Title:
Titanium alloy bar and method for manufacturing the same
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
The invention relates to an α+β type titanium alloy bar consisting essentially of 4 to 5% Al, 2.5 to 3.5% V, 1.5 to 2.5% Fe, 1.5 to 2.5% Mo, by mass, and balance of Ti, and having 10 to 90% of volume fraction of primary α phase, 10 μm or less of average grain size of the primary α phase, and 4 or less of aspect ratio of the grain of the primary α phase on the cross sectional plane parallel in the rolling direction of the bar. The α+β type titanium alloy bar has excellent ductility, fatigue characteristics and formability.



Inventors:
Fukai, Hideaki (Fukuyama, JP)
Ogawa, Atsushi (Tokyo, JP)
Minakawa, Kuninori (Tokyo, JP)
Application Number:
10/418252
Publication Date:
12/04/2003
Filing Date:
04/17/2003
Assignee:
JFE STEEL CORPORATION (Tokyo, JP)
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
148/670
International Classes:
B21B3/00; C22C14/00; C22F1/18; (IPC1-7): C22F1/18
View Patent Images:



Primary Examiner:
MORILLO, JANELL COMBS
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
HOLTZ, HOLTZ & VOLEK PC (NEW YORK, NY, US)
Claims:

What is claimed:



1. An α+β type titanium alloy bar consisting essentially of 4 to 5% Al, 2.5 to 3.5% V, 1.5 to 2.5% Fe, 1.5 to 2.5% Mo, by mass, and balance of Ti, and having 10 to 90% of volume fraction of primary α phase, 10 μm or less of average grain size of the primary α phase, and 4 or less of aspect ratio of the grain of the primary α phase on the cross sectional plane parallel in the rolling direction of the bar.

2. The α+β type titanium alloy bar of claim 1, wherein the volume fraction of primary α phase is 50 to 80%, and the average grain size of the primary α phase is 6 μm or less.

3. A method for manufacturing an α+β type titanium alloy bar comprising the step of hot rolling an α+β type titanium alloy consisting essentially of 4 to 5% Al, 2.5 to 3.5% V, 1.5 to 2.5% Fe, 1.5 to 2.5% Mo, by mass, and balance of Ti, while keeping the surface temperature thereof to β transus or below.

4. The method for manufacturing an α+β type titanium alloy bar of claim 3 comprising the steps of: heating an α+β type titanium alloy having a β transus of Tβ ° C. while keeping the surface temperature thereof between (Tβ−150) and Tβ ° C.; and hot rolling the heated α+β type titanium alloy while keeping the surface temperature thereof during hot rolling between (Tβ−300) and (Tβ−50) ° C. and keeping the finish surface temperature thereof, as the surface temperature immediately after the final rolling pass, between (Tβ−300) and (Tβ−100) ° C.

5. The method for manufacturing an α+β type titanium alloy bar of claim 4, wherein the α+β type titanium alloy is hot rolled at a reduction rate of 40% or less per rolling pass.

6. The method for manufacturing an α+β type titanium alloy bar of claim 4, wherein the rolling speed is selected to 6 m/sec or less when a reverse rolling mill is applied to hot rolling.

7. The method for manufacturing an α+β type titanium alloy bar of claim 4, wherein the rolling speed is selected to 1.5 m/sec or less when tandem rolling mills are applied to hot rolling.

8. The method for manufacturing an α+β type titanium alloy bar of claim 4, wherein when the α+β type titanium alloy having 3500 mm2 or larger cross sectional area in normal to the rolling direction is hot rolled to the cross sectional area of S mm2, a waiting time before starting succeeding rolling is 0.167×S1/2 or more sec.

9. The method for manufacturing an α+β type titanium alloy bar of claim 4, wherein the α+β type titanium alloy is reheated during hot rolling.

Description:
[0001] This application is a continuation application of International Application PCT/JP02/01710 (not published in English) filed Feb. 26, 2002.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0002] 1. Field of the Invention

[0003] The present invention relates to a titanium alloy bar having excellent ductility, fatigue characteristics and formability, particularly to an α+β type titanium alloy bar, and to a method for manufacturing thereof.

[0004] 2.Description of Related Arts

[0005] Owing to high strength, light weight and excellent corrosion resistance, titanium alloys are used as structural materials in the fields such as chemical plants, power generators, aircrafts and the like. Among them, an α+β type titanium alloy occupies a large percentage of use because of its high strength and relatively good formability.

[0006] Products made of titanium alloys have various shapes such as sheet, plate, bar and so on. The bar may be used as it is, or may be forged or formed in complex shapes such as a threaded fastener. Accordingly, the bar is requested to have excellent formability as well as superior ductility and fatigue characteristics.

[0007] FIG. 1 shows a typical manufacturing method of bar.

[0008] An ingot prepared by melting is forged to a billet as a base material for hot rolling. As shown in FIG. 2A and FIG. 2B, the billet is hot rolled to a bar after reheated in a reheating furnace using a reverse rolling mill or tandem rolling mills. If necessary, the billet is intermediately reheated during hot rolling to compensate the temperature needed for subsequent hot rolling.

[0009] As for a titanium alloy bar, particularly as for an α+β type titanium alloy bar, however, the temperature of billet increases during hot rolling owing to the adiabatic heat, which disturbs stable hot rolling and manufacturing of a titanium alloy bar having excellent ductility, fatigue characteristics and formability. For example, if the temperature of billet increases to β transus or above, the finally hot rolled bar has β microstructure consisting mainly of acicular α phase, thus failing in attaining superior ductility and fatigue characteristics. In addition, even as for a Ti-6Al-4V alloy having high β transus, the increase in temperature during hot rolling owing to the adiabatic heat enhances grain growth, although the temperature during hot rolling hardly exceeds β transus, thus failing in attaining excellent ductility, fatigue characteristics and formability.

[0010] To solve the problem of temperature increase during hot rolling caused by the adiabatic heat, JP-A-59-82101, (the term “JP-A” referred herein signifies the “unexamined Japanese patent publication”), discloses a rolling method in which cross sectional area reduction rate of billet is specified to 40% or less per rolling pass in α region or in α+β region. JP-A-58-25465 discloses a method in which billet is water cooled during hot rolling to suppress the temperature rise caused by the adiabatic heat. Furthermore, Article 1 “Hot Bar Rolling of Ti-6Al-4V in a Continuous Mill (Titanium '92 Science and Technology)” describes that hot rolling speed is reduced to the lower limit of keeping performance of mill in order to suppress the adiabatic heat.

[0011] The methods disclosed in JP-A-59-82101 and JP-A-58-25465, however, cannot produce a titanium alloy bar that simultaneously has excellent ductility, fatigue characteristics and formability.

[0012] Even if cross sectional area reduction rate per rolling is 40% or less according to the method of JP-A-59-82102, it is not sufficient to suppress the adiabatic heat for some kinds of titanium alloys. The method of JP-A-58-25465 also causes characteristics deterioration by hydrogen absorption caused by water cooling, and difficulty in accurate temperature control because of deformation resulted from rapid cooling.

[0013] The method described in Article 1 deals with a Ti-6Al-4V alloy. As described below, the method is not necessarily applicable to alloys which generate large adiabatic heat and therefor should be hot rolled in low temperature region, resulting in poor ductility, fatigue characteristics and formability.

[0014] FIG. 3 shows a relationship between temperature and rolling time during hot rolling for Ti-6Al-4V alloy and Ti-4.5Al-3V-2Fe-2Mo alloy.

[0015] The heating temperature was 950° C. for the Ti-6Al-4V alloy, and 850° C. for the Ti-4.5Al-3V-2Fe-2Mo alloy. The Ti-4.5Al-3V-2Fe-2Mo alloy has lower β transus than that of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy by 100° C. so that the heating temperature was reduced by the difference, thus selecting 850° C. as the heating temperature thereof. The rolling was conducted using a reverse rolling mill and tandem rolling mills, while selecting the same conditions of rolling speed, reduction rate and pass schedule to both alloys. The rolling speed of reverse rolling mill was 2.7 m/sec, and the rolling speed of tandem rolling mills was 2.25 m/sec at the final rolling pass where the rolling speed becomes the maximum for both alloys. The rolling speeds are lower than the rolling speed of Article 1 (6 m/sec). The cross sectional area reduction rate was selected to maximum 26% for both alloys.

[0016] For the case of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy, the rolling was conducted at a sufficiently lower temperature than 1000° C. which is the β transus of the alloy, thus giving favorable structure. For the case of the Ti-4.5Al-3V-2Fe-2Mo alloy, however, even if the heating temperature was decreased by the magnitude of low β transus, the low temperature rolling resulted in increased deformation resistance and in increased adiabatic heat, so the temperature increased to a temperature region exceeding the β transus, thus failed to obtain favorable microstructure. As a result, excellent ductility, fatigue characteristics and formability were not obtained. The result suggests that rolling conditions such as rolling temperature, reduction rate and time between rolling passes shall be considered, as well as the rolling speed.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0017] An object of the present invention is to provide a high strength titanium alloy bar having excellent ductility, fatigue characteristics and formability, and to provide a method of manufacturing thereof.

[0018] The object is attained by an α+β type titanium alloy bar consisting essentially of 4 to 5% Al, 2.5 to 3.5% V, 1.5 to 2.5% Fe, 1.5 to 2.5% Mo, by mass, and balance of Ti, and having 10 to 90% of volume fraction of primary α phase, 10 μm or less of average grain size of the primary α phase, and 4 or less of aspect ratio of the grain of the primary α phase on the cross sectional plane parallel in the rolling direction of the bar.

[0019] The α+β type titanium alloy bar can be manufactured by a method comprising the step of hot rolling an α+β type titanium alloy consisting essentially of 4 to 5% Al, 2.5 to 3.5% V, 1.5 to 2.5% Fe, 1.5 to 2.5% Mo, by mass, and balance of Ti, while keeping the surface temperature thereof to β transus or below.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0020] FIG. 1 shows a typical method for manufacturing a bar.

[0021] FIG. 2 shows a process for hot rolling a bar.

[0022] FIG. 3 shows a relationship between temperature and rolling time during hot rolling for Ti-6Al-4V alloy and Ti-4.5Al-3V-2Fe-2Mo alloy.

[0023] FIG. 4 shows a relationship between average grain size of primary α phase and total elongation measured by high temperature tensile test.

[0024] FIG. 5 shows a relationship between average grain size of primary α phase and fatigue strength after 108 cycles observed in fatigue test.

[0025] FIG. 6 shows temperature changes with time at surface and center.

[0026] FIG. 7 shows a relationship between cross sectional area and temperature difference between surface and center.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0027] The inventors of the present invention studied the microstructure of α+β type titanium alloy bar to provide excellent ductility, fatigue characteristics and formability, and found the followings.

[0028] The α+β type titanium alloy consists of primary α phase and transformed β phase. If, however, the alloy contains very large volume fraction of α phase that has HCP structure having little sliding system, or contains very large volume fraction of transformed β phase containing acicular α phase, formability and ductility deteriorate. Consequently, the volume fraction of primary α phase is specified to a range of from 10 to 90%. If the volume fraction of α phase and of β phase is equal or close to each other at reheating stage before hot rolling, the formability becomes better, so the volume fraction of primary α phase is preferably between 50 and 80%.

[0029] FIG. 4 shows a relationship between average grain size of primary α phase and total elongation measured by high temperature tensile test.

[0030] When the average grain size of primary α phase exceeds 10 μm, the total elongation measured by high temperature tensile test rapidly decreases, and therefore the formability degrades.

[0031] FIG. 5 shows a relationship between average grain size of primary α phase and fatigue strength after 108 cycles observed in fatigue test.

[0032] If the average grain size of primary α phase exceeds 10 μm, the fatigue strength decreases. If the average grain size of primary α phase becomes less than 6 μm, higher fatigue strength is attained.

[0033] Forging a bar induces rough surface on a free deforming plane not contacting with a mold due to the shape of grains, or due to the aspect ratio of the grains. Generally, the grains of bar tend to be elongated in the rolling direction. Particularly for the case of upset forging, elongated grains appear on a side face of the bar that becomes a free deforming plane. Therefore, it is necessary to avoid excessive increase in the aspect ratio during forging, more concretely to regulate the aspect ratio not exceeding 4 for the grains of the primary α phase on a cross section parallel in the rolling direction of the bar in order to prevent rough surface on the bar after forged.

[0034] Based on the above-described findings, a high strength titanium alloy bar having excellent ductility, fatigue characteristics and formability is obtained when the volume fraction of the primary α phase is between 10 and 90%, preferably between 50 and 80%, the average grain size in the primary α phase is 10 μm or less, preferably 6 μm or less, and further the aspect ratio of grains in the primary α phase is 4 or less.

[0035] The α+β type titanium alloy bar having above-described microstructure should consist essentially of 4 to 5% Al, 2.5 to 3.5% V, 1.5 to 2.5% Fe, 1.5 to 2.5% Mo, by mass, and balance of Ti. The reasons to limit the content of individual elements are described below.

[0036] Al

[0037] Aluminum is an essential element to stabilize the α phase and to contribute to the strength increase. If the Al content is below 4%, high strength cannot fully be attained. If the Al content exceeds 5%, ductility degrades.

[0038] V

[0039] Vanadium is an element to stabilize the β phase and to contribute to the strength increase. If the V content is below 2.5%, high strength cannot fully be attained, and β phase becomes unstable. If the V content exceeds 3.5%, range of workable temperature becomes narrow caused by the lowered β transus, and cost increases.

[0040] Mo

[0041] Molybdenum is an element to stabilize the β phase and to contribute to the strength increase. If the Mo content is below 1.5%, high strength cannot fully be attained, and β phase becomes unstable. If the Mo content exceeds 2.5%, range of workable temperature becomes narrow-caused by the lowered β transus, and cost increases.

[0042] Fe

[0043] Iron is an element to stabilize the β phase and to contribute to the strength increase. Iron rapidly diffuses to improve formability. If, however, the Fe content is below 1.5%, high strength cannot fully be attained, and the β phase becomes unstable, which results in failing to attain excellent formability. If the Fe content exceeds 2.5%, range of workable temperature becomes narrow caused by the lowered β transus, and degradation in characteristics is induced by segregation.

[0044] The α+β type titanium alloy bar according to the present invention may be manufactured by hot rolling an α+β type titanium alloy having above-described composition while adjusting the conditions of heating temperature, rolling temperature range, reduction rate, rolling speed, time between passes, and other variables to suppress the temperature rise caused by the adiabatic g heat, namely to keep the surface temperature of the alloy not exceeding the β transus. For example, the method comprises the steps of: heating an α+β type titanium alloy having β transus of Tβ ° C. so that the surface temperature ranges between (Tβ−150) and Tβ ° C.; and hot rolling the heated α+β type titanium alloy so that the surface temperature thereof during hot rolling is between (Tβ−300) and (Tβ−50) ° C., and so that the finish surface temperature thereof is between (Tβ−300) and (Tβ−100) ° C.

[0045] The reason of heating the surface before hot rolling in the range of from (Tβ−150) to Tβ ° C. is the following. If the surface temperature before hot rolling is below (Tβ−150) ° C., the decrease in temperature during the final rolling stage becomes significant to increase crack susceptibility and deformation resistance. And, if the surface temperature before hot rolling exceeds Tβ ° C., the microstructure of the bar becomes β microstructure consisting mainly of acicular α phase, which deteriorates ductility and formability. The reason of limiting the surface temperature during hot rolling to the range of from (Tβ−300) to (Tβ−50) ° C. is the following. If the surface temperature during hot rolling is below (Tβ−300) ° C., the hot formability deteriorates to induce problems such as cracking. And, if the surface temperature during hot rolling exceeds (Tβ−50) ° C., the temperature rise caused by the adiabatic heat induces coarse grains and formation of acicular phase. The reason of limiting the finish surface temperature immediately after the final rolling pass to the range of from (Tβ−300) and (Tβ−100) ° C. is the following. If the finish temperature thereof is below (Tβ−300) ° C., the crack susceptibility and the deformation resistance increase. And, if the finish temperature thereof exceeds (Tβ−100) ° C., grains become coarse.

[0046] The hot rolling is conducted by plurality of rolling passes. To prevent temperature rise caused by the adiabatic heat, it is preferable to keep the reduction rate not more than 40% per rolling pass.

[0047] When the hot rolling is conducted by a reverse rolling mill, it is preferable to limit the rolling speed not more than 6 m/sec to prevent the temperature rise caused by the adiabatic heat. When the hot rolling is conducted by tandem rolling mills, it is preferable to limit the rolling speed not more than 1.5 m/sec.

[0048] Since the alloy is cooled from surface after each rolling pass, the surface of the alloy receives temperature drop to some extent before entering succeeding pass even if a temperature rise exists caused by the adiabatic heat. As shown in FIG. 6, however, if the alloy has a large diameter (for the case of 106 mm in diameter), the temperature drop at center section of the alloy is small so that a large temperature difference appears between the surface and the center of the alloy. When the temperature drop at the center is small, the alloy is subjected to succeeding rolling pass before lowering the temperature of the center, which further increases the temperature owing to the adiabatic heat. If the phenomenon sustains, the center is hot rolled at higher temperature than the initial temperature. Consequently, the center of alloy having large diameter is required to be cooled with sufficient time between rolling passes.

[0049] To this point, the inventors of the present invention made a detailed study on the temperature difference between the surface and the center, and derived the finding described below. As shown in FIG. 7, the temperature difference significantly increases at or above 3500 mm2 of cross sectional area of alloy normal to the rolling direction thereof. When an alloy having large cross sectional area is hot rolled to S mm2 of the cross sectional area, securing the time before entering succeeding rolling at 0.167×S1/2 sec or more can make the temperature difference small and is favorable in manufacturing a bar having homogeneous characteristics.

[0050] According to the manufacturing method of the present invention, the hot rolling is carried out while keeping the surface temperature of the alloy to β transus or below, thus there is a possibility for the surface temperature to decrease to a lower than the required rolling temperature range during hot rolling depending on the time between rolling passes and on the diameter of alloy. In that case, reheating the alloy may be given using a high frequency heating unit or the like.

EXAMPLE 1

[0051] Materials having 125 square mm size were prepared by cutting each of the base alloy A01 (having composition within the range of the present invention) and the base alloy A02 (having composition outside the range of the present invention), both of which are α+β type titanium alloy having respective chemical compositions given in Table 1. The materials are hot rolled using a caliber rolling mill under respective conditions (B01 through B18) given in Table 2 to produce bars having 20 mm and 50 mm in diameter, respectively. For the time between rolling passes given in Table 2, ◯ denotes the time between rolling passes of 0.167×S1/2 or more for all the rolling passes under each rolling condition, and X denotes the time between rolling passes of less than 0.167×S1/2. Table 3 through Table 20 give cross sectional area S of alloy, reduction rate, 0.167×S1/2, time between rolling passes, surface temperature, and rolling speed on each rolling pass under each rolling condition. R in the table signifies a reverse rolling mill, and T signifies tandem rolling mills.

[0052] The produced bars were annealed at temperatures between 700 and 720° C. Tensile test was conducted to determine yield strength (0.2% PS), tensile strength (UTS), elongation (El), and reduction of area (RA). In addition, the smooth fatigue test (under the condition of Kt=1) and the notch fatigue test (under the condition of Kt=3) were given to determine fatigue strength.

[0053] Furthermore, optical microstructure examination was performed at the center of the bar and at the position of quarter of diameter (¼ D) to determine grain size of primary α phase, volume fraction of the grains, and aspect ratio of the grains on a cross section parallel in the rolling direction.

[0054] The results are given in Table 21. The columns of the microstructure in the table giving no grain size mean that the position consisted only of β microstructure consisting mainly of acicular α phase and that the equiaxed primary α phase could not be observed.

[0055] When the surface heating temperature is below (Tβ−150) ° C., the surface temperature of the alloy was excessively low, and the rolling load became excessive to fail in rolling. When the heating temperature exceeds Tβ ° C., the surface temperature of the alloy became too high even if the time between rolling passes was within the range of the present invention, which is seen under the rolling conditions of B02 and B11, so the surface temperature exceeded Tβ ° C. caused by the adiabatic heat to form β microstructure consisting mainly of acicular α phase at the center of the bar, thus deteriorated ductility and fatigue characteristics.

[0056] When the finish surface temperature was below (Tβ−300) ° C., the temperature of the alloy became too low, which deteriorated formability to generate cracks during hot rolling. When the finish surface temperature exceeded (Tβ−100) ° C., fine microstructure could not be attained, deteriorating ductility and fatigue characteristics as in the cases under the conditions of B04, B05, and B07.

[0057] When the surface temperature during hot rolling was below (Tβ−300) ° C., the surface temperature was too low, generating cracks. When the surface temperature exceeded (Tβ−50) ° C., the center and the ¼ D had β microstructure consisting mainly of acicular α phase after hot rolling, deteriorating ductility and fatigue characteristics.

[0058] When the reduction rate per rolling pass exceeded 40%, the adiabatic heat was enhanced, and the temperature of the alloy exceeded Tβ ° C., and fine microstructure could not be attained.

[0059] In the case of the rolling condition B14 which applied a reverse rolling mill and which selected the rolling speeds of higher than 6 m/sec, or in the case of rolling condition B15 which applied tandem rolling mills and which selected the rolling speeds of higher than 1.5 m/sec, the adiabatic heat became large, and the surface temperature exceeded Tβ ° C., thus failed to attain fine microstructure.

[0060] When the time between rolling passes was outside the range of the present invention, the surface temperature increase caused by the adiabatic heat overrode the temperature decrease caused by air cooling, thus the surface temperature exceeded Tβ ° C., and fine microstructure could not be attained.

[0061] With the bars using A01 which had the chemical composition within the range of the present invention and produced under the rolling conditions B01, B06, B08, B09, B16, B17, and B18, homogeneous microstructure of 10 μm or smaller grain size of primary α phase was observed, and they provided excellent ductility and fatigue characteristics. That is, further excellent ductility and fatigue characteristics could be attained giving 15% or larger elongation, 40% or larger reduction of area, 500 MPa or larger smooth fatigue strength, and 200 MPa of notch (Kt=3) fatigue strength. Furthermore, with the α+β type titanium alloy bars having 50 to 80% of volume fraction of primary α phase and 6 μm or less of average grain size of primary α phase, produced under the rolling conditions of B01, B06, B08, and B09, further excellent ductility and fatigue characteristics could be attained giving 20% or larger elongation, 50% or larger reduction of area, 550 MPa or larger smooth fatigue strength, and 200 MPa of notch (Kt=3) fatigue strength.

[0062] On the other hand, bars produced using A02 having chemical composition outside the range of the present invention under the rolling conditions of B10 and B12 could not attain satisfactory ductility and fatigue characteristics because the grain size in the primary α phase exceeded 10 μm, though the adiabatic heat was suppressed because the rolling conditions were within the range of the present invention.

EXAMPLE 2

[0063] Cylindrical specimens having 8 mm in diameter and 12 mm in height were cut from the center section in radial direction of bars produced in Example 1 under the rolling conditions B01 through B18, respectively. The specimens were heated to 800° C. and were compressed to 70%. After the compression, the occurrence of cracks and of rough surface on the surface of each specimen was inspected to give evaluation of hot forging property.

[0064] The results are shown in Table 21.

[0065] As for the bars produced under the rolling conditions of B01, B06, B08, B09, B16, B17, and B18 which were within the range of the present invention, no crack and rough surface appeared, and favorable hot forging property was obtained.

[0066] On the other hand, for the bars produced under the rolling conditions of B10 and B12 in which the grain size in the primary α phase exceeded 10 μm, rough surface appeared, though no crack was generated. As for the bars having only α phase at center and ¼ D produced under the rolling conditions of B02, B03, B04, B05, B07, B11, B14, and B15, both cracks and rough surface appeared. Furthermore, for the bars produced under the rolling condition B14 giving aspect ratios of more than 4 for the grains in a cross section parallel in the rolling direction, though giving the grain size in the primary α phase and the volume fraction within the range of the present invention, rough surface also appeared. 1

TABLE 1
β
AlloyAlVFeMoOCNHtransus
A014.73.12.11.90.10.0010.0050.0017 900° C.
A026.14.10.20.20.010.0060.00161000° C.
Unit is mass %.

[0067] 2

TABLE 2
Rolling speedFinal rolling
Maximuminspeed in
RollingTotalreductionrough rollingfinish rolling
FinishReheat-temp.FinishTimenumberrate(Reverse(Tandem
Rollingdiametering temp.rangetemp.betweenofper rollingrolling mill)rolling mills)
conditionAlloy(mm)(° C.)(° C.)(° C.)passespassespass (%)(m/sec)(m/sec)Remarks
B01A01φ20800700-8117141725.82.71.125E
B02A01φ20950755-9297651725.82.71.125C
B03A01φ20890754-9117641725.82.71.125C
B04A01φ20850818-930919842.42.71.125C
B05A01φ20800845-901865X1725.82.71.125C
B06A01φ50800711-8047311218.42.71.125E
B07A01φ50830864-909874X1218.42.71.125C
B08A01φ20800670-8126901725.82.71.125E
B09A01φ20820721-8297261725.82.71.125E
B10A02φ20900791-8878061725.82.71.125C
B11A02φ201050 815-10248251725.82.71.125C
B12A02φ50900810-9068301218.42.71.125C
B13A01φ20920698-9286981725.82.71.125C
B14A01φ20800774-9117741725.810.81.125C
B15A01φ20800719-9108641725.82.72.250C
B16A01φ50830764-8457661218.42.71.125E
B17A01φ20830757-8427771725.82.71.125E
B18A01φ20865772-8507721725.82.71.125E
E: Example,
C: Comparative example
Numerals with underline signify that they are outside the range of the present invention.

[0068] 3

TABLE 3
Rolling condition: B01
Number
ofCross sectionalReduction0.167{square root}{square root over (S)}Time betweenRolling speedTemp.Rolling
passesarea (mm2)rate (*)(sec)passes (sec)(m/sec)(° C.)mill
15625
11300016.819.0252.7790R
21100015.417.5252.7796R
3950013.616.3252.7801R
4800015.814.9252.7803R
5650018.813.5252.7811R
6520020.012.0252.7801R
7415020.210.8252.7779R
8330020.59.6252.7761R
9245025.88.3252.7738R
10185024.57.2252.7719R
11145021.66.450.350721T
12115020.75.750.466732T
1390021.75.050.581739T
1470022.24.450.733745T
1555021.43.950.871741T
1642023.63.450.982730T
1732023.81.125714T

[0069] 4

TABLE 4
Rolling condition: B02
Number
ofCross sectionalReduction0.167{square root}{square root over (S)}Time betweenRolling speedTemp.Rolling
passesarea (mm2)rate (*)(sec)passes (sec)(m/sec)(° C.)mill
15625
11300016.819.0252.7929R
21100015.417.5252.7925R
3950013.616.3252.7919R
4800015.814.9252.7913R
5650018.813.5252.7911R
6520020.012.0252.7900R
7415020.210.8252.7891R
8330020.59.6252.7880R
9245025.88.3252.7868R
10185024.57.2252.7860R
11145021.66.450.350852T
12115020.75.750.466839T
1390021.75.050.581829T
1470022.24.450.733822T
1555021.43.950.871803T
1642023.63.450.982785T
1732023.81.125765T

[0070] 5

TABLE 5
Rolling condition: B03
Number
ofCross sectionalReduction0.167{square root}{square root over (S)}Time betweenRolling speedTemp.Rolling
passesarea (mm2)rate (*)(sec)passes (sec)(m/sec)(° C.)mill
15625
11300016.819.0252.7890R
21100015.417.5252.7894R
3950013.616.3252.7899R
4800015.814.9252.7906R
5650018.813.5252.7911R
6520020.012.0252.7902R
7415020.210.8252.7889R
8330020.59.6252.7881R
9245025.88.3252.7867R
10185024.57.2252.7860R
11145021.66.450.350852T
12115020.75.750.466839T
1390021.75.050.581830T
1470022.24.450.733820T
1555021.43.950.871803T
1642023.63.450.982784T
1732023.81.125764T

[0071] 6

TABLE 6
Rolling condition: B04
Number
ofCross sectionalReduction0.167{square root}{square root over (S)}Time betweenRolling speedTemp.Rolling
passesarea (mm2)rate (*)(sec)passes (sec)(m/sec)(° C.)mill
15625
1930040.519.0252.7849R
2550040.917.5252.7865R
3330040.016.3252.7879R
4190042.414.9252.7896R
5110042.113.5252.7912R
666040.012.0252.7921R
740039.410.8252.7930R
832020.02.7919R

[0072] 7

TABLE 7
Rolling condition: B05
Number
ofCross sectionalReduction0.167{square root}{square root over (S)}Time betweenRolling speedTemp.Rolling
passesarea (mm2)rate (*)(sec)passes (sec)(m/sec)(° C.)mill
15625
11300016.819.0102.7791R
21100015.417.5102.7805R
3950013.616.3102.7819R
4800015.814.9102.7836R
5650018.813.5102.7850R
6520020.012.0102.7865R
7415020.210.8102.7871R
8330020.59.6102.7875R
9245025.88.3102.7879R
10185024.57.2102.7884R
11145021.66.450.350901T
12115020.75.750.466899T
1390021.75.050.581895T
1470022.24.450.733895T
1555021.43.950.871883T
1642023.63.450.982875T
1732023.81.125860T

[0073] 8

TABLE 8
Rolling condition: B06
Number
ofCross sectionalReduction0.167{square root}{square root over (S)}Time betweenRolling speedTemp.Rolling
passesarea (mm2)rate (*)(sec)passes (sec)(m/sec)(° C.)mill
15625
11300016.819.0252.7791R
21100015.417.5252.7796R
3950013.616.3252.7801R
4800015.814.9252.7804R
5670016.313.7252.7806R
6600010.512.9252.7784R
7520013.312.0252.7764R
8465010.611.4252.7746R
9380018.310.3252.7733R
10310018.49.350.622733T
11260016.18.550.837734T
12221015.01.125731T

[0074] 9

TABLE 9
Rolling condition: B07
Number
ofCross sectionalReduction0.167{square root}{square root over (S)}Time betweenRolling speedTemp.Rolling
passesarea (mm2)rate (*)(sec)passes (sec)(m/sec)(° C.)mill
15625
11300016.819.0102.7819R
21100015.417.5102.7836R
3950013.616.3102.7849R
4800015.814.9102.7873R
5670016.313.7102.7879R
6600010.512.9102.7896R
7520013.312.0102.7901R
8465010.611.4102.7904R
9380018.310.352.7909R
10310018.49.350.622902T
11260016.18.550.837883T
12221015.01.125874T

[0075] 10

TABLE 10
Rolling condition: B08
Number
ofCross sectionalReduction0.167{square root}{square root over (S)}Time betweenRolling speedTemp.Rolling
passesarea (mm2)rate (*)(sec)passes (sec)(m/sec)(° C.)mill
15625
11300016.819.0252.7790R
21100015.417.5252.7795R
3950013.616.3252.7799R
4800015.814.9252.7804R
5650018.813.5252.7812R
6520020.012.0252.7800R
7415020.210.8252.7780R
8330020.59.6252.7759R
9245025.88.3252.7741R
10185024.57.2252.7720R
11145021.66.4100.350719T
12115020.75.7100.466724T
1390021.75.0100.581730T
1470022.24.4100.733729T
1555021.43.9100.871721T
1642023.63.4100.982705T
1732023.81.125690T

[0076] 11

TABLE 11
Rolling condition: B09
Number
ofCross sectionalReduction{square root}{square root over (S)}Time betweenRolling speedTemp.Rolling
passesarea (mm2)rate (*)(sec)passes (sec)(m/sec)(° C.)mill
15625
11300016.819.0252.7810R
21100015.417.5252.7816R
3950013.616.3252.7821R
4800015.814.9252.7824R
5650018.813.5252.7829R
6520020.012.0252.7821R
7415020.210.8252.7800R
8330020.59.6252.7779R
9245025.88.3252.7761R
10185024.57.2252.7749R
11145021.66.450.350741T
12115020.75.750.466751T
1390021.75.050.581760T
1470022.24.450.733766T
1555021.43.950.871761T
1642023.63.450.982751T
1732023.81.125726T

[0077] 12

TABLE 12
Rolling condition: B10
Number
ofCross sectionalReduction{square root}{square root over (S)}Time betweenRolling speedTemp.Rolling
passesarea (mm2)rate (*)(sec)passes (sec)(m/sec)(° C.)mill
15625
11300016.819.0252.7886R
21100015.417.5252.7884R
3950013.616.3252.7884R
4800015.814.9252.7887R
5650018.813.5252.7885R
6520020.012.0252.7859R
7415020.210.8252.7841R
8330020.59.6252.7820R
9245025.88.3252.7800R
10185024.57.2252.7791R
11145021.66.450.350801T
12115020.75.750.466810T
1390021.75.050.581830T
1470022.24.450.733836T
1555021.43.950.871829T
1642023.63.450.982821T
1732023.81.125806T

[0078] 13

TABLE 13
Rolling condition: B11
Number
ofCross sectionalReduction{square root}{square root over (S)}Time betweenRolling speedTemp.Rolling
passesarea (mm2)rate (*)(sec)passes (sec)(m/sec)(° C.)mill
15625
11300016.819.0252.71024R
21100015.417.5252.71015R
3950013.616.3252.71003R
4800015.814.9252.7996R
5650018.813.5252.7985R
6520020.012.0252.7969R
7415020.210.8252.7961R
8330020.59.6252.7949R
9245025.88.3252.7930R
10185024.57.2252.7921R
11145021.66.450.350911T
12115020.75.750.466901T
1390021.75.050.581891T
1470022.24.450.733881T
1555021.43.950.871864T
1642023.63.450.982845T
1732023.81.125825T

[0079] 14

TABLE 14
Rolling condition: B12
Number
ofCross sectionalReduction{square root}{square root over (S)}Time betweenRolling speedTemp.Rolling
passesarea (mm2)rate (*)(sec)passes (sec)(m/sec)(° C.)mill
15625
11300016.819.0252.7891R
21100015.417.5252.7895R
3950013.616.3252.7899R
4800015.814.9252.7905R
5670016.313.7252.7906R
6600010.512.9252.7886R
7520013.312.0252.7865R
8465010.611.4252.7845R
9380018.310.3252.7836R
10310018.49.350.622835T
11260016.18.550.837834T
12221015.01.125830T

[0080] 15

TABLE 15
Rolling condition: B13
Number
ofCross sectionalReduction{square root}{square root over (S)}Time betweenRolling speedTemp.Rolling
passesarea (mm2)rate (*)(sec)passes (sec)(m/sec)(° C.)mill
15625
11300016.819.0252.7929R
21100015.417.5252.7925R
3950013.616.3252.7919R
4800015.814.9252.7913R
5650018.813.5252.7911R
6520020.012.0252.7900R
7415020.210.8252.7891R
8330020.59.6252.7880R
9245025.88.3252.7868R
10185024.57.2252.7850R
11145021.66.4100.350832T
12115020.75.7100.466804T
1390021.75.0100.581777T
1470022.24.4100.733749T
1555021.43.9100.871728T
1642023.63.4100.982713T
1732023.81.125698T

[0081] 16

TABLE 16
Rolling condition: B14
Number
ofCross sectionalReduction{square root}{square root over (S)}Time betweenRolling speedTemp.Rolling
passesarea (mm2)rate (*)(sec)passes (sec)(m/sec)(° C.)mill
15625
11300016.819.02510.8810R
21100015.417.52510.8836R
3950013.616.32510.8861R
4800015.814.92510.8883R
5650018.813.52510.8911R
6520020.012.02510.8901R
7415020.210.82510.8869R
8330020.59.6251.8841R
9245025.88.32510.8808R
10185024.57.22510.8779R
11145021.66.4100.350781T
12115020.75.7100.466792T
1390021.75.0100.581799T
1470022.24.4100.733805T
1555021.43.9100.871801T
1642023.63.4100.982790T
1732023.81.125774T

[0082] 17

TABLE 17
Rolling condition: B15
Number
ofCross sectionalReduction{square root}{square root over (S)}Time betweenRolling speedTemp.Rolling
passesarea (mm2)rate (*)(sec)passes (sec)(m/sec)(° C.)mill
15625
11300016.819.0252.7790R
21100015.417.5252.7796R
3950013.616.3252.7801R
4800015.814.9252.7803R
5650018.813.5252.7811R
6520020.012.0252.7801R
7415020.210.8252.7779R
8330020.59.6252.7761R
9245025.88.3252.7738R
10185024.57.2252.7719R
11145021.66.450.700751T
12115020.75.750.932782T
1390021.75.051.162829T
1470022.24.451.466865T
1555021.43.951.742891T
1642023.63.451.964910T
1732023.81.500864T

[0083] 18

TABLE 18
Rolling condition: B16
Number
ofCross sectionalReduction{square root}{square root over (S)}Time betweenRolling speedTemp.Rolling
passesarea (mm2)rate (*)(sec)passes (sec)(m/sec)(° C.)mill
15625
11300016.819.0252.7821R
21100015.417.5252.7817R
3950013.616.3252.7834R
4800015.814.9252.7838R
5670016.313.7252.7845R
6600010.512.9252.7824R
7520013.312.0252.7794R
8465010.611.4252.7776R
9380018.310.3252.7767R
10310018.49.350.622764T
11260016.18.550.837769T
12221015.01.125766T

[0084] 19

TABLE 19
Rolling condition: B17
Number
ofCross sectionalReduction0.167{square root}{square root over (S)}Time betweenRolling speedTemp.Rolling
passesarea (mm2)rate (*)(sec)passes (sec)(m/sec)(° C.)mill
15625
11300016.819.0252.7822R
21100015.417.5252.7825R
3950013.616.3252.7833R
4800015.814.9252.7834R
5650018.813.5252.7842R
6520020.012.0252.7830R
7415020.210.8252.7809R
8330020.59.6252.7790R
9245025.88.3252.7765R
10185024.57.2252.7757R
11145021.66.450.350759T
12115020.75.750.466772T
1390021.75.050.581771T
1470022.24.450.733774T
1555021.43.950.871771T
1642023.63.450.982779T
1732023.81.125777T

[0085] 20

TABLE 18
Rolling condition: B18
Number
ofCross sectionalReduction{square root}{square root over (S)}Time betweenRolling speedTemp.Rolling
passesarea (mm2)rate (*)(sec)passes (sec)(m/sec)(° C.)mill
15625
11300016.819.0252.7850R
21100015.417.5252.7847R
3950013.616.3252.7847R
4800015.814.9252.7845R
5650018.813.5252.7844R
6520020.012.0252.7845R
7415020.210.8252.7843R
8330020.59.6252.7834R
9245025.88.3252.7830R
10185024.57.2252.7829R
11145021.66.450.350821T
12115020.75.750.466814T
1390021.75.050.581803T
1470022.24.450.733794T
1555021.43.950.871790T
1642023.63.450.982782T
1732023.81.125772T

[0086] 21

TABLE 21
FatigueMicrostructure (primary α)Forging
strength1/4DCenter sectioncharacteristics
Rolling0.2%SmoothNotchGrainVolumeGrainVolumeOccur-Occurrence
con-PSUTSE1RAtesttestsizefractionAspectsizefractionAspectrenceof rough
dition(MPa)(MPa)(%)(%)(Kt = 1)(Kt = 3)(μm)(%)ratio(μm)(%)ratioof cracksurfaceRemark
B01931103020.451.95652302.5661.52.7661.8NotNotE
occurredoccurred
B0288510093.512.33501203.7594.1OccurredOccurredC
B0387910104.113.53551253.4584.4OccurredOccurredC
B0488110114.111.6365115OccurredOccurredC
B0587410143.811.13601003.8294.2OccurredOccurredC
B06921102020.050.85602255.4602.15.8682.2NotNotE
occurredoccurred
B0788710053.712.13551205.9314.3OccurredOccurredC
B08930103020.552.35702401.7671.91.9692.3NotNotE
occurredoccurred
B09929102720.150.15502104.1621.74.9642.1NotNotE
occurredoccurred
B10911101914.843.348018511.4892.812.0883.2NotOccurredC
occurred
B1186310123.69.82309513.2852.9OccurredOccurredC
B12902101113.842.144017514.5803.015.0893.4NotOccurredC
occurred
B1389998712.138.23951555.5854.25.8874.5 NotOccurredC
occurred
B1488497113.734.53451155.2844.2OccurredOccurredC
B1589495511.933.33401205.3814.3OccurredOccurredC
B16910101417.440.15052056.2632.56.4602.7NotNotE
occurredoccurred
B17914102118.342.35102055.8642.76.3612.9NotNotE
occurredoccurred
B18902100815.640.15002006.5603.16.6603.3NotNotE
occurredoccurred
E: Example,
C: Comparative example