Title:
Basement wall construction
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
A basement wall is formed by a series of vertical metal studs supported with their lower ends on a metal sill extending along the upper face of a concrete footing. A foam wall and a metal shear plate are mounted on the metal studs to form the wall's outer surface. A novel brick ledge is attached to the studs adjacent the upper edge of the foam wall.



Inventors:
John Jr., Null Hughes (Farmington Hills, MI, US)
Application Number:
10/388034
Publication Date:
09/16/2004
Filing Date:
03/12/2003
Assignee:
HUGHES JOHN
Primary Class:
International Classes:
E02D27/02; E02D31/02; E04B2/56; (IPC1-7): E02D27/00
View Patent Images:
Related US Applications:



Primary Examiner:
BAXTER, GWENDOLYN WRENN
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Vincent Re PLLC (Ann Arbor, MI, US)
Claims:

Having described my invention, I claim:



1. A below-ground basement structure, comprising: a concrete footing disposed a substantial distance below ground level, said footing having an inner edge and an outer edge; a basement floor extending from the inner edge of said footing; an upright skeleton frame supported on said footing, said skeleton frame comprising a lower sill resting on said footing, plural upright metal studs extending upwardly from said sill at regularly spaced points therealong, and an upper cap spanning said metal studs an appreciable distance above said sill; each of said metal studs having an outer flat shear panel mounting surface, and upper ends; a metal shear panel mounted on said shear panel mounting surface, and attached to the sill and the cap; a plurality of flat rigid first foam panels secured flatwise to the shear panel; said first foam panels having a first thickness, vertical side edges shiplapped together to form an outer wall, and an outer face; first means for securing said first foam panels to said shear panel; said first foam panels having a height less than the height of said studs whereby the upper edge of the first foam panels is disposed in a spaced relationship below the upper ends of the studs; a second foam panel secured to said shear panel and extending from the upper edge of the first foam panels to the upper ends of the wall and the shear panel and having a thickness less than the thickness of the first foam panels; an elongated brick ledge having an upper flange fastened to the studs through the shear panel adjacent the upper edge of the first foam panels, the brick ledge having a horizontal midsection having a width greater than the thickness of the first foam panels and greater than the thickness of a brick wall; the brick ledge having an inclined section and a lower flange, the inclined section being connected to both the outer edge of the brick ledge midsection, and the lower flange being attached to an outer face of the shear panel; and whereby the weight of a brick wall on the brick ledge biases the first foam panels toward said studs.

2. A basement structure as defined in claim 1, including an inner brick ledge having an upper flange disposed in a face-to-face relationship with the upper flange of the first mentioned brick ledge and fastened to said studs, said inner brick ledge having a lower flange disposed in a face-to-face relationship with the lower flange of the first mentioned brick ledge and attached thereto, and a horizontal midsection in a face-to-face relationship with the midsection of the first mentioned brick ledge adjacent the top edge of the first foam panels.

3. A basement structure as defined in claim 2, in which the lower flange of the inner brick ledge is disposed at right angles to the midsection thereof.

4. A basement structure as defined in claim 2, in which the upper flange of the inner brick ledge is disposed at a right angle with respect to the midsection thereof.

5. A brick ledge for a wall having a vertical upper planar structure and a vertical lower planar structure, spaced from the plane of the upper planar structure but parallel to the upper planar structure, said brick ledge comprising: a unitary sheet metal body having an upper flange suited for attached to an upper planar structure, a lower flange suited for attachment to lower planar structure, a planar midsection disposed at a right angle to the upper flange, and an inclined wall having an upper edge attached to the planar midsection, and a lower flange attachable to the lower planar structure.

6. A brick ledge as defined in claim 5, in which the inclined wall is disposed at a 45° angle to both the midsection and the lower flange of the brick ledge.

7. A brick ledge as defined in claim 7, including an inner sheet metal member having an upper flange in a face-to-face relationship to the upper flange of the first mentioned brick ledge, a lower flange in a face-to-face to the lower flange of the first mentioned brick ledge, and a midsection having an upper section forming a right angle to both the upper flange thereof and the lower flange thereof, and connected to both the upper and lower flanges thereof.

Description:

BACKGROUND AND SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0001] This invention relates to building construction, and particularly to the construction and formation of basement walls.

[0002] In my prior patents, U.S. Pat. No. 5,535,556 issued Jul. 16, 1996, and U.S. Pat. No. 5,890,334 issued Apr. 6, 1999, both for “Basement Wall Construction”, I disclosed a basement wall formed of a series of vertical metal studs supported on a metal sill on the upper face of a concrete footing. An insulating sheathing is mounted on the metal studs to form the wall outer surface.

[0003] In both patents a horizontal brick ledge formed of 16 gauge galvanized metal was attached by self-tapping screws to the studs. Each brick ledge had a Z-shaped cross-section that was mounted on the upper end of the metal studs and the outer sheathing panels. The brick ledge had an upper vertical edge that was attached to the studs, a horizontal brick-supporting midsection that was mounted on the sheathing and a lower vertical edge that was attached to the sheathing.

[0004] I have found that an improved brick ledge can be used for such a basement wall construction. The ledge has an upper vertical flange that is attached to the studs. The lower half of the brick ledge is bent at an acute angle from the horizontal midsection, toward the foam panel, with a bottom flange lying in a plane parallel to the top edge of the foam panel. This arrangement provides adequate support for a one-story brick wall.

[0005] For a two-story brick wall, an insert similar to that of my prior disclosed brick ledge is mounted beneath the outer brick ledge.

[0006] Still further objects and advantages of this invention will become apparent to those skilled in the art to which the invention pertains upon reference to the following detailed description.

DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0007] The description refers to the accompanying drawings in which like reference characters refer to like parts throughout the several views and in which:

[0008] FIG. 1 is a vertical cross-sectional view taken through a basement wall constructed accordingly to the invention;

[0009] FIG. 2 is a sectional plan view on a reduced scale through a basement having a wall construction according to the wall of FIG. 1;

[0010] FIG. 3 is a horizontal sectional view through a typical stud;

[0011] FIG. 4 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional view of the footing;

[0012] FIG. 5 is a perspective view of the inside of the wall;

[0013] FIG. 6 is a sectional view of a brick ledge suitable for a two-story wall of brick;

[0014] FIG. 7 is a sectional view of a brick ledge useful for a one-story brick wall;

[0015] FIG. 8 is a horizontal sectional view of a corner section of the wall; and

[0016] FIG. 9 shows a typical ship lapped seam between adjacent foam panels.

[0017] DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT OF THE INVENTION

[0018] This invention, as depicted in FIGS. 1 through 4, comprises a basement wall 10 that includes a concrete footing 12 located below ground surface 14 for supporting an upright skeleton frame 16. A channel-shaped horizontal cap 18 is located on a series of equally spaced upright metal studs or posts 20. The upper ends of studs 20 are attached to metal cap 18 which extends along and around the perimeter of the basement. Cap 18 is attached to the vertical studs by self-tapping screws 68 or a clinching tool.

[0019] FIG. 2 shows a representative stud arrangement for a four-sided basement framework. A rigid thermal insulation foam wall 22 and a 24 gauge steel shear panel 23 are attached to the outside face of upright metal studs 20 on foam sides to define the basement envelope. The shear panel is attached to the studs with a combination of screws and pneumatically driven pins (not shown). The foam wall is glued to the shear panel with a silicone seal around the wall's edges.

[0020] Footing 12 partially supports a conventional poured concrete floor 24, as best seen in FIG. 4. Concrete floor 24 typically has a thickness of about four inches.

[0021] Referring to FIG. 5, footing 12 has an inner edge contiguous with a hollow rigid drain tile 26, and an outer edge contiguous with an outer drain tile 28. Each drain tile comprises a rigid plastic extrusion having a box-like cross-section. A partition 29 extends transversely across the midpoint of the tile, except at couplings (not shown) which connect the tile ends. Each drain tile has a series of slots 30 for receiving water. Drain tiles 26 and 28 are used as forms for pouring the concrete footing.

[0022] Either the inner drain tile 26 or the outer drain tile 28 is connected to a sub-surface drainage device, not shown. The drainage device can be a sump in the basement floor or a storm drain leading away from the building.

[0023] A metal sill 38 is seated along the upper face of concrete footing 12. Sill 38 is formed of 16 gauge galvanized metal coated with waterproof sealant. As shown in FIG. 4, the sill has a channel-shaped cross-section comprising a web 40 seated on footing 12, an outer upright flange 42, and an inner upright flange 44. Flange 44 has a height greater than the vertical thickness of concrete floor 24, forming a dam preventing water flow onto the surface of floor 24. Any water in the channel is confined to the channel.

[0024] Sill 38 is made up of elongated channel sections having their ends abutted together to form an endless channel extending around the perimeter of the building wall. Typically, web 40 has a cross-sectional width of about six inches, inner flange 44 has a cross-sectional height of about six inches, and outer flange 42 has a cross-sectional height of one to two inches. Web 40 is attached to footing 12 by nails 48 (only one shown).

[0025] A metal web stiffener 50 is seated on top of web 40 to reinforce the bottom end of the studs which incur the greatest load when the soil has been filled in around the basement wall.

[0026] This sill is also used as a form for pouring concrete floor 24.

[0027] Referring to FIG. 3, metal studs 20 each have a C-shaped cross-section, two inches deep by six inches wide, formed of 16 gauge galvanized steel, as shown in FIG. 3. FIG. 3 shows a metal stud located at some point between the corners of the basement, whereas FIG. 8 shows a representative metal stud corner assembly comprising studs 20a, 20b and 20c.

[0028] As shown in FIGS. 4 and 5, each stud is dimensioned to fit snugly between flanges 42 and 44 of sill 38. The studs are spaced along the sill by a predetermined distance, e.g. 12 inches. The stud spacing is related to the loading requirements. The studs are attached to sill 38 by self-tapping, non-corrosive, metal screws 46 or a clinching tool.

[0029] Referring to FIG. 4, anchor bolts 48 are embedded in the concrete footing at spaced points, e.g. on 12 inch centers, such that each anchor bolt extends down into concrete footing. The anchor bolt size depends on the load applied by the back fill soil laid against the wall's outside surface, a minimum of 700 lb/ft shear value.

[0030] Sill 38 is sealed to the upper surface of footing 12 such that groundwater is directed into the slots in drain tiles 26 and 28. The anchor bolts are required if the back fill soil is returned to the excavation before the concrete floor is laid. If the concrete floor has been laid before the excavation has been filled, then actuated nail fasteners are used since the floor will prevent the sill from shifting.

[0031] Each foam wall panel 22 is adhesively attached to the outer edge surfaces of a shear panel 23 by a silicone sealant that functions also to form a seal between the foam panel and the shear panel. Each wall panel 22 has a vertical height that depends on the height of the brick ledge. If there is no brick ledge, the foam panel height is the full height of the back fill. Wall panels 22 have a thickness of 2⅛ inches.

[0032] Each wall panel 22 is preferably formed of a closed cell rigid foam material that is sold under the mark PERIMATE available from Dow Corporation and made for sub-surface applications.

[0033] The relatively light panels 22 are adhesively attached on shear panel 23 with a minimum amount of mechanical fastening. For shipping, self-tapping screws 46 with washers 54 are placed approximately 12 inches vertically from the bottom of wall panel and sealed with silicone 58.

[0034] Panels 22 have their edges shiplapped together to form a continuous inner panel layer around the entire perimeter of the basement. A typical lap is illustrated in FIG. 9. During service, foam panels 22 provide a continuous barrier and drainage preventing groundwater from flowing into the basement interior space.

[0035] Referring to FIG. 4, sill 38 is sealed to the upper surface of footing 12 such that groundwater is directed through the gravel into drain tiles 26 and 28.

[0036] Referring to FIGS. 1 and 5, a plurality of horizontal bridging members 72 are mounted between each pair of studs to prevent relative motion between the two studs. This structure is disclosed in my U.S. Pat. No. 6,164,028 issued Dec. 26, 2000, for “Reinforced Steel Stud Structure” and is incorporated herein by reference.

[0037] A horizontal brick ledge 72 formed of a 16 gauge, galvanized metal is attached by self-tapping screws (not shown) to the studs directly above foam wall 22, as illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 6.

[0038] A {fraction (1/2)} inch thick upper foam wall 74 is adhesively attached to the outside face of the shear panel directly above foam wall 22 and extends from the upper edge of foam wall panel 22 up to the outer flange of cap 18. Wall 74 is closely adjacent stacked bricks 76 supported on brick ledge 72 at the upper end of foam wall 22. Wall 74 is available from the Dow Corporation under the trademark “Thermax.”

[0039] Elongated cooperating one-piece, 16 gauge outer brick ledge member 78 and an inner brick ledge member 80 form brick ledge (72). The arrangement of FIG. 6 is suited for a two-story wall of bricks. Outer brick ledge member 78 has a vertical flange 82 that is attached by threaded fasteners 84 to studs 20. Brick ledge member 78 has a horizontal midsection 86. A wall of stacked bricks is seated on horizontal midsection 86. The width of horizontal portion of brick ledge member 78 is about double the thickness of foam wall 22. Brick ledge member 78 has a lower, vertical flange 88 fastened by threaded fasteners 90 to the vertical face of inner brick ledge member 80.

[0040] Midsection 86 of the brick ledge is attached to lower flange 88 by an inclined wall 92 disposed at a 45° angle with respect to flange 88.

[0041] Inner brick ledge member 80 is mounted inside the outer brick ledge member and has an upper vertical flange 94, a horizontal midsection 96 and a vertical lower flange 98. Upper flange 94 is attached to the stud 22 by fasteners 84. Lower flange 98 is attached to outer brick ledge vertical flange by fastener 90. The entire brick ledge is treated with a protective coating of silicone.

[0042] Referring to FIG. 7, where the brick ledge is to support only a one-story brick wall, inner brick ledge member 80 is eliminated. Horizontal midsection 86 of the brick ledge is considerably wider than the thickness of wall 22 in order to accommodate the width of the bricks in the brick wall. However, the particular geometry of brick ledge member 86 is such that it and the load of the brickwall biases foam wall 22 against studs 20 and the shear panel. The shear panel prevents “racking” of the foam wall and also protects the inside face of foam wall 22 from damage. The studs are attached to the shear wall by fasteners 21, as shown in FIG. 3.

[0043] Referring to FIG. 8, a typical corner of the wall structure is assembled by attaching the side surface of stud 20a to the end of an adjacent stud 20b to form a right angle corner. Stud 28 is then sealed by a silicone seal at points 100, 102 and 104 to the two shear panels. The web of stud 20c is attached as, illustrated in FIG. 8, by fastener means 108 to the sidewall of stud 20a. The sidewall of stud 20c is sealed by a silicone seal at location 104 to the shear panel. The web of stud 20b is attached by fasteners 110 to web 106 of flange 20c. The exterior joints of the wall and corners are sealed after the foam panels are mounted in place such as at location 109.

[0044] The principal advantages of the illustrated wall construction are its high thermal insulation value, and its excellent leakage resistance. The use of metal studs is advantageous because the metal resists rotting, while providing good vertical load-carrying capability.