Title:
Building construction method using plane lattice typed cable structure
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
Disclosed is a construction method using plane lattice type cable structure. The plane lattice type cable structure is in the form of a wire net that main cables and hanger cables cross each other, and used in a long span bridge, a steel-framed multi-stage building, a large-sized shell structure and large-sized transmission towers. The plane lattice type cable structure can be installed to the bridge without installing main towers, installed to the steel-framed multi-stage building without installing interior pillars, and installed to the shell structure without installing supporting pillars for supporting the shell structure. Additionally, in case of the large-sized transmission towers, instead of the large-sized transmission towers, a plurality of small-sized transmission pillars can be used.



Inventors:
Lee, Jong-ho (Seoul, KR)
Application Number:
10/475050
Publication Date:
07/01/2004
Filing Date:
10/17/2003
Assignee:
LEE JONG-HO
Primary Class:
International Classes:
E01D21/00; E01D11/00; E01D11/02; E01D11/04; E04B1/34; E04B1/35; E04B5/43; E04B7/10; E04B7/14; (IPC1-7): E01D21/00
View Patent Images:
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Primary Examiner:
ADDIE, RAYMOND W
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
PARK LAW FIRM (LOS ANGELES, CA, US)
Claims:

What is claimed is:



1. A construction method using plane lattice type cable structure in constructing a bridge using cables as in a suspension bridge or a cable staged bridge, the construction method comprising the steps of: installing abutments or the abutments and piers; installing a plurality of main cables between the abutments or the abutments and the piers at regular intervals using cable fixing devices, which are installed to both abutments, without installing main towers; installing a plurality of hanger cables between the main cables at right angles to the main cables at regular intervals; and consecutively joining and putting bridge upper plates on central upper portions of the hanger cables in a direction that the man cables are installed and fixing the hanger cables at the bridge upper plates using cable fixing means.

2. A construction method using plane lattice type cable structure in constructing a bridge using cables as in a suspension bridge or a cable staged bridge, the construction method comprising the steps of: installing abutments; installing a plurality of main cables between both abutments at regular intervals using cable fixing devices, which are installed to both abutments, without installing main towers; installing a plurality of hanger cables between the main cables at regular intervals at right angles to the main cables and installing auxiliary hanger cables between the hanger cables of the abutments at regular intervals in a direction that the main cables are installed; and consecutively joining and putting bridge upper plates on central upper portions of the hanger cables in the direction that the main cables are installed and fixing the hanger cables at the bridge upper plates using cable fixing means.

3. The construction method acting to claim 2, further comprising the step of installing damper pillars between the main cables to prevent shake of the main cables.

4. A construction method using plane lattice type cable structure in constructing a bridge using cables as in a suspension bridge or a cable staged bridge, the construction method comprising the steps of: installing a plural of horizontal main cables between both abutments at regular intervals using cable fixing devices, which are installed near both abutments, without installing main towers; installing a plurality of hanger cables between the horizontal main cables at right angles to the horizontal main cables at regular; installing a plurality of inclined main cables on both abutments at portions where the horizontal main cables and the hanger cables are connected, using cable fixing devices; and consecutively joining and putting bridge upper plates on central upper portions of the hanger cables in the direction that the horizontal main cables are installed and fixing the hanger cables at the bridge upper plates using cable fixing means.

5. A construction method using plane lattice type cable structure in constructing a bridge using cables as in a suspension bridge or a cable staged bridge, the construction method comprising the steps of: installing abutments and piers; installing a plurality of horizontal main cables between both abutments at regular intervals using cable fixing devices, which are installed to both abutments, without installing main towers; installing a plurality of hanger cables between the horizontal main cables at right angles to the horizontal main cables at regular; installing a plurality of inclined main cables at connection parts between the horizontal main cables and the hanger cables, the inclined main cables of right and left sides of the inclined main cables being installed using cable fixing devices; installing the inclined main cables of the center of the inclined main cables, which are installed at the connection parts between the horizontal main cables and the hanger cables, on the piers installed between both abutments; and consecutively joining and putting bridge upper plates on central upper portions of the hanger cables in the direction that the horizontal main cables are installed and fixing the hanger cables at the bridge upper plates using cable fixing means.

6. A construction method using a plane lattice type cable structure in constructing a bridge using cables as in a suspension bridge or a cable staged bridge, the construction method comprising the steps of: installing abutments; installing a plurality of main cables between auxiliary pillars installed on both abutments at regular intervals without installing main towers; installing a plurality of hanger cables downward slantingly between the main cables at regular intervals at right angles to the main cables and installing auxiliary hanger cables between the hanger cables of the abutments at regular intervals in a direction that the main cables are installed; and consecutively joining and putting bridge upper plates on central upper portions of the hanger cables in the direction that the main cables are installed and fixing the hanger cables at the bridge upper plates using cable fixing means.

7. A construction method using a plane lattice type cable structure in constructing a long span overpass, the construction method comprising the steps of: installing a plurality of piers for the overpass; installing a plurality of main cables between both piers for the overpass at regular intervals using cable fixing devices, which are installed to both piers; installing a plurality of hanger cables between the main cables at right angles to the main cables at regular intervals; and consecutively joining and putting bridge upper plates on central upper portions of the hanger cables in a direction that the main cables are installed and fixing the hanger cables at the bridge upper plates using cable fixing means.

8. A construction method using plane lattice type cable structure in constructing a bridge using cables as in a suspension bridge or a cable staged bridge, the construction method comprising the steps of: installing a plurality of piers for the overpass; installing a plural of main cables between both piers for the overpass at regular intervals using cable fixing devices, which are installed to both piers; installing a plurality of hanger cables between the main cables at regular intervals at right angles to the main cables and installing auxiliary hanger cables between the hanger cables of the piers for the overpass at regular intervals in a direction that the main cables are installed; and consecutively joining and putting bridge upper plates on central upper portions of the hanger cables in the direction that the main cables are installed and fixing the hanger cables at the bridge upper plates using cable fixing means.

9. A construction method using plane lattice type cable structure in constructing a bridge using cables as in a suspension bridge or a cable staged bridge, the construction method comprising the steps of: installing multi-span bridge upper plates between abutments without installing main towers; and installing ends of a plurality of inclined main cables to the abutments using cable fixing devices, and installing the other ends of the inclined main cables to the bridge upper plates at regular intervals.

10. The construction method according to one of claims 1 to 8, wherein the bridge upper plates are connected by a tooth-shaped engagement, and the connection parts of the bridge upper plates are hinged by passing connection bars through the connection parts.

11. The construction method according to one of claims 1 to 9, wherein the cables (cable fixing means parts) of the plane lattice type cable store are connected by a thermal expansion and contraction compensation device including: a thermal expansion spring installed at the connection part; and a roller connected to the thermal expansion spring.

12. The construction method according to one of claims 1 to 9, wherein the cables of the plane lattice type cable structure are connected by a thermal expansion and contraction compensation device including: anchors installed at ends of cable connection parts; and a thermal expansion spring installed between the anchors.

13. A construction method using plane lattice type cable structure in constructing a steel-framed multi-stage building, the construction method comprising the steps of: installing a plurality of exterior pillars and slab steel frames for each stage; installing a plurality of main cables between the exterior pillars on a lower surface of the slab steel frames of each stage, and installing hanger cables between the slab steel frames in a lattice form at regular intervals to finish a slab structure of each stage; and pouring slab concrete on the slab structure to finish a slab.

14. A construction method using plane lattice type cable structure in constructing a shell structure, the construction method comprising the steps of: standing a plurality of roof frame pillars for supporting a roof; installing a plurality of main cables between the roof frame pillars, and installing a plurality of hanger cables on hinge beams, which are installed to the main cables at regular intervals, in a lattice form; installing lateral beams and longitudial beams at ends of the hinge beams on upper portions of the roof frames; and installing a shell structure, like the roof on the man cables and the hanger cables.

15. A construction method using plane lattice type cable structure, the construction method comprising the steps of: installing a plurality of transmission pillars at both sides; installing main cables between the transmission pillars in a horizontal plane type or a longitudial plane type; installing a plurality of hanger cables at right angles to the main cables at regular intervals; and installing a plurality of electric insulators to the hanger cables, and installing transmission wires to the electric insulators.

16. A construction method using plane lattice type cable structure, the construction method comprising the steps of: installing a plurality of pillars at both sides; installing main cables between the pillars in a horizontal plane type or a longitudial plane type; installing a plurality of hanger cables at right angles to the main cables at regular intervals; and installing cable connection means to the hanger cables, installing cables for cable car(lifts) to the cable connection means, and installing the cable cars(lifts).

17. The construction method according to one of claims 13 to 16, wherein the cables of the plane lattice type cable structure are connected by a thermal expansion and contraction compensation device including: a thermal expansion spring installed at the connection part; and a roller connected to the thermal expansion spring.

18. The construction method according to one of claims 13 to 16, wherein the cables of the plane lattice type cable structure are connected by a thermal expansion and contraction compensation device including: anchors installed at ends of cable connection parts; and a thermal expansion spring installed between the anchors.

Description:

TECHNICAL FIELD

[0001] The present invention relates to a building construction method using a plane lattice typed cable structure. More particularly, the present invention relates to a method for constructing a building on a long span bridge, a multi-stage building of a steel frame, a shell structure, or large-size transmission towers using a plane lattice type cable structure. In case of the long span bridge (a suspension bridge or a cable staged bridge), cables are mounted in a horizontal plane lattice form using cable fixing devices mounted to abutments, and a plurality of bridge upper plates are put and joined on an upper portion of the lattice type cable to construct the long span bridge without main towers. In case of the multi-stage building of the steel flame, after a plurality of exterior pillars and slab steel frames are finished, the plane lattice type cable is mounted at the exterior pillars on lower surfaces of the slab steel flames so that a slab is constructed without any interior pillars. In case of the shell structure, the plane lattice type cable structure for connecting roof frame pillars and other pillars is mod, lateral beams, hinge beams and longitudinal beams are installed, and the shell structure such as a roof is installed on the pillars and on an upper surface of the cable structure, so that the large-sized shell structure is constructed without installing many more intermediate reinforced beams, such as the lateral beams or the longitudinal beams. In case of the mission towers, pillars for transmission tower are installed at a minimum instead of the large-sized transmission towers, the plane lattice type cable structure is installed on the pillars, and transmission wires are connected to the cable structure with electric insulators to distribute load by the wires' own weight without installing the large-sized transmission towers. As described above, various buildings can be constructed using the plane lattice type cable

BACKGROUND ART

[0002] To construct a long span bridge using conventional cables, as shown in FIG. 1, a plurality of main towers 10 and bridge upper plates 105 are installed on abutments or piers 104, and cables 20 for connecting the main towers and the bridge upper plates are installed radially or in the form of a harp or a fan as in a suspension bridge or a cable staged bridge. In such bridge construction method, the bridge upper plates are hung on the cables, and external load applied to the bridge upper plates is transmitted to the main towers through the cables, and thereby the long span bridge can be constructed.

[0003] However, the above bridge construction method has a disadvantage that it is needed to install enormous temporary equipments (in case of a bridge crossing a wide river, because main tower foundations are installed at regular intervals in the river to installed the main towers, a temporary coffering work must be carried out to installed the main tower foundations and a temporary road for the temporary coffering work must be constructed across the river, expenses for installing the main towers occupy a high percentage in construction expenses of a substructure of the bridge.) to install the main towers for fixing or hinging the cables. The above bridge construction method has another disadvantage that because the main towers bear most of loads applied to the bridge, the bridge becomes high as the span of the bridge becomes long, and thereby, an occurrence rate of accidents is increased due to an increase of an aerial lifting work. Especially, in the suspension bridge, because torsional rigidity becomes weak due to wind load as the span becomes long, a thickness of the bridge upper plates must be increased to solve the above problem, and thereby, bridge construction expenses are increased and there is a restriction in maximizing the span.

[0004] Furthermore, in the conventional steel-framed multi-stage building construction method, after a plurality of exterior pillars are installed, lateral beams and longitudinal beams are installed, and then, a deck plate is installed to construct a slab. However, because a fixed load (dead load) is increased as the building becomes higher and larger, the number of the interior pillars for bearing load of the slab is increased, and thereby construction expenses are increased. Of course, there is a method for reducing the number of the pillars by increasing material stiffness of the pillar, but it has a restriction.

[0005] Moreover, in the conventional shell structure construction method, after roof frame pillars are installed, a plurality of lateral beams and longitudinal beams are installed on the roof frame pillars, and lastly a roof is put on the lateral beams and longitudinal beams. In a large-sized shell structure like a hangar, a solid truss is installed on the roof frame pillars and then the roof is put on the solid truss. However, when the many more lateral beams and longitudial beams are installed, construction expenses are all the more increased. Additionally, also, the installation of the truss costs a great deal.

[0006] Additionally, in the conventional transmission tower construction method, large-sized transmission towers are installed at regular intervals to bear load by mass storage power transmission wires. Most of the transmission towers are installed via mountainous areas, and so construction expenses are increased.

[0007] Therefor a construction method using a plane lattice type cable structure capable of being constructed in various buildings and structures economically is invented. According to the present invention, in case of the long span bridge construction, to solve the problem of lack of torsional rigidity without installing the main towers for connecting the cables, the bridge upper plates are joined and put on an upper surface of the plane lattice type cable structure. In case of the steel-framed multi-stage building construction, the plane lattice type cable structure is installed on lower surfaces of slab steel frames, so that the slab steel frames bear compression force and the cables bear tension force. Because the slab steel frame can bear external load applied to the slab, the number of the interior pillars can be reduced, and thereby the present invention can solve the problems by large-sized or high-rise steel frame buildings. In case of the shell structure construction, the plane type cable structure is installed on the roof frame pillars and beams to bear load of the roof transmitted through the beams, and thereby, the shell structure like a large-sized roof can be easily constructed. Additionally, because the number of the transmission pillars is minimized and the plane type cable structure is fixed on the pillars and the power transmission wires are installed to the plane type cable structure using electric insulators, the large-sized transmission towers are not needed, and thereby, installation expenses of the transmission towers are saved. Furthermore, because the plane type cable structure can support other loaded structures, intermediate structures like the many more interior frame pillars are not needed.

DISCLOSURE OF INVENTION

[0008] The present invention relates to a construction method for finishing a building by minimizing intermediate supporting structures using a plane lattice type cable structure in constructing various buildings, such as long span bridges, steel-framed multi-stage buildings, shell structures and large-sized transmission towers.

[0009] Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide a construction method using plane lattice type cable structure, which does not need main towers for installing cables, and can reduce construction expenses and a dangerous rate of an aerial lifting work by installing the plane lattice type cable structure and joining and installing bridge upper plates on the plane lattice type cable structure to secure torsional rigidity, in a long span bridge.

[0010] It is another object of the present invention to provide a construction method using plane lattice type cable structure, which can easily construct a slab in a steel-framed multi-stage building by installing the plane lattice type cable structure on lower portions of slab steel frames to serve as lateral beams and longitudinal beams without installing a plurality of interior pillars, in the steel-framed multi-stage building.

[0011] It is a further object of the present invention to provide a construction method using plane lattice type cable structure, which can economically construct a shell structure like a large-sized roof by installing the plane lattice type cable structure on roof pillars and beams at a minimum and putting a roof on the plane lattice type cable structure without installing lateral beams, longitudinal beams and a solid truss among roof frame pillars, in the large-sized shell structure.

[0012] It is a still further object of the present invention to provide a construction method using plane lattice type cable structure, which can economically construct large-sized transmission towers by increasing an interval between the transmission towers to the utmost using the plane lattice type cable structure.

[0013] It is a still further object of the present invention to provide a construction method using plane lattice type cable structure, which can provide means for compensating expansion and contraction of the plane lattice type cable structure made of steel according to external environments, i.e., a saddle type compensation device or a spring connection type compensation device, when the plane lattice type cable structure is fastened to end fixing and supporting structures, such as both abutments of a bridge.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0014] Further objects and advantages of the invention can be more fully understood from the following detailed description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawing in which:

[0015] FIG. 1 illustrates an elevation view of a bridge (a cable staged bridge) constructed using conventional cables;

[0016] FIGS. 2a to 2c illustrate conceptual views of a long span bridge constructed using a plane lattice type cable structure according to the present invention and of a modification of the long span bridge;

[0017] FIGS. 3a and 3b illustrate conceptual views of a connection type of a bridge upper plate installed on the plane lattice type cable structure according to the present invention;

[0018] FIGS. 4a to 4g illustrate modifications that the plane lattice type cable structure of the present invention is used to the long span bridge;

[0019] FIGS. 5a and 5b illustrate conceptual views of an embodiment that the plane lattice type cable structure of the present invention is used to a steel-framed multi-stage building;

[0020] FIG. 6 illustrates a conceptual view of an embodiment that the plane lattice type cable structure of the present invention is used to a shell structure;

[0021] FIGS. 7a and 7b illustrate conceptual views of an embodiment that the plane lattice type cable structure of the present invention is used to large-sized transmission towers; and

[0022] FIGS. 8a and 8b illustrate views of devices (a saddle type and an anchor connection type) for compensating expansion and contraction of cables of the plane lattice type cable structure according to the present invention.

BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION

[0023] The present invention will now be described in detail in connection with preferred embodiments with reference to the accompanying drawings. For reference, like reference characters designate corresponding parts throughout several views.

[0024] Referring to FIGS. 2 through 8, preferred embodiments by kinds of buildings or structures to apply a plane lattice type cable structure according to the present invention will be described in detail.

[0025] The plane lattice type cable structure according to the present invention is manufactured in a wire net form made by crossing cables, i.e., steel wires, steel bars or strands in a lattice type. Hereinafter, the preferred embodiments by kinds of the buildings or structures (long span bridges, steel-framed multi-stage buildings, large-sized shell structures and large-sized transmission towers), to which the plane lattice type cable structure is applied, will be described.

[0026] Embodiment 1 (Long Span Bridge)

[0027] FIG. 2a illustrates a conceptual view showing a state that the plane lattice type cable structure 100 of the present invention is applied to the long span bridge. Main cables 101 of the plane lattice type cable structure according to the present invention are fixed to cable fixing devices 103, which are installed at regular intervals between both riversides, to be installed across the liver. Piers 104 are installed at the center of the river to offset bending moment due to deflection of the main cables of long span. The number of the piers and cable fixing devices can be adjusted according to a width of the river, or the piers may not be installed according to material stiffness of the main cables, a foundation form of the cable fixing devices, and the width(W) of the river.

[0028] Furthermore, a plurality of hanger cables 102 for preventing longitudinal displacement of the main cables and serving as a supporter of bridge upper plates are installed to the main cables at right angles to the main cables at regular intervals, so that the main cables and the hanger cables are generally formed in a lattice type to form the plane lattice type cable 100 structure according to the present invention.

[0029] In FIG. 2a, the hanger cables 102 are installed along the entire length of the main cables at the regular intervals in a rectangular direction to the main cables. However, as shown in FIG. 2c, it will be appreciated that the hanger cables are installed to the main cables at regular intervals from both ends of the main cables, and auxiliary hanger cables 109 are installed between the hanger cables of both ends at regular intervals in a direction that the main cables are installed. In such structure, the main cables can be installed by installing piers without any intermediate supporters. At this time, because there may occur a shake due to wind, damper pillars 106 not for distributing tension of the main cables due to load of the bridge upper plates installed on the cables but for offsetting vibration due to external load (wind or others) for simply supporting the centers of the main cables can be installed.

[0030] A width(D) of the plane lattice type cable structure made by the main cables and the hanger cables can be adjusted according to size and length of the bridge upper plates 105 to be installed. As shown in FIG. 2a, the width(D) of the plane lattice type cable structure must be larger than the width of the bridge upper plates at least. Therefore, differently from a construction method for constructing a suspension bridge or a cable staged bridge for connecting cables through main towers, the present invention does not need the main towers. Additionally, if the width(D) of the cable structure for supporting the bridge upper plates at the minimum is secured, the present invention can provide beautiful outward appearance, reduce construction expenses due to the construction of the main towers, solve a problem of obstruction of a visual field by the main towers, and prevent accidents due to an aerial lifting work.

[0031] As shown in FIGS. 2a and 2b, which are a plan view and an elevation view showing a bridge that the bridge upper plates are joined and put on the plane lattice type cable structure, the bridge upper plates 105 are installed at the center of the hanger cables, going across the river, at right angles to a direction that the hanger cables are installed.

[0032] FIGS. 3a and 3b illustrate a connection form of the bridge upper plates 105. That is, as shown in FIG. 3a, in case that the plural bridge upper plates are joined and installed, tooth-shaped ends of the bridge upper plates are engaged with each other, and connection bars 107 are inserted through the tooth-shaped connection parts, and thereby the bridge upper plates 105 can be easily installed. The bridge upper plates are manufactured in the form of an I-type girder or a box type girder, and then, installed at a construction site. Differently from bridge upper plates of the suspension bridge or the cable staged bridge, which are hung on the main towers, because the bridge upper plates are put on the plane lattice type cable structure, a lower portion of the bridge upper plates are supported by the cables. Therefore, because the bridge upper plates do not need great torsional rigidity, a thickness of the box type girder, which is generally used for the bridge upper plate of the cable staged bridge, can be reduced considerably. Moreover, the connection using the connection bars makes a connection state of the bridge upper plates a binged connection state, thereby considerably reducing occurrence of negative bending moment to the connected parts and preventing bending moment as allowing a free rotation, so that there is structural advantage the bridge upper plates of the long span can be installed consecutively.

[0033] FIG. 3b illustrates a conceptual view of a connection between the bridge upper plates and the hanger cables of the plane lattice type cable structure using cable fixing means 108. That is, the rectangular cable fixing means for supporting the connected parts of the bridge upper plates are disposed at a lower surface of the connected parts of the bridge upper plates, which are connected by the connection bars, in the direction that the hanger cables are installed.

[0034] FIGS. 4a through 4g illustrate modifications of the first preferred embodiment of the present invention. In FIG. 4a, two horizontal main cables 110 are installed crossing the river horizontally, inclined main cables 111 are installed slantingly to both sides from a plurality of cable fixing devices at trisected portions of the main cables, and hanger cables 102 are installed perpendicularly at the trisected portions, so that a radial plane lattice type cable structure is manufactured. In this case, the bridge upper plates 105 are joined and installed between the two horizontal main cables at right angles to the hanger cables. The radial plane lattice type cable structure can allow the cable fixing devices to be easily installed, and minimize dead load and live load acting to the bridge upper plates because securing an angle of inclination between the cable fixing device and the bridge upper plate to the maximum if foundation bearing force to support tension of the plural horizontal and inclined main cables can be expected. Moreover, the radial plane lattice type cable structure can minimize the thickness of the bridge upper plates because minimizing axial force of the bridge upper plates. However, the radial plane lattice type cable structure has a disadvantage that connection parts between the inclined main cables 111 and the horizontal main cables 110 must be reinforced because load from the bridge upper plates 105 is concentrated on the trisected portions of the two horizontal main cables 110.

[0035] To overcome the disadvantage, a plurality of connection parts are formed between the horizontal main cables and the inclined main cables, so that the inclined main cables 111 may be formed in a harp shape as shown in FIG. 4b, or in a fan shape (which has the connection parts having intervals narrower than that of the harp shape) as shown in FIG. 4c. As shown in FIG. 4d, the inclined main cables may be formed in a star shape in such a manner that a plurality of connection parts are formed between the horizontal main cables and the inclined main cables and the inclined main cables connected slantingly to the two horizontal main cables are gathered at each point of four sides.

[0036] FIG. 4e illustrates a structure that two or more types shown in FIGS. 4a to 4d are combined (a combined structure for multi-span). The inclined main cables 111 are installed radially at both sides of the river, and at the center of the river, the inclined main cables 111 are connected and supported to the piers 104.

[0037] FIG. 4f showing another modification of the first embodiment can be used when the piers cannot be installed at the center of the river. The inclined main cables 111 are installed radially at both sides of the river. At this time, the inclined main cables are installed in such a manner that the inclined main cables extend to the opposite bridge upper plate, crossing each other. The bridge upper plates of FIGS. 4e and 4f are installed in the same way as the FIGS. 4a to 4d.

[0038] Differently from FIGS. 4a to 4f; in which the inclined main cables are installed radially, the hanger cables are installed between the two horizontal main cables in the rectangular direction, and then, the bridge upper plates are put on the two horizontal main cables, another method (not shown) that common bridge upper plates are installed crossing the river without installing the two horizontal main cables and then the inclined main cables are directly installed radially on the bridge upper plates in the same way as the inclined main cables 111 of FIGS. 4a to 4f may be used.

[0039] FIG. 4g illustrates another modification of the first embodiment. In FIG. 4g, the horizontal main cables 110 are installed between front ends of auxiliary pillars 112 installed near both abutments, and hanger cables 102 are installed between the horizontal main cables at regular intervals at light angles to the direction that the horizontal main cables are installed, so that the hanger cables are inclined downward between the main cables 110. The bridge upper plates 105 are installed at the center of the hanger cables in the same way as the first embodiment and the above modifications. In the above method, the auxiliary pillars are installed on the abutments, but it is very useful when the cable fixing devices cannot be installed due to an insufficient space for installing the horizontal main cables. A size and a height of the auxiliary pillars can be adjusted according to the interval between the horizontal main cables and the size of the bridge upper plate. That is, the horizontal main cables are not fixed at both sides of the piers by the cable fixing devices, but the auxiliary pillars serve as the horizontal main cable fixing devices. The plurality of hanger cables are installed downward slantingly at right angles to the horizontal main cables installed between the auxiliary pillars, the bridge upper plates are installed at central upper portions of the hanger cables, and auxiliary hanger cables 109 are installed between the hanger cables in the direction that the horizontal main cables are installed. The above is the same as the first embodiment and the above modifications.

[0040] The plane lattice type cable structure of the first embodiment may be utilized in not only the bridge but also various long span structures for installing a cable supporting structure, such as structures for installing a railway, an overpass, an overbridge, a monorail or a viaduct of a valley, or bridges for installing oil pipes, gas pipes or others. Furthermore, the plane lattice type cable structure may be utilized also when the plane lattice type cable structure is installed slantingly from the top to the bottom of the valley and a stairway, a barrier or a roadway is installed between the hanger cables.

[0041] Especially, in case of installing the overpass, generally, the overpass is installed when the existing road cannot be expanded even though there is much traffic. However, traffic must be interrupted to install a plurality of piers for the overpass above the existing roadway, and so, it is necessary to minimize the number of the piers for the overpass. However, to construct the bridge upper plates of long span for the overpass, the piers must be scaled up to secure sufficient beating force, and thereby the construction expenses are increased. Therefore, if minimal sized piers for the overpass of long span are installed, the main cables are installed on the piers using the cable fixing devices, the hanger cables are installed at right angles to the main cables, and the bridge upper plates for the overpass are joined and installed on upper portions of the main cables and the hanger cables, the long span overpass can be constructed without scale-up of the piers and the bridge upper plates for the overpass. The main cables and the hanger cables are installed in the same way as the long span bridge.

[0042] Embodiment 2 (Steel-Framed Multistage Building)

[0043] FIG. 5a illustrates a conceptual view of an embodiment that the plane lattice type cable structure according to the present invention is applied to a slab steel frame of a steel-framed multi-stage building. That is, a plurality of slab steel frames 203 are installed between exterior pillars 204 to finish a slab steel frame, and as shown in FIG. 5b, the plane lattice type cable structure of the present invention is installed on a lower surface of the slab steel frame. The plane lattice type cable structure 200 is finished in such a manner that main cables 201 are connected to the exterior pillars, and hanger cables 202 are installed between the main cables at regular intervals, so that the hanger cables can prevent movement of the main cables.

[0044] Because the slab steel frame supports compression force due to external load applied to a slab and the cables installed on the lower portion supports tension force, the slab can be finished without many more interior pillars installed on the slab. That is, if the slab is widened, it is necessary to reduce bending moment by deflection due to self-weight and live load of the slab by standing a plurality of internal pillars inside the exterior pillars. However, because flexural rigidity for supporting bending moment can be secured only using the plane lattice type cable structure according to the present invention, the process for installing the internal pillars can be omitted.

[0045] The plane lattice type cable structure according to the second embodiment can be utile in not only the steel-framed multi-stage building but also the ceiling of an underground structure or building, i.e., an underground passage, an underground road, or a structure for covering the river.

[0046] Embodiment 3(Shell Structure)

[0047] FIG. 6 is a conceptual view of an embodiment that the plane lattice type cable structure according to the present invention is applied to a roof frame of a large-sized shell structure. That is, as shown in FIG. 6, the plane lattice type cable structure is formed in such a manner that a plurality of main cables 301 are connected between roof frame pillars 303, central portions of a plurality of hinge beams 306 are fixed to main cables, and a plurality of hanger cables 302 are connected to inner ends of the hinge beams 306 and fixed to opposite hinge beams. Lateral beams 304 and longitudinal beams 305 are fixed and connected to outer sides of the hinge beams 306 to form a rectangular plane lattice type net.

[0048] That is, because the hanger cables are connected to the hinge beams in the form of a lattice, the whole shape of the main cables and the hanger cables becomes a plane lattice type cable structure 300.

[0049] If the plane lattice type cable structure is finished, the large-sized shell structure (a dome type roof structure or a plate type roof structure) is installed on an upper surface of the cable structure. In the shell structure, generally, all external loads are transmitted to a structure for supporting between shells and considerable tension force is applied to the supporting structure. To support such tension force, a thickness and flexural rigidity of the supporting structure must be great. Because the present invention uses the main cables and the hanger cables favorable to support tension force, the length and thickness of the lateral beams and longitudinal beams to be installed on the roof pillars can be minimized while securing flexural rigidity.

[0050] The third embodiment can be utilized in not only shell structures such as a dome type sports stadium, a greenhouse and a vinyl house but also a wind brake structure for a windmill for wind power generation.

[0051] Embodiment 4(Transmission Tower)

[0052] FIGS. 7a and 7b illustrate a conceptual view of an embodiment that the plane lattice type cable structure according to the present invention is applied to transmission towers. To supply electric power generated from a power plant to factories and houses, equipments for power transmission, i.e., high-voltage wires for transmitting electric power and transmission towers for supporting the high-voltage wires at several intervals are needed. When the high-voltage wires are connected to the transmission towers, the transmission towers are generally manufacture in a large-sized solid truss form. However, because the transmission towers pass via rivers or mountains, their installation costs a great deal. Therefore, lots of the high-voltage wires are connected to the transmission towers if possible. However, because compression force and bending moment applied to the transmission towers become large as intervals between the transmission towers for supporting the high-voltage wires become long, the transmission towers cannot be manufactured in large size. Therefore, as shown in FIG. 7a, without installing the large-sized transmission towers transmission pillars 403 are installed at a minimum, plane type main cables 401 are connected between the mission pillars, and hanger cables 402 or angles are installed on the main cables at regular intervals crossing each other. Electric insulators 404 for connecting transmission wires are installed at upper portions or lower portions of the center of the hanger cables or the angles. When the transmission wires 405 are connected to the electric insulators, because load transmitted through the electric insulators is scattered to the pillars by the cables, the number and the size of the pillars are reduced even though the plural electric wires are installed, and thereby the construction expenses are reduced.

[0053] Moreover, FIG. 7b illustrates another modification of the plane lattice type cable structure used in the transmission towers. The plane lattice type cable structure of FIG. 7a is made in a horizontal plane type but the plane lattice type cable structure of FIG. 7b is made in a longitudial plane type. Because also the longitudial type cable structure distributes load by the electric wires to each connected parts of the pillars, the size and volume of the pillars may be minimized.

[0054] The plane lattice type cable structure of the forth embodiment can be utilized in installing a net for supporting fruit trees and for preventing damages by birds and beasts in an orchard, installing cable cars or lifts in a skiing ground. That is, in case of the net for preventing damages by birds and beasts, a plurality of pillars for supporting the net are installed around the fruit trees, main cables are installed horizontally between the pillars, the hanger cables are installed crossing the main cables, and then the net is installed. Because the main cables and the hanger cables can bear load of the net sufficiently, the large-sized net can be easily installed even though the number of the pillars is reduced to the minimum. Furthermore, when large-sized supporting towers or pillars are stood to install the lifts or cable cars for the skiing ground, if the length of the cables is long, lots of the supporting towers and pillars are installed to a destination. To reduce the number of the supporting towers or the pillars, the size and volume of the supporting towers or pillars must be increased, but it is very difficult because of a restriction of their installation space. However, according to the present invention, the supporting towers or pillars are installed at a minimum, the main cables and the hanger cables are connected, cable connection means (connection rods for connecting the cables for the cable cars and the cables for the lifts to the hanger cables) are installed on the hanger cables, and then the cable cars and lifts are installed. The net, the main cables and hanger cables for the cable cars and the lifts are installed in the same way as the large-sized transmission towers.

[0055] In the construction of the long span bridge, the steel-framed multi-stage building, the large-sized shell structure or the large-sized transmission towers using the plane lattice type cable 100, 200, 300 or 400 according to the present invention, when the main cables and the hanger cables are installed, the cables may be expanded or contracted by material characteristics of the cables due to external environments (temperature or humidity). Therefore, there may occur stress such as tension force unexpected in a designing step of the main cables. Referring to FIGS. 8a and 8b, devices 500 and 600 for compensating deformation due to expansion and contraction of the cables will be described.

[0056] FIG. 8a illustrate a conceptual view of a thermal expansion and contraction device 500 (saddle type) of installed at a point 503 where the cable is fixed. The device includes a thermal expansion spring 501 mounted at the point 503, and a roller 502 mounted at an end of an upper portion of the thermal expansion spring 501. That is, to compensate expansion and contraction of the cable according to the external environments, the spring expanded and contracted according to the external environments is used. Therefore, if the cable is expanded due to high temperature, the cable becomes loose and tension of the cable is reduced. So, if the spring is expanded upward to compensate the reduced tension (as much as an extent to compensate the reduced tension), the cable is tightened again, and thereby the reduced tension can be compensated. Moreover, if tension of the cable is increased due to low temperature, the spring is contracted to compensate the increased tension as less as the contracted length of the spring.

[0057] FIG. 8b illustrates a conceptual view of a thermal expansion and contraction device 600 (anchor connection type) installed at a position where the cable is connected. The thermal expansion and contraction device 600 includes anchors 601 and a thermal expansion spring 602 mounted at positions where the cables are connected. If the cables are contracted due to high temperature, there occurs compression force to the cables according to the contacted amount, and the compression force is compensated by elasticity of the spring, and thereby, the deformation of the cables according to the equal environments can be compensated. If the external temperate is lowered, the deformation of the cables can be compensated contrary to the above.

INDUSTRIAL APPLICABILITY

[0058] While the present invention has been described with reference to the particular illustrative embodiments, it is not to be restricted by the embodiments but only by the appended claims. It is to be appreciated that those skilled in the art can change or modify the embodiments without departing from the scope and spirit of the present invention.