Title:
Wood element and a method for the production and the use of such a wood element
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
The object of the invention is an element composed of wood pieces (2a, 2b, 2c). Glueing compression is carried out by bands (4) fitted permanently in the element in order to reduce tension stresses or at least to bind the pieces before the glue gets hard. In the middle portions (2c) of the element waste wood of the wood industry is used.



Inventors:
Poutanen, Tuomo Tapani (Tampere, FI)
Application Number:
10/477928
Publication Date:
08/05/2004
Filing Date:
11/18/2003
Assignee:
POUTANEN TUOMO TAPANI
Primary Class:
International Classes:
E04B1/26; E04C3/16; E04C3/17; E04C3/18; (IPC1-7): E04C3/30
View Patent Images:
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Primary Examiner:
MILLER, BENA B
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
STITES & HARBISON PLLC (ALEXANDRIA, VA, US)
Claims:
1. An oblong element, such as a joist, pillar, lattice or slab, mainly composed of wood like pieces (2a, 2b, 2c), for instance of sawn wood, LVL, LSL, at least partly by means of glue (6) and manufactured in a special position and moved over to the site of use, characterized in that the compression required by glueing is produced, at least mainly by means of a band or a film (4) tightened about the glue lines (6) of the wood pieces (2a, 2b, 2c), at least a part of bands or film (4) are fitted to work also as transportation protection of element or elements, or as an element holding pieces (2a, 2b, 2c), together during transportation.

2. An element according to claim 1 characterized in that as to its geometrical shape the element is special, having a longitudinal section arched in two directions or having holes, or having a box shaped cross section, or there are cantilevers in the joist.

3. An element according to claim 1 or 2 characterized in that in the element at least one band (4) is thin, width/thickness of cross-section >5, most advantageously >10, and the element made for instance of plastic like flexible material, the relative elongation of which in binding position is >1%, most advantageously >2%, that most advantageously the band can be tightened and bound in itself by means of welding, whereby at least in one point, most advantageously in the element point critical in regard to fracture by tension, which is 0.05 MPa.

4. A method to produce an element according to claim 1, 2 or 3 affected by unusual stresses, due to the geometrical shape of the element, as discontinuation and splicings, or by critical stresses, especially tension stresses, directed on the wood or the glue line due to the element curvature, characterized in that at least a part of the bands are fitted permanently in the element and the bands are fitted to reduce tension stresses by means of their arrangement and tightening and in that way to prevent them from causing fractures.

5. Utilization of waste wood, such as short stumps and poor quality timber, arising in a wood product factory, as a saw mill, for the manufacture of an element according to claim 1, 2 or 3, characterized in that the waste wood is used in the element middle portion (2c).

Description:
[0001] The invention relates to an element composed of wood like parts with glue and bands (or film) according to claim 1 and to a method to reduce tensile stresses of the element composed with glue and bands and to prevent it against fracture according to claim 4 and to the use of waste wood according to claim 5.

[0002] As to close prior art following inventions can be mentioned:

[0003] In the Danish patent 47847 the manufacture of a round and hollow glued mast of wood, using a rope as helping means, is presented.

[0004] In the Australian publication 738490 the structure of a lamella, its gluing and anchoring in the construction is described.

[0005] In the Austrian publication 370475 the use of band in a join of logs is described.

[0006] In the Finnish utility model publication 2106 the use of metal band as tightening means of a pillar is described.

[0007] In American publication 3570376 the structure of a triangular pillar on utilizing metal bands is described.

[0008] In American publication 6209279 the multiple-layered structure of a band is described.

[0009] In English publication 544278 the tightening and locking arrangement of a steel band to be tightened about a wood block is described.

[0010] The characteristic feature of the invention is that the element is composed of wood like parts, at least partly by gluing, using bands as glue presses so that beside bonding, the bands have also other functions, such as protection during conveyance or holding the element together, before the glue hardens, or reduction of tensile stresses in the element, and prevention of tension fractures, or forming a protective or an aesthetic film on the element.

[0011] The use of a band as structural connecting means is something new within the woodworking industry. Neither in handbooks nor in schoolbooks of the field a single application or example regarding the bands is mentioned.

[0012] Generally, the element of this invention is a structural element, whereby the glue must be suitable for this purpose, such as epoxy, melamine and resorcinol glues previously used to a large extent, but the recently developed isocyanate and polyurethane glues are extremely well suited for the element of this invention, above all because the compression force they require is small. Among the last mentioned glues can come into question especially glues that require a compression force of <0.2 MPa and especially <0.1, which is about 10% of the compression force of the gluing compression used at present.

[0013] Further, a characteristic feature of the invention is that the band is rope like or film like, i.e. the width ratio of its cross-section to its thickness is great, typically at least 5 greater than 10 and usually 10 . . . 50 in largeness. The band is usually thinner than 2 mm, usually about 1 mm, and usually wider than 3 mm and usually about 20 mm, but the width can be even greater than that, in certain cases a uniform film. A broad film is advantageous, since in the element it can form a wanted texture, especially such a texture and protection that imitates a flawless or wanted food species. The aim of such a protection can be prevention of decay in a way allowing the use anti-rot agent under the film or on the wood surface. It can be water-soluble, because the film prevents it from getting washed off Accordingly, the invention solves the problem of surface-resistance and decay of a joist under weather stress. A film like coating can be produced in the joist in wrapping about it an endless band, tightening a film about the element and welding the join or, in certain cases, forming the film in advance into a tube that gets pulled over the joist. In that case it is advantageous to use auxiliary irons or fabrics, supported by which the film is pulled on the element and which are removed when the film is in place.

[0014] The shape of the cross-section, the strength and flexibility of the band and the impact of band slipperiness is essential:

[0015] Previously known is the use of wire and also of round rope within timber construction. So that the wire would be flexible its cross-section must be small and thereby the strength of one wire is also small. That is why a great number of wires is required. That leads to the rise of the costs of labour, expense of solution and unaesthetic character. Thus it is not possible either by means of a wire nor any other to its cross-section round or substantially square stretching device to achieve great forces and, accordingly, a solution like this cannot be economically or aesthetically useful.

[0016] So that a round or square band would be flexible, it cannot be very strong. Essential in this invention is that the band is exceptionally strong and flexible also. Typically the tensile strength of band is at least about 5-fold to the tensile strength of corresponding wood. Usually the tensile strength is much greater, 10 . . . 30 fold in largeness.

[0017] The band must be so flexible and slippery that it can be wound and tightened about the edge of a rectangular piece of wood without a substantial reduction of the band strength or loss of tensile force and without the band penetrating gravely in the wood. Solid metal bands as well as round and square bands lack this feature.

[0018] Almost all applications of this invention are of such kind that the band is fitted in a small space, a joint, an opening or on the surface of the structure so that no separate space is arranged for the band but within the fitting tolerances the band is not considered to enlarge the wood product measures, the glue line thickness etc.

[0019] The band of this invention is flexible also because it could retain its tightening strength even in quite great deformations due to wood moisture or other circumstances. Typically, the band deformation of this invention is twofold, but usually much greater, 10 fold in largeness, in comparison to the deformation of a solid steel band in the binding state of tightening. Thus in the application of this invention the band must be as flexible as possible. This claim is contrary to the general claims of the building and the packaging industry, where a stiffness as great as possible is required.

[0020] The band is easily tightened and bound without slackening and detachably so that the strength of binding is about 50-70% of the band strength. Binding is carried out most advantageously in a way, where no separate connection pieces are needed, for instance by welding or by a knot. In certain cases it is important to tighten or detach the band. Then buckle connection or a knot that can be undone is advantageous. In some cases it is advantageous to use glue either for bonding the band on wood or for binding the band. Bonding and binding the band can be carried out mainly by methods of same type as in the packaging industry.

[0021] Typically, the band is made of pretensioned reinforced plastic or strong fibres, most advantageously woven and if possible also bound with resin. The band is made of great-strength material, as polyester, polypropylene, polyethylene, aramid polyamide or other polymer etc. Polyester and especially polypropylene are well suited for band production thanks to the advantage of their great strength and to their flexibility. In certain cases it is advantageous that the band is made of transparent band or band with special colouring, or that in the band glass or carbon fibres are mixed in order to reduce creep and to increase strength. The band is made slippery for instance by means of a teflon coating.

[0022] Essential is the position of band in the element, the number of bands and the tension strength. Generally there must be bands enough to produce gluing compression and to hold the pieces together. It is advantageous to arrange the bands in a special way in order to create a truss like or a trussed beam like effect, whereby shearing or bending strength can be advantageously increased. It is also advantageous to place the bands in points, where the glue line or the wood are affected by down-right tension stresses directed against the grain, for instance in the edges of openings. Typically, the tension strength of glue line and wood within building is only 0.4 MPa, i.e. only about 1/50 of the strength along the grain. If by means of the band a stress of similar capacity is reached, the strength will be doubled if for instance the stresses are critical in regard to the strength. In many cases it is sufficient for producing a significant additional strength to have a compression stress of about only 0.1 MPa or even 0.05 MPa.

[0023] In addition the invention is characterized in that the anchoring is carried out by means of a link, the band tightened in itself, the band bound to itself usually most advantageously by means of welding. Within technology these principles are known per se but not used in timber construction.

[0024] Typically, by means of the invention following advantages are achieved:

[0025] The element can be moved forward from its assembly station as soon as assembled, since the pieces are hold together merely by means of the bands. Accordingly, the production capacity per each assembly station multiplies with respect to present methods and the use of gluing becomes economical in most element types.

[0026] The assembly station is simple and cheap.

[0027] The solution is typically completely ecological and the element to be produced suitable for re-cycling or easily disposed. Corresponding present solutions are, as a rule, based on non-ecological metallic binding pieces, screws etc.

[0028] The element can be worked by common woodworking methods, because the element has no parts of metal.

[0029] The solution is flexible and adapt to usually quite big deformations caused by moisture in the wood product. This is due to the fact that in this embodiment special demands are made on the qualities of flexibility. Wood gets greatly deformed by changes of moisture and, furthermore, creeps by continuous stress. Thus these deformations are ever greater the more the degree of moisture changes and the greater the stress. In most places of use the cross-section varies depending on the fibre to direction appr. from 0.05 to 1%. The band shall adjust to deformations at least of this size, while retaining its state of stress, so that the stress qualities of band can be utilized. The more flexible the band the better it fulfils its impact in the joint, for instance as a 2% strain of band and in certain cases even 3% are technically and economically possible. Concerning the reliability it is advantageous that the wood parts are not more wet at the moment they are being worked than in their final state, most advantageously the wood parts are dryer. Metallic bands as well as stiff plastic bands are not flexible enough for the field of applications of this invention.

[0030] The solution is advantageous, generally the capital costs, material costs and labour costs are significantly lower than by present methods. The solution is most advantageously suited for the manu-facture of complicated elements, such as elements with openings, with projecting parts, with curved shape or to their cross-section varying thin plane or capsular glued elements. In practise elements of such kind are not presently made, because of technical and economical problems.

[0031] The technical implementation of the solution is usually easy to check. Usually the band tightening is so strong that the band is pressed into the wood in the corners of wooden pieces to an extent easily observed, usually several millimetres. From these compressions the sufficient tension of band can be visually concluded. In addition, the tension can be checked otherwise. Concerning checking of the gluing quality it is usually necessary to check the sufficiency of glue, which is simply made checking whether some glue extrudes from the glue lines. So that the overflowing glue would not create an aesthetical nuisance polyurethane glues are well fitted for the purpose also because they are colourless.

[0032] The band brings an essential improvement to the strength of the glue line. The strength of glue lines, especially the strength of glue lines in wood pieces, depends on

[0033] the so called ripping resistance. i.e the interaction of the joint tensile force and shearing strength. Wood pieces do not endure tension very well. Thanks to the band the joint is affected by continuous compression, i.e. there are no tensile stresses at all or these tensile stresses are small, whereby the strength and the reliability of the glue line grow essentially. The above presented improvement of the glue line strength refers also to the whole construction. Even wood endures tensile stresses poorly. By means of the band harmful tensile stresses are eliminated in the whole construction. Beside the joints, the strength then grows in the whole wood material, whereby quite new construction types become economical and thus possible, such as joist cantilever support and joist perforation.

[0034] By means of the solution as per this invention complicated glued pieces can be manufactured economically due to the fact that by means of bands the compression force can be directed on the piece flexibly in one, two or three directions. The bands can be placed in straight or curbed openings made in the piece or the compression force can be steered even on the crooked surface of the piece and over the corners or through the joints so that by means of the bands the compression force can be directed effectively to the point wanted. Present gluing presses direct the compression force straight onto the piece in one direction, which restricts the shape of the piece.

[0035] By means of the solution as per this invention big and complicated pieces can be manufactured, such as bridges in as small sections as necessary with respect to transportation or assembly. This can be carried out often economically so that a part of the bands are fitted to work as hinges between elements, whereby the element can be folded into a smaller size for transportation.

[0036] The solution as per the invention is not inclined to corrosion simply because the band can be made of non-corrosive material, such as plastic. The element is usually inside a roof or a floor structure and thus protected against the influence of ultraviolet radiation and fire, or the bands can be protected placing them in the openings in the element or covering them with a lath or similar.

[0037] By means of the solution of this invention elements can be produced, in which waste stumps of the wood industry and other material of poor quality are used, whereby the material costs of the element can be reduced and production ecology of improved. This kind of material appears in common carpentry factories, such as a wood element factory and a truss factory, usually about 10-200% of the timber quantity. For this material no productive use has been found but has as almost useless been burnt.

[0038] By means of the band arrangement the strength of element can be substantially affected, as to the improvement of shearing strength, for instance, arranging the band diagonally with respect to the cross-section, or to the improvement of tensile force in placing the band truss like. Such an improvement of strength takes place without any further steps, practically speaking free.

[0039] The solution as per the invention has a lot of special qualities, which do not appear in any of the presently known solutions. These special qualities are disclosed in the following.

[0040] The invention is illustrated in FIGS. 1-18:

[0041] FIGS. 1. 2 and 3 show a joist

[0042] FIGS. 4 and 5 show a trussed arched joist

[0043] FIGS. 6 and 7 show an arched joist

[0044] FIG. 8 shows a truss

[0045] FIGS. 9 and 10 show a pre-stressed trussed joist

[0046] FIGS. 11-18 show the cross-section of the element

[0047] FIGS. 1,2 and 3 show a joist composed of flange pieces (in outer pieces) 2a and 2b and of flange parts (in middle portions) 2c and of glue lines 6. The compression required by glueing is produced by bands 4, 4a 4b. FIG. 2 shows the cross-section in the joist end and FIG. 3 the cross-section in the middle. In joist end the shearing stresses are great, due to which flange parts 2c in the joist ends are fairly big sawn wood or building boards 2c. No big demands regarding strength requirements are made on parts 2c in the middle portion. These parts can be short, with a length varying from 200 to 600 mm and of poor quality, which means that in this location waste pieces can be used. This is possible, since the bands prevent the arise of harmful tensile stresses. This fact is of great importance, because generally there cannot be any openings in joists, or there could, but only a limited number or usually they must be specially reinforced. Flange parts 2a and 2b are of tension and compression resistant material, such as timber, veneering wood, long-chip board (LVL, LSL). Bands 4 give the glue lines sufficient hardness during compressive stress and improve the joist strength, when the glue has hardened, thank to which it is advantageous to leave the bands permanently in the joist. Among other things, the bands can be left in the joist, because it is possible to make a notch in the joist end and the joist can be supported in the notch upper edge 1. Common joists cannot be supported at all console like from the upper edge without expensive reinforcements. Bands 4 can be placed diagonally, whereby a truss like effect is formed between band and wood parts, which improves the shearing strength of the joist and glue lines. It is also possible to place bands 4b into openings 3a, 3b, whereby the truss impact is effective. Band 4a can also be placed in the opening in the joist, which is advantageous, among other things when the band is bound by a knot or a buckle. Band 4c can be fitted to work as a trussed beam, which is most advantageous, among other things when there is in flange 2b an extension or when its strength is otherwise not sufficient. A possible extension in pieces 2a, 2b can be easily made tension resistant stretching them together by means of the bands. It is advantageous to have so much bands 4 that they fasten pieces 2a, 2b, 2c together, before glue lines 6 get hard, whereby the joist can be immediately moved from its assembly station, which improves the efficiency of the production to a great degree. The joist structure is among other things advantageous, since from its end a piece can be sawn off by common wood saws because, typically, there are in the joist no metal parts at all. Thanks to this feature the joist can be used as a part of another joist, among other things in a trussed beam made of nail plates. In order to strengthen the glue line, in middle part 2c a male profile can be made and correspondingly in parts 2a and 2b female profiles. If the joist cross-section is small, it may lack the middle part 2c. A part of the outer parts 2a and 2b can be fitted to the joist only as transportation protection and taken off in the final application. An important joist application is a heat insulated structure so that the height of its lower part 2b corresponds at least roughly to the thickness of the heat insulation, whereby the open-ings of middle part 2c work effectively as vents. Usually, in joists openings cannot be made, because they are expensive to make.

[0048] Band tightening is made by means of special, for certain purposes suitable devices, known per se. The illustrated solution is advantageous as a building joist, especially as a floor joist and roofjoist, if the joist height is of a size from 200 mm to 600 mm and its span <14 m. If parts 2a, 2b or 2c are made wedge-shaped so that the height of the middle part is higher than that of the ends, the economical span reaches up to 24 m. If boards possibly on the outer surfaces 2a and 2b are structurally connected to the joist, the economical span reaches up 24 m. The element reaches to such a long span that common main joists are not needed at all.

[0049] FIGS. 4 and 5 show an arched joist assembled with glue 6 and bands 4 and reinforced by a tension bar 2b. There are in the end wedge-shaped parts 5 and in the middle verticals 2c. Such a joist is the most advantageous roof supporting member with spans from 10 to 25 m. Alternatively, the arched joist can be made of LVL board or similar by cutting from the lower part a piece in the shape of a spherical cap and glueing it to the upper part.

[0050] FIGS. 6 and 7 show an arched joist assembled with glue 6 and bands 4 and having outer lamellae 2a, 2b and a centre lamella 2c, which most advantageously are waste pieces or of poor material. In the joist middle parts there can be openings 3. An element of such kind is a most advantageous roof element support with spans from 8 to 20 m.

[0051] FIG. 8 shows a truss assembled by means of bands and having flanges 1a, 1b and diagonals 1c and 1d. At leas in a part of the joints glue 6 is used.

[0052] A supporting joint is made with band 4 and glue line 6, which is extended by wedge 5. The flange extensions are connected with bands 4e and 4b placed into openings 3. It is advantageous to use glue 6 in the joint so that the load moves over partly thrugh the band and partly through the glue so that the glue line, at least in working state, remains unbroken.

[0053] The joint between diagonals 1c, 1d and flange 1b can be made with one band 4d pressing diagonal 1c against diagonal 1d simultaneously anchoring diagonal 1d to flange 1b. Although in principle the joint would be functioning as such, it is anyhow advantageous to use glue 6 in the joints.

[0054] The ridge joint in the figure is built by means of a board 5a, for instance a plywood or an OSB board, fitted on both sides of the joint and glued to flange la and diagonal Id. Boards 5a are compressed by bands 4 either separately in each truss or in a truss bundle. An important embodiment is that by means of the new solution in a usual truss or frame a part greater than the sawn wood is made in order to increase strength, stiffness or fire resistance. Presently such parts are made either of gluelam timber, LVS etc., which are quite expensive.

[0055] FIG. 9 shows the use of band by trussed beam like reinforcement of the joist, while the band is working as glueing press. In the joist there can also be other bands fitted in some other ways. In the case shown in the figure the joist is formed of several wood parts glued parallel together. There can also be horizontal glue lines. In order to prevent sidewise buckling, on the joist a band is tightened so that it runs advantageously symmetrical on both sides of the joist. Bands 2 on different sides of the joist run crosswise in the joist centre in point 4b and also in point 4a in joist end. Such a solution is advantageous with respect to labour and material costs, much more profitable that former solutions, for instance the solution of patent publication U.S. Pat. No. 5,175,968. The above presented solution is also suited for trussed beam reinforcement more advantageously than metal bar reinforcement presented in Finnish patent publication 53155. The disclosed solution is particularly suitable for cases, where joist 2 is composed of timber of low-class quality or the joist cross-sections cannot for reason or another be increased. By means of the presented solution the strength can be increased even about twofold. In certain points, such as in short window and door lintels, the section strength of joist is critical. An important embodiment is of such kind that band 2 is stretched out about another structure, such as a post to support the joist or an element included in joist 4, whereby the joist is made co-operative with this other structure.

[0056] FIG. 10 shows a doweled joist, which has three joists, logs etc. 2 and joined together one on top of another by glueing. Into them openings 3 have been made, into which bands 4 are fitted. The openings are done advantageously truss like so that the bands are fitted in two openings one after another and tightened about the joist upper and lower surface. Such bands join the joists 2 effectively together and they also cause a pre-stressing doweled joist effect so that the whole joist bends upward, in the lowest joists tensile stress is formed and compression stress in the uppermost ones. Alternatively the bands are fitted trussed beam like, which is especially advantageous, since in joists 2 there can be extensions needing no particular strengthening, since compression stresses travel by means of contact over the extension.

[0057] FIG. 11 shows the cross-section of a box, working as girder of roof or intermediate flooring in a building and made of pieces 2a, 2b, 2c with glue 6 and band 4. The band function is most efficient, since one band joins six glue lines 6. In addition, the need for glue is small. Typically, the connecting pieces are made of waste stumps leaving them at a distance from each other, whereby there will be openings in the joist, which are advantageous because of material saving and especially because it is possible to place building installations into the openings. Usually it is necessary to put into the box, at certain intervals, diagonal supports which are attached with glue, nails etc. to the inner surfaces of the casing.

[0058] FIG. 12 shows an alternative cross-section. It has a lower flange 2b of especially hard wood, such as LVL. A solution of this kind is effective, since breakage of joists usually happens as flexural tension fracture.

[0059] Only strengthening the fractured point, the strength of joist can be increased advantageously. In this case lower flange 2b has been made broader forming a console. This kind of solution is usually not possible in joists, since a joist would split in its middle due to tensile stresses. In this case the tensile stresses do not get critical, because by means of band 4 the tensile stress is reduced or completely eliminated.

[0060] FIG. 13 shows the cross-section of a joist or a pillar glued of pieces of wood, as sawn boards 2a, 2b, 2c, compressing them together by band 4. If instead of bands film is used, it covers the notches lamella caused by wane.

[0061] Presently comparable laminated joists are manufactured in factories in special jigs. In the new method there are, among other things, following advantages:

[0062] a glue press is not needed at all.

[0063] By present joist manufacturing the lamellae or the joist are heated before glue compression in order to make the hardening time short. By the new method the joist can, thanks to its bands, be moved immediately from its assembly station without the glue having hardened at all.

[0064] Present glue presses allow production only of straight joists or, in special presses, joists bent in one direction at the most. By the new method the joists can be straight or bent in one or two directions without an extra cost hardly worth mentioning.

[0065] In present presses the compression is directed on the wood only in one direction. This restricts the possibilities only to simple shapes, as a rectangle. By band compression the cross-section profile can be of any shape.

[0066] By the new method the production can take place advantageously in stages allowing manufacture of great pieces, such as sections.

[0067] By the new method even great notches and openings can be easily made in the joist.This because no harmful tearing stresses appear in the corners of notches and openings, since the corners are strengthened by the bands. By the present method notches and openings are drilled or sawn in a ready-made joist, which means loss of material and that they must also be strengthened separately. By the new method openings and notches can be made more easily as by present methods in cutting the lamellae so there will be no loss of material.

[0068] the bands can with respect to the downright direction of the joist be arranged diagonally or like a trussed beam, whereby an improvement of the cross-section strength or the tensile strength is most advantageously achieved.

[0069] By means of the band a solid laminated truss is easily produced. The chords and at least partly also the diagonals are made laminating several pieces of wood. The joints are made simply interlacing the chord and diagonal lamellae with each other.

[0070] FIG. 14 illustrates that by band technique a laminated I-profile can be produced simply placing the band in the glue line of the flange lamella 2c.

[0071] FIG. 15 shows a joist cross-section composed of round flange parts 2a and 2b, such as small logs and flange lamellae 2c, such as veneer, or OBS-slab. Into the flange parts grooves are milled for the slabs and gluing 6. About the whole cross-section band 4 is tightened. A solution like this is advantageous, because the round log is much more advantageous than corresponding rectangular timber or similar.

[0072] FIG. 16 shows the cross-section of an element glued of lamellae 2a. The band is arranged to run crosswise in a glue line, whereby in the glue line a hinge is possible, which is most advantageous, when among other things the element should be folded in order to make it smaller for transportation, allowing production great elements, as sections, and put them together for transportation as presented above. Similar technique can also be applied to the traverse splicing of the element, for instance placing the bands in openings made in elements to be joined together.

[0073] FIG. 17 shows the cross-section of a timber-work bridge manufactured by glue lamination technique. The outer surfaces are formed of wood parts 5c, which are of solid wood, laminated timber, veneer, lob joists or similar wood material. Furthermore, there are in the bridge vertical wooden parts 2, which are likewise of solid or board like wood or other material. These parts are tightened together by band 4, either completely about the cross-section and/or partially about cross-sections or the upper or lower part are compressed separately together placing the band in the openings in wooden parts 2 or also in the openings in wooden parts 5c. So that the band would not remain visible on the outer surface, it is usually advantageous to cover it with a strip or similar. Alternatively, openings are made in wooden parts 2 and 5c openings are made for the band. The example illustrates the suitability of band technique to production of complicated wood blocks. Presently bridges of same kind are made of wood by so called compression lamination techniques, among other things according to the Finnish publication FI-100414. The compression stresses are produced by straight steel bars, thus restricting the cross-section shapes only to plane blocks.

[0074] FIG. 18 shows the cross-section of a timber-work bridge composed of boards, of an intermediate floor, a roof cover etc. The boards 2 are in the upper and lower surface either stuck to each other or at a distance from each other.

[0075] Under this in crosswise direction are boards 2b and then again a layer of boards 2a. However, in the middle portion boards need not usually be so close together as on the surfaces, thus every other board or even several ones can be lacking. The opening solid bundle of boards are tightened together and at least partly glued with band 4 either from each crossing seam of boards or more thinly. In the above presented way a slab even of poor quality timber can be produced under modest job site conditions. Placing of boards 2a, 2b and 2c and bands 4 between each other is generally advantageous to arrange in such order that a lattice or truss structure is formed between them, where the wooden parts receive the pressure loads and the bands the tensile stresses.

[0076] In addition to the above presented embodiments the invention can be applied in many other ways.

Figure References

[0077] 1. Support, joist

[0078] 2. Joist

[0079] 2a upper part,

[0080] 2b lower part,

[0081] 2c middle part

[0082] 3. opening

[0083] 3a upper opening

[0084] 3b lower opening

[0085] 3c pillar opening

[0086] 3d joist opening

[0087] 4. band

[0088] 4a upper part, upper loop

[0089] 4b lower part, lower loop

[0090] 4c glue line band 1

[0091] 4d glue line band 2

[0092] 4e glue line band 3

[0093] 4f glue line band 4

[0094] 5. fitting piece

[0095] 5a corner piece

[0096] 6. Post, glue line

[0097] 6a connecting part

[0098] 7. Lower runner

[0099] 7a base, connecting piece

[0100] 8. socket, fundament

[0101] 9. nail

[0102] 10. joist end

[0103] 11. bushing

[0104] 12. coating

[0105] 13. Fascia

[0106] 14 Building board

[0107] 15 Concrete

[0108] 16 Angle iron