Title:
Synthetic lubricant base stock formed from high content branched chain acid mixtures
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
An improved synthetic ester lubricant base stock formed by reacting a neopentyl glycol with a mixture of aliphatic monocarboxylic acids is provided. The mixture of acids includes straight-chain acids having from 5 to 10 carbon atoms and an iso-acid having from 7 to 10 carbon atoms, preferably iso-nonanoic acid, wherein the iso-acid is present in about 60-90 weight percent of the acid charge. The base stock is mixed with a conventional ester lubricant additive package to form a lubricant having a viscosity at 210° F. of at least 7.0 with the resulting lubricants having a decreased tendency to form deposits in high temperature chain oil applications.



Inventors:
Schaefer, Thomas G. (Parlin, NJ, US)
Carr, Dale D. (Morristown, NJ, US)
Application Number:
10/703951
Publication Date:
10/21/2004
Filing Date:
11/07/2003
Assignee:
SCHAEFER THOMAS G.
CARR DALE D.
Primary Class:
International Classes:
C10M105/38; C10M169/04; (IPC1-7): C1015/38
View Patent Images:
Related US Applications:



Primary Examiner:
TOOMER, CEPHIA D
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
REED SMITH LLP (PITTSBURGH, PA, US)
Claims:

What is claimed is:



1. A synthetic ester lubricant base stock, comprising the reaction product of: a neopentyl polyol; and an acid mixture including (1) at least one straight-chain acid having between about 5 and 10 carbon atoms and (2) an iso-acid selected from the group consisting of iso-C7 acid, iso-C8 acid, iso-C9 acid, iso-C10 acid and mixtures thereof; the iso-acid present in an amount of from about 60 to 90 percent by weight of the acid mixture; and the resulting mixture of ester when admixed with a synthetic ester lubricant additive package has a viscosity at 210° F. of at least about 7.0 centistokes.

2. The synthetic ester lubricant base stock of claim 1, wherein the iso-acid is iso-nonanoic acid.

3. The synthetic ester lubricant base stock of claim 1, wherein the iso-C9 acid is 3,5,5-trimethylhexanoic acid.

4. The synthetic ester lubricant base stock of claim 1, wherein the neopentyl polyol is selected from the group consisting of monopentaerythritol, dipentaerythritol, mixtures of trimethylolpropane and/or neopentyl glycol with a higher viscosity neopentyl polyol and mixtures thereof.

5. The synthetic ester lubricant base stock of claim 1, wherein the polyol is a mixture of monopentaerythritol and dipentaerythritol.

6. The synthetic ester lubricant base stock of claim 1, wherein the polyol is technical grade pentaerythritol.

7. The synthetic ester lubricant base stock of claim 2, wherein the straight chain acid is a mixture of heptanoic acid (C7 and caprylic-capric acid (C8-C10).

8. The synthetic ester lubricant base stock of claim 7, wherein the C7 and C8-C10 straight-chain acids are present in about equal amounts by weight.

9. The synthetic ester lubricant base stock of claim 8, wherein the iso-nonanoic acid is present from about 65 to 75% by weight of the acid mixture.

10. The synthetic ester lubricant base stock of claim 2, wherein the normal acid is valeric acid.

11. The synthetic ester lubricant base stock of claim 1, admixed with an effective amont of a synthetic ester lubricant additive package for improving the high temperature properties and the load factor of the lubricant.

12. A synthetic ester lubricant base stock consisting essentially of the reaction product of: a polyol selected from the group consisting of monopentaerythritol, dipentaerythritol and mixtures thereof; and a mixture of monocarboxylic acids including (1) straight-chain acids having from 5 to 10 carbon atoms and (2) iso-nonanoic acid; the iso-nonanoic acid is present from about 60 to 90% by weight of the acid mixture; and the resulting ester when admixed with a synthetic ester lubricant additive package has a viscosity at 210° F. of at least about 7.0 centistokes.

13. The synthetic ester lubricant base stock of claim 12, wherein the iso-nonanoic acid is 3,5,5-trimethylhexanoic acid.

14. The synthetic ester lubricant base stock of claim 12, wherein the straight chain acids are heptanoic acid and capric-caprylic acid.

15. The synthetic ester lubricant base stock of claim 12, wherein the mixture of straight chain acids of heptanoic acid and caprylic-capric acid include about equal weights of each.

16. The synthetic ester lubricant base stock of claim 12, admixed with an effective amount of a synthetic ester lubricant additive package for improving the high temperature properties and load factor of the lubricant.

Description:

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0001] This invention relates to a synthetic ester base stock and, in particular, to a synthetic ester base stock formed from an acid mixture having a high content of branched chain acid, and a lubricant from the base stock having increased viscosity at elevated temperatures and a decreased tendency to form deposits in high temperature uses.

[0002] Synthetic ester base stocks for use as chain oils and lubricants for gas turbine engines are well known. The base stocks are combined with standard lubricant additive packages to form the lubricant. In order for the lubricant to have properties suitable for such high temperature use, the base stock must have certain physical properties. For example, it is a requirement that the lubricant for turbine oils meet the specifications set forth in military specification MIL-L-23699D. Chain oils should have low deposition properties at high temperatures, a viscosity of at least about 7.0 centistokes (cSt) and a reasonably low pour point below its ambient storage temperature.

[0003] In general, synthetic high temperature lubricants use esters as a base stock. The esters are formed by reacting a polyol, such as pentaerythritol, either monopentaerythritol (MPE) and/or dipentaerythritol (DPE) or trimethylolpropane (TMP) with various acids, both straight chain and branched. Japanese patent applications No. JP 55-105644 and No. 55-157537 disclose a neopentyl polyol ester of iso-C9 acid and a straight chain saturated acid having from 4 to 18 and 2-24 carbon atoms, respectively, preferably 6 to 14 carbon atoms for air compressor oils. U.S. Pat. No. 4,826,633, issued on May 2, 1989 and owned by the assignee herein, is directed to an ester base stock for a turbine oil formed by reacting MPE and/or TMP with an acid mixture of straight chain C5-C10 acids and 5 to 40 weight percent branched chain C7-C10 acids. Lubricants formed from these esters have a decreased tendency to form deposits and have acceptably low pour points without use of DPE.

[0004] Several other United States patents disclose additional types of esters. For example, U.S. Pat. No. 3,694,382, issued to Kleiman, et al. on Sep. 26, 1972, discloses an ester blend for use as a synthetic lubricant. The ester blend includes esters of trimethylolpropane and dipentaerythritol formed from a mixture of aliphatic monocarboxylic acids.

[0005] U.S. Pat. No. 4,049,563, issued to Burrous on Sep. 20, 1977, discloses a jet engine oil consisting of an ester of a C4-C12 monocarboxylic acid, a polyol selected from pentaerythritol, dipentaerythritol, tripentaerythritol, trimethylolpropane, trimethylolmethane, trimethylolbutane, neopentylglycol and mixtures thereof and a soluble methyl phenyl polysiloxane.

[0006] U.S. Pat. No. 4,064,058, issued to Walker on Dec. 20, 1977, discloses a grease base stock including a blend of a normally liquid pentaerythritol ester product and a neopentyl glycol ester product.

[0007] U.S. Pat. No. 3,360,465, issued to Warman on Dec. 26, 1967, discloses synthetic ester lubricant compositions of pentaerythritol mixed esters. The pentaerythritol utilized includes at least 1.5 weight percent dipentaerythritol. The acid includes a mixture of from two to six monocarboxylic alkanoic acids having from five to nine carbon atoms with some of the lower acids being branched chain.

[0008] Every lubricant has a characteristic tendency to form deposits when used in high temperature applications such as an engine or on industrial oven chains. If the deposits are excessive they will detract from the operating efficiency of the device and create other problems such as filter plugging in engines or track jumping of chains.

[0009] Accordingly, it is desirable to provide a synthetic lubricant base stock which provides lubricants having acceptable high temperature viscosity properties with improved resistance to formation of carbon deposits when used in high temperature applications.

SUMMARY OP THE INVENTION

[0010] Generally speaking, in accordance with the invention, an improved synthetic ester base stock is prepared by reacting at least one neopentyl polyol, with a monocarboxylic acid mixture including at least one C5-C10 normal alkanoic acid and between about 60 and 90 weight percent of C7-C10 branched chain acid, based on the total weight of the acid charged. The polyol may be a commercially available mono- or di- pentaerythritol, trimethylolpropane or neopentyl glycol. The straight chain monocarboxylic acids include those having between 5 and 10 carbon atoms, such as valeric acid (pentanoic acid), caproic acid (hexanoic acid), oenanthic acid (heptanoic acid), caprylic acid (octanoic acid), pelargonic acid (nonanoic acid), capric acid (decanoic acid) and mixtures thereof. The branched chain acid is preferably iso-C9 acid, iso-nonanoic acid. When mixed with a standard lubricant additive package the synthetic ester base stock prepared in accordance with the invention provides a lubricant having a viscosity at 210° F. of at least about 7.0 centistokes and remains cleaner at high chain oil operating temperatures than conventional chain oils.

[0011] Accordingly, it is an object of the invention to provide an improved synthetic ester base stock.

[0012] Another object of the invention is to provide an improved synthetic ester base stock having a decreased tendency to form deposits when used in a high temperature environment.

[0013] A further object of the invention is to provide an improved synthetic ester base stock for high temperature applications and with a suitably higher viscosity.

[0014] Yet another object is to provide a synthetic ester base stock with higher oxidative stability.

[0015] Still another object of the invention is to provide al synthetic ester base stock which when combined with a standard lubricant additive package provides a lubricant with a viscosity at 210° F. of at least about 7.0 centistokes and a pour point of less than at least about −10° F. still other objects and advantages of the invention will in part be obvious and will in part be apparent from the specification.

[0016] The invention accordingly comprises a composition of matter possessing the characteristics, properties and the relation of components which will be exemplified in the composition hereinafter described, and the scope of the invention will be indicated in the claims.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

[0017] The synthetic lubricant base stock prepared in accordance with the invention is to be used with standard lubricant additive packages. The lubricant base stock is the reaction product of a neopentyl polyol and a monocarboxylic acid mixture having a high branched chain acid content, preferably between about 60-90 weight percent of a branched chain acid, based on the total acid charge. When the base stock is mixed with a standard lubricant additive package, the lubricant has a viscosity at 210° F. of at least about 7.0 centistokes and a pour point of less than about −10° F.

[0018] The neopentyl polyol may be monopentaerythritol, C5H12O4 (MPE, CAS #=115-77-5) which is a colorless solid with a melting point of 255°-259° C.; dipentaerythritol, C10H22O7 (DPE, CAS #=126-58-9) which is a colorless solid having a melting point of 215°-218° C.; commercially available technical grade pentaerythritol which includes monopentaerythritol and typically between about 6 to 15 weight percent dipentaerythritol; commercially available dipentaerythritol which typically includes about 85-weight % DPE, about 5% MPE and about 10% tripentaerythritol and heavier stock; trimethylolpropane, C6H14O3 (TMP, CAS #=77-99-6) a colorless solid with a melting point of 60°-62° C. and/or neopentyl glycol, C5H12O2 (NPG, CAS #=126-30-7) a colorless solid with a melting point of 123°-127° C., mixed with at least one other neopentyl polyol of heavier stock to yield a base stock which will provide a lubricant with the desired viscosity. In the preferred embodiments of the invention, the polyol is technical grade PE which includes about 12 weight percent DPE or a mixture of MPE and DPE, including from about 5 to about 90 weight percent DPE.

[0019] The acid component is monocarboxylic and includes at least one straight chain acid having 5 to 10 carbon atoms and a branched chain acid having from 7 to 10 carbon atoms. The branched chain acid preferably has nine carbon atoms, namely, iso-nonanoic acid. Suitable straight chain acids include, but are not limited to, valeric acid, oenanthic acid, caprylic acid, pelargonic acid and capric acid. Preferably, the straight chain acid component is valeric (C5) or is a mixture of heptanoic (C7) and caprylic-capric (C8-C10). The caprylic-capric acid is identified as having between 8 and 10 carbon atoms, but actually includes C6 to C12 acids and is substantially free of C12 acid (less than 1%).

[0020] The amount of the preferred heptanoic and caprylic-capric mixture straight chain acid component suitable for use in preparing esters in accordance with the invention may vary widely. For example, the mixture may be from about 30 to 70 weight percent heptanoic acid and the balance the caprylic-capric mixture. In a preferred embodiment, the normal acid mixture is about 40-60 parts by weight of heptanoic acid and the balance caprylic-capric acids.

[0021] The branched chain acid may be iso-C7 acid, iso-C8 acid, iso-C9 acid or iso-C10 acid. Preferably, the branched chain acid used is the iso-C9 acid or iso-nonanoic acid, specifically known as 3,5,5-trimethylhexanoic acid (3,5,5-trimethylhexanoic acid CAS #=[03302-10-1]). As used herein, iso-C9 or iso-nonanoic acid is 3,5,5-trimethylhexanoic acid and has the formula: 1embedded image

[0022] Addition of the iso-nonanoic acid provides the necessary viscosity characteristics and improves the pour point characteristics of the base stock and improves the oxidative stability and deposition tendency.

[0023] The iso-acids other than iso-nonanoic can be used to provide base stocks which are suitable for turbine engine or chain lubricant applications. For example, iso-C7, iso-C8 and iso-C10 acids are available, but these acids contain a complex mixture of isomers, unlike iso-C9 acid which is mainly 3,5,5-trimethylhexanoic acid. The physical properties of an acid that is a complex mixture of isomers can change if the relative ratios of the isomeric components change and this affects the properties of an ester produced from the acid. Therefore, to produce a consistent ester product, it is preferable to use raw materials that consist of a single, high purity component, namely, iso-C9 or iso-nonanoic acid.

[0024] The acid mixture is present in the reaction in an excess of about 5 to 10 weight percent for the amount of the polyol mixture used. The excess acid is used to force the reaction to completion. The excess acid is not critical to carrying out the reaction except that the smaller the excess, the longer the reaction time. After the reaction is complete, the excess acid is removed by stripping and refining. Generally, the esterification reaction is carried out in the presence of conventional catalysts. For example, a tin or titanium based catalyst of such a catalyst may be used. Tin oxalate is an example.

[0025] Lubricants including ester base stocks prepared in accordance with the invention are prepared by mixing a conventional additive package to the base stocks in conventional concentrations. Typical additive packages are described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,124,513, 4,141,845 and 4,440,657. The two former patents describe additive packages based on an alkylphenyl or alkarylphenyl naphthylamine, a dialkyldiphenylamine, a polyhydroxy anthraquinone, a hydrocarbyl phosphate ester with an S-alkyl-2-mercaptobenzo-triazole or an N-(alkyl)-benzothiazole-2-thione. The third patent describes additives of a selected tertiarybutylphenyl substituted phosphate and a selected alkyl amine.

[0026] The invention will be better understood with reference to the following examples. All percentages are set forth in percent by weight. These examples are presented for purposes of illustration only and are not intended to be construed in a limiting sense.

EXAMPLES 1-12

[0027] A variety of ester base stocks were prepared. In each of the following runs the raw materials identified in the Table and a tin oxalate catalyst were charged to a stirred reactor capable of attaining 460°-490° F. and a vacuum of at least 29 inches of mercury. The reactor was provided with a nitrogen sparge or blanket. The charge was heated to a reaction temperature between about 440° and 450° F. and the water of reaction was collected in a trap while the acids were returned to the reactor. As reflux slowed, vacuum was applied in order to maintain a reasonable reflux rate. When the hydroxyl value was reduced to a sufficiently low level (a maximum of 5.0 mg KOH/gm), the bulk of the excess acid was removed by distillation at the reaction temperature and maximum vacuum. The residual acidity was removed by treatment with lime and water. The resulting ester base stock was dried and filtered.

[0028] The viscosity at 210° F. was determined in accordance with ASTM D-445 for each sample base stock together with the pour point in accordance with ASTM D-97. 1

TABLE I
Table Run
1234567
RAW MATERIAL
Tech PE17.117.814.815.3
Mono PE14.4
Di PE20.121.3
Valeric12.215.7
Heptanoic12.412.0
Caprylic-Capric12.412.0
Isononanoic58.170.055.96342.642.859.3
Dodecanoic42.642.825.4
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Viscosity @8.919.917.519.710.19.5110.6
210° F., cst
Viscosity Index1149711198129128110
Pour Point, ° F.−45−30−20−15**−35
Freeze Point, ° F.+30+60
*Product Crystallizes at Room Temperature; Freeze point data are approximate since some liquid remains

[0029] Lubricants prepared in accordance with the invention have decreased tendency to form deposits when used in high temperature applications. This reduced tendency was demonstrated by mixing base stock with an additive package as follows:

Additive Package For Panel Test Work

[0030] 2

Additive Package For Panel Test Work
ComponentParts by Weight
Base Stock100
Tricresyl Phosphate2.0
p,p′-Dioctyl-diphenylamine1.0
Octylphenyl-α-naphthylamine1.0
Benzotriazole0.05

[0031] This additive package was selected as the standard package for comparing base stocks in the panel test.

[0032] In this bench panel test, a stainless steel panel is electrically heated by means of two heaters which are inserted into holes in the panel. The temperature is monitored by means of a thermocouple. The panel is placed on a slight incline and heated to 540° F. The lubricant to be tested is dropped onto the heated panel and the characteristics are observed. The lubricant contacts the panel near the top of the incline and is observed as a central dark band. The lubricant then tends to thin out as it travels towards the lower end of the heated panel. It is along the oil-air-metal interface that the degradation of the lubricant is best observed.

[0033] The results of the panel test for compositions prepared in accordance with the composition of Run 1-4 of the Example showed little degradation along the oil-air-metal interface. These lubricants are an ester mixture formed by reacting technical grade pentaerythritol or dipentaerythritol with an acid mixture including valeric or heptanoic and capric-caprylic as the normal acid and iso-I nonanoic acids.

[0034] Runs 5-7 were lubricants formed from base stocks prepared by reacting technical grade PE or MPE and dodecanoic acid consistent with Runs 5 and 6 of Example 1 in JP 55-105644. The panel test results for a lubricant made from these esters formed from dodecanoic acid showed significantly increased carbonization along the oil-air-metal interface compared to Runs 1-4.

[0035] By preparing an ester from neopentyl polyols and an acid mixture of a C-C10 straight chain acid and a high iso- C7 to C10 acid content, synthetic ester lubricants having improved properties may be obtained. The lubricants have improved oxidation stability with lower depositing tendency at high temperatures, a viscosity at 210° F. of at least about 7.0 cSt and improved pour points. Preferably, the iso-acid is iso-C9 acid and is present from 60 to 90 weight percent of the total acid charge. Thus, the straight chain acid will be present from 10 to 40 weight percent of the acid charge which maintains good pour point characteristics and an improved viscosity index. When linear acids above C10 are used, the resulting esters tend to crystallize at ambient temperatures. When linear acids having less than five carbon atoms are used, odor and corrosion problems arise.

[0036] It will thus be seen that the objects set forth above, among those made apparent from the preceding description, are efficiently attained and, since certain changes may be made in the above composition of matter without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention, it is intended that all matter contained in the above description shall be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.

[0037] It is also to be understood that the following claims are intended to cover all of the generic and specific features of the invention herein described and all statements of the scope of the invention which, as a matter of language, might be said to fall therebetween.

[0038] Particularly, it is to be understood that in said claims, ingredients or compounds recited in the singular are intended to include compatible mixtures of such ingredients wherever the sense permits.