Title:
Combustible mixture modifier (cmm)
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
The invention relates to petrochemistry, particularly, to a composition of additives intended for raising octane number (ON) of fuels for heat engines and composite fuels, consisting of fuel, oxidizer and various active additives to it, providing raise of octane number of the initial hydrocarbon fuel (petrol). The objective of the invention is to develop efficient, convenient in use, ecologically safe, of low cost combustible mixture modifier (CMM), providing production of energetically efficient fuel charge for cylinders of the engines with any degree of compression designed for apply of high-octane gasolines using low-octane unleaded gasolines, air and components which are included in the modifier (CMM), having the advanced industrial base. The aim of the invention through the use of active components in the combustible mixture modifier (CMM) in the following amount, mas.%; alkalis (chloride, nitrate, hydroxide 0.0008-0.01 chromate, dichromate, bromate, bromide, carbonate and their mixtures SAS 0.003-4.1, Water 95.89-99.69. This modifier is supplied to the dispersed fuel mixture with an oxidizer through separate mains in amount of air and water in the form of finely dispersed foam: Specific output of NOx reduces by 35-80% and COx—by 10-50%, the limit of stable operation of the engine extends in the field of poor mixtures, thus resulting in lowering the specific fuel input, and improving the heating rate and engines power characteristics by using the modifier (CMM), with its 1.0-90% contents with reference to the mass of petrol. Supply of the modifier (CMM and the fuel to the place of their mixing is carried out though isolated mains from the appropriate delivery tanks, which makes it convenient in feeding any travel facility or stationary plants with ICE (power stations, pump units, agricultural machinery, ligh-motor flying devices, motor boats, gasoline-powered saw etc.) with two phase-stable components into different reservoirs.



Inventors:
Bolotov, Albert V. (Almty, KZ)
Nogai, Victor K. (Talgar, KZ)
Application Number:
10/488071
Publication Date:
02/10/2005
Filing Date:
07/09/2002
Assignee:
BOLOTOV ALBERT V.
NOGAI VICTOR K.
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
44/457
International Classes:
C10L10/02; (IPC1-7): C10L1/24; C10L1/12; C10L1/18
View Patent Images:



Primary Examiner:
TOOMER, CEPHIA D
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Kristin C Hiibner (Pasadena, CA, US)
Claims:
1. (Canceled)

2. A composition for combining with a fuel, the composition comprising an alkali, SAS, and water.

3. A composition according to claim 2 wherein the alkali is a salt having an anion selected from the group consisting of chloride, nitrate, hydroxide, chromate, dichromate, bromate, bromide, carbonate and mixtures thereof.

4. A composition according to claim 2 wherein the amount of alkali in the composition is from 0.0008 to 0.01 mass percent.

5. A composition according to claim 2 wherein the amount of SAS in the composition is from 0.003 to 4.1 mass percent.

6. A composition according to claim 2 wherein the composition is supplied to a fuel mixture with an oxidizer through a separate main line.

7. A composition according to claim 6 wherein the composition is supplied to the fuel mixture in an amount of 1% to 98%.

8. A process for increasing the octane number of a fuel comprising combining a fuel with a composition according to claim 2.

9. A process according to claim 8 wherein the composition and fuel are combined with air.

10. A process according to claim 9 wherein the composition and fuel are combined with air into a combustible mixture in the form of a foam.

11. A composition according to claim 8 wherein the composition is supplied to the fuel mixture with an oxidizer through a separate main line.

12. A composition according to claim 8 wherein the composition is supplied to the fuel mixture in an amount of 1% to 98%.

13. A composition according to claim 8 wherein the alkali in the composition is a salt having an anion selected from the group consisting of chloride, nitrate, hydroxide, chromate, dichromate, bromate, bromide, carbonate and mixtures thereof.

14. A composition according to claim 8 wherein the composition has an amount of alkali from 0.0008 to 0.01 mass percent.

15. A composition according to claim 8 wherein the composition has an amount of SAS from 0.003 to 4.1 mass percent.

Description:

The invention relates to petrochemistry, particularly, to a composition of additives intended for raising octane number (ON) of fuels for heat engines and composite fuels, consisting of fuel, oxidizer and various active additives to it, providing raise of octane number of the initial hydrocarbon fuel (petrol).

The combustible mixture modifier (CMM), containing active water solution of the catalyst or inhibitor and SAS, is offered, aimed for producing fuel compositions based on a low-octane unleaded gasoline for engines with high degree of compression.

It is known, that for raising power efficiency of engine fuels, in particular, petrols, ethyl alcohol has found wide use as an additive for formation of the fuel compositions [1].

As a rule, for this purpose, flooded ethyl alcohol is used, where no phase stability of fuel is attained. Division of fuel composition into petrol and water-alcohol layers hinder the operation of an internal combustion engine (ICE), the engine works unsteady, dies away often, the water in fuel tanks and fuel lines freezes.

There are a number of methods exists [1,2] in order to eliminate the above disadvantages: for example, removal of the water from the alcohol-petrol mixture by treatment of this mixture with a 45% CaCl2 solution in the presence of solid CaCl2 or by treatment of the water-alcohol layer with ketals, acetals or othroethers followed by mixing the produced waterless product with hydrocarbon component of this mixture.

However, these methods are laborious and are not enough effective.

There has been known also [3] the use of various mixing with a SAS petrol as ethyl alcohol co-solvants, which prevent separating of hydrocarbons and ethyl alcohol phases in combustable-ethanol compounds while storing in reservoirs and through-the-mains supplying of the engines carburetors, however this kind of additives has not found application because of high viscosity of emulsions.

There has been known [2] an additive to motor fuel based on ethyl-alcohol-base containing methyl-tret-butyl ether as a co-solvent and having the following quantitative structure (mass %):

ethyl alcohol10-18
methyl-tret-butyl ether 4-12
petrol82-90

There has been also known [3] a motor fuel additive containing water, ethyl alcohol and active components representing high aliphatic alcohols C3-C5, for example, propyl, butyl, isobutyl or tret-butyl alcohols, amyl or isoamyl alcohols or their mixtures.

Restrictions of resources in production of high aliphatic alcohols C3-C5, and their high cost limit the possibility of application of these additives over a wide range.

There has been known [5] the use of additives allowing to mix water with petrol in an amount of 10-65 mas. %.

However, the findings when adding the beforehand prepared composition (water-fuel emulsion), consisting of the distilled water, the A-76 petrol and the nonionic SAS (TWIN-80 and pentol) in amount of 15% of the volume of added water are suitable only for engines with a low degree of compression, which actually are not produced now.

Emulsions have higher viscosity than petrol, which makes it difficult to deliver it through the jet of the carburetor and thus making the engine to operate hard at transition regims of setting and resetting the promptness.

The closest to the claimed technology there has been known [3,4] the additive containing water, heptane and the following active components: carboxylic esters with the following components ratio, mas. %:

Waterup to 5
Ethyl alcohol55-90
Heptane 5-10
Carboxylic esters10-45

The additive is introduced into the fuel in an amount of 10 mas. % when supplying the engine through the general main.

The additive possesses inhibiting effect [5] at inflammation and burning of a fuel mixture, that is equivalent to increasing of octane number of the applied petrol by 12-17 units.

However, use of this and the above mentioned additives does not allow to produce effective enough, phase-stable fuel composition based on petrol and water being supplyed through the same fuel main, thus above mentioned and currently known designs have not found application in practice.

The objective of the invention is to develop efficient, convenient in use, ecologically safe, of low cost combustible mixture modifier (CMM), providing production of energetically efficient fuel charge for cylinders of the engines with any degree of compression designed for apply of high-octane gasolines using low-octane unleaded gasolines, air and components which are included in the modifier (CMM), having the advanced industrial base.

The aim of the invention is achieved through the use of active components in the combustible mixture modifier (CMM) in the following amount, mas. %:

alkalis (chloride, nitrate, hydroxide,0.0008-0.01
chromate, dichromate, bromate,
bromide, carbonate and their
mixtures
SAS0.003-4.1
Water95.89-99.69

The combustible mixture modifier (CMM) forms and maintaines its features while its ingredients preliminarily dissolved and mixed in the water.

This modifier is supplied to the dispersed fuel mixture with an oxidizer through separate mains in amount of 1.0-98% with reference to fuel just when enters into the engine combustion chamber, where it forms a mixture of vapor of petrol, air and water in the form of finely dispersed foam.

High dispersion of the fuel mixture foam at the moment of its entering into the combustion chamber of an internal-combustion engine (ICE) is achieved, as well as high-dispersed homogeneous energetically effective mixture of fuel, oxidant and water vapor is produced during the foam evaporation by mixing in aerodynamic homogenizer together with the passive catalyst (AHPC),.

Specific output of NOx reduces by 35-80% and COx—by 10-50%, the limit of stable operation of the engine extends in the field of poor mixtures, thus resulting in lowering the specific fuel input, and improving the heating rate and engines power characteristics by using the modifier (CMM) with its 1.0-98% contents with reference to the mass of petrol.

Changing of the percentage ratio of components within the modifier, its concentration in a composition of a gas mixture allows to change inhibition period and speed of combustible mixtures burning, which is equivalent to the regulation of gasoline octane number (ON) within the limits up to 100 and opens the way for developing motor fuels with a wide range of its use based on low-octane unleaded petrols having a tendency to detonate.

The combustible mixture modifier (CMM) delivers into the combustible mixture (CM) of air and petrol, prepared in advance in the carburetor, then is foaming by it, captures particles (CM) into the foam bubbles and divides fragments of combustible mixture, collected outside, by the same bubbles, thus preventing the possibility of developing a burning chain reaction. The water, containing in the modifier, 1.0 participates in the formation of power charge in the engine cylinder and prevents it against spontaneous inflammation.

The modifier (CMM) in the form of foam bubbles is sucking into cylinders of the engine and prior to evaporation have an effect which brakes inflammation, and upon destroying the foam, in the form of vapor dilutes a combustible mixture and makes an inhibited impact. The antidetonation effect of the modifier is equivalent to the rise of octane number of the initial fuel up to the appropriate values compatible with a ICE rated fuel.

At the moment of the ignition of the mixture with an electrical spark and the combustion of fuel components, the water evaporates rapidly and in additionally creates operating pressure in cylinders which increases capacity of the engine.

Example: combustible mixture modifier (CMM), formed by dissolution of salts 0.08 g/l and —SAS 3 ml/l in the water of drinking quality without firm and visible floating impurities as mentioned avove in the description, is of poor-yellow color, with slight smell of SAS, it specific gravity is 1,005 kg/l, viscosity at 20° C. is close to viscosity of water. This modifier (CMM), in an amount of 30-35% in relation to the fuel, through special system introduces into the engine carburetor, into a zone of operation of aerodynamic hemogenizer with the passive catalyst, where the combustible mixture (A-76 petrol and air) is found. Thrown out from the jet, the modifier CMM becomes foamed due to transforming of combustible mixture (petrol-air) by the foam bubbles. The formed foam is inhausted into the appropriate cylinder of the engine.

The moment of ignition is determined for the rated A-93 petrol.

The start-up of the engine and its idle running are satisfactory and do not differ from similar modes when pure A-93 petrol is used.

The tests were conducted using VAZ-2106 car under load of 4 people, which is about 350 kg, and a 50 kg-load placed in the boot. The test distance was 560 km with the abrupt, long rises and flat areas. All complicated, required high-power areas were passed in the 4-th gear, where the switch to the 3-d and 2-d gears is required when calculating for A-91-93 petrols.

The temperature of the engine did not exceed 80° C. with the outer air temperature +30° C.

The total route consumption of composite fuel was 64 1, including A72-76 petrol in an amount of 46 1 and the modifier (CMM) in an amount of 18 1. The consumption of composite fuel averaged 11.5 1/100 km, including average consumption of petrol —8,3 1/100 km and modifier (CMM)-3.2 1/100 km.

The toxicity of exhausted gases (EG) of OCx at idling is 0.3% and at the average speed (2500-3000 rpm)-0.9%.

Thus, combustible mixture modifier (CMM) shows it characteristics, provides production of fuel with the octane number which corresponds to qualities of the A-91-93 petrol based on the A-72-76 petrol, at the same time it reduces petrol consumption by 8.3% and toxic exhaust, increases capacity and improves dynamic parameters of the car engine.

Supply of the modifier (CMM) and the fuel to the place of their mixing is carried out through isolated mains from the appropriate delivery tanks, which makes it convenient in feeding any travel facility or stationary plants with ICE (power stations, pump units, agricultural machinery, light-motor flying devices, motor boats, gasoline-powered saw etc.) with two phase-stable components into different reservoirs.

Sources of Information Taken into Account During the Examination:

    • 1. Patent U.S. Pat. No. 4,394,133, Class C 10 L 1/18, 1983.
    • 2. Patent U.S. Pat. No. 4,541,836, Class C 10 L 1/18, 1985.
    • 3. Patent RU N 2068871, Class C 10 L 1102, 1/18, 1995.
    • 4. Patent U.S. Pat. No. 5,725,609, Class C 10 L 001/32, 1998.
    • 5. I. P. Nazarov, V. I. Neudakhin, V. N. Prostov, V. V. Karpusenko,

Lowering of the nitric oxide concentration when burning-up the water-petrol emulsion in internal-combustion engines, Chemogolovka: OChKhF, 1977.