Title:
Target device, especially for light weapons
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
The sight especially for hand arms consists of a scanning system (1), the output of which is connected to one input of an evaluating circuit (5), to the second input of which a position trigger (8) is connected. The output of the evaluating circuit (5) is connected either with an aiming indicator (9) and with an input to an action member (6), the output of which is connected to the input of a trigger mechanism (7). The scanning system (1), evaluating circuit (5), action member (6) and the aiming indicator (9) are connected to a power source (11) for these parts.



Inventors:
Jirina, Marcel (Praha, CZ)
Application Number:
10/433801
Publication Date:
04/22/2004
Filing Date:
06/04/2003
Assignee:
JIRINA MARCEL
Primary Class:
International Classes:
F41G3/00; F41G11/00; (IPC1-7): F41G1/00
View Patent Images:
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Primary Examiner:
SUKMAN, GABRIEL S
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Egbert Law Offices, PLLC (Houston, TX, US)
Claims:

I claim:



1. A sight especially for hand arms characteristic by the fact that it consists of a scanning system (1), the output of which is connected to one input of an evaluating circuit (5), to the second input of which a position trigger (8) is connected, and where the output of the evaluating circuit (5) is connected either with an aiming indicator (9) and with an input to an action member (6), the output of which is connected to the input of a trigger mechanism (7), while the scanning system (1), evaluating circuit (5), action member (6) and the aiming indicator (9) are connected to a power source (11) for these parts.

2. A sight according to claim 1 characteristic by the fact that the scanning system (1), consists of a scanning system (2b) of the gun and a position sensing element (4b), while the outputs of both these parts are also outputs of the whole scanning system (1).

3. A sight according to claim 2 characteristic by the fact that the position sensing element (4b) is firmly attached to the gun and is represented by any member of the group gyroscope, vibration sensor.

4. A sight according to claim 2 characteristic by the fact that the position sensing element (4b) is represented by an induction position sensor placed out of the gun and is firmly attached to the environment and placed near any metallic part of the gun.

5. A sight according to claim 1 characteristic by the fact that the scanning system (1), consists of an optical aiming system (2a), a beam separator (3) reflecting part of the beams from the optical aiming system (2a) to the shooter's eye (10), and an optical scanning element (4a) placed so as all these parts are in one optical axe, while the output of the optical aiming system (2a) is the input to the beam separator (3), the output of which is the input to the optical scanning element (4a), while the output of this optical scanning element (4a) is the output of the scanning system (1).

6. A sight according to claim 1 characteristic by the fact that the optical scanning system (1), consists either of the scanning system (2b) of the gun and of an independent optical aiming system (2a), where an optical scanning element (4a) is located at the output of the independent optical aiming system (2a) in its optical axe.

7. A sight according to claim 5 or 6 characteristic by the fact that the optical scanning element (4a) consists of one of the group CCD element, CCD camera, picture scanning tube, matrix of photosensitive element, thermo vision camera with output within the visual range of specter, noctovision with output within the visual range of specter.

8. A sight according to any of the claims 1 through 7 characteristic by the fact that the aim indicator (8) formed by an electric-acoustic exchanger and/or an optical signaling element and/or mechanical signaling.

9. A sight according to any of the claims 1 through 8 characteristic by the fact that the evaluating circuit (5) is a computer.

10. A sight according to any of the claims 1 through 9 characteristic by the fact that the evaluating circuit (5) is programmable.

11. A sight according to any of the claims 1 through 10 characteristic by the fact that at least one of its parts is an integrated part of the gun.

12. A sight according to any of the claims 1 through 10 characteristic by the fact that it is designed as an independent accessory mechanically attachable to the existing gun, while the output of the action member (6) is connected to the original gun trigger.

13. A sight according to any of the claims 1 through 12 characteristic by the fact that the position trigger (8) consists of at least a double-position switch (12) with gradually switchable positions and starting limit position for automatic return after release of the switch lever (13).

Description:

RELATED U.S. APPLICATIONS

[0001] Not applicable.

STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT

[0002] Not applicable.

REFERENCE TO MICROFICHE APPENDIX

[0003] Not applicable.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

[0004] The solution deals with a sight particularly designed for hand arms enabling to enhance accuracy of pointing at the target and shooting.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0005] Existing known standard and most widespread sights use mechanical sights. They are actually very simple, easy to manufacture and cheap, but inaccuracy is their disadvantage. Accuracy strongly depends on ability of a shooter to point in this instance. Moreover an eye has to be still refocused between the target, frontsight and backsight.

[0006] A so-called red dot pointer is another type. The principle of this type is based on direct marking of target by a visible light or laser ray. A shooter thus knows exactly what the gun is aimed at. This has a disadvantage of possibility of being found according to the visible ray.

[0007] A holographic sight is another type. Its principle is based on the fact that the reticule is seemingly shifted to the target plane and the eye has not to be refocused so much.

[0008] An optical sight is a classical means for aiming at a target. Its function is based on the fact that it enlarges the angle under which a target is seen and thus seemingly enlarges the target. The magnification of a target is usually between 4 and 12. The more the enlargement is, the better the target can be seen but the more difficult it is to hold the gun in hands and vice versa.

[0009] The so-called thermo vision sight, called also the infra sight is another type. It enables to make visible a part of target radiation, which is normally invisible by human eye. It is based on detection of heat radiated by a human body or a vehicle. This type of sight may be even divided into two categories: active and passive, The active one uses its own source of invisible radiation for illumination of the target, while the passive one has not its own heat source and relays on the target's own radiation.

[0010] Noctovision is another type of means of watching an object. This sight enables to make monitored target visible thanks to amplification of residual light radiated or reflected by a target.

[0011] A camera mounted on a gun is also a means that might be included among sights. At present it is only used for monitoring a target. The monitored target is thus directly transferred to a shooter, who is able to watch it on a display unit not mounted on the gun, e.g. on a helmet display, and thus does not risk being disclosed. Shooting may thus be aimed.

[0012] If a small and distant target is aimed at, it is difficult to be aimed at as shooter's hands shake a little despite all efforts and experience. If a gun is held in hands without a support, aiming is difficult or even impossible. Shooting at a movable target is even more complicated. The aiming of the gun is even more complicated by the fact that during it a trigger is being slowly pressed until the moment of shot. Shooting accuracy is this affected by psychical and physical strain. It is necessary to realize that the shot occurs at an unexpected moment when the shooter may not be satisfied with the aiming at the target. This problem applies to all the presented types of sights. It is necessary to realize that even enlargement of a target by an optical sight does not substantially enhance accuracy of shooting as shivering of hands holding the gun is not removed.

BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0013] A sight especially for hand arms according to the presented solution removes the above drawbacks. Its principle is, that it consists of a scanning system with output connected to one input of an evaluation circuit to the other input of which a position trigger is connected. The output of the evaluation circuit is connected either with an aiming indicator or to the action member input. The action member output is connected to a trigger mechanism input. The scanning system, evaluation circuit, action member and aiming indicator are connected to a power source for these parts.

[0014] In one possible version the scanning system consists of a gun sight system and position-sensing element. The outputs of both these parts are also outputs of the scanning system. For the position sensing element one member of the group gyroscope, vibration sensor may advantageously be used and is firmly attached to the gun. Another possibility is that the position-sensing element consists of an induction position sensor located outside the gun and firmly attached to the environment, but also close to any of the metallic parts of the gun.

[0015] In another version the scanning system consists of aiming optical system, beam splitter mirror for reflecting a part of the rays from the optical aiming system to shooter's eye, and an optical scanning element where all these parts are located in one optical axe. The output of the optical aiming system is an input to the beam splitter, the output of which is an input of the optical scanning element. The output of the optical scanning element is the output of the whole scanning system.

[0016] In the next version the scanning system consists of either the aiming system of the gun and an independent optical aiming system. An optical scanning element is placed to the output of the independent optical system in its optical axe.

[0017] The optical scanning element may consist of one member of the group: CCD element, CCD camera, picture scanning tube, matrix of photosensitive element, thermo vision camera with output within the visual range of specter, noctovision with output within the visual range of specter.

[0018] An electric-acoustic exchanger and/or an optical signaling element and/or mechanical signaling may form the aiming indicator.

[0019] The evaluation circuit is a computer, actually microcomputer and may be programmable.

[0020] In practice the sight may be applied so as one of its parts is an integrated part of the gun. Another possibility is, that the sight is an independent accessory mechanically connectable with an existing gun. In such a situation the action member output is connected to the gun's original trigger.

[0021] The position trigger consists of at least a double-position switch with gradually switchable positions and starting limit position for automatic return after release of the switch lever.

[0022] The proposed sight has numerous advantages. First it has no action elements that might in whatever way control the gun movement, e.g. the barrel position. Only the gun movement caused by the shooter is sufficient. Thus the original disadvantage of inaccurate holding of the gun as a consequence of hand shivering is on contrary used for correct aiming at the target here. The shooter's hands are directly the elements that define the gun position.

[0023] The parts of which the above sight consists are commonly available, now widespread elements. Sizes and weights of the sight parts are small and may all be integrated to the gun itself. An electric magnet and energy source may have the biggest size. The total weight of the sight may be estimated to 2 kg.

[0024] Prices of the elements used are now very low thanks to their wide usage and advanced technology. The prices of these elements are moreover likely to drop substantially in the future.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE SEVERAL VIEWS OF THE DRAWINGS

[0025] The presented solution will be more closely explained by particular examples of the versions shown on figures, on which the following are presented:

[0026] FIG. 1 basic scheme of arrangement of a sight with general scanning system according to the presented solution,

[0027] FIG. 2 scheme of arrangement of a sight with the scanning system from FIG. 1 consisting of a single optical system with a beam splitter and optical scanning element,

[0028] FIG. 3 is a scheme of arrangement of a sight from FIG. 1 where the scanning system consists of two optical systems, one of which is intended for the shooter and the other one for the optical scanning element.

[0029] FIG. 4 is a scheme of arrangement of a sight from FIG. 1 where the scanning system consists of one optical system and a position sensing element, and

[0030] FIG. 5 is an example of possible arrangement of the position trigger according to FIGS. 1 through 4 designed as a four-position electric switch with gradually switch able positions with a starting limit position 0, to which the switch automatically returns when the switch lever of trigger shape gets released.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0031] The basic arrangement of the proposed sight FIG. 1 consists of a scanning system 1, the output o that is connected to one input of the evaluating circuit 5. The second input of the evaluating circuit 5 is connected to a position trigger 8. One output of the evaluating circuit 5 is connected to an aiming indicator 9, which may be for example an electric-acoustic exchanger or an optical signaling element. The second output of the evaluating circuit 5 is connected to input of an action member 6, the output of which is connected to the trigger mechanism 7. The scanning system 1, evaluating circuit 5, action member 6 and aiming indicator 9 are connected to a power source 11.

[0032] In one arrangement example presented in FIG. 2 the scanning system 1 according to FIG. 1 consists of an optical aiming system 2a of a gun and by a scanning optical element 4a, which is placed to the output of the optical aiming system 2a and is located in the common optical axe. A beam splitter 3 splitting the bunch of beams into two is located between the output of the optical aiming system 2a and the input of the optical scanning element 4a, again on the common optical axis. One of the bunches of beams goes to the input of the optical scanning element 4a while the other goes to the shooter's eye 10. The optical scanning element 4a may be represented for example by a simple CCD element, CCD camera, but also by a thermo vision camera, also called infra-camera, or noctovision, the picture of which is transferred to visible specter range for the shooter's 10 needs. The original purely optical function of the sight is thus maintained and is important for target specification by the shooter 10. Electric output of the optical scanning element 4a is connected to the evaluating circuit 5, which may be represented by a computer, in this case by a microcomputer with a program e.g. in a removable ROM and serves for evaluation of the scanned target surround, i.e. specification of the target position upon evaluation of the picture from the optical scanning element 4a. It is the sophistication of the program, on which the accuracy of aiming and thus hitting the target depends on. The correctness of aiming at the target evaluated in the evaluating circuit 5 is signaled to the shooter 10 by means of a suitable aiming indicator 9, e.g. an electric-acoustic exchanger, a LED or a transparent LCD element located in the optical aiming system 2a. The power electric output of the evaluating circuit 5 is connected to the input of the action member 6, which may be e.g. an electric magnet, pneumatic or hydraulic circuit, the output movable rod of which is connected to the trigger mechanism 7, or directly to the gun trigger. The action member 6 is activated automatically upon evaluation of target aiming in the evaluating circuit 5 and according to the state of the position trigger 8, which is controlled by the shooter 10, see below. It is necessary to note that the signal for shooting is activated by the evaluating circuit 5 and not by the shooter 10, even if the shooter 10 still has the decisive influence on selection of target and its possible hitting.

[0033] In the version according to FIG. 3 the scanning system 1 according to FIG. 1 consists of an optical aiming system 2a, to which an optical scanning element 4b is connected, and an aiming system 2b designed for the shooter, which may be represented by a common sight, e.g. an optical one. In this instance the beam splitter 3 according to FIG. 2 is omitted, as it has no function here. The other elements are identical with those in FIG. 1.

[0034] In the version according to FIG. 4 the scanning system 1 according to FIG. 1 consists of an aiming system 2b intended for the shooter 10, which can be for example a common sight, e.g. an optical one, and of a position sensing element 4b. In this instance the beam splitter 3 according to FIG. 2 is also omitted, as it has no function here. The other elements are identical with those in the previous versions. By using the position sensing element 4b the sight possibilities are limited, as only the gun position against environment can be then evaluated, but not the environment with the target as it is possible with the sight with an optical scanning element. A gyroscope firmly attached to the gun can be used as the position sensing element 4b, or possibly another sensor enabling to scan at least relative position of the gun or its vibration, like e.g. accelerometer. An induction position switch firmly attached to the environment where it is located, e.g. to the ground, table tree etc., is another possibility. It is placed out of the gun but close to any metallic part of it, e.g. the barrel mouth. The gun movement then induces voltage in the position sensor and such sensed position is then transmitted by suitable method, e.g. by an optical cable, acoustically or by a radio to the evaluating circuit 5.

[0035] Here we should emphasize that the sight may be arranged as an inseparable part of a gun, i.e. all elements or just some of them, e.g. the evaluating circuit 5, aiming indicator 9 or the action member 6 shown in FIGS. 1-4 are located directly on the gun or inside it, e.g. in the butt. In such an instance it is reasonable and natural to connect the output of the action member 6 with adopted trigger mechanism of the gun 7. This possibility requires an intervention in the gun, especially into the trigger mechanism 7 including the trigger itself, which may not always be suitable. Actually the original gun trigger has to be solved as a position trigger 8. One of possible and advantageous arrangement of the position trigger 8 is shown in FIG. 5, where it is solved as a four-position electric switch 12 with a pressure spring 14 and gradually switchable positions and with the starting limit position, to which the switch automatically returns when the switch lever 13 of trigger shape is released.

[0036] Another way is to solve the whole sight according to FIGS. 1-4 as an accessory, which is mounted on the gun without necessity to make any intervention to the gun itself. In this instance the output of the action member 6 represented e.g. by a movable rod with the original gun trigger. There is an advantage that this type of sight may be mounted at least to each hand arm.

[0037] The position trigger 8 has several states, in this case four, in which the gun may be, and these states correspond to the individual phases of aiming and subsequent shooting. The shooting from a gun with the above sight proceeds as follows. Primarily the position trigger 8 of the trigger mechanism 7 is in zero state, i.e. nothing is happening and the gun is inactive. The shooter 10 points as well as possible at the target through the optical aiming system 2a, or through the aiming system 2b, which may be for example a common sight, e.g. an optical one, shifts the position trigger 8 to state 1 and follows the target for some time. In this phase he actually marks the target and the evaluation circuit 5, e.g. a computer tries to find the target upon this monitoring, according to the appropriate program and the scanning element. This phase is finished by shifting the position trigger 8 to state 2, when the computer evaluation of the information gained from the optical scanning element 4a is stopped or from the position scanning element 4b, and the phase of verification of the target correctness runs. In this phase the shooter 10 is given the opportunity to check correct aiming by means of the aiming indicator 9, giving e.g. an acoustic signal by an electric-acoustic exchanger or by a flash of an indicator, e.g. a LED located inside the optical sight when the line of sight crosses the aimed part of the target, e.g. its center or center of gravity. Another possibility is to display the currently aimed point of the target continuously on a transparent LCD element located in the optical aiming system 2a or in the aiming system 2b. When the shooter 10 is sure about correctness of aiming at the target he shifts the position trigger 8 into the last state 3. In the opposite instance he releases the position trigger 8 back to state 0 or 1 and the whole process is repeated. In state 3 the target is aimed and the system waits until the line of sight crosses the target center or its close surrounding. At this moment the computer sends a signal to the action member 6, which releases the firing pin and the gun shoots. The sight exploits the fact that the line of sight crosses the target center a lot of times within normal aiming, but it is hardly possible to react to the moment when the aiming crosses the target center. Normally you often press the trigger later and the bullet misses the target. This disadvantage is fully eliminated by the proposed sight.

[0038] The target monitoring phase, i.e. state 1 only takes seconds. Generally the longer you are aiming the more accurate the target marking is. The checking phase, state 2 may be measured in seconds, but if it is sure that the aiming is correct, it is possible to switch to the final phase, i.e. state 3 immediately. The final phase may be arbitrarily long, but may be limited to e.g. 2 seconds. After this possible limit period the gun fires regardless the aiming accuracy. An instant shot may always be taken if the time between states 0 and 3 was too short, e.g. 0.5 seconds. This ensures that the gun is ready to use in case of emergency like a common gun without this type of this sight, when the capabilities of the sight cannot be used.

[0039] The four-position trigger 8 may be simplified by a three-position one e.g. by omitting the checking phase, i.e. state 2. In other words switching from state 1 directly to state 3 is possible.

[0040] For further simplification just a double-position switch may also be used for the position trigger 8, which means that the checking phase, state 2 is omitted, and the monitoring phase, state 1 and the final phase, state 3 are linked to one state. In this situation the starting state, state 0 is the same, and after shifting the trigger 8 to the second state monitoring of the targets starts for certain time and just when it finishes the sight waits for the moment suitable for the shot as described above. The monitoring length in the second phase may be fixed, e.g. 3 seconds or may be conditioned by e.g. recognition of the target, by finding a certain characteristic of the target etc.

[0041] Evaluation of the information gained from the optical scanning element 4a or the position sensing element 4b according to the examples presented in drawings 1 to 4, and subsequent emission of the control signal to the action member 6 at the right moment are the most important functions of the sight. This evaluation is provided by the evaluating circuit 5, e.g. a computer with given program.

[0042] The monitoring of the target says the computer where or what the real target, which is to be hit, is. According to the scanning element used the target aiming methods may be divided. If the position scanning element 4b is used in the sight or if the optical scanning element 4a, which is however only used to gain information about the gun position with regard to the surroundings, is used, only this information may be used for estimating the target right position. Provided the aimed object is static, i.e. does not move in the surrounding, than simple averaging of the line of sight coordinates is the simplest method of estimating the right target position. This averaging can be understood as filtering and thus removing the unpleasant movements in aiming. Averaging is thus a special case of filtering the co-ordinates of the line of sight. If the aimed target moves in the surrounding, the position of the gun and so the line of sight will change more extensively compared to the previous situation, when the gun stayed in more or less the same position. This is the difference what enables distinguishing between the static target from a movable one and thus also to select the suitable method for target position specification. In the instance of movable target it is sufficient to predict the future movement of the target upon the target trajectory scanned so far during its monitoring.

[0043] If there is the optical scanning element 4a used in the sight, all the information given by this scanner may be used. In this instance the methods of aiming at the likely target are backed by evaluation of specific characteristics of the object monitored by the shooter 10, distinguishing this target from its surrounding. These characteristics include for example brightness, color of the target, its structure, typical shape characteristics like roundness, angularity, or on the other side complete shape or color accidentally against the surrounding it appears in etc. If the target moreover moves in the environment it brings further information that might be used. For example the direction of the target movement, its speed, but also its size, shape and further characteristics may be predicted upon two shots during a known time period. The movement can moreover be predicted, so the target may be aimed at much more precisely than with common sights. There is also a possibility of prevention from shooting to the aimed target if it the scene changes suddenly, i.e. for example the target changes its position, shape or color, it is covered by another object, disappears etc.

[0044] The aim point of sight cannot be the whole monitored target but its particular point, e.g. center of gravity, center of edge of the identified target.

[0045] Apart from that it is possible to mark or typify all the targets that are to be hit in advance and then shoot gradually at these targets. This substantially shortens the time of shooting, which may be important from tactical point of view. Actually it is normally necessary to aim carefully after each shot, which takes quite a long time and meanwhile the position of targets in the monitored scene may change. The possibility of typifying targets may even play a more important role in shooting with guns enabling batch shooting, like machine or semi-machine guns.

INDUSTRIAL APPLICABILITY

[0046] It is obvious, that an increase of gun accuracy is an important factor, which defines usability of a gun and thus enlarges its applicability, especially in the field of military tactics. The higher the accuracy of correct aiming of a gun at a target is, the higher the likeliness of hitting the target is. The gun can then be used for distant targets that would normally be out of reach. Move prediction moreover enables successful hitting of movable targets, which is in normal conditions very difficult when they move fast. The accuracy of target aiming and consequent shooting is thus increased without increasing the shooter's effort. The above sight thus substantially enhances the possibilities of guns with common sights.

[0047] This sight may moreover be used for shooting with hand arms like pistols, sub-machine gun, machine gun, trench mortar or a bazooka, i.e. guns, the accuracy of which is substantially affected by shooter's capability.

[0048] The proposed sight may also be used for a photo sniper, telescopic camera, TV camera or video camera, hand held measuring devices e.g. theodolite etc., in short in each situation where a monitored object is to be accurately aimed at.





 
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