Title:
Methods of making manufactured housing or modular homes
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
Methods of making manufactured housing and modular homes are disclosed. The present methods of making manufactured housing and modular homes eliminate problems encountered during the manufacture of a manufactured house or modular home, as well as, post-manufacturing problems with transporting the manufactured house or modular home.



Inventors:
Phillips, Jerry S. (Marietta, GA, US)
Bean, Wayne (Marietta, GA, US)
Donald Jr., Sigler H. (Kalispell, MT, US)
Application Number:
10/279081
Publication Date:
01/08/2004
Filing Date:
10/23/2002
Assignee:
PHILLIPS JERRY S.
BEAN WAYNE
SIGLER DONALD H.
Primary Class:
International Classes:
E04B1/343; E04F13/02; E04F13/04; (IPC1-7): E04B1/00; E04G23/00
View Patent Images:
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Primary Examiner:
KATCHEVES, BASIL S
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
JERRY PHILLIPS (MARIETTA, GA, US)
Claims:

What is claimed is:



1. A method of making a manufactured house or modular home, wherein the method comprises: forming a wall or a ceiling comprising a plurality of sheets of building material with seams between adjacent sheets of building material; and applying a coating of an elastomeric material over the seams and at least a portion of each sheet of building material adjacent to the seams, wherein the elastomeric material comprises one or more polyureas, polyurethanes, epoxies, polyurethane-polyurea hybrids, or a combination thereof.

2. The method of claim 1, wherein the elastomeric material comprises polyurea.

3. The method of claim 1, wherein the building material comprises sheetrock, foam, plywood, oriented strand board, or a combination thereof.

4. The method of claim 1, wherein the elastomeric material comprises one or more aromatic polyureas, the building material comprises sheetrock, and the coating is applied onto an interior wall or a ceiling of the manufactured house or modular home.

5. The method of claim 1, wherein the elastomeric material comprises one or more aromatic polyureas, the building material comprises oriented strand board, and the coating is applied onto an exterior wall of the manufactured house or modular home.

6. The method of claim 1, further comprising: applying at least one additional coating over the elastomeric material to form a uniform, continuous coating.

7. The method of claim 6, wherein the at least one additional coating comprises a popcorn finish, paint, wallpaper, or a synthetic stucco.

8. The method of claim 6, wherein at least one of the elastomeric coating and the additional coating contains foam beads, blowing agents, ceramics, sand, glass, fibers, calcium carbonate, coal, granite, silica, clay, talc, mica, pigments, flame retardants, multicolored quartz, sea shells, recycled products, or fiberglass.

9. The method of claim 2, wherein the polyurea is formed by reacting (A) one or more polyether diamines and polyether triamines with (B) one or more isocyanates.

10. The method of claim 2, wherein the polyurea is formed by reacting one or more polyether diamines and polyether triamines, one or more diethyltoluenediamines, and N,N′-di-sec-butyl-4,4′-methylene dianiline with one or more isocyanates.

11. The method of claim 10, wherein the one or more polyether diamines and polyether triamines comprise at least one of 12embedded image wherein w is equal to about 33.1, and at least one of 13embedded image wherein (x+y+z) is equal to about 81.

12. The method of claim 1, wherein the coating is applied using a low-pressure spray apparatus having a pump pressure of up to about 200 psi and an air spray pressure of up to about 20 psi, wherein the low-pressure spray apparatus minimizes overspray.

13. The method of claim 1, further comprising the step of: applying a seam filler material over the seams prior to applying the coating of elastomeric material.

14. The method of claim 13, wherein the seam filler material is applied using a low-pressure spray apparatus having a pump pressure of up to about 200 psi in combination with a floating extrusion head, wherein the seam filler material is extruded into the seam.

15. The method of claim 14, wherein the seam filler material comprises a polyurea or epoxy material, and the coating of elastomeric material comprises a polyurea.

16. The method of claim 1, further comprising the step of: attaching one or more architectural moldings to the wall prior to applying the elastomeric material, wherein the elastomeric material overcoats any exposed seams, at least a portion of the wall, and the architectural moldings.

17. The method of claim 1, further comprising the step of: attaching one or more finished architectural moldings to the wall after applying the elastomeric material, wherein the finished architectural moldings comprise a foam substrate coated with a polyurea.

18. The method of claim 1, further comprising the step of: attaching a roof truss structure to the layer of building material over the elastomeric material and uncoated areas on the sheets of building material.

19. A manufactured house or modular home produced by the method of claim 1.

20. A manufactured house or modular home comprising: a wall or ceiling comprises (1) a plurality of sheets of building material, and (2) seams between adjacent sheets of building material; and a coating of an elastomeric material over the seams and at least a portion of each sheet of building material adjacent to the seams, wherein the elastomeric material comprises one or more polyureas, polyurethanes, epoxies, polyurethane-polyurea hybrids, or a combination thereof.

21. The manufactured house or modular home of claim 20, wherein the elastomeric material comprises polyurea.

22. The manufactured house or modular home of claim 20, wherein the building material comprises sheetrock, foam, plywood, oriented strand board, or a combination thereof.

23. The manufactured house or modular home of claim 20, wherein the elastomeric material comprises one or more aromatic polyureas, the building material comprises sheetrock, and the coating is applied onto an interior wall or a ceiling of the manufactured house or modular home.

24. The manufactured house or modular home of claim 20, wherein the elastomeric material comprises one or more aromatic polyureas, the building material comprises oriented strand board, and the coating is applied onto an exterior wall of the manufactured house or modular home.

25. The manufactured house or modular home of claim 20, further comprising: at least one additional coating over the elastomeric material to form a uniform, continuous coating, wherein the at least one additional coating comprises a popcorn finish, paint, wallpaper, or a synthetic stucco.

26. The manufactured house or modular home of claim 25, wherein at least one of the elastomeric coating and the additional coating contains foam beads, blowing agents, ceramics, sand, glass, fibers, calcium carbonate, coal, granite, silica, clay, talc, mica, pigments, flame retardants, multicolored quartz, sea shells, recycled products, or fiberglass.

27. The manufactured house or modular home of claim 21, wherein the polyurea is formed by reacting one or more polyether diamines and polyether triamines, one or more diethyltoluenediamines, and N,N′-di-sec-butyl-4,4′-methylene dianiline with one or more isocyanates, wherein the one or more polyether diamines and polyether triamines comprise at least one of 14embedded image wherein w is equal to about 33.1, and at least one of 15embedded image wherein (x+y+z) is equal to about 81.

28. The manufactured house or modular home of claim 20, further comprising: a seam filler material over the seams prior to applying the coating of elastomeric material.

29. The manufactured house or modular home of claim 28, wherein the seam filler material comprises a polyurea or epoxy material, and the coating of elastomeric material comprises a polyurea.

30. The manufactured house or modular home of claim 20, further comprising: one or more architectural moldings attached to the wall prior to applying the elastomeric material, wherein the elastomeric material overcoats any exposed seams, at least a portion of the wall, and the architectural moldings.

31. The manufactured house or modular home of claim 20, further comprising: one or more finished architectural moldings attached to the wall after applying the elastomeric material, wherein the finished architectural moldings comprise a foam substrate coated with a polyurea.

32. A method of making a manufactured house or modular home, wherein the method comprises: forming a wall or a ceiling comprising a plurality of sheets of building material with seams between adjacent sheets of building material; applying a seam filler material over the seams and at least a portion of each sheet of building material adjacent to the seams, wherein the seam filler material comprises a filled polyurea or a filled epoxy; applying a coating of an elastomeric material over the seam filler material and at least a portion of each sheet of building material, wherein the elastomeric material comprises a polyurea; and applying at least one additional coating over the elastomeric material to form a uniform, continuous coating, wherein the at least one additional coating comprises paint.

Description:

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] The present invention claims the benefit of priority to U.S. provisional patent application 60/344,582 filed on Oct. 23, 2001, and U.S. provisional patent application 60/370,971 filed on Apr. 08, 2002.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

[0002] The present invention is directed to methods of making manufactured housing and/or modular homes. The present invention is also directed to manufactured housing and/or modular homes having improved structural integrity.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0003] The production and use of manufactured housing and/or modular homes in the United States has steadily increased over the past 30 years. Manufactured housing and modular home manufacturers are continuously looking to improve the quality of the manufactured housing or modular home produced, as well as, minimize the cost of production. In order to minimize the cost of production, manufactured housing and/or modular homes are mass-produced at a given location, assembled to a substantially complete stage, and subsequently transported to a sales location or a residential location.

[0004] As the demand for manufactured housing and/or modular homes has increased, the demand for aesthetically pleasing features has also increased. In today's manufactured housing and modular homes, interior walls and ceilings are prepared similarly to the process used in non-mobile (i.e., stationary) homes, namely a process comprising (1) assembling sheetrock over the wall and ceiling surfaces; (2) applying tape and “mud” (a plaster-like material commonly used in manufacturing of homes) over the seams and any other blemish in the wall or ceiling surface to form a smooth surface; and (3) then applying a finishing material (i.e., paint, wallpaper, etc.) over the smooth surface. Typically, interior walls are painted or wallpapered, and interior ceilings are finished with a painted or textured finish, referred to herein as a “popcorn” finish. (The “popcorn” finish typically comprises a plaster-like material with foam beads dispersed within the plaster-like material.) In order to minimize costs, interior painting and ceiling preparation are performed at the manufacturing site as opposed to the sales location or residential location. In this manner, the interior finishing of manufactured housing or modular home can be done in mass production at a single location, as opposed to discrete finishing work at multiple locations.

[0005] One problem that exists in the manufacturing process of manufactured housing and/or modular homes today is the problem of cracking and/or separation of surface finishes (i.e., paint, wallpaper, and “popcorn” finish) from the interior walls and ceiling of the manufactured housing and/or modular home during transportation of the manufactured housing and/or modular home from the manufacturing location to the sales location and/or residential location. Due to the inability of the finishing material to absorb vibrations during transportation, the finishing material cracks and/or separates from the interior wall and/or ceiling of the manufactured housing and/or modular home, especially at seam locations between adjacent sheets of sheetrock (i.e., gypsum board), which form the interior walls and/or ceiling. Although this problem exists, manufacturers continue to mass-produce and finish the interior of manufactured housing and/or modular homes at a manufacturing location. When cracking and separation of the finishing materials occurs during transportation, the manufacturer has to send a craftsman to the sales and/or residential location to repair the damage to the interior walls and/or ceiling of the manufactured housing and/or modular home to satisfy the customer.

[0006] Further, in the manufacture of manufactured housing and modular homes, the ceiling is manufactured in a single operation, which comprises the following steps: (1) positioning a plurality of sheets of sheetrock on a surface to form a layer of sheetrock having a total surface area substantially equal to the square footage of the manufactured housing and/or modular home (e.g., 14 ft×76 ft); (2) forming an integral structure of approximately 40 roof trusses positioned parallel to one another and having a total width and length substantially equal to the layer of sheetrock (e.g., about 14 ft×76 ft); (3) lowering the truss structure onto the layer of sheetrock; and (4) adhesively attaching the truss structure to the layer of sheetrock by applying a foam adhesive along the edges of the wooden boards of the truss structure, which are in contact with the layer of sheetrock. This conventional method of forming the ceiling structure of a manufactured housing or modular home has a number of shortcomings including, but not limited to, the problem of foam adhesive seeping through the seams between adjacent sheets of sheetrock.

[0007] What is needed in the art is a method of making a manufactured house or modular home so as to minimize or eliminate the need for repairs and/or finishing work following transportation of the manufactured house or modular home to a sales location or a residential location. Further, what is needed in the art is a method of finishing the interior walls, exterior walls or ceiling of a manufactured house or modular home so as to minimize or eliminate the problem of cracking and/or separation of the interior finishes during transportation of the substantially finished manufactured house or modular home. What is also needed in the art is a method of making a ceiling structure of a manufactured house and/or modular home to eliminate the problem of foam adhesive seeping through the seams between adjacent sheets of sheetrock.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0008] The present invention addresses some of the difficulties and problems discussed above by the discovery of novel methods of making manufactured housing (e.g., mobile homes) and modular homes. The methods of making manufactured housing and/or modular homes of the present invention (i) minimize or eliminate one or more of the above-mentioned problems associated with conventional manufactured housing and/or modular home manufacturing techniques, and/or (ii) provide aesthetically-pleasing characteristics to the manufactured house or modular home, such as a synthetic stucco-like exterior finish.

[0009] The methods of making manufactured housing or modular homes of the present invention comprise applying at least one elastomeric coating on a surface of the manufactured housing or modular home. Suitable surfaces include, but are not limited to, interior walls, ceilings, exterior surfaces or walls (e.g., surfaces or walls exposed to the environment), and combinations thereof. In one desired embodiment of the present invention, the elastomeric coating comprises a polyurea.

[0010] One exemplary method of the present invention comprises applying a coating of an elastomeric material over (1) the seams located between adjacent sheets of building material (e.g., sheetrock or oriented strand board), which form an interior wall, exterior wall or ceiling of the home, and (2) at least a portion of each sheet of building material adjacent to the seam. In one embodiment of the present invention, the coating of an elastomeric material is applied over the entire surface area of each sheet of building material. The elastomeric coating absorbs vibration and other stresses on the layer of building material due to the elongation capabilities of the coating material. Finishing materials applied over the building material (and the elastomeric coating) experience less vibration and/or stress forces. The method minimizes or eliminates cracking and/or separation of finishing materials from the interior walls, exterior walls or ceiling of the manufactured house and/or modular home during transportation of the manufactured house and/or modular home.

[0011] Another exemplary method of the present invention comprises filling and/or coating the seams between adjacent sheets of building material (e.g., sheetrock or oriented strand board) with a first material to form a first coating over the seams, and then applying at least one additional coating over (1) the first coating of first material, and (2) at least a portion of each sheet of building material adjacent to the first material. In one embodiment, the additional coating comprises a standard popcorn finish or paint. In another embodiment, the additional coating comprises an elastomeric coating. In these embodiments, the additional coating may be applied over the entire surface of each sheet of building material. This method also minimizes or eliminates cracking and/or separation of finishing materials from the interior walls, exterior walls or ceiling of the manufactured house and/or modular home during transportation of the manufactured house and/or modular home.

[0012] In a further method of the present invention, a ceiling structure is formed by a method comprising: (1) positioning a plurality of sheets of sheetrock on a surface to form a layer of sheetrock having a total surface area, which may be substantially equal to the square footage of the manufactured house or modular home; (2) applying a coating of an elastomeric material over the seams between adjacent sheets of sheetrock in the layer of sheetrock; (3) forming an integral structure of roof trusses positioned parallel to one another and having a total width and length substantially equal to the layer of sheetrock; (4) lowering the truss structure onto the layer of sheetrock, portions of which are coated with elastomeric material; and (5) adhesively attaching the truss structure to the layer of sheetrock. The truss structure may be adhesively attached to the layer of sheetrock by applying a foam adhesive along the edges of the wooden boards of the truss structure, which are in contact with the layer of sheetrock. In this method, the coating of elastomeric material prevents the adhesive from seeping through the seams between adjacent sheets of sheetrock.

[0013] The present invention is also directed to an exemplary manufactured housing and modular home having an interior wall, exterior wall, and/or ceiling comprising (1) a plurality of sheets of building material and seams between adjacent sheets of building material, wherein each sheet of building material has a rear surface and a front or finishing surface, and (2) at least one coating material covering the seams between adjacent sheets of building material and at least a portion of the front surface of each sheet of building material. The interior wall, exterior wall, and/or ceiling of the manufactured housing or modular home may comprise one or more of the following coatings over the seams: a seam filler material, an elastomeric coating, and a standard finishing material, such as paint or popcorn finish. Each coating may cover (1) the seams and a portion of the front surface of each sheet of building material, (2) the seams and the entire front surface of each sheet of building material, or (3) any interior coatings and any uncoated portions of the front surface of each sheet of building material.

[0014] The present invention is further directed to an exemplary manufactured housing and/or modular home having a ceiling structure comprising: (1) a plurality of sheets of sheetrock and seams between adjacent sheets of sheetrock, wherein each sheet of sheetrock has a rear surface and a front or finishing surface, (2) a coating of elastomeric material covering the seams between adjacent sheets of sheetrock and at least a portion of the rear surface of each sheet of sheetrock; (3) an integral structure of roof trusses positioned parallel to one another and having a total width and length substantially equal to the layer of sheetrock, wherein the integral structure is in contact with the rear surface of the sheets of sheetrock; and (4) an adhesive for attaching the integral structure to the layer of sheetrock.

[0015] These and other features and advantages of the present invention will become apparent after a review of the following detailed description of the disclosed embodiments and the appended claims.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0016] The present invention is further described with reference to the appended figures, wherein:

[0017] FIG. 1 is a cross-sectional view of an exemplary structure used to form an interior wall or a ceiling in the manufactured housing and/or modular home of the present invention;

[0018] FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view of an exemplary structure used to form an interior wall or a ceiling in the manufactured housing and/or modular home of the present invention;

[0019] FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view of an exemplary structure used to form an interior wall or a ceiling in the manufactured housing and/or modular home of the present invention; and

[0020] FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view of an exemplary structure used to form the roof and ceiling of the manufactured housing and/or modular home of the present invention; and

[0021] FIG. 5 is a frontal view of an exterior surface of a house, such as a manufactured house or modular home, having a synthetic stucco-like finish and various window, door and wall treatments.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0022] The present invention provides novel methods of making manufactured housing and modular homes in order to minimize or eliminate the need for repairs and/or finishing work following transportation of the manufactured housing and/or modular home to a sales location and/or a residential location. The disclosed methods of the present invention minimize or eliminate cracks in the interior wall, exterior wall, and/or ceiling finishing materials used to create an aesthetically pleasing look. The resulting manufactured housing and modular homes may be transported from a manufacturing location to a sales or residential location without damage to the interior or exterior finishes. Further, the manufacturing methods eliminate the added cost of having to repair cracks in and/or separation of the finishing materials from the interior surfaces (i.e., wall and/or ceiling) and/or the exterior surfaces (e.g., synthetic stucco) of the manufactured house and/or the modular home.

[0023] Method of Reinforcing the Interior Seams of a Manufactured House or Modular Home

[0024] One exemplary method of the present invention comprises applying a coating of an elastomeric material over (1) the seams located between adjacent sheets of sheetrock, which form an interior wall or ceiling of a manufactured house or modular home, and (2) at least a portion of each sheet of sheetrock adjacent to the seam. The elastomeric coating forms a continuous coating, which bridges adjacent sheets of sheetrock to one another, and absorbs vibrational stress and other stresses on the sheets of sheetrock (and any finishing materials applied to the sheets of sheetrock), especially during transportation of the manufactured house and/or modular home. FIG. 1 depicts such a coating.

[0025] As shown in FIG. 1, an interior wall or ceiling assembly 10 comprises adjacent sheets of sheetrock 11 having a seam 12 between the adjacent sheets of sheetrock 11. Each sheet of sheetrock has a rear surface 13 and a front or finishing surface 14. Rear surface 13 is attached to the framing of the manufactured house and/or modular home (not shown) by one or more attachment means (not shown). Suitable attachment means include, but are not limited to, adhesives, tapes, nails, screws, etc. Typically, the frame of the manufactured house or modular home comprises wood boards or metal framing. In one embodiment of the present invention, elastomeric coating material 15 is applied to cover (1) at least a portion of each sheet of sheetrock 11 on front or finishing surface 14 and (2) seam 12 between the adjacent sheets of sheetrock 11. A finishing coating 16, such as paint, wallpaper, popcorn finish, etc. may be applied onto the sheetrock to form a smooth outer finishing layer over the sheets of sheetrock 11 and the elastomeric coating 15. In a further embodiment (not shown), elastomeric coating material 15 is applied to cover (1) all of the outer surface of each sheet of sheetrock 11 on front or finishing surface 14 and (2) seam 12 between the adjacent sheets of sheetrock 11. In this embodiment, elastomeric coating material 15 may represent the finishing coating, as described below, without the need for any additional coating(s) over elastomeric coating material 15.

[0026] The elastomeric coating 15 may be any material, which provides the above-described benefits (i.e., the ability to absorb vibration and other stresses on the sheetrock and/or the ability to elongate) in the manufacturing process and the resulting manufactured house or modular home. Suitable elastomeric coating materials include, but are not limited to, aromatic or aliphatic polyureas, polyurethanes, epoxies, polyurethane-polyurea hybrids, or other similar polymers. As used herein, the term “aromatic” is used to describe materials having at least one benzene ring, such as monocyclic, bicyclic and polycyclic hydrocarbons and their derivatives (as benzene, toluene, etc.) and in relation to some unsaturated heterocyclic compounds. As used herein, the term “aliphatic” is used to describe organic materials having an open chain structure and consisting of paraffin, olefin, acetylene hydrocarbons, and their derivatives.

[0027] Desirably, the elastomeric coating material is an aromatic or aliphatic polyurea. Polyureas are typically supplied in monomer form as two separate solutions. One solution is an isocyanate-containing solution and the other solution is a polyamine solution. The resulting polymer after mixing the two components is a polyurea. The general reaction is shown as follows: 1embedded image

[0028] Another desired elastomeric coating material is polyurethane, which is supplied as two separate components, an isocyanate-containing solution and a polyether or polyester polyol solution. The two solutions are mixed immediately before application to a sheet of sheetrock or other substrate. The polyurethane system requires the use of a catalyst such as an organotin catalyst, i.e., dibutyl tin dilaurate. The general reaction for the production of a polyurethane polymer is as follows: 2embedded image

[0029] The elastomeric coating material 15 may be applied onto the sheets of sheetrock (or other substrate) using any conventional coating technique including, but not limited to, spray coating, trowelling, and painting, with or without a mixing step, such as static mixing. When the elastomeric coating material 15 is a polyurea, a spray coating method is desired. For the application of polyurea to the sheets of sheetrock, a polyether polyamine solution is mixed with the isocyanate-containing solution immediately before the application of the elastomeric mixture. The mixing of the two components is typically done in a spray gun and the mixture is sprayed onto the sheets of sheetrock. Polyurea is the desired coating because the formation of the polymer does not require a catalyst and the reaction is relatively temperature insensitive, as well as, relatively insensitive to water. Also, since polyurea has no volatile organic compounds (VOC's) the utilization of polyurea does not cause any EPA problems for the applicator.

[0030] In one desired embodiment of the present invention, an elastomeric coating is applied over (1) the seams located between adjacent sheets of sheetrock, and (2) at least a portion of each sheet of sheetrock adjacent to the seam, wherein the method of applying the elastomeric coating substantially eliminates overspray of the elastomeric coating during application. As used herein, the term “overspray” refers to elastomeric coating, which becomes airborne during a spraying process and ultimately coats or covers surfaces other than the intended coating surface. Typically, overspray results from applying a coating material at such a high pressure (i.e., 1000 to 2000 psi) that the coating material hits an intended target and “bounces” off the intended target. To eliminate or minimize overspray in the present invention, a low-pressure spray apparatus may be used to apply the elastomeric coating. The low-pressure spray apparatus desirably pumps the elastomeric material from one or more reservoir tanks (typically, two separate reservoir tanks for spraying two-component coatings, such as polyureas) to a spray nozzle at a fluid pressure of less than about 200 pounds per square inch (psi), more desirably, at a fluid pressure of from about 100 to about 200 psi, even more desirably, at a fluid pressure of about 120 psi.

[0031] One exemplary low-pressure spray apparatus suitable for use in the present invention is the PCH GMP-075 Spray Apparatus available from Adhesive Systems Technology Corporation (New Hope, Minn.). The 075 Spray apparatus provides one or more of the following features and benefits: portability; reliable rugged design; ease of operation and maintenance; stainless steel construction; changeable ratios for a dual tank system; 8.5 gallon stainless steel tanks (2); ¾ horsepower DC drive motor; adjustable spray pattern; electric/pneumatic power; ability to pump non-abrasive materials; a GMP metering pump (“GMP” refers to gear metering pump); a continuous flow of up to about 0.8 gallons per minute (gpm); a fluid pressure of up to 750 psi; ability to pump fluids having a viscosity of up to 10,000 cps; fixed ratios of components A to B ranging from about 1:1 to about 4:1 (i.e., the ratio of A to B may be adjusted using a gear system from a 1:1 ratio to a 4:1 ratio); and a variable flow rate. The low-pressure spray apparatus may also comprise heating elements to heat one or more of the stainless steel tanks containing components used to form the elastomeric coating. Typically, one or more components used to form the elastomeric coating are applied at room temperature or up to about 160° F., and in some cases at a temperature ranging from about 100° F. to about 160° F.

[0032] The 075 Spray Apparatus is particularly useful in applying an elastomeric coating comprising a polyurea. As component A and component B are pumped from their respective stainless steel tanks at low pressure (i.e., less than 200 psi), components A and B intermix as the materials proceed through a static mixer positioned on a spray gun nozzle. As the mixed elastomeric coating exits the static mixer, air is introduced into the mixture at an air pressure of about 10 to about 20 psi to increase the spray radius of the elastomeric coating material.

[0033] When the elastomeric coating material includes an epoxy component, the elastomeric coating material components may be applied via a plural component pump with a static mixer that is attached to the end of a hose assembly. Desirably, the epoxy-containing elastomeric coating material is applied via a static mixer with an applicator using a trowel (such as a Doctor blade) in order to smooth out the material over the seams in order to hide the space between sheets of sheetrock.

[0034] In a desired embodiment of the present invention, the above method comprises applying a coating of polyurea over (1) the seams located between adjacent sheets of sheetrock, which form an interior wall or ceiling of a manufactured house or modular home, and (2) at least a portion of each sheet of sheetrock adjacent to the seam. The polyurea is desirably formed from a polyamine and an isocyanate, desirably an aromatic isocyanate. As used herein, the term “polyamine” is used to refer to any compound or polymer having two or more amine groups. Suitable polyamines that may be used in the present invention include, but are not limited to, diamines, triamines, compounds containing more than throe amine groups, and combinations thereof.

[0035] Desirably, the polyamines used in the present invention include, but are not limited to, (a) polyamines having the following structure 3embedded image

[0036] wherein w represents a number of from about 5 to about 50; (b) polyamines having the following structure 4embedded image

[0037] wherein x, y and z each independently represent a number of from about 5 to about 50, and the sum of (x+y+z) is less than about 100; (c) polyamines having the following structure 5embedded image

[0038] wherein R1, R2, R3, R4 and R5 each independently represent —NH2, an alkyl group containing up to 8 carbon atoms, or —(CH2)vNH2, where v is an integer from 1 to 8; and (d) polyamines having the following structure 6embedded image

[0039] wherein R represents an alkyl group having up to about 20 carbon atoms, more desirably from about 4 to 8 carbon atoms, and even more desirably about 4 carbon atoms.

[0040] Suitable commercially available polyamines include, but are not limited to, the JEFFAMINE® product line available from Huntsman Corp., Houston, Tex.; the ETHACURE® product line available from Albemarle Corporation, Baton Rouge, La.; the UNILINK® product line available from UOP, Des Plaines, Ill.; the CLEARLINK™ product line also available from UOP, Des Plaines, Ill.; and the VESTAMIN® product line available from DeGussa Corporation, Akron, Ohio. Specific polyamines include, but are not limited to, JEFFAMINE® D2000 and JEFFAMINE® T5000 (Huntsman Corp., Houston, Tex.), which are amine-terminated polypropylene glycols having the following general structures: 7embedded image

[0041] where in JEFFAMINE® D2000, w is equal to about 33.1, and in JEFFAMINE® T5000, (x+y+z) is equal to about 81; ETHACURE®100 (Albemarle Corporation, Baton Rouge, La.), which is diethyltoluenediamine having the following major isomers: 8embedded image

[0042] and UNILINK® 4200 (UOP, Des Plaines, Ill.), which has the following formula: 9embedded image

[0043] wherein R represents sec-butyl moieties; CLEARLINK™ 1000 (UOP, Des Plaines, Ill.) an aliphatic diamine; and VESTAMIN® IPD, which comprises isophorone diamine (DeGussa Corporation, Akron, Ohio). It should be noted that other suitable polyamines for use in the present invention include polyamines having a UNILINK® formula as shown above, wherein the R groups represent alkyl groups having up to twenty carbon atoms.

[0044] Suitable isocyanate-containing materials include, but are not limited to, aromatic and aliphatic isocyanates containing two or more isocyanate groups. Suitable commercially available isocyanates include, but are not limited to, isocyanates sold under the trade designations RUBINATE® (available from Huntsman Corp., Houston, Tex.); DESMODUR® (available from Bayer Corp., Pittsburgh, Pa.); MONDUR® (available from Bayer Corp., Pittsburgh, Pa.); LUPRANAT® (available from BASF Corp., Mount Olive, N.J.); and ISOBIND®, ISONATE®, PAPI®, and VORANATE® (available from Dow Chemical Company, Midland, Mich.). Desirably, the isocyanate is diphenylmethane diisocyanate (available from Huntsman Corp., Houston, Tex. under the trade name RUBINATE® 9480); isophorone diisocyanate (available from Bayer Corp., Pittsburgh, Pa. under the trade name DESMODUR® I); or a combination thereof.

[0045] The elastomeric coating 15 may also contain one or more fillers or additives to provide a desired property to the resulting coating and/or reduce the cost of the coating material. Suitable fillers that may be used in the present invention include, but are not limited to, sand, glass, fibers, calcium carbonate, coal, granite, silica, clay, talc, mica, pigments, foam beads, blowing agents (including, but not limited to, MICROPEARL™, heat expandable microspheres available from Pierce & Stevens Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y.), ceramics, flame retardants, (e.g., phosphonic acid, methyl-, bis(5-ethyl-2-methyl-1,3,2-dioxaphosphorinan-5-yl)methyl methyl ester; phosphonic acid, methyl-, bis(5-ethyl-2-methyl-1,3,2-dioxaphosphorinan-5-yl)methyl ester, P,P′-oxide sold under the trade designation ANTIBLAZE® N; phosphoric acid, 2,2 bis(chloromethyl)-1,3-propanediyl tetrakis(2-chloroethyl)ester, ethanol, 2 chlor-, phosphate (3:1) sold under the trade designation ANTIBLAZE® 100; and tris(monochloropropyl)phosphate sold under the trade designation ANTIBLAZE® 80 by Albright & Wilson, Glen Allen, Va.), multicolored quartz, sea shells, recycled products, and fiberglass. Typically, the elastomeric coating contains less than about 10 weight percent (wt. %) filler based on the total weight of the elastomeric coating layer.

[0046] The thickness of the elastomeric coating 15 may vary depending upon a number of factors including, but not limited to, the elastomer used, the substrate used, the presence of filler material, etc. Desirably, the thickness of the elastomeric coating 15 is from about 1 mil (25.4 microns) to about 250 mils (6.35 mm), more desirably, from about 10 mil (0.25 mm) to about 50 mils (1.27 mm), and even more desirably, about 20 mils (0.51 mm).

[0047] Finishing coating 16 may be any conventional finishing material including, but not limited to, paint, wallpaper, popcorn finish, elastomeric cementitious material, etc. One example of a synthetic elastomeric cementitious coating, ECC1, is given in Table 1 below: 1

TABLE 1
ECC1 Elastomeric Cementitious Coating Composition
RAW MATERIALSPOUNDSGALLONS
ACRONAL ® 296 D1211.1824.33
TKPP @ 50%5.320.39
PIGMENT DISPERSER ® NL23.490.34
PROXEL ® GLX21.980.21
Mineral Spirits34.775.30
NATROSOL ® 250 HR3 @ 3%4.460.55
Byk 04542.050.25
BASOPHOB ® WDS247.525.76
Water30.003.60
KRONOS ® 2101568.902.12
OMYACARB ® 56246.1510.94
Georgia Marble OZ White7198.458.82
Georgia Marble 40-2007881.7839.19
1BASF Corporation, Charlotte, NC
2ICI Biocides, Wilmington, DE
3Aqualon Co., Wilmington, DE
4Byk-Chemie, Wallingford, CT
5Kronos, Houston, TX
6Omya, Inc., Proctor, VT
7Georgia Marble, Kennesaw, GA

[0048] Similar finish coatings may be obtained from a variety of manufacturers including, but not limited to, Dryvit Systems, Inc. (West Warwick, R.I.), Parex, Inc. (Redan, Ga.), Sto Corporation (Atlanta, Ga.), Finestone (Adrian, Mich.), and Universal Polymers, Inc. (Springfield, Mo.).

[0049] The thickness of the finishing coating 16 may vary depending upon a number of factors including, but not limited to, the finishing coating used, the desired properties, and the desired look of the finish on the wall and/or ceiling. Desirably, the thickness of the finishing coating 16 is from about 1 mil (25.4 microns) to about 250 mils (6.35 mm), more desirably, from about 20 mil (0.51 mm) to about 50 mils (1.27 mm), and even more desirably, about 31 mils (0.79 mm).

[0050] In one exemplary embodiment of the present invention, the method comprises applying an elastomeric coating 15 on an interior wall or ceiling as described above, wherein the elastomeric coating comprises a polyurea. In this embodiment, the elastomeric coating is desirably an aromatic polyurea. Desirably the aromatic polyurea is applied using a low-pressure spray operation as described above, such as by using a PCH GMP-075 Spray apparatus available from Adhesive Systems Technology Corporation (New Hope, Minn.). The elastomeric coating comprising aromatic polyurea may consist of 100% polyurea or may contain a pigment and or fire retardant. A finishing coating 16 may be applied over the aromatic polyurea coating. Desirably, the finish coating 16 is a paint.

[0051] In a further embodiment of the present invention, the method comprises a single coating step wherein a coating of an elastomeric material is applied over the entire outer surface of each sheet of sheetrock and the seams located between adjacent sheets of sheetrock. In this embodiment, the elastomeric coating forms a continuous coating, which represents the finish coating. The elastomeric coating material in this embodiment may be any of the elastomeric materials described above and may contain fillers as described above. Desirably, the elastomeric coating is an aromatic polyurea containing up to about 50 wt. % of one or more fillers. More desirably, the filler material comprises a fire retardant in an amount of less than about 10 wt. %.

[0052] In the method comprises a single coating step, the thickness of the single elastomeric coating is desirably from about 1 mil (25.4 microns) to about 250 mils (6.35 mm), more desirably, from about 10 mil (0.25 mm) to about 50 mils (1.27 mm), and even more desirably, about 20 mils (0.51 mm).

[0053] In yet a further embodiment of the present invention, the method comprises filling and/or coating the seams between adjacent sheets of sheetrock with a first material (i.e., “seam filler material”) to form a first coating of seam filler material over the seams, and then applying an additional coating over (1) the seam filler material, and (2) at least a portion of each sheet of sheetrock adjacent to the first material. FIG. 2 depicts this embodiment. As shown in FIG. 2, an interior wall or ceiling assembly 20 comprises adjacent sheets of sheetrock 21 having a seam 22 between the adjacent sheets of sheetrock 21. Each sheet of sheetrock has a rear surface 23 and a front or finishing surface 24. Rear surface 23 is attached to the framing of the manufactured house and/or modular home (not shown) by one or more attachment means (not shown). Suitable attachment means include those described above.

[0054] In the method of the present invention according to this embodiment, seam filler material 25 is applied to cover (1) at least a portion of each sheet of sheetrock 21 on front or finishing surface 24 and (2) seam 22 between the adjacent sheets of sheetrock 21 to form a level surface over a seam between adjacent sheets of sheetrock. As shown in FIG. 2, an upper surface 27 of seam filler material 25 forms a level surface with finishing surface 24 of adjacent sheets of sheetrock at locations 28 and 29 on finishing surface 24. At least one additional coating 26 may be applied onto the seam filler material and uncoated portions of sheetrock to form a smooth outer finishing layer over the sheets of sheetrock 21 and the elastomeric coating 25. The additional coating 26 may comprise a single layer or multiple layers of one or more materials including, but not limited to, an elastomeric coating as described above; a synthetic elastomeric cementitious coating, such as ECC1 described above; paint; wallpaper; and a standard popcorn finish.

[0055] The seam filler material 25 may be any of the elastomeric coating materials describe above including, but not limited to, aromatic or aliphatic polyureas, polyurethanes, epoxies, polyurethane-polyurea hybrids, or other similar polymers. The seam filler material 25 may also contain one or more additives such as the fillers and additives described above. Desirably, seam filler material 25 has a cure time of less than about 30 minutes, more desirably, less than about 20 minutes, even more desirably, less than about 10 minutes, and even more desirably, less than about 5 minutes. For sake of comparison, it should be noted that conventional “mud and tape” applications require a set time of greater than 24 hours.

[0056] The seam filler material 25 may be applied to the seams in the form of a spray coating or as a paste-like material, having a consistency similar to conventional “mud” or caulk. In the case of a paste-like material, the seam filler material 25 may be spread over a given seam using a conventional putty knife or similar tool to form a smooth coating. Desirably, the seam filler material comprises a filled epoxy or a filled polyurea having a paste-like consistency. Desirably, the filled epoxy or a filled polyurea is applied using the static mixer, pump and doctor blade assembly as described above.

[0057] In one embodiment of the present invention, the seam filler material 25 is applied over a given seam using the above-described PCH GMP-075 Spray apparatus available from Adhesive Systems Technology Corporation (New Hope, Minn.). In this embodiment, a floating extruder head is attached to the spray nozzle of the 075 Spray Apparatus. A spring tension device may be used to assist in the application of seam filler material onto and into ceiling seams (i.e., the spring tension device enables a person to apply seam filler material to ceiling seams while standing on the floor of the room as oppose to climbing a ladder). The floating extrusion head in combination with the 075 Spray Apparatus extrudes and knives the extruded seam filler material to form a smooth coating of seam filler material over ceiling seams. (See seam filler material 15 and 25 in FIGS. 1 and 2 respectively.) The floating extrusion head may be made from a plastic material or metallic material, such as aluminum. The floating extrusion head typically applies a seam filler material coating having a width of about 5 inches. (See FIG. 2, which displays seam filler material 25 having a width extending from position 28 to position 29.) In this embodiment, seam filler material 25 is desirably a filled epoxy or a filled polyurea having a paste-like consistency, more desirably a filled polyurea.

[0058] Commercially available seam filler materials, which are particularly suitable for use in the present invention include, but are not limited to, epoxy seam filler materials available under the trade designation ISOFLEX from LymTal International, Inc. (Orion, Mich.), desirably ISOFLEX 980; epoxy seam filler materials available under the trade designation EA-622 from Adtech Plastic Systems Corp. (Charlotte, Mich.); and polyurea seam filler materials available under the trade designation VERSAFLEX from VersaFlex, Incorporated (Kansas City, Mo.), desirably VERSAFLEX SL/45.

[0059] Desirably, the seam filler material 25 comprises an epoxy material containing up to about 50 wt % of one or more additives or fillers based on the total weight of the seam filler material, wherein the epoxy material (a) has a pot life of at least about 30 minutes (more desirably, from about 30 to about 60 minutes), (b) has a cure time of less than about 30 minutes (more desirably, from about 10 to about 30 minutes), (c) is thixatropic in nature, (d) has an elongation of at least 500%, and more desirably at least 650%, and (e) has a tensile strength of at least about 300 psi. More desirably, the seam filler material comprises from about 20 to about 80 wt % of an epoxy material having the above characteristics and from about 80 to about 20 wt % of one or more filler materials, based on a total weight of the seam filler material.

[0060] In one embodiment, the additional layer 26 comprises an elastomeric coating, which is applied over the seam filler material and the entire surface of each sheet of sheetrock. In this case, the elastomeric coating forms a continuous coating, which can represent the finish coating. The elastomeric coating material in this embodiment may be any of the elastomeric materials described above and may contain fillers as described above. Desirably, the elastomeric coating is an aromatic polyurea containing up to about 50 wt. % of one or more fillers, based on the total weight of the elastomeric coating. More desirably, the filler material comprises a fire retardant in an amount of less than about 10 wt. % based on the total weight of the elastomeric coating.

[0061] In a further embodiment, the additional layer 26 comprises a standard popcorn finish, which is applied over the seam filler material 25 and the entire surface of each sheet of sheetrock. In this embodiment, the seam filler material 25 is desirably an epoxy material, such as ISOFLEX 980 or EA-622, and the standard popcorn finish forms a continuous coating, which can represent the finish coating. Additional coatings, such as a coating of paint, may be applied on the standard popcorn finish, although this is typically not necessary.

[0062] Exemplary popcorn finishes, which may be used in the present invention, are available from United States Gypsum Company (Chicago, Ill.) and sold under the product name USG SHEETROCK Brand Ceiling Spray Texture. These popcorn finishes are available in the following grades: QT Coarse Poly, QT Medium Poly, and QT Fine Poly. A typical formulation for a standard popcorn finish is given in Table 2 below: 2

TABLE 2
Standard Popcorn Finish Composition
MaterialWt %
limestone or dolomite>70
kaolin<20
attapulgite<5
starch and/or hydroxypropyl amylpectin<5
phosphate and/or carboxymethyl starch-
epichlorohydrin
polystyrene<5
diatomaceous earth<5
expanded perlite<5

[0063] In yet a further embodiment, coating materials as shown in FIG. 3 are used to form a wall or ceiling of a manufactured house and/or modular home. As shown in FIG. 3, an interior wall or ceiling assembly 30 comprises adjacent sheets of sheetrock 31 having a seam 32 between the adjacent sheets of sheetrock 31. Each sheet of sheetrock has a rear surface 33 and a front or finishing surface 34. Rear surface 33 is attached to the framing of the manufactured house and/or modular home (not shown) by one or more attachment means (not shown). Suitable attachment means include those described above. In the method of the present invention according to this embodiment, seam filler material 35 is applied to cover (1) at least a portion of each sheet of sheetrock 31 on front or finishing surface 34 and (2) seam 32 between the adjacent sheets of sheetrock 31 to form a level surface over a seam between adjacent sheets of sheetrock. In this embodiment, a reinforcement 36 may be embedded in seam filler material 35. The reinforcement 36 may be any conventional reinforcement material typically used in a standard “mud and tape” procedure. Suitable reinforcements 36 include, but are not limited to, woven, knitted and nonwoven fabrics or scrims made from natural or man-made fibers. Typically, the reinforcement 36 comprises a woven fiberglass scrim. It should be noted that reinforcement 36 may be positioned adjacent to the sheets of sheetrock 31 and seam 32 or may be positioned within seam filler material 35.

[0064] As shown in FIG. 3, an upper surface 37 of seam filler material 35 forms a level surface with finishing surface 34 of adjacent sheets of sheetrock at locations 38 and 39 on finishing surface 34. At least one additional coating may be applied onto the seam filler material 35 and uncoated portions of sheetrock to form a smooth outer layer over the sheets of sheetrock 31 and the elastomeric coating 35 such as any of the above-described additional coatings. In FIG. 3, a first coating 310 is applied onto the seam filler material 35 and uncoated portions of sheetrock. Also, a second coating 311 is applied over first coating 310 to form a smooth outer finishing coating. In one desired embodiment as shown in FIG. 3, the seam filler material 35 comprises an epoxy seam filler material having a cure time of less than about 30 minutes; first coating 310 comprises an elastomeric coating containing polyurea as described above, such as ECC1, having a cure time of less than about 1 minute; and second coating 311 comprises a coating of paint.

[0065] As discussed above, in some embodiments of the present invention, a polyurea elastomeric coating may be used as a finish coating or as an interior coating, which is subsequently coated with a finish coating, such as paint. In other embodiments, a standard popcorn finish may be used as the finish coating. The polyurea elastomeric coating has several advantages over a standard popcorn finish including, but not limited to, a much faster cure time, and the ability to act as a vapor barrier. The cure time for the polyurea elastomeric coating of the present invention is typically less than about 10 minutes, and can be as low as 5 seconds. In contrast, a standard popcorn finish typically requires greater than 24 hours to set due to the need to remove the solvent (i.e., water) from the finish coating. Further, the polyurea elastomeric coating acts as a vapor barrier. An additional vapor barrier coating is not needed when using the polyurea elastomeric coating of the present invention even though such a step (i.e., applying a vapor barrier coating) is typical when using a standard popcorn finish in conventional processes of forming a ceiling of a manufactured house or modular home.

[0066] In one embodiment of the present invention, the elastomeric coating is a polyurea coating formed from about 1 part by weight (pbw) of an “A” component and 3 pbw of a “B” component, wherein the “A” component and the “B” component are as follows: 3

Solution A
RUBINATE ® 9480  100%
Solution B
UNILINK ® 4200 1.25%
JEFFAMINE ® D200016.00%
ETHACURE ® 100 5.75%
JEFFAMINE ® T5000 2.00%
Titanium dioxide 60.0%
Fumed silica 15.0%

[0067] The two components may be sprayed as described above to form a discontinuous or continuous coating on the interior wall and/or ceiling of the manufactured house or modular home. The resulting elastomeric coating provides one example of a cost-effective coating, which also provides a low degree of gloss when compared to other elastomeric coatings.

[0068] In a further embodiment of the present invention, the elastomeric coating contains an aromatic polyurea formed from the following components: (a) from about 30 to about 80 parts by weight (pbw) of a polyamine (Polyamide A) having the following structure 10embedded image

[0069] wherein w represents a number of about 33.1; (b) from greater than 0 to about 20 pbw of a polyamine (Polyamide B) having the following structure 11embedded image

[0070] wherein the sum of (x+y+z) is about 81; (c) from about 5 to about 30 pbw of a diethyltoluenediamine; (d) from greater than 0 to about 20 pbw of N,N′-di(2-butyl)-4,4′-methylenedianiline; and (e) from about 60 to about 120 pbw of diphenylmethane diisocyanate, isophorone diisocyanate, or a combination thereof. Desirably, the aromatic polyurea is formed from the following components: (a) from about 45 to about 75 pbw of a Polyamide A; (b) from greater than 5 to about 12 pbw of a Polyamide B; (c) from about 15 to about 30 pbw of a diethyltoluenediamine; (d) from greater than 0 to about 10 pbw of N,N′-di(2-butyl)-4,4′-methylenedianiline; and (e) from about 90 to about 100 pbw of diphenylmethane diisocyanate, isophorone diisocyanate, or a combination thereof. One or more of the above-identified fillers may be added to the aromatic polyurea in an amount of up to about 80 pbw. Desirably, titanium dioxide, fumed silica, or a combination thereof is added up to about 75 pbw.

[0071] In yet a further embodiment of the present invention, the elastomeric coating contains an aliphatic polyurea formed from the following components: (a) from about 40 to about 100 pbw of Polyamide A; (b) from about 20 to about 50 pbw of Polyamide B; (c) from greater than 0 to about 10 pbw of isophorone diamine; (d) from about 20 to about 40 pbw of CLEARLINK™ 1000; and (e) from about 20 to about 60 pbw of isophorone diisocyanate. Desirably, the aliphatic polyurea is formed from the following components: (a) from about 70 to about 90 pbw of Polyamide A; (b) from about 30 to about 40 pbw of Polyamide B; (c) from greater than 0 to about 5 pbw of isophorone diamine; (d) from about 26 to about 34 pbw of CLEARLINK™ 1000; and (e) from about 35 to about 45 pbw of isophorone diisocyanate. One or more of the above-identified fillers may be added to this aliphatic polyurea in an amount of up to about 20 pbw. Desirably, titanium dioxide is added up to about 12 pbw.

[0072] In the above-described methods comprising a seam filler coating step and an elastomeric coating step, the thickness of the elastomeric coating is desirably from about 1 mil (25.4 microns) to about 250 mils (6.35 mm), more desirably, from about 10 mil (0.25 mm) to about 50 mils (1.27 mm), and even more desirably, about 20 mils (0.51 mm).

[0073] Method of Forming the Ceiling Structure of a Manufactured House or Modular Home

[0074] The present invention is also directed to a method of forming the ceiling structure of a manufactured house or modular home. In this embodiment, a ceiling structure is formed by a method comprising: (1) positioning a plurality of sheets of sheetrock (or other substrate) on a surface to form a layer of sheetrock (or other substrate) having a total surface area, which may be as large as and substantially equal to the square footage of the manufactured house or modular home; (2) applying a coating of an elastomeric material over the seams between adjacent sheets of sheetrock in the layer of sheetrock and a portion of each sheet of sheetrock next to the seam; (3) forming an integral structure of roof trusses positioned parallel to one another and having a total width and length substantially equal to the layer of sheetrock; (4) lowering the truss structure onto the layer of sheetrock and the coating of elastomeric material; and (5) adhesively attaching the truss structure to the layer of sheetrock. FIG. 4 depicts such a ceiling structure.

[0075] As shown in FIG. 4, a ceiling structure 40 comprises adjacent sheets of sheetrock 41 having seams 42 between the adjacent sheets of sheetrock 41. Each sheet of sheetrock has a rear surface 44 and a front or finishing surface 43. A coating of an elastomeric material 45 is applied over the seams 42 between adjacent sheets of sheetrock and over a portion of each adjacent sheet of sheetrock 41. An integral structure of roof trusses 46 is attached to the rear surfaces 44 of the sheets of sheetrock 41 and the coating of elastomeric material 45 by one or more attachment means. Suitable attachment means include, but are not limited to, adhesives, tapes, nails, screws, etc. Typically, the integral structure of roof trusses 46 is attached to the rear surfaces 44 of the sheets of sheetrock 41 and the coating of elastomeric material 45 by a foam adhesive. The foam adhesive is applied at the junctions between the boards forming the integral structure of roof trusses 46 and the rear surfaces 44 of the sheetrock 41 and/or the coating of elastomeric material 45. Suitable foam adhesives include, but are not limited to, foam adhesives available under the trade designation FOAMSEAL™ from Foamseal/Novagard Company, Cleveland, Ohio.

[0076] In this embodiment of the present invention, the elastomeric coating 45 prevents any subsequently applied foam adhesive from penetrating the seams 42 between adjacent sheets of sheetrock 41. This procedure eliminates one problem (i.e., foam adhesive seepage through seams) found in conventional manufactured housing and/or modular home manufacturing techniques. In a further embodiment, the method may comprise an additional step, wherein a caulking or sealing material (not shown) is injected into the seams 42 from the front or finish side 43 of the sheets of sheetrock 41. Suitable caulks include, but are not limited to, 2100SPS caulk, a 100% solids urethane caulk adhesive available from Bostik Company, Middleton, Mass.

[0077] The method may further comprise one or more additional coating steps, wherein one or more coatings are applied to finishing surface 43 of the sheets of sheetrock 41. Suitable coatings include any of the coatings described above. For example, an additional coating of elastomeric coating material (not shown) may be applied onto a portion (or all) of the finishing surfaces 43 of each sheet of sheetrock 41 and the seams 42 between adjacent sheets of sheetrock 41 in order to further reinforce the outer surfaces 43 of the sheets of sheetrock 41. An outer finishing coating (not shown) may also be applied to the finishing surfaces 43 of each sheet of sheetrock 41 and the seams 42 between adjacent sheets of sheetrock 41. In one embodiment of the present invention, both an additional elastomeric coating and an outer finishing coating are applied to the finishing surfaces 43 of each sheet of sheetrock 41, wherein the outer finishing coating is applied over the additional elastomeric coating.

[0078] In this embodiment, the finishing coating may be any conventional finishing material applied to ceilings. Suitable ceiling finishing materials include, but are not limited to, popcorn finish, paint, and elastomeric cementitious coatings. Any of the above-described finishing coatings may be used in this embodiment. Desirably, the finishing coating comprises an ECC1 elastomeric cementitious coating as described above.

[0079] The thickness of the elastomeric coating 45 may vary as described above. Desirably, the thickness of the elastomeric coating 45 is from about 1 mil (25.4 microns) to about 250 mils (6.35 mm), more desirably, from about 10 mil (0.25 mm) to about 50 mils (1.27 mm), and even more desirably, about 20 mils (0.51 mm). The thickness of an additional elastomeric layer, if present on the finishing surface of the sheetrock as described above, may desirably vary from about 1 mil (25.4 microns) to about 250 mils (6.35 mm), more desirably, from about 10 mil (0.25 mm) to about 50 mils (1.27 mm), and even more desirably, about 20 mils (0.51 mm).

[0080] The thickness of the ceiling finishing coating (e.g., popcorn finish or elastomeric cementitious coating) may vary depending upon a number of factors including, but not limited to, the finishing coating used, the desired properties, and the desired look of the finish. Desirably, the thickness of the ceiling finishing coating is from about 1 mil (25.4 microns) to about 250 mils (6.35 mm), more desirably from about 20 mils (0.51 microns) to about 50 mils (1.27 mm), and even more desirably, about 20 mils (0.51 microns) to about 31 mils (0.79 microns), depending on the choice of finishing material.

[0081] In one desired embodiment of the present invention, the method of forming the ceiling structure of a manufactured house or modular home comprises: (1) positioning a plurality of sheets of sheetrock on a surface to form a layer of sheetrock having a total surface area, which may be as large as and substantially equal to the square footage, of the manufactured house or modular home; (2) applying a coating of aromatic polyurea over the seams between adjacent sheets of sheetrock in the layer of sheetrock and a portion of each sheet of sheetrock in the layer; (3) forming an integral structure of roof trusses positioned parallel to one another and having a total width and length substantially equal to the layer of sheetrock; (4) lowering the truss structure onto the layer of sheetrock; (5) adhesively attaching the truss structure to the layer of sheetrock via a foam adhesive; and (6) applying an elastomeric cementitious coating onto an outer surface of the sheets of sheetrock opposite to the integral structure of roof trusses. More desirably, the aromatic polyurea coating contains up to about 10 wt. % of fire retardants. In a further embodiment, the method also includes one or more additional steps comprising (7) applying a caulk material into and/or onto the seams prior to step (6); and applying a second elastomeric coating over the seams and portion of each sheet of sheetrock on the front of finishing surface of the layer of sheetrock prior to steps (6) and (7).

[0082] Method of Forming an Exterior Coating on a Manufactured House or Modular Home

[0083] The present invention is also directed to a method of forming a coating on an exterior surface of a manufactured house or modular home. In this embodiment, an elastomeric coating is applied over (1) the seams located between adjacent sheets of building material (e.g., oriented strand board), which form an exterior wall of the home, and (2) at least a portion of each sheet of building material adjacent to the seam. In one exemplary embodiment of the present invention, an elastomeric coating may be applied directly to the sheets of building material used to form an outer surface of the manufactured house or modular home. In a further exemplary embodiment, a seam filler material is first applied to fill any seams between adjacent sheets of building material. An elastomeric coating is then applied over the seam filler material and any exposed outer surfaces of the sheets of building material. Any of the above-mentioned elastomeric coatings and seam filler materials may be used to form the outer coating for the exterior wall of the manufactured house or modular home.

[0084] An outer coating system for a manufactured house or modular home is shown in FIG. 5. In FIG. 5, manufactured house or modular home 50 comprises an exterior wall 51, crown molding 52, foot molding 53, architectural molding 54 positioned vertically along each corner of manufactured house or modular home 50, window treatments 55, and door treatments 56. In one method of the present invention, crown molding 52, foot molding 53, architectural molding 54, window treatments 55, and door treatments 56 are attached to an outer surface of manufactured house or modular home 50 prior to an application of elastomeric coating and/or seam filler material. In this embodiment, an elastomeric coating may be applied over an outer surface of sheets of building material used to form the exterior wall 51 of manufactured house or modular home 50. In addition, the elastomeric coating is applied over crown molding 52, foot molding 53, architectural molding 54, window treatments 55, and door treatments 56. One or more finish coatings may be applied over the elastomeric coating to provide a finish to the exterior wall 51, crown molding 52, foot molding 53, architectural molding 54, window treatments 55, and door treatments 56. Typically, the finish coating comprises an exterior paint.

[0085] In an alternative embodiment, a seam filler material and/or elastomeric coating material is applied to an outer surface of sheets of building material used to form manufactured house or modular home 50 to form exterior wall 51. Following an application of an elastomeric coating, one or more finish coatings and optional seam filler material, finished molding materials are attached to exterior wall 51 of manufactured house or modular home 50. In this embodiment, crown molding 52, foot molding 53, architectural molding 54, window treatments 55, and door treatments 56 are prepared prior to attaching the moldings to manufactured house or modular home 50. Suitable finished moldings and window treatments typically comprise a foam core coated with an elastomeric coating material such as those described above, desirably, a polystyrene foam core coated with one of the above-described polyureas.

[0086] In one desired embodiment of the present invention, an elastomeric coating is applied to an outer surface of sheets of building material used to form a manufactured housing or modular home, wherein the elastomeric material is sprayed using a low-pressure spray apparatus as described above. Desirably, the elastomeric coating comprises an aromatic polyurea coating having a coating thickness of up to about 250 mils (6.35 mm), more desirably, from about 10 mils (0.25 mm) to about 80 mils (2.0 mm), and even more desirably, about 62 mils (1.55 mm). In this embodiment, the aromatic polyurea coating may contain one or more fillers as described above, or may comprise 100% aromatic polyurea. Desirably, the aromatic polyurea comprises a fre retardant as described above. In this embodiment, it is desirable to apply an exterior paint over the aromatic polyurea coating to form exterior wall 51 as shown in FIG. 5. Typically, the exterior paint used to form outer coating 51 has a first color (e.g., tan), which differs from the color of crown molding 52, foot molding 53, architectural molding 54, window treatments 55, and door treatments 56 (e.g., white).

[0087] Typically, the building materials used to form the outer wall on manufactured house or modular home 50 comprises OSB (oriented strand board) board, but may comprise any of the above-mentioned building materials including, but not limited to, sheetrock, foam, and wood.

[0088] The Resulting Manufactured Housing and/or Modular Home

[0089] The present invention is further directed to manufactured housing and modular homes resulting from one or more of the above-described methods of making. In one embodiment of the present invention, the manufactured house or modular home comprises an interior wall and/or ceiling formed from (1) a plurality of sheets of sheetrock, wherein seams are present between adjacent sheets of sheetrock, and wherein each sheet of sheetrock has a rear surface and a front or finishing surface, (2) a coating of elastomeric material covering the seams between adjacent sheets of sheetrock and at least a portion of the front surface of each sheet of sheetrock, and (3) a finishing material covering the elastomeric material and any uncoated portions of the front surface of each sheet of sheetrock. The elastomeric coating material and finishing material may be any of the materials described above. As discussed above, the interior wall and/or ceiling is typically attached to a wood or metal frame of the manufactured house or modular home to form an interior wall or ceiling. Further, a seam filler material as described above may be coated or extruded into and/or onto the seams between adjacent sheets of sheetrock.

[0090] In a further embodiment of the present invention, the manufactured house or modular home comprises an interior wall and/or ceiling formed from (1) a plurality of sheets of sheetrock, wherein seams are present between adjacent sheets of sheetrock, and wherein each sheet of sheetrock has a rear surface and a front or finishing surface, (2) a first coating of a seam filler material, which fills and/or coats the seams between adjacent sheets of sheetrock and a portion of each sheet of sheetrock adjacent to the seam, and (3) a coating of at least one additional layer over (a) the seam filler material, and (b) at least a portion of each sheet of sheetrock adjacent to the first coating material. Suitable seam filler materials and additional layers are discussed above. Desirably, the additional layer(s) completely covers (a) the seam filler material, and (b) the sheets of sheetrock.

[0091] One desirable interior wall or ceiling of the present invention comprises (1) a plurality of sheets of sheetrock, wherein seams are present between adjacent sheets of sheetrock, and wherein each sheet of sheetrock has a rear surface and a front or finishing surface; (2) a first coating of a seam filler material, which fills and/or coats the seams between adjacent sheets of sheetrock and a portion of each sheet of sheetrock adjacent to the seam, wherein the seam filler material comprises an epoxy material or polyurea material containing up to about 50 wt % of one or more additives or fillers based on the total weight of the seam filler material; and (3) a coating of an elastomeric material over (a) the seam filler material, and (b) at least a portion of each sheet of sheetrock adjacent to the first material, wherein the elastomeric coating comprises an aromatic polyurea containing up to about 50 wt. % of one or more fillers, based on the total weight of the elastomeric coating. In a further embodiment, a standard popcorn finish is used in place of the elastomeric coating. In either case, additional layers may be coated onto the elastomeric coating layer or the popcorn finish layer. Suitable additional layers include any of the layers described above.

[0092] The present invention is further directed to a manufactured house or modular home comprising an improved ceiling structure, wherein the ceiling structure comprises (1) a plurality of sheets of sheetrock and seams between adjacent sheets of sheetrock, wherein each sheet of sheetrock has a rear surface and a front or finishing surface, (2) a coating of elastomeric material covering the seams between adjacent sheets of sheetrock and at least a portion of the rear surface of each sheet of sheetrock; (3) an integral structure of roof trusses positioned parallel to one another and having a total width and length substantially equal to the layer of sheetrock, wherein the integral structure is in contact with the rear surface of the sheets of sheetrock and the elastomeric material coating; and (4) an adhesive for attaching the integral structure to the layer of sheetrock. The elastomeric coating material and finishing material may be any of the materials described above. Further, as discussed above, the ceiling structure may contain one or more of the following features: (1) a seam filler material coated into and/or onto the seams between adjacent sheets of sheetrock; (2) a reinforcement embedded in the seam filler material; (3) a standard popcorn finish covering the seams between adjacent sheets of sheetrock and/or the seam filler material and at least a portion of the front or finishing surface of each sheet of sheetrock; (4) a second elastomeric material covering the seams between adjacent sheets of sheetrock and/or the seam filler material and at least a portion of the front or finishing surface of each sheet of sheetrock; (4) and any finishing coating covering the sheets of sheetrock and, when present, seam filler material and/or the second elastomeric material coating.

[0093] In a further embodiment of the present invention, the manufactured house or modular home comprises an exterior wall formed from (1) a plurality of sheets of building material, wherein seams are present between adjacent sheets of building material, and wherein each sheet of building material has a rear surface and a front or finishing surface, (2) a first coating of a seam filler material, which fills and/or coats the seams between adjacent sheets of building material and a portion of each sheet of building material adjacent to the seam, and (3) a coating of at least one additional layer over (a) the seam filler material, and (b) at least a portion of each sheet of building material adjacent to the first coating material. Suitable seam filler materials and additional layers are discussed above. Desirably, the additional layer(s) completely covers (a) the seam filler material, and (b) the sheets of building material, and comprises (1) a coating of an elastomeric material as described above, and (2) a finish coating.

[0094] In any of the above embodiments involving a finished interior wall and ceiling of a manufactured housing and/or modular homes, the resulting interior wall and ceiling may be positioned relative to one another such that there is no connection between the wall and the adjacent ceiling. This configuration allows the wall to move separately from the ceiling during transportation, which further minimizes the amount of stress on the wall and the ceiling. A piece or trim, such as crown molding, may be used to cover the junction between the wall and the ceiling. The trim may be attached to the wall or the ceiling using conventional attachment means.

[0095] It should be noted that any of the above-described methods of making manufactured housing and/or modular homes (and the resulting manufactured housing and/or modular homes) may be practiced using substrates other than sheetrock if desired. For example, if the interior walls or exterior surfaces of the manufactured house and/or modular home, or a portion thereof, are formed of sheets of foam, plywood or a combination of foam, plywood, and sheetrock, an elastomeric coating may be applied to a portion of each sheet of foam, plywood and/or sheetrock and the seams separating the sheets of foam, plywood and/or sheetrock. Possible base substrates, which may be used in the present invention include, but are not limited to, any conventional building material such as extruded and/or expanded polystyrene foam, polyurethane foam, blown polyethylene foam, OSB (Oriented Strand Board), brick, tilt-up walls (walls that have been precast from concrete and upon delivery at the job site that are “tilt up” into position via crane), poured, or precast concrete, masonry, wood, cement board, metal, tile, glazed brick, glazed unit masonry, exposed aggregate finish, fire retardant boards, and the like. The base substrate does not need to be treated in any way before the application of the elastomeric coating material.

[0096] It should also be noted that one or more of the above-described methods are also applicable in the manufacture of stationary homes. For example, the interior walls and/or ceiling in a stationary home may be finished using an elastomeric coating material to coat seams between adjacent sheets of sheetrock, instead of the conventional “mud and tape” procedure used in home manufacturing. Further, an exterior wall of a stationary home may be prepared using the methods described herein, such as when one or more architectural moldings are attached prior to or after application of an elastomeric coating.

[0097] This invention is further illustrated by the following examples, which are not to be construed in any way as imposing limitations upon the scope thereof On the contrary, it is to be clearly understood that resort may be had to various other embodiments, modifications, and equivalents thereto, which, after reading the description herein, may suggest themselves to those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit of the present invention.

EXAMPLES

[0098] The materials shown in Table 1 are used in the examples below. 4

TABLE 1
Chemicals Used In Examples
MaterialDescriptionManufacturer
ANTIBLAZE ®flame retardantAlbright & Wilson,
100Glen Allen, VA
CLEARLINK ™Secondary aliphaticUOP, LLC
1000diamineDes Plaines, IL
DESMODUR ®IsophoroneBayer Corporation
IDiisocyanatePittsburgh, PA
ETHACURE ®diethyltoluenediamineAlbemarle Corporation,
100Baton Rouge, LA
ISOFLEX 980epoxy seam fillerLymTal International, Inc.
material(Orion, MI)
JEFFAMINE ®diamine-terminatedHuntsman Corp.,
D2000polypropylene glycolsHouston, TX
JEFFAMINE ®triamine-terminatedHuntsman Corp.,
T5000polypropylene glycolsHouston, TX
RUBINATE ®diphenylmethaneHuntsman Corp.,
9480diisocyanateHouston, TX
RUBINATE ®diphenylmethaneHuntsman Corp.,
9271diisocyanateHouston, TX
TitaniumWhite pigmentKronos
DioxideHouston, TX
UNILINK ®N,N′-di-sec-butyl-4,4′-UOP, LLC
4200methylene dianilineDes Plaines, IL
VESTAMIN ®Isophorone diamineDeGussa Corporation
IPDAkron, OH
White DispersionTI02, TitaniumBrewers Ink,
dioxide/D2000Atlanta, GA
dispersion
B100-D2000carbon black pigmentBrewers Ink,
BLKdispersed in D2000Atlanta, GA

Example 1

[0099] Preparation of an Interior Wall of a Manufactured House

[0100] An interior wall of a manufactured house (i.e., mobile home) was prepared by attaching multiple sheets of sheetrock to the wooden frame of the wall. An elastomeric polyurea coating having the formulation below was sprayed over the seams and portions of each sheet of sheetrock adjacent to the seams: 5

Solution A (pbw of Solution A)
RUBINATE ® 9480100
Solution B (pbw of Solution B)
UNILINK ® 42005.0
JEFFAMINE ® D200064.0
ETHACURE ® 10023.0
JEFFAMINE ® T50008.0

[0101] Solutions A and B were mixed together at a volume ratio of 1:1 and applied using a plural component spray machine to a thickness of approximately 20 mils (0.51 mm). Elastomeric cementitious coating ECC1 (described above) was then applied by spraying the finish coat over the polyurea coat and the uncoated portions of the sheetrock to form a uniform finish coating.

Example 2

[0102] Preparation of an Interior Ceiling Surface of a Manufactured House

[0103] An interior surface of a ceiling of a manufactured house was prepared by attaching multiple sheets of sheetrock to an integral structure of roof trusses. An elastomeric polyurea coating having the formulation below was sprayed over the seams and portions of each sheet of sheetrock adjacent to the seams (all components are given in percent parts by weight): 6

Solution A (pbw of Solution A)
RUBINATE ® 9480100.0
Solution B (pbw of Solution B)
UNILINK ® 42003.0
JEFFAMINE ® D200065.875
ETHACURE ® 10023.125
JEFFAMINE ® T50008.0

[0104] Solutions A and B were mixed together at a volume ratio of 1:1 and applied using a plural component spray machine to a thickness of approximately 31 mils (0.79 mm). Elastomeric cementitious coating ECC1 (described above) was then applied by spraying the finish coat over the polyurea coat and the uncoated portions of the sheetrock to form a uniform finish coating.

Example 3

[0105] Preparation of an Interior Wall of a Manufactured House

[0106] An interior wall of a manufactured house was prepared by attaching multiple sheets of sheetrock to the wooden frame of the wall. An elastomeric polyurea coating having the formulation below was sprayed over the seams and portions of each sheet of sheetrock adjacent to the seams: 7

Solution A (pbw of Solution A)
RUBINATE ® 948086.95
ANTIBLAZE ® 10013.05
Solution B (pbw of Solution B)
UNILINK ® 42004.34
JEFFAMINE ® D200055.54
JEFFAMINE ® T50006.94
ETHACURE ® 10020.07
White Dispersion0.06
ANTIBLAZE ® 10013.05

[0107] Solutions A and B were mixed together at a volume ratio of 1:1 and applied using a plural component spray machine to a thickness of approximately 20 mils (0.51 mm). Elastomeric cementitious coating ECC1 (described above) was then applied by spraying the finish coat over the polyurea coat and the uncoated portions of the sheetrock to form a uniform finish coating.

Example 4

[0108] Preparation of a Ceiling Structure of a Manufactured House

[0109] A ceiling structure of a manufactured house was prepared by positioning a plurality of sheets of sheetrock on a surface to form a rectangular layer of sheetrock having a length of about 76 ft (23.2 m) and a width of about 14 ft (4.27 m). An elastomeric polyurea coating having the formulation below was sprayed over the seams and portions of each sheet of sheetrock adjacent to the seams: 8

Solution A (pbw of Solution A)
RUBINATE ® 948086.95
ANTIBLAZE ® 10013.05
Solution B (pbw of Solution B)
UNILINK ® 42004.34
JEFFAMINE ® D200055.54
JEFFAMINE ® T50006.94
ETHACURE ® 10020.07
White Dispersion0.06
ANTIBLAZE ® 10013.05

[0110] Solutions A and B were mixed together at a volume ratio of 1:1 and applied using a plural component spray machine to a thickness of approximately 10 mils (0.25 mm).

[0111] An integral structure of roof trusses positioned parallel to one another and having a total width and length substantially equal to the layer of sheetrock was lowered onto the layer of sheetrock. A foam adhesive, a FOAMSEAL™ product (available from Foamseal/Novagard Company, Cleveland, Ohio) was used to attach the truss structure to the layer of sheetrock. The foam adhesive was applied along the edges of each board of the truss structure, which came in contact with the layer of sheetrock.

[0112] Once assembled onto the wooden frame of the manufactured house, the elastomeric polyurea coating and the elastomeric cementitious finishing coating ECC1 of Example 2 were applied onto the interior surface of the sheets of sheetrock (i.e., the surface forming the interior ceiling surface in the rooms of the manufactured housing) by spraying the finish coat over the sheetrock to form a uniform finish coating.

Example 5

[0113] Preparation of an Interior Ceiling Surface of a Manufactured House

[0114] An interior ceiling surface of a manufactured house was prepared as follows. A seam filler material was applied into and over the seams between adjacent sheets of sheetrock to form a smooth first coating having an outer coating surface substantially within the same plane as the outer surface of central portions of each sheet of sheetrock. The following epoxy seam filler material composition was used: 9

Material (pbw)
ISOFLEX 980100.0

[0115] The seam filler material was applied using a static mixer/pump/doctor blade assembly.

[0116] An elastomeric polyurea coating was then applied over the first coating and any exposed surfaces of the sheetrock. The elastomeric polyurea coating formulation shown in Example 1 above was sprayed over the first coating and any exposed surfaces of the sheetrock to form a thickness of approximately 20 mils (0.51 mm). A finish coating of paint (DURACLAD interior latex brand paint, DRY FOG flat finish white, available from Duron Paint, Beltsville, Md.) was then applied by spraying the finish coat over the polyurea coat to form a uniform finish coating having a coating thickness of 1 to 5 mils.

Example 6

[0117] Preparation of an Interior Wall Surface of a Manufactured House

[0118] An interior wall surface of a manufactured house was prepared using the procedure as outlined in Example 5.

Example 7

[0119] Preparation of an Interior Ceiling Surface of a Manufactured House

[0120] An interior ceiling surface of a manufactured house was prepared as follows. The seam filler material of Example 5 was applied into and over the seams between adjacent sheets of sheetrock to form a smooth first coating having an outer coating surface substantially within the same plane as the outer surface of central portions of each sheet of sheetrock. The seam filler material was applied using a static mixer/pump/doctor blade assembly.

[0121] An elastomeric polyurea coating was then applied over the first coating and any exposed surfaces of the sheetrock. The elastomeric polyurea coating formulation shown in Example 7 above was sprayed over the first coating and any exposed surfaces of the sheetrock to form a thickness of approximately 20 mils (0.51 mm). A finish coating of elastomeric cementitious coating ECC1 (described above) was then applied by spraying the finish coat over the polyurea coat to form a uniform finish coating having a coating thickness of 15 to 30 mils.

Example 8

[0122] Preparation of an Interior Wall Surface of a Manufactured House

[0123] An interior wall surface of a manufactured house was prepared using the procedure as outlined in Example 7.

Example 9

[0124] Preparation of an Interior Ceiling Surface of a Manufactured House Using an Aliphatic Polyurea Coating

[0125] An interior ceiling surface of a manufactured house was prepared as follows. The seam filler material of Example 5 was applied into and over the seams between adjacent sheets of sheetrock to form a smooth first coating having an outer coating surface substantially within the same plane as the outer surface of central portions of each sheet of sheetrock. The seam filler material was applied using a static mixer/pump/doctor blade assembly.

[0126] An elastomeric aliphatic polyurea coating was then applied over the first coating and any exposed surfaces of the sheetrock. The elastomeric polyurea coating formulation shown below was sprayed over the first coating and any exposed surfaces of the sheetrock: 10

Solution A (pbw of Solution A)
DESMODUR ® I37.90%
JEFFAMINE ® D200057.10%
ANTIBLAZE ® 1005.00%
Solution B (pbw of Solution B)
JEFFAMINE ® D200021.00%
JEFFAMINE ® T500031.63%
CLEARLINK ™ 100029.10%
VESTAMIN ® IPD1.67%
Titanium dioxide11.60%
ANTIBLAZE ® 1005.00%

[0127] Solutions A and B were mixed together at a volume ratio of 1:1 and applied using a plural component spray machine to a thickness of approximately 20 mils (0.51 mm). The aliphatic elastomeric coating represented the finish coating for the ceiling.

Example 10

[0128] Preparation of an Interior Wall Surface of a Manufactured House

[0129] An interior wall surface of a manufactured house was prepared using the procedure as outlined in Example 9.

Example 11

[0130] Preparation of an Exterior Surface of a Manufactured House

[0131] An exterior surface of a manufactured house was prepared as follows. The seam filler material of Example 5 was applied into and over the seams between adjacent sheets of OSB board. The seam filler material was applied using a low-pressure spray apparatus/floating extrusion head system available from Adhesive Systems Technology Corporation (New Hope, Minn.), model no. PCH GMP-075 Spray apparatus with an aluminum floating extrusion head capable of applying an extruded coating having a width of about 5 inches.

[0132] An elastomeric aromatic polyurea coating was then applied over the first coating and any exposed surfaces of the OSB board. The elastomeric polyurea coating formulation shown below was sprayed over the first coating and any exposed surfaces of the OSB board: 11

Solution A (pbw of Solution A)
RUBINATE ® 948057.00
RUBINATE ® 927138.00
ANTIBLAZE ® 1005.00
Solution B (pbw of Solution B)
UNILINK ® 420044.25
JEFFAMINE ® D200018.00
JEFFAMINE ® T500022.75
ETHACURE ® 10010.00
B100-D2000 Black0.056
ANTIBLAZE ® 1005.00

[0133] Solutions A and B were mixed together at a volume ratio of 1:1 and applied using the PCH GMP-075 Spray apparatus at a pump pressure of about 120 psi and an air spray pressure of about 10-20 psi to form a coating having a thickness of approximately 62 mils (1.55 mm). The polyurea coating had a cure time of about 15 seconds. An exterior paint was applied over the elastomeric polyurea coating as a finish coating for the exterior surface.

[0134] Finished architectural moldings were attached to the manufactured house using mechanical fasteners (i.e., screws). The finished architectural moldings included crown molding, foot molding, vertically extending moldings at the corners of the manufactured house, window treatments, and door treatments. Each of the architectural moldings comprised polystyrene foam shapes having the above-described polyurea coating thereon, and an outer finish coating of exterior paint covering the polyurea coating.

Example 12

[0135] Preparation of an Exterior Surface of a Manufactured House

[0136] An exterior surface of a manufactured house was prepared as described in Example 11 above except during the spraying step to form the exterior coating an additional spray stream containing sand was applied simultaneously and over the polyurea coating to provide a stucco-like feel to the outer surface of the polyurea coating. As in Example 11, an exterior paint was applied over the elastomeric polyurea coating as a finish coating for the exterior surface.

Example 13

[0137] Preparation of a Ceiling of a Manufactured House

[0138] A ceiling of a manufactured house was prepared using seam filler material and the elastomeric polyurea coating as described in Example 11 above except the seam filler material and the polyurea coating were applied over sheetrock as opposed to OSB board. An interior paint was applied over the elastomeric polyurea coating as a finish coating for the ceiling.

Example 14

[0139] Preparation of an Exterior Surface of a Manufactured House

[0140] An exterior surface of a manufactured house was prepared as follows. A polyurea seam filler material having the following composition was applied into and over the seams between adjacent sheets of OSB board. 12

Solution A (pbw of Solution A)
RUBINATE ® 9480  100%
Solution B (pbw of Solution B)
UNILINK ® 4200 1.25%
JEFFAMINE ® D200016.00%
ETHACURE ® 100 5.75%
JEFFAMINE ® T5000 2.00%
Titanium dioxide 60.0%
Fumed silica 15.0%

[0141] The seam filler material was applied using the low-pressure spray apparatus/floating extrusion head system described in Example 11.

[0142] Unfinished architectural moldings were attached to the manufactured house using an adhesive. The unfinished architectural moldings included crown molding, foot molding, vertically-extending moldings at the corners of the manufactured house, window treatments, and door treatments. Each of the architectural moldings comprised polystyrene foam shapes.

[0143] An elastomeric aromatic polyurea coating was then applied over the first coating, any exposed surfaces of the OSB board, and the unfinished architectural moldings. The elastomeric polyurea coating formulation shown below was sprayed over the first coating, any exposed surfaces of the OSB board, and the unfinished architectural moldings: 13

Solution A (pbw of Solution A)
RUBINATE ® 948095.00
ANTIBLAZE ® 1005.00
Solution B (pbw of Solution B)
UNILINK ® 42004.70
JEFFAMINE ® D200061.00
JEFFAMINE ® 150007.56
ETHACURE ® 10021.74
ANTIBLAZE ® 1005.00

[0144] Solutions A and B were mixed together at a volume ratio of 1:1 and applied using the PCH GMP-075 Spray apparatus at a pump pressure of about 120 psi and an air spray pressure of about 10-20 psi to form a coating having a thickness of approximately 62 mils (1.55 mm). The polyurea coating had a cure time of about 15 seconds. An exterior tan paint was applied over the wall portion of the elastomeric polyurea coating, and an exterior white paint was applied over the architectural moldings as finish coatings for the polyurea coating.

Example 15

[0145] Preparation of an Exterior Surface of a Manufactured House

[0146] An exterior surface of a manufactured house was prepared as described in Example 14 above except during the spraying step an additional spray stream containing sand was applied simultaneously and over the polyurea coating to provide a stucco-like feel to the outer surface of the polyurea coating. As in Example 14, exterior paints were applied over the wall portion of the elastomeric polyurea coating and the architectural moldings as finish coatings for the polyurea coating.

Example 16

[0147] Preparation of a Ceiling of a Manufactured House

[0148] A ceiling of a manufactured house was prepared using the seam filler material and the elastomeric polyurea coating as described in Example 14 above except the seam filler material and the polyurea coating were applied over sheetrock as opposed to OSB board. An interior paint was applied over the elastomeric polyurea coating as a finish coating for the ceiling.

[0149] While the specification has been described in detail with respect to specific embodiments thereof, it will be appreciated that those skilled in the art, upon attaining an understanding of the foregoing, may readily conceive of alterations to, variations of, and equivalents to these embodiments. Accordingly, the scope of the present invention should be assessed as that of the appended claims and any equivalents thereto.