped with the centrally positioned rectangular, longitudinal groove, inside which another centrally positioned rectangular and longitudinal groove, is available.

Furthermore, each dissipation beam may be shaped as at least trapezoidal profile in its transversal direction, where the lower surface and the side surfaces of beam are flat and smooth and normal between each other, while the upper surface of the beam is in principle flat and smooth but inclined inwards against the side wall and upright.

Furthermore, each dissipation beam may be shaped as at least rhomboidal profile in its transversal direction, where the lower and the upper surfaces are in principle flat and smooth but inclined in the direction downwards against the corresponding side wall, while the side surface is flat, smooth and vertical.

Furthermore, each dissipation beam may be shaped as at least E-profile in its transversal direction, what means rectangular upright profile with the straight, smooth, horizontal and therefore parallel surfaces, with the vertical side surface, that is realized with two parallel along the beam positioned at least required rectangular grooves.

Furthermore, each dissipation beam may be shaped as at least H-profile in its transversal direction, what means rectangular upright profile with horizontal and therefore parallel surfaces, of which one is equipped whit one at least square-profiled groove, and with the flat, smooth and vertical side surface.

Furthermore, each dissipation beam may be shaped as an modified H-profile in its transversal direction, that is an upright rectangular profile with the horizontal and between each other in principle parallel surfaces, where the upper surface is gradually hollowed in the direction against the corresponding side wall, the lower surface is equipped with the rectangular groove in longitudinal direction, while the side-surface is at least essentially flat, smooth and vertical.

Furthermore, each dissipation beam maybe shaped in its transversal direction, where the upper and the lower surfaces are parallel as well as, while the side-surface is gradually inclined downwards and to the corresponding side wall.

Furthermore, each dissipation beam may be shaped as at least L-profile in its transversal direction, namely an upright rectangular profile with the horizontal and between each other in principle parallel upper and lower surface, where the upper surface is gradually hollowed in the direction against the corresponding side wall, the lower surface is flat and smooth, quite so is flat and smooth also the vertical side surface.

Furthermore, each dissipation beam may be shaped as an twisted U-profile in its transversal direction, that is an upright rectangular profile with the horizontal and between each other in principle parallel upper and lower surface, where the upper surface is flat, the lower surface is equipped with the rectangular groove in longitudinal direction, while the side-surface is at least essentially flat, smooth and vertical.

Furthermore, each dissipation beam may be shaped as at least represents letter X in its transversal direction, namely at least upright rectangular or square profile, where the upper surface is gradually inclined in direction downwards and inwards against the corresponding side wall, while the side surface and the lower surfaces of beam are trapezoidal hollowed, so that each of them includes a trapezoidal, longitudinally positioned groove.

Besides, according to the invention, it is proposed that the spillway includes at least one complex dissipation beam, consisting of the one next to another positioned beams, especially from one next to another positioned beams with the significantly flattened rectangular profile in its transversal direction.

Furthermore it is proposed that the spillway includes at least one dissipation beam with the profile in its transversal direction, that is either unalterable along the beam or is alterable, especially steadily, but in general may be discretely alterable.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

Now the invention will be further described on the basis of embodiments as shown in the enclosed drawing, wherein

FIG. 1 shows a longitudinal cross-section of a spillway with improved dissipation efficiency, along the plane A-A according to FIGS. 11 and/or 12;

FIG. 2 shows another embodiment, also in the longitudinal cross-section along the plane A-A according to FIGS. 11 and/or 12;

FIG. 3 shows another embodiment of the spillway according to the invention, again in the longitudinal cross-section in the plane A-A according to FIGS. 11 and/or 12;

FIG. 4 shows another embodiment of the spillway according to the invention, again in the longitudinal cross-section in the plane A-A according to FIGS. 11 and/or 12;

FIG. 5 shows another embodiment of the spillway according to the invention, again in the longitudinal cross-section in the plane A-A according to FIGS. 11 and/or 12;

FIG. 6 shows another embodiment of the spillway according to the invention, again in the longitudinal cross-section in the plane A-A according to FIGS. 11 and/or 12;

FIG. 7 shows another embodiment of the spillway according to the invention, again in the longitudinal cross-section in the plane A-A according to FIGS. 11 and/or 12;

FIG. 8 shows another embodiment of the spillway according to the invention, again in the longitudinal cross-section in the plane A-A according to FIGS. 11 and/or 12;

FIG. 9 shows another embodiment of the ungated spillway, again in the longitudinal cross-section in the plane A-A according to FIGS. 11 and/or 12;

FIG. 10 shows longitudinal cross-section of another embodiment of the spillway;

FIG. 11 shows the spillway with improved dissipation efficiency, in the transverse section in section B-B according to FIGS. 1 to 10;

FIG. 12 shows another example of construction of the spillway with improved dissipation efficiency, again in the transversal section in section B-B according to FIGS. 1 to 10;

FIG. 13 shows the transversal profile of the on the side-wall installed dissipation beam;

FIG. 14 shows the transversal profile of another embodiment of the dissipation beam on the corresponding wall;

FIG. 15 shows the transversal profile of another embodiment of the dissipation beam on the corresponding wall;

FIG. 16 shows the transversal profile of another embodiment of the dissipation beam on the corresponding wall;

FIG. 17 shows the transversal profile of another embodiment of the dissipation beam on the corresponding wall;

FIG. 18 shows the transversal profile of another embodiment of the dissipation beam on the corresponding wall;

FIG. 19 shows the transversal profile of another embodiment of the dissipation beam on the corresponding wall;

FIG. 20 shows the transversal profile of another embodiment of the dissipation beam on the corresponding wall;

FIG. 21 shows the transversal profile of another embodiment of the dissipation beam on the corresponding wall;

FIG. 22 shows the transversal profile of another embodiment of the dissipation beam on the corresponding wall;

FIG. 23 shows the transversal profile of another embodiment of the dissipation beam on the corresponding wall;

FIG. 24 shows the transversal profile of another embodiment of the dissipation beam on the corresponding wall;

FIG. 25 shows the transversal profile of another embodiment of the dissipation beam on the corresponding wall;

FIG. 26 shows the transversal profile of another embodiment of the dissipation beam on the corresponding wall;

FIG. 27 shows the transversal profile of another embodiment of the dissipation beam on the corresponding wall;

FIG. 28 shows the transversal profile of another embodiment of the dissipation beam on the corresponding wall;

FIG. 29 shows the transversal profile of another embodiment of the dissipation beam on the corresponding wall;

FIG. 30 shows the transversal profile of another embodiment of the dissipation beam on the corresponding wall;

FIG. 31 shows the transversal profile of another embodiment of the dissipation beam on the corresponding wall;

FIG. 32 shows the transversal profile of another embodiment of the dissipation beam on the corresponding wall;

FIG. 33 shows the transversal profile of another embodiment of the dissipation beam on the corresponding wall;

FIG. 34 shows the transversal profile of another embodiment of the dissipation beam on the corresponding wall;

FIG. 35 shows the transversal profile of another embodiment of the dissipation beam on the corresponding wall; and

FIG. 36 shows the transversal profile of another embodiment of the dissipation beam the corresponding wall.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

The spillway, e.g. of a hydro power plant weir or similar hydrauic structure with the improved dissipation efficiency according to the invention is presented on the FIG. 1 in the longitudinal cross-section along the plane A-A according to FIGS. 11 and/or 12, and on FIG. 11 and 12 in the transversal section in the section B-B according to FIG. 1 or rest FIGS. 2 to 10. The spillway—when observed in the flow direction—in principle consists of overflow spillway 1, stilling basin 2 with the end sill 3 or without it, and is on sides constrained with the side walls 4′, 4″, that are running in the flow direction.

If needed or depending on the purpose of the spillway, the gate 6 or similar closing device may be positioned in the field of spillway area, that are quite schematically presented in FIGS. 1 to 10, but in a quite understandable manner for those skilled in the art. At the construction of the spillway, presented on FIG. 12, the sidewalls 4′, 4″ are flat and vertical, while by the construction according to FIG. 11 the sidewalls 4′, 4″ are flat as well, but inclined and approaching each other in the direction towards the bottom 21 of the stilling basin 2. Therefore the spillway presented in FIG. 12, is rectangular in its transversal cross-section, while the spillway presented in FIG. 11 may be characterized by its trapezoidal transversal cross-section. In general are all above mentioned elements, i.e. stilling basin 2 with the overflow spillway 1 and eventually with the end sill 3 and both sidewalls 4′, 4″ realized as uniform, compact and rigid preferentially concrete construction, capable of resisting the loadings, that are results each required hydraulic conditions, and especially effects of erosion in all its appearing forms that are as the result of the kinetic energy of the water flow.

In order to assure the most efficient loss of the excess kinetic energy in the spillway, which means the previously mentioned dissipation, placing of the so-called dissipation beams 5′, 5″ in the area of the side walls 4′, 4″ is proposed according to the invention. In general, according to the present invention, in the area of at least one of the side walls 4′, 4″ of each required spillway at least one dissipation beam 5′, 5″ is foreseen, which extends at least essentially in the flow direction and protrudes from the side into the interior cross-section of the spillway extending dissipation beam 5′, 5″. Preferably there is at least one dissipation beam 5′, 5″ available on each of the side walls 4′, 4″ of each required spillway, but most preferably, each of the side walls 4′, 4″ is equipped by one dissipation beam 5′, 5″ of the appropriate design.

On the left side according to the FIG. 1, before the spillway 1, there is in the impounding reservoir available the certain quantity of water, that is gradually with the certain flow quantity discharged over the spillway 1 into the stilling basin 2 area and after that over the lower end of the end sill 3 into the river channel that is available behind the mentioned spillway. Here the hydraulic structure may consist from e.g. one or even more, one next to another lying spillways. Between the headwater surface of the impounding reservoir or in upstream part of spillway 1 and the tailwater water flow of the downstream river channel there is certain difference in altitude available, that causes the difference in the potential energy balance of both areas. The considerable portion of this balance difference represents the kinetic energy, that is predominantly undesired or even harmful. When sufficient altitude difference between the headwater surface in the impounding reservoir or upstream spillway area 1 and the tailwater surface in the river behind the stilling basin 2 is available, there is due to the hydraulic conditions achieved a satisfactory dissipation of the kinetic energy, especially with the help of the well known solutions and technical state of the art. When the necessary altitude difference is not available the care for dissipation must be taken in the stilling basin 2 area. One of the arrangements is previously mentioned stilling basin 2 bottom 21 lowering what does not appear feasible in certain cases. The invention focuses on hydraulic structure that already exists or it is in principle designed for the conditions where head between reservoir water level above the spillway area 1 and tailwater of the outflow in the river below/behind stilling basin is too low to consider with the effect dissipation due to the sufficient head but at the same time the bottom 21 of the stilling basin 2 is too shallow for dissipation to take place. According to the invention it is possible to assure the necessary dissipation by placing the dissipation beam 5′, 5″ along the each corresponding side-wall 4′. 4″ of the spillway.

There exists a series of possibilities of the dissipation beams 5′, 5″ positioning. In general the straight or broken-shaped design of the 5′, 5″ beams may be used. Further, the 5′, 5″ beams may be positioned horizontally or inclined e.g. so that they are raising in the flow direction or descending considering the horizontal plane. Furthermore there are two, each next to its corresponding side-wall 4′, 4″, positioned dissipation beams 5′, 5″ that maybe parallel or inclined, and this may be realized so, tat they are converging each other in the flow direction or they are diverging. The designs of the in such a manner improved spillways may differentiate along the length dissipation beams 5′, 5″ as well; they may extend from the spillway 1 to the end of the stilling basin 2, or it may be considered to the upper part of end sill 3, or even over the mentioned end sill 3.

FIG. 1 shows the spillway, where in the stilling basin area 2, two each on its corresponding side wall 4′, 4″ (FIGS. 11 and 12) installed and straightly designed dissipation beams 5′, 5″, are positioned and horizontally arranged and are at least essentially parallel from the spillway 1, above which the gate 6 can be, to their end just before the end of the stilling basin 2, namely before end sill 3. The purpose and the efficiency of the dissipation beam 5′, 5″ are corresponding the previously described.

FIG. 2 shows the spillway, where in the stilling basin area 2, two each on its corresponding side-wall 4′, 4″ (FIGS. 11 and 12) installed and straightly designed dissipation beams 5′, 5″ are arranged in the inclined position, raising considering the flow direction but at the same time being in principle parallel. Beams 5′, 5″ are in this case, as well, concluded just before the end of the stilling basin 2, i.e. before the end sill 3.

FIG. 3 shows the spillway, where in the stilling basin area 2, two each on its corresponding side-wall 4′, 4″ (FIGS. 11 and 12) installed dissipation beams 5′, 5″, that are designed in a broken form. The initial part 51 of the each required beam 5′, 5″ directly next to the spillway 1, lies inclined, increasing considering flow direction, the ending part 52 of the same beam 5′, 5″ lies horizontally. Here the beams 5′, 5″ are still between themselves at least essentially parallel, but at the same time in this case they are concluded before the end of the stilling basin 2, that is, before the end sill 3.

FIG. 4 shows the spillway, where again, in the stilling basin area 2, there are, two each to its corresponding side-wall 4′, 4″ (FIG. 11 and 12) installed dissipation beams 5′, 5″, that are realized in a broken form. The initial part of the 51 each required beam 5′, 5″ directly next to the spillway 1 lies horizontally while the end of the 52 beam 5′, 5″ is inclined, raising considering the flow direction. Here the beams 5′, 5″ are still at least essentially parallel, and are in this case concluded before the end of the stilling basin 2, i.e. before the end sill 3, as well.

FIG. 5 shows the spillway, where again, in the stilling basin area 2, there are, two each to its corresponding side-wall 4′, 4″ (FIG. 11 and 12) installed dissipation beam 5′, 5″, that are realized in a broken form. The initial part 51 of the each required beam 5′, 5″ directly next to the spillway 1 is inclined, raising in the flow direction, and the ending part 52 of the beam 5′, 5″ is horizontal. Here the beams 5′, 5″ are still at least essentially parallel, and in this case they are extending over the stilling basin 2 area and are concluded above the end of end sill 3.

FIG. 6 shows the spillway, where again, in the stilling basin area 2, there are, two each to its corresponding side-wall 4′, 4″ (FIG. 11 and 12) installed dissipation beam 5′, 5″, that are realized in a broken form. The initial part 51 of the each required beam 5′, 5″ directly next to the spillway 1 is inclined, raising in the flow direction, and the ending part 52 of the beams 5′, 5″ is inclined, lowering considering the flow direction. Here the beams 5′, 5″ are still at least essentially parallel, and are in this case concluded before the end of the stilling basin 2, i.e. before the end sill 3, as well.

FIG. 7 shows the spillway, where again, in the stilling basin area 2, there are, two each to its corresponding side-wall 4′, 4″ (FIG. 11 and 12) installed dissipation beams 5′, 5″, that are realized in a twice broken form. The initial part 51 of the each required beam 5′, 5″ directly next to the spillway 1 is inclined, raising in the flow direction, the central part 53 is at least essentially horizontal and the ending part 52 of the each required beam 5′, 5″ is again inclined raising in the flow direction. Here the beams 5′, 5″ are still at least essentially parallel and at the same time they are extending over the whole stilling basin 2 area. They are concluded above the end of the end sill 3.

FIG. 8 shows the spillway, where they are, at this time, somehow different—like letter V—formed stilling basin 2, there are two each to its corresponding side-wall 4′, 4″(FIG. 11 and 12) installed straightly designed dissipation beams 5′, 5″, that are inclined, raising considering in the flow direction, and at the same time they are still at least essentially parallel. The beams 5′, 5″ are in this case concluded before the end of the stilling basin 2 as well, namely before the end sill 3, that consists the bottom slope, emerging from the lowest point of the before mentioned stilling basin 2.

FIG. 9 shows the spillway of hydraulic structure, where there are in the stilling basin area 2, placed two, each to the corresponding side wall 4′, 4″ (FIG. 11 and 12) installed straightly designed dissipation beams 5′, 5″, which they are arranged inclined, raising in the flow direction, at the same time they are still at least essentially parallel. Beams 5′, 5″ are in this case as well, concluded before the end of the stilling basin 2, namely before the end sill 3. In this case the spillway of hydraulic structure is without gate or similar closing device, by which the applicant wants to illustrate the wide applicability of the invention and usefulness of the realization of the dissipation beams 5′, 5″ on the corresponding side walls 4′, 4″ also in the case of e.g. reparation of the existing weirs, spillways, canal structures, cascades and similar structures.

With the similar task the spillway of the hydraulic structure is shown on the FIG. 10. Here there are in the stilling basin area 2, two each on its corresponding side wall 4′, 4″ (FIGS. 11 and 12) installed and straightly designed dissipation beams 5′, 5″ are arranged in the inclined position, raising considering the flow direction At the same time they are still at least essentially parallel.

Besides number of the arrangements and the designs of the dissipation beams 5′, 5″, therefore straightness, once or more times broken formed, parallel ness or inclined ness and similar characteristics, according to the invention the dissipation beams 5′, 5″ installable to the each required corresponding side walls 4′, 4″ are distinguished by the different transversal profiles. They are schematically presented on FIGS. 13 to 36 as transversal profiles not as transversal sections. For the demands of the present invention, the fact if the dissipation beam 5′, 5″ is solid or hollow is irrelevant as for its efficiency of the achievement of the expected dissipation, the configuration of its circumference or outer circumference perimeter is of the essential importance, that in the longitudinal direction it should not be changed or in general it may vary. On FIGS. 13 to 36 some of the numerous possible transversal profiles are presented, and they may be the same along the whole dissipation beam 5′, 5″ or along the same dissipation beam 5′, 5″ may varying or changing from one (e.g. the one according to FIG. 2) into another shape (e.g. that according to FIG. 3).

FIG. 13 shows a transversal profile of the dissipation beam 5′, positioned at the corresponding side wall 4′ of the available spillway. In this case it is the upright rectangular profile of dissipation beam 5′.

FIG. 14 shows a transversal profile of the dissipation beam 5′, positioned at the corresponding side wall 4′ of the available spillway. In this case it is the flattened rectangular profile of dissipation beam 5′.

FIG. 15 shows a transversal profile of the dissipation beam 5′, positioned at the corresponding side wall 4′ of the available spillway. In this case it is a square-profiled dissipation beam 5′.

FIG. 16 shows a transversal profile of the dissipation beam 5′, positioned at the corresponding side wall 4′ of the available spillway. In this case we have a cut-off in principle rectangular or square profile, where lower and upper surfaces 501, 502 of the 5′ beam are somehow hyperbolically hollowed, while the side surface 503 of the 5′ beam is flat and smooth and thoroughly vertical.

FIG. 17 shows a transversal profile of the dissipation beam 5′, positioned at the corresponding side wall 4′ of the available spillway. In this case the profile is trapezoidal and the lower and the upper surfaces 501, 502 of the 5′ beam are flat and horizontal, while side surface 503 of the 5′ beam is otherwise flat and smooth, but inclined outwards and downwards, e.g. in direction against the bottom of on the sketch not-presented stilling basin.

FIG. 18 shows a transversal profile of the dissipation beam 5′, positioned at the corresponding side wall 4′ of the available spillway. In this case the profile is presented, where the lower and the upper surfaces 501, 502 of the 5′-beam are somehow hyperbolically extended in the direction against the corresponding side wall 4′, while the side-surface 503 of the beam 5′ is flat, smooth and thoroughly vertical.

FIG. 19 shows a transversal profile of the dissipation beam 5′, positioned at the corresponding side wall 4′ of the available spillway. In this case the profile is trapezoidal, where the lower and the upper surface 501, 502 of the 5′ beam are flat, smooth and horizontal, and the side-surface 503 of the beam 5′ is otherwise flat and smooth, but inclined downwards and inwards.

FIG. 20 shows a transversal profile of the dissipation beam 5′, positioned at the corresponding side wall 4′ of the available spillway. In this case the beam has an upright rectangular profile, where the upper and the lower surfaces 501, 502 are flat, smooth and parallel, otherwise flat and vertical side surface 503 is equipped with the rectangular longitudinal groove 504.

FIG. 21 shows a transversal profile of the dissipation beam 5′, positioned at the corresponding side wall 4′ of the available spillway. In this case the profile is of a trapezoidal shape where the upper and the lower surfaces 501, 502 are flat and smooth but inclined in such a manner that the corresponding side wall 4′ are approaching each other, while side flat and smooth surface 503 is at least essentially vertical.

FIG. 22 shows a transversal profile of the dissipation beam 5′, positioned at the corresponding side wall 4′ of the available spillway. In this case the profile is a cut-off at least essentially rectangular or square profile, where the lower and the upper surfaces 501, 502 of the beam 5′ are somehow hyperbolically hollowed, in the same or similar way is hollowed also side surface 503 of beam 5′.

FIG. 23 shows a transversal profile of the dissipation beam 5′, positioned at the corresponding side wall 4′ of the available spillway. In this case the profile is at least essentially a T-profile, where the lower and the upper surfaces 501, 502 of the beam 5′ are gradually hollowed in the area just next to the side wall 4′, while the side surface 503 of beam 5′ is flat, smooth and vertical.

FIG. 24 shows a transversal profile of the dissipation beam 5′, positioned at the corresponding side wall 4′ of the available spillway. In this case the profile is in principle regular circle profile.

FIG. 25 shows a transversal profile of the dissipation beam 5′, positioned at the corresponding side wall 4′ of the available spillway. In this case there is a trapezoidal profile, where the upper surface 501 and the side surface 503 of the beam 5′are flat and smooth and normal on each other, while the lower surface 502 of beam 5′ is flat and smooth, but inclined inwards against the wall 4′ and downwards.

FIG. 26 shows a transversal profile of the dissipation beam 5′, positioned at the corresponding side wall 4′ of the available spillway. In this case an upright rectangular profile is presented, where the upper and the lower surfaces 501, 502 are flat and smooth and parallel otherwise flat and vertical side surface 503 is designed with the centrally positioned rectangular, longitudinally placed groove 504, in which another centrally positioned rectangular and longitudinally placed groove 505 is designed.

FIG. 27 shows a transversal profile of a complex dissipation beam 5′, consisting with two one next to another placed beams with distinctly flattened rectangular profile.

FIG. 28 shows a transversal profile of the dissipation beam 5′, positioned at the corresponding side wall 4′ of the available spillway. In this case the profile is of a trapezoidal shape, where the lower 502 and the side 503 surfaces of the beam 5′ are flat, smooth and normal, while the upper surface 501 of the 5′ beam is otherwise flat and smooth but inclined inwards against the wall 4′ and upwards.

FIG. 29 shows a transversal profile of the dissipation beam 5′, positioned at the corresponding side wall 4′ of the available spillway. In this case the profile is rhomboidal with the upper 501 and the lower 502 surfaces that are otherwise flat and smooth, but designed inclined in the downward direction against the corresponding wall 4′. Side surface 503 is flat, smooth and vertical.

FIG. 30 shows a transversal profile of the dissipation beam 5′, positioned at the corresponding side wall 4′ of the available spillway. In this case the profile is an E-profile, an upright rectangular profile with flat, smooth and horizontal and therefore parallel surfaces 501, 502, and with side vertical surface 503 which is designed with two parallel along the beam 5′ running at least essentially perpendicular grooves 504, 505.

FIG. 31 shows a transversal profile of the dissipation beam 5′, positioned at the corresponding side wall 4′ of the available spillway. In this case the profile is an H-profile, an upright rectangular profile with a horizontal and therefore parallel surfaces 501, 502, each of them designed with one at least essentially square hollowed grooves 504, 505, as well as with the flat and smooth vertical side surface 503.

FIG. 32 shows a transversal profile of the dissipation beam 5′, positioned at the corresponding side wall 4′ of the available spillway. In this case a modified H-profile is presented, an upright rectangular profile with horizontal and therefore in principle parallel surfaces 501, 502, where the upper surface 501 is gradually hollowed in the direction against the wall 4′, the lower surface 502 is designed with the longitudinally positioned rectangular groove 504. Side surface 503 is flat, smooth and vertical.

FIG. 33 shows a transversal profile of the dissipation beam 5′, positioned at the corresponding side wall 4′ of the available spillway. In this case the profile has in principle parallel upper and lower surfaces 501, 502, while the side surface 503 is gradually inclined in the downward direction and against the wall 4′.

FIG. 34 shows a transversal profile of the dissipation beam 5′, positioned at the corresponding side wall 4′ of the available spillway. In this case some kind of L-profile is designed, an upright rectangular profile with the horizontal and therefore in principle parallel surfaces 501, 502, where the upper surface 501 is gradually hollowed in the direction against the wall 4′, the lower surface 502 is flat and smooth. The side surface 503 is flat, smooth and vertical as well.

FIG. 35 shows a transversal profile of the dissipation beam 5′, positioned at the corresponding side wall 4′ of the available spillway. In this case it is a twisted U-profile, namely for the upright rectangular profile with the horizontal and therefore between themselves parallel surfaces 501, 502, where the upper surface 501 is flat, and the lower surface 502 has a longitudinal rectangular groove 504. Side surface 503 is flat smooth and vertical.

FIG. 36 shows a transversal profile of the dissipation beam 5′, positioned at the corresponding side wall 4′ of the available spillway. In this case the profile tat reminds on letter X, is namely for at least essentially rectangular or square profile, where the upper surface 501 is gradually inclined in the direction downwards and inwards against the corresponding side wall 4′, while the side surface 503 and lower surface 502 of the beam 5′ are trapezoidal hollowed, in such a manner that each of them contains a trapezoidal, longitudinal running grooves 504, 505.

Although the invention has been described with reference to specific embodiments, this description is not meant to be construed in a limited sense. Various modifications of the disclosed embodiments, as well as alternative embodiments of the invention, will become apparent to persons skilled in the art upon reference to the description of the invention. It is, therefore, contemplated that the appended claims will cover such modifications that fall within the scope of the invention.