Title:
Superconducting power cable with enhanced superconducting core
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
Enhanced superconducting power cable of at least one phase, characterized by two tubular sections, the first section being a flexible superconducting core, with a stainless steel tape mesh and copper tape layers overlaid at an angle of 0° to 45° followed by two or more superconducting material layers placed overlaid and a second application of two or more superconducting material layers in opposite direction with regard to the previous ones; the second tubular section is an annular space of vacuum thermal insulation formed by a flexible corrugated pipe covered with multilayer insulations, including also a pipe with a stainless steel mesh to adhere an internal semiconducting shield made of polyethylene with insulation followed by a second metal shield based on copper tapes and a polyethylene protecting cover.



Inventors:
Alfonso Perez, Sanchez (Queretaro, MX)
Jose Luis, Nieto Sanchez (Queretao, MX)
Mauro Eduardo, Maya Mendez (Queretar, MX)
Application Number:
10/300770
Publication Date:
02/05/2004
Filing Date:
11/21/2002
Assignee:
ALFONSO PEREZ SANCHEZ
JOSE LUIS NIETO SANCHEZ
MAURO EDUARDO MAYA MENDEZ
Primary Class:
International Classes:
H01B12/02; H01B12/06; H01B12/12; H01B12/14; H01B12/16; (IPC1-7): H01B17/00
View Patent Images:



Primary Examiner:
PATEL, ISHWARBHAI B
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
JONATHAN E. GRANT (WASHINGTON, DC, US)
Claims:
1. A superconducting power cable with enhanced superconducting core of al least one phase with cooling through nitrogen flow in the cavity of the central pipe, characterized because it has two tubular sections, being the first one a flexible superconducting core formed by a corrugated central pipe covered with a stainless steel tape mesh, layers of copper tapes overlaid at an application angle at 0° to 45°, two or more overlaid layers of superconducting material tapes with a cabling lay length of 2 to 300 cm and path angle between 0° to 45° to the right or left and then application of a second section of two or more superconducting materials layers applied in opposite direction to the path of the above mentioned layer section, being the previous assembly wrapped with an insulating material tape; the second tubular section is an annular space of vacuum thermal insulation protecting the central core and concentrically formed by a stainless steel flexible corrugated pipe as internal wall which is lined on the opposite wall with a multilayer thermal insulation, then said vacuum space is completed with a stainless steel corrugated additional pipe in the external wall of which stainless steel mesh is placed for the adherence of several layers; said several layers are formed by an internal semiconducting shield made of thermoplastic o thermosetting low density polyethylene, a polyethylene electric insulation, a second semiconducting shield, a metal shield made of copper tapes, and a polyethylene protecting cover.

2. The superconducting power cable of claim 1, characterized because the first flexible corrugated pipe forming the vacuum annular space is made of 304 or 316 stainless steel and has an external diameter of 6 to 8 cm and an internal diameter of 4 to 5 cm, the corrugation depth can vary between 0.5 and 1 cm and the corrugation pitch is from 1 to 2 cm for a depth between 0.5 and 0.8 cm.

3. The superconducting power cable of claim 1, characterized because the thermal insulation placed in several layers is an aluminum and mylar sheet 0.0005 to 0.005 cm thick.

4. The superconducting power cable of claim 1, characterized because the second 304 or 316 stainless steel corrugated pipe has an external diameter between 8 and 10 cm and an internal diameter between 6 and 7 cm, with a corrugation depth between 0.5 and 1.5 cm, and a pitch between corrugations of 1 to 2 cm for a depth between 0.5 and 1 cm.

5. The superconducting power cable of claim 1, characterized because the stainless steel mesh placed on the corrugated central pipe is placed in a braided way to form an external uniform flat surface.

6. The superconducting power cables of claim 1, characterized because the first semiconducting shield is made of thermoplastic or thermosetting low density polyethylene, wherein the conductivity of this layer does no exceed 1000 Ω m at room temperature and has a thickness of al least 0.006 cm.

7. The superconducting power cable of claim 1, characterized because the electric core insulation is based on thermoplastic or thermosetting or crossed chain low, medium or high density polyethylene and/or ethylene propylene, its thickness depending on the effect of the operation voltage on the cable and being between 0.229 and 0.976 cm.

8. The superconducting power cable of claim 1, characterized because the second semiconducting shield is made of the same components as the first shield but its thickness is at least 0.0129 cm and its maximum volume resistivity is 500 Ω m at room temperature.

9. The superconducting power cable of claim 1, characterized because the metal shield of cooper tape is 0.00635 cm thick, having a cross section area of at least 0.1 mm2/mm.

10. The superconducting power cable of claim 1, characterized because the final protecting cover can be made of polyethylene o polyvinyl chloride (PVC), with a thickness between 0.203 and 0.279 cm.

11. The superconducting power cable of claim 1, characterized because the vacuum thermal insulation system functions at temperatures of 77° K. and under a vacuum pressure of 10 mPa (milliPascal).

Description:

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0001] 1. Field of the Invention

[0002] The instant invention relates to the conduction of electric power and particularly to the manufacturing of a superconducting power cable of at least one phase, characterized by a central core based on a superconducting tape material BSCCO of 22233 (Bi2 Sr2 Ca2 Cu3 Ox) commercial composition giving a minimum current density of 7 KA/cm2 under the criteria of 1 μV/cm. It also includes an annular space of thermal insulation system wherein the corrugated casing of the system presents a vacuum pressure below 10 mPa (milliPascals) permitting the thermal insulation to maintain operating temperatures of 77° K. (temperature of liquid nitrogen under atmospheric pressure) throughout the cross section of the cable in its superconducting part.

[0003] 2. Previous Art

[0004] The invention relates to the transportation of electric power in superconducting conditions, zero resistance in direct current. This invention replaces the use of power cables for distribution and transmission in voltages from 15 kV upwards because it presents lower conduction losses. High temperature superconductors can be important aspects of technological advances, because equipment and devices could have superconducting parts in their components. An obvious application in superconducting state is the use of zero resistance properties to the passage of direct current and low power losses in the electricity transmission. In the present transmission lines, electric power is lost through heat when the current passes through normal conductors. If electricity is transmitted through superconducting cables, said losses can be reduced or eliminated with the subsequent savings in the energy costs. This can be applied to any electric component having cooper leads, for examples, motors, transformers, generators and any equipment involved with electric power.

[0005] Some US and Japanese companies have manufactured and evaluated superconducting cable models of up to 5000 cm obtaining current values not exceeding 1700 A to 2000 A. Tests conducted in 5000 cm long segments have shown problems related to current distribution among layers. Said distribution tends to be irregular because of electromagnetic problems related to the lead itself.

[0006] Patent WO 00/39813 describes a superconducting cable using high temperature superconducting materials HTS with flexible core. However it applies to a traditional coaxial design with insulated HTS tape layers and cold design.

[0007] Japanese Patent 06239937 A2 describes a superconducting cable with HTS materials and flexible core but involving a traditional DC (direct current) design and insulation between each HTS tape layer.

[0008] U.S. Pat. No. 5,929,385 describes a superconducting cable similar to the object of the instant invention but only as far as the type of materials used is concerned. U.S. Pat. No. 5,952,614 also describes a superconducting cable similar as far as the use of HTS materials and flexible core are concerned but with a coaxial design, in cold conditions and with HTS tape traditional design. For these reasons, said inventions are different from the characteristics of the instant invention.

DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0009] Hereinafter the invention will be described in connection with the drawings of FIGS. 1 to 6, wherein:

[0010] FIG. 1 is a perspective view with cross section showing the different layers of the superconducting power cable.

[0011] FIG. 2 is a cross section view of FIG. 1.

[0012] FIG. 3 is a perspective view with cross section of the vacuum section of the central core thermal protection.

[0013] FIG. 4 is a perspective view with cross section of FIG. 3 showing the opposite wall of the thermal insulation.

[0014] FIG. 5 is a perspective view with cross section of the superconducting power cable core.

[0015] FIG. 6 is a perspective view with longitudinal cross section of FIG. 1, showing the annular space of thermal insulation.

[0016] The invention is related to the transportation of electricity in superconducting conditions, (zero resistance in direct current). This invention replaces the use of power cables for distribution and transmission in voltages of 15 kV or more because it presents lower conduction power losses, considering that for a Cu lead with a current density of 1-4 A/mm2 and a resistivity of 2×10−8 Ωm, the transmission losses are on the order of 20-80 mW/Am. To better compare with superconducting cables, losses caused by the heating of superconducting materials have to be taken into account. At cryogenic temperatures, said losses are defined by a Carnot factor divided between the efficiency of the cooling system. In the case of liquid nitrogen, this factor is between 10 and 20. Thus, in a superconductor losses will be lower than 5 mW/Am. The flow of liquid nitrogen fills the longitudinal cavity 21, FIG. 5, of the flexible corrugated pipe 1 of 304 or 316 stainless steel. Said pipe can have an external diameter between 2 cm and 6 cm and an internal diameter between 1 cm and 4 cm wherein the depth of the corrugation can vary between 0.5 cm and 1 cm. The corrugation pitch can be between 0.8 and 1.5 cm for a corrugation depth between 0.4 and 0.5 cm. As another alternative for a depth between 0.4 and 0.6 cm, the corrugation pitch can be between 1.6 and 3 cm. On this pipe, a 304 or 316 stainless steel mesh is placed in order to obtain a relatively flat surface. On this mesh a stainless steel tape layer 2 is placed, between 4 and 5 cm wide and between 0.0005 and 0.006 thick. They are placed on the corrugated pipe with spacing between 0.15 and 0.2 cm. Then one or two additional stainless steel tapes, 2.5 to 4 cm wide and 0.001 to 0.002 cm thick, are placed with spacing between the tapes of 0.1 to 0.15 cm. After, a fist layer of Cu tapes 3 is placed, from 0.25 to 0.40 cm wide and from 0.025 to 0.030 cm thick, with a cabling length between 2 cm and 100 cm depending on the design of the first layer of superconducting tapes to be applied. Said layer of Cu tapes can be laid at an angle ranging from 0° to 45° depending on the cable design. The superconducting material to be used is made of tapes of a 22233 (Bi2 SR2 Ca2 CU3 Ox) composition commercial product BSCCO. Said tapes range in width between 0.38 and 0.42 cm and in thickness between 0.018 and 0.022 cm, which gives a minimum current density of 7 kAcm2 under the criteria of 1 μV/cm, (microvolt/centimeter) . With this superconducting material, two or more layers of tapes are laid with a cabling lay length between 20 cm and 300 cm, at an angle ranging from 0° to 45° depending on the design of each layer with a direction that can be right or left 4, 5, 6. And two or more layers of superconducting material tape with a lay length between 20 cm and 300 cm with an angle ranging from 0° to 45° depending on the design of each layer with a direction that can be right or left with regard to the cabling, in the opposite direction of the previously placed layers 7, 8, 9. Finally, a wrapping tape made of insulating material 10, with a thickness ranging between 0.005 and 0.01 cm and a width ranging between 2 and 4 cm is laid.

[0017] In order to protect the central core, the superconducting power cable object of the instant invention is also characterized because it includes a vacuum thermal insulation system consisting of a flexible corrugated pipe 11 made of 304 or 316 stainless steel, to hold the superconducting cable and liquid nitrogen. Said pipe can have an external diameter ranging between 4 cm and 8 cm and an internal diameter ranging between 3 cm and 7 cm, the corrugation depth varying between 0.5 cm and 1 cm. The corrugation pitch can vary between 1 cm and 2 cm for a corrugation depth between 0.5 and 0.8 cm. Then, on the periphery of this pipe, a multi layer thermal insulation (ρa) 12 is applied, which can have a thickness ranging between 0.0005 cm and 0.005 cm which is calculated according to the following formula:

ρa=(Ssrtr)(N/Δx)

[0018] wherein: 1

ρaThickness of the insulating layer
SsMass of the material per area unit
ρrInsulating material density
trThickness of the anti-radiation casing
N/ΔxLayer density

[0019] Concentrically around the flexible corrugated pipe 11, covered with the insulating material 12, a second corrugated pipe 13 is placed, creating the vacuum thermal insulation space 20, FIG. 6.

[0020] To ensure the adequate functioning of the thermal insulation system at a temperature of 77° K., a vacuum pressure below 10 mPa (milliPascals) is required.

[0021] Said second corrugated pipe 13, which creates the vacuum space, is made of 304 or 316 stainless steel which can have and external diameter ranging between 8 cm and 10 cm and an internal diameter ranging between 6 and 7 cm, wherein the depth of the corrugations may vary between 0.5 cm and 1.5 cm. The corrugation pitch can be between 1 and 2 cm for a corrugation depth between 0.5 and 1 cm.

[0022] The thermal insulation system includes also on the external wall of the corrugated pipe 13, a braided stainless steel mesh 14, FIGS. 1 and 3, offering a uniform surface to the external wall structure of the helical or spiral shaped corrugated pipe.

[0023] Around the uniform mesh surface 14, an internal semiconducting shield 15 is applied, which is made of low density thermoplastic polyethylene or any other thermoplastic or thermosetting semiconducting material. The conductivity of said shield should not exceed 1000 Ω m when it is measured at room temperature, said shield having a thickness of at least 0.006 cm. On this semiconducting shield the electric insulation of the cable 16 is placed. Said electric insulation is based on low, medium or high density, thermoplastic or thermosetting or crossed chain polyethylene and/o Ethylene Propylene (EP), the thickness of the insulation being between 0.229 cm and 0.876 cm depending on the operation voltage level of the cable. On this electric insulation, a second semiconducting shield 17 made of the same materials as the internal semiconducting shield 15 is placed, FIG. 4. However, in this case, the thickness of the shield must be at least 0.0127 cm and has to fulfill a maximum volume resistivity of 500 Ω m when measured at room temperature. On this layer, a metal shield made of Cu tape 18 is placed, which must be at least 0.0635 cm thick, having a cross section area of at least 0.1 mm2/mm. On this metal shield 18, a protective casing 19 is placed, possibly made of polyethylene or polyvinyl chloride (PVC) depending on the application of cable, said casing having a thickness ranging between 0.203 and 0.279 cm.

[0024] According to the technical requirements, the basic superconductor design parameters used were as follows:

[0025] Tape Width (cm): 0.4±0.02

[0026] Tape Thickness (cm): 0.02±0.002

[0027] Critical current Density (kA/cm2)>7 (criterion of 1 μV/cm)

[0028] Filamentary section thickness inside the tape 2bsc (cm): 0.018

[0029] Critical current in the bending deformation voltage value: 0.1%—not below 95% or 0.2%—not below 90%.

[0030] About 20% reduction in the critical current when the field is between 0T and 0.1T.

[0031] The basic equations to compute the number of superconducting tapes and the design parameters are as follows:

[0032] Number of tapes per layer (Ni) 1Ni=π xDiox COS β i2ai(1+Si)embedded image

[0033] wherein:

[0034] Dio=average diameter of the i layer

[0035] 2ai=Tape Width of the i layer

[0036] Si=Relative space between the tapes of the i layer

[0037] βi=Laying angle of the superconducting tapes

[0038] Lay of the tapes in a layer (Pi) 2Pi=π xDiotan β iembedded image

[0039] Relative spacing between the tapes of a layer: (Si) 3Si=π xDiox Cos β i2aixNiembedded image

[0040] Relative deformation voltage εi regarding the superconductor in bending conditions of the tapes is:

εi=2bscx senβ/Dio

[0041] The model base of the superconducting high temperature cable has been developed, which consists of the design of the superconducting core itself, as well as the development of insulation based on known and previously developed materials for use in medium and high voltage power cables.

EXAMPLE 1

[0042] Under the design conditions, the superconducting tape VAC (Germany) was chosen. Said tape presents a critical current of 59.8 A to 64.7 A depending on the combination of thickness and width of the superconducting tape. Based on these variations, the criteria of linearity of the critical current density used for the cable optimization and calculation is not very congruent, and thus a value of the critical current density in the external magnetic field equals to cero is accepted as 113 A/cm for cable calculations. Taking into account said variations, the followings values were taken as parameters for the calculation.

[0043] External Diameter of the core Dfe=5.5 cm;

[0044] Tape thickness 2bt=0.002 cm;

[0045] Filament section thickness inside the tape 2bsc=0.018 cm;

[0046] Relative space between each tape in each layer S=0.05.

[0047] The minimum lay of the tapes (maximum angle of tape laying) is selected based on the limitations imposed by the deformation voltage threshold with regard to bending, for a superconductor when the tapes in one layer are bent on a diameter D1 and the tape laying angle βi is at a maximum permissible value (ε<0.2%, wherein ε=2sc cos βi/D1) . The critical current of the cable is expected to be between 6 kA and 10 kA, under the criteria of 1 μV/cm and the approximate values of the magnetic field induction on the surface of the sixth layer being between 0.04 T and 0.07 T. For this reason for every 0.001 T increase, the critical current reduction of the tape is expected to be 2% its initial value.

[0048] The influence of the deformation voltage on the superconductor with regard to the value of the tape critical current during the manufacturing of cable is described in the comments on Table No. 1. 2

TABLE NO. 1
Expected manufacturing results
(2a = 0.38 cm, 2bsc = 0.018 cm)
LayerDiIcImaxi
Num-BendingεTapeIciREALSi
berMm%NiAAIci/IcoAReal
113.320.1354042.221688.80.16671672.30.0377
217.520.1034241.541744.70.17221727.60.0399
342.030.0434440.851797.40.17711779.80.0446
451.720.0354540.171807.70.17841790.00.0325
515.820.1144239.491658.60.16371642.30.0457
69.970.1813738.801435.60.14171435.60.0484
Σ10132.8110047.6

[0049] According to the above table, it can be seen that the current value depends on the maximum deformation voltage if and only if it does not exceed the deformation value of 0.2% which is the critical value of the current. From the results obtained in the above table, we observe that there is uniform current distribution in every layer, which gives a current distribution factor Ici/Ico=1 and a real maximum critical current value of IMAX REAL=10047 A.

EXAMPLE 2

[0050] However, in Table No. 2, the optimization results of the cable are presented as the criteria to reach the peak critical current value and the minimization of the energy losses under the influence of the flow and axial magnetic field. 3

TABLE NO. 2
Optimization Results
Tape
LayerDilaying
Num-Exteriordirec-JctβiPfIcalc
berCmtionA/cmdegreescmIi/IoJi
15.554L/1111.1124.637.890.16711.0000
25.588L/1109.3118.651.960.17160.9938
35.632L/1107.517.70130.350.17650.9859
45.676R/−1105.716.30160.890.17690.9941
55.720R/−1103.9121.246.150.16480.9967
65.764R/−1102.1135.325.480.14310.9985
Σ5.7641.00000.9948

Maximum current reached IMAX=10028.5

Total sum of the utilization coefficient in the six layers

KMAXJ1=5.96689

[0051] And according to the above mentioned criteria, current distribution is uniform in all the cable layers, and the losses caused by the axial magnetic field are minimized.

[0052] Wherein:

[0053] Di exterior=external diameter of the i layer

[0054] Jci=Density of the lineal critical current for the tapes of the i layer

[0055] βi=Tape laying angle for the tapes of the i layer

[0056] Pi=Tape lay for the tapes of the i layer

[0057] Ni=Number of tapes in the i layer

[0058] Ici=Total critical current of all the tapes in the i layer (current i layer) versus the total number of tapes (sum of the critical currents of all the tapes) in the model.

[0059] Icalc=Ii/Io Current distribution in the i layer of the total current.

[0060] N1/No=Ici/Ico=Number of tapes in the i layer (critical current in the i layer) versus the total number of tapes (sum of the critical currents of all the tapes) in the model.

[0061] ImaxREAL=Real value of the current peak in the i layer when the current reaches its critical value in at least one of the layers.

[0062] Ji=Superconductor utilization coefficient in the i layer.