Title:
Loading device for kinetic operation automatic or semi-automatic rifles
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
A loading device for kinetic operation automatic or semi-automatic rifles (11), comprising, housed inside a housing (23), a breechblock (24) of a barrel (25) of the rifle (11), the breechblock (24) being functionally associated with a feeder mechanism (22) by mean of a loading kinematism, wherein the feeder mechanism (22) supports at least one element (30), suitable for accumulating part of the recoil inertia energy of the rifle (11) transferring it onto an elastic element (15), which determines the loading of the firearm.



Inventors:
Pescini, Giuseppe (Rovato, IT)
Application Number:
10/376997
Publication Date:
12/04/2003
Filing Date:
02/28/2003
Assignee:
PESCINI GIUSEPPE
Primary Class:
International Classes:
F41A9/18; F41A9/49; (IPC1-7): F41A3/00; F41C7/00
View Patent Images:
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Primary Examiner:
CHAMBERS, TROY
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
HEDMAN & COSTIGAN, P.C. (NEW YORK, NY, US)
Claims:
1. Loading device for kinetic operation automatic or semi-automatic rifles (11), of the type comprising, housed inside a housing (23), at least one breechblock (24) of at least one barrel (25) of said rifle (11), said breechblock (24) being functionally associated with at least one feeder mechanism (22) through at least one loading kinematism, characterised in that said feeder mechanism (22) supports a swing block (30), suitable for accumulating part of the recoil inertia energy of the rifle (11) transferring it onto at least one elastic element (15), which determines the loading of the firearm.

2. Loading device according to claim 1, characterised in that said elastic element (15) consists of a synthetic element from the elastomer family, suitable for regulating the actions and responses during firing thanks to a suitable change in shape of said elastomeric element acting upon variable load diagrams according to design parameters.

3. Loading device according to claim 2, characterised in that said feeder mechanism (22) comprises at least one tubular tank (31) having one end integral with said housing (23), said tank (31) having an opposite end equipped with a blind base realised through at least one plug extension (36) of at least one shaft (37) which carried, at a free front end thereof, a knob (38), on said tank (31) and in abutment against a sleeve extension (32) of said housing (23) being inserted a spring (43) locked at an opposite end by a shaped bush (44), said shaped bush (44) having at least one groove (45) in which at least one tailpiece (46) for connecting to said loading kinematism is inserted.

4. Loading device according to claim 3, characterised in that on said shaft (37) and in abutment against a ring (41) for the attachment of said barrel (25), said feeder mechanism (22) carried at least said elastomeric element (15) and said swing block (30).

5. Loading device according to claim 1, characterised in that said breechblock (24) is of the type with a locking latch (26), said latch (26) being housed inside said breechblock (24) and having at least one tooth-shaped protrusion (27) which can engage in at least one recess of a portion of said housing (23) to close tight a chamber of a barrel (25) of said rifle (11).

6. Loading device according to claim 2, characterised in that said elastomeric element (15) allows the vibrations to be reduced and allows softer movements in the act of firing, for simple control of the stability of the firearm during firing.

7. Loading device according to claim 2, characterised in that said elastomeric element (15) allows the reloading action of the rifle (11) to be divided into different behaviours, by studying the shapes, the sections and the couplings of said element (15), according to the power of the ammunition to be fired.

8. Loading device according to claim 1, characterised in that said elastic element (15) is made from synthetic material and is suitable for being used as a single piece or in combination with other operating systems, such as gas recovery, short barrel-recoil or opening delay systems.

9. Loading device according to claim 8, characterised in that said element made from synthetic material can also be used in mixed operation firearms (semi-automatic and manual), determining solutions with the maximum simplicity and the minimum weight.

Description:
[0001] The present invention refers to a loading device for kinetic operation automatic or semi-automatic rifles. The loading device for automatic or semi-automatic rifles can have different operating principles, based upon which we can distinguish:

[0002] gas recovery fixed barrel rifles, in which the gases generated by the firing of a cartridge are in part used to rearm a loading kinematism through a feeder mechanism equipped with a piston and a cylinder;

[0003] barrel recoil rifles (with a long or short recoil), in which the barrel, having the possibility of moving in the opposite direction to that in which the projectiles leave, determines a thrust and the actuation of the feeder mechanism, which, in turn, takes care of rearming the loading kinematism;

[0004] pump-action rifles, i.e. manual bolt-action rifles, in which the loading kinematism is actuated by the hand of the firer which pulls back a mobile shaft which is integral with the feeder mechanism;

[0005] inertia or kinetic fixed barrel rifles, in which the feeder mechanism which rearms the loading kinematism is actuated through the kinetic energy of the recoil (FIG. 1).

[0006] In particular, hereafter reference shall be made to a smooth-bore rifle equipped with a semi-automatic loading device with inertia or kinetic operating principle, i.e. a rifle equipped with a so-called mixed loading device (semi-automatic-pump), where the semi-automatic function is in any case determined by the kinetic principle.

[0007] For some time inertial or kinetic operation rifles have been on the market, an example of which is shown in FIG. 1, generally indicated with 11.

[0008] Such conventional rifles have, in their breech area, a breechblock latch 13 of the breech itself and, moreover, a kinetic spring 14, placed between the latch 13 and the rear element of the breechblock 12 with respect to the direction in which the rifle 11 is supposed to be held.

[0009] Following a shot, the breechblock 12 of the rifle 11, from the closed position, due to the inertia force in the opposite direction to the recoil force, advances along a central axis of symmetry in the same direction as the fired projectiles, compressing the kinetic spring 14. Such a kinetic spring 14, compressed, accumulates energy which it releases at a second moment, expanding and causing the sliding back of the breechblock 12 in which the feeder mechanism slides, which rearms the loading kinematism. During the sliding back motion all of the kinematisms which carry out the operating cycle of the rifle 11 are actuated chronologically arranging them for another shot.

[0010] The kinetic spring 14, which constitutes the essential element of kinetic loading devices and which determines the operating characteristics of the rifle 11, in conventional embodiments is bound by strict geometric and dimensional limitations. This prevents its optimisation in terms of comfort for the firer and limited stresses for the firearm.

[0011] The purpose of the present invention is that of eliminating the aforementioned technical drawbacks, realising a loading device for kinetic operation automatic or semi-automatic rifles, which has reduced bulk and determines a less rigid and more optimised and gradual operation.

[0012] Another purpose of the invention is that of realising a loading device for kinetic operation automatic or semi-automatic rifles which is substantially simple, safe and reliable.

[0013] These and other purposes, according to the present invention, are accomplished by realising a loading device for kinetic operation automatic or semi-automatic rifles according to claim 1.

[0014] Other characteristics of the present invention are, moreover, defined in the subsequent claims.

[0015] As already stated previously, the prior art foresees kinetic or inertia operation semi-automatic firearms in which the kinetic rearming thrust is activated, even in different points, by springs which are spiral, disc or cup-shaped, indifferently, made from steel which may be more or less special.

[0016] It is clear that a spring of this type, according to its design, can be more or less rigid and with more varied parameters. All of its actions and behaviour are, however, essentially regulated by the general characteristics of the springs.

[0017] Regarding this, on kinetic operation firearms, the characteristics of the spring, although necessary for correct operation, determine some negative consequences which are now implicit and accepted for this type of operation.

[0018] Some of these negative components concern vibrations, action and rest times which are too violent and loading diagrams which are essentially linear and subject to the physical laws of springs.

[0019] The described negative effects for the user mean greater discomfort when firing and more difficulty in controlling the stability of the firearm during firing, especially if it is a light firearm.

[0020] Violent actions and vibrations also produce greater stresses for the mechanical components of the firearm, decreasing their average working life.

[0021] Therefore, it can be summarised that kinetic operation firearms, which represent an enormous advantage for constructive simplicity, lower costs and lower maintenance needs, on the other hand are not very comfortable when firing above all in rifles which the market requires to be ever lighter.

[0022] So far, however, the advantages which are achieved on kinetic firearms, with respect to other techniques, such as “gas recovery”, “with a long barrel recoil” or “with opening delay”, largely overcome the negative effects described previously.

[0023] The object of the present invention thus proposes adding to the indisputable advantages of the inertia system with further advantages of use of the firearm which is thus optimised in all aspects.

[0024] Further characteristics and advantages of a loading device for kinetic operation automatic or semi-automatic rifles, according to the present invention, shall become clearer from the following description, given as an example and not for limiting purposes, referring to the attached schematic drawings, in which:

[0025] FIG. 1 partially shows a section view of a rifle which adopts a loading device with conventional kinetic operating principle;

[0026] FIG. 2 partially shows a section view of a rifle which adopts a loading device with kinetic operating principle, according to the present invention;

[0027] FIG. 3 shows a Cartesian diagram relative to the curve of the force applied in relation to the squashing produced in a conventional spring;

[0028] FIG. 4 shows a Cartesian diagram relative to the curve of the force applied in relation to the squashing produced in an elastomer.

[0029] FIG. 2 shows, in particular, a loading device for kinetic operation automatic or semi-automatic rifles 11, according to the present invention, where, inside a housing 23, a breechblock 24 of a barrel 25 of the rifle 11 is housed so that it can slide.

[0030] The breechblock 24 is of the per se known type with a locking latch 26, according to which the latch 26 is housed inside the breechblock 24 and has a tooth-shaped protrusion 27, which can engage in a recess of a portion of the housing 23 to close tight a chamber of the barrel 25 of the rifle 11.

[0031] Inside the breechblock 24, moreover, a firing pin 29 is housed which, in known embodiments, is equipped with suitable springs (not illustrated in the figures for the sake of simplicity) for keeping it in rest position.

[0032] The breechblock 24 is functionally associated with a feeder mechanism 22 through a loading kinematism, which is not shown for the sake of simplicity.

[0033] The feeder mechanism 22 comprises a tubular tank 31 with one end equipped with a cartridge feeding opening and an opposite end equipped with a blind base.

[0034] The cartridge feeding opening of the tank 31 is integral with the housing 23, locked in a sleeve extension thereof 32. On the front of the extension 32 are placed a folding lever 33, which locks the cartridges 34 inside the tank 31, by means of a tailpiece which interferes with a base portion of the cartridges 34 themselves, and a lifter 35, suitable for carrying the cartridges 34 fed from the tank 31 into a position at the front of the barrel 25. The blind base is realised through a plug extension 36 of a shaft 37, which carries a knob 38 at a free front end thereof.

[0035] The plug extension 36 is screwed onto the body of the tank 31 and carries a spring 39 equipped at its free end with a plug 40, which pushes the cartridges 34 contained in it towards the outlet opening of the tank 31.

[0036] The shaft 37 is supported in a through-hole formed on a ring 41 for attaching the barrel 25 to the housing 23 and in a bushed seat 42 formed in a front portion of the housing 23, integral with the ring 41 of the barrel 25.

[0037] On the tank 31 and in abutment against the extension 32 of the housing 23, a spring 43 is inserted, locked at an opposite end by a shaped bush 44.

[0038] The bush 44 has a groove, in which a per se known tailpiece 46 for the connection of a loading kinematism is inserted.

[0039] On the shaft 37 and in abutment against the ring 41, the feeder mechanism 30, according to the invention, carries a synthetic element 15, in particular made from an elastomer, inserted inside a blind hole of a swing block 30.

[0040] The elastomer 15 is able to accumulate part of the inertia energy of the recoil of the rifle, whereas the swing block 30 is arranged in a frontal position with respect to the bush 44 which is operatively connected to the breechblock 24, through the tailpiece 46 of the loading kinematism.

[0041] The use of a synthetic element from the elastomer family allows the actions and responses during firing to be adjusted, changing the form of the elastomer, so as to control the behaviour acting upon load diagrams which are variable according to rules dependent exclusively upon design requirements.

[0042] To this can be added the characteristics of elastomers themselves, which allow the reduction in vibrations and allow softer movements to be obtained, reducing the exasperation of the behaviour of metal elements.

[0043] FIGS. 3 and 4 show the behavioural differences of an elastomer with respect, for example, to a conventional steel spring. From this it can be deduced that, in a conventional spring, the load S (squashing produced) is proportional, according to a variable angle α, to the force F applied (line R of the Cartesian diagram of FIG. 3), whereas in the case of an elastomer the relationship between load S and force F applied is non-linear (curves H and K of FIG. 4).

[0044] It is clear, therefore, that by using the elastomer 15 it is possible, for example, to divide the reloading action of the rifle 11 into different behaviours, such as rapid action and breaking action, by simply studying the shapes, the sections and the couplings of the elastomer element.

[0045] Such a possibility, which is extremely important for a firearm intended to fire ammunition of various powers, allows both the highly elastic behaviour (for small powers) and stronger behaviour (for powerful loads) to be exploited, so as to dissipate part of the excess power, which determines greater stress.

[0046] Indeed, at the time of firing the recoil of the rifle causes the translation of the swing block 30, by inertia, in the same direction as the projectiles fired, causing the compression of the elastic element 15.

[0047] Then the elastomer 15 expands releasing the accumulated energy and pushing back the swing block 30, which goes into abutment against the bush 44 which, in turn, makes the breechblock 24 translate, through the loading kinematism. The motion of the breechblock 24 then causes the actuation of the kinematisms which complete the operation of the rifle and arrange them for another shot.

[0048] From the description which has been made the characteristics of the loading device for kinetic operation automatic or semi-automatic rifles, object of the present invention, are clear, just as the advantages are also clear.

[0049] In particular, the embodiment in variable shapes and sizes, according to the requirements of the firearm, of a loading device for a smooth-bore semi-automatic rifle, comprising an element made from composite material of the elastomer family, allows operation of the rifle which is not very rigid to be obtained, with advantages in terms of less stresses on the firearm and good comfort for the shooter.

[0050] The element can also be made from synthetic material, as a single piece or in combination with other operating systems, for example in combination with gas recovery, short barrel-recoil or opening delay systems. The elastomeric element also in these cases optimises the behaviour of the firearm, integrating it with the systems described previously and, moreover, can also be used mixed operation firearms (semi-automatic and manual) in these cases determining solutions with the maximum simplicity and the minimum weight.

[0051] It is clear that numerous other variants can be brought to the loading device in question, without for this reason departing from the novelty principles inherent to the inventive idea, just as it is clear that, in the practical embodiment of the invention, the materials, the shapes and the sizes of the illustrated details can be whatever according to the requirements and they can be replaced with others which are technically equivalent.





 
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