Title:
Recycled building component systems
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
A recycled building system consisting of various interlocking and non-interlocking building blocks (FIGS. 1A, 1B, 1C) and building panels (FIG. 5A) made with recycled materials used to replace wood, cement, adobe brick or other typical building materials in the construction of real estate, further providing means to recycle waste in large quantities.



Inventors:
Busch, Dario Francisco (St. Louis, MO, US)
Nicholas, John Christopher (St. Louis, MO, US)
Application Number:
10/407604
Publication Date:
10/09/2003
Filing Date:
04/04/2003
Assignee:
BUSCH DARIO FRANCISCO
NICHOLAS JOHN CHRISTOPHER
Primary Class:
International Classes:
C04B18/16; E04C2/16; E04C2/52; (IPC1-7): E04B2/90
View Patent Images:
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Primary Examiner:
BROWN, PETER R
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
BUSCHWORLD (ST. LOUIS, MO, US)
Claims:
1. A building system comprising of components manufactured with recycled materials and used for construction in accordance to the invention. a) Whereby producing a rigid building material comprising a mixture of recycled materials and a binding compound filling the interstices between and adhering the recycled materials, whereby a hardened, rigid, and strong matrix for building will be provided. b) Whereas providing means for mass recycling municipal, industrial and power plant Bi-product into real estate.

Description:

REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application claims priority over provisional patent application No. 60/370544 filed on Apr. 5, 2002.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION—FIELD OF THE INVENTION

[0002] This invention is related to recycling, construction and building materials.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0003] Wood frame, brick, adobe and cement are typical building materials used when building real estate, but using said materials often means sacrificing quality to minimize cost and contributing to the degradation of our planet. Furthermore, power plants and other coal-fired industries massively pollute Mother Earth by land filling or dumping billions of tons of Bi-product every year. These facts alone create negative environmental and construction issues. Some of the issues consist of, but are not limited to, the mass killing of wooded land in order to extract lumber, the mass dumping of fly ash and waste wood and the lesser construction quality achieved by typical building materials in order to comply with the economic requirements. Many other issues will, in part, be obvious and will, in part, be apparent from the specification.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION—OBJECTS AND ADVANTAGES

[0004] Realizing the demand for a solution to the mentioned problems, the inventors developed various building systems leading to the creation of the invention, a recycled building component system in accordance to the invention. The recycled building component system invented is composed with fly ash, which is coal ash recovered from power plants, landfills and many coal -fired industries. Another ingredient in said components is waste wood, recovered from private and municipal sources such as landfills and other sources.

[0005] The recycled building component system in accordance with the invention will minimize, or nearly eliminate, the exploitation of our forests for lumber, which averages over 1 acre of trees per home built. It will also reduce the mass dumping of municipal, industrial and power-plant-Bi-product such as, but not limited to, fly ash and waste wood. It will also help reduce the need to pollute the environment with cement production for the manufacturing of building materials. Cement production causes harmful Bi-product, such as massive amounts of air pollutants.

[0006] The use of the recycled building component system in accordance with the invention, billions of tons of municipal and industrial Bi-product will be mass recycled into high quality and efficient real estate rather than dumped. More than 60 tons of recycled materials can be recycled per home built and much more on larger construction projects.

[0007] A recycled building component system in accordance to the invention is a viable solution to the problems mentioned above and in full compliance with applicable ASTM and BOCA building standards, as tested and certified by Geotechnologies Inc, in St. Louis Mo. USA. Many other advantages will, in part, be obvious and will, in part, be apparent from the specification.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0008] The invention is a building component system made with recycled materials and is intended as a replacement for concrete block, brick, adobe, wood and other building products in construction and used as means to mass recycle waste wood and fly ash in mass quantities. In a preferred embodiment, said recycled building component is R-16 to R-40 self-insulating, it has a 4.5 to 5.0-hour fire rating, it has a sound absorption coefficient of #30-60 it accepts screws and nails, it is made with recycled materials, it is seismically superior and it is non-toxic or hazardous.

[0009] (01) Providing building components made with recycled materials.

[0010] (02) Minimizing the use of wood, concrete, brick and other non-recycled building materials.

[0011] (03) Providing real estate built with recycled materials

[0012] (04) Mass recycling municipal and industrial Bi-product.

[0013] (05) Further objects and advantages of the invention will, in part, be obvious and will, in part, be apparent from the specification.

[0014] The invention accordingly comprises the features of construction, combination of elements, arrangement of parts, combination of steps and procedures, all of which will be exemplified in the constructions and processes hereinafter set forth and the scope of the invention will be indicated in the claims.

DRAWINGS—FIGURES

[0015] In the drawings, closely related figures have the same number but different alphabetic suffixes.

[0016] FIG. 1A shows a standard 6″×6″×20″ non-interlocking block component.

[0017] FIG. 1B shows a standard 6″×6″×20″ interlocking block component.

[0018] FIG. 1C shows a standard 8″×10″×16″ interlocking block component.

[0019] FIG. 2A shows an example of the rebar layout in standard block wall.

[0020] FIG. 3A shows a typical foundation and how it accommodates a ledger board, hat channel, anchor and floor joist.

[0021] FIG. 4A shows the starting point for rebar placement in the corner of a block wall.

[0022] FIG. 5A shows a standard panel component revealing the grooves for electricity and the interlocking tongue.

[0023] FIG. 6A shows how the panel component is placed on top of the hat channel for alignment. 1

DRAWINGS - REFERENCE NUMERALS
10: holes for rebar12: holes for electric chases
14: vertical rebar16: floor joist
18: joist hanger20: ledger board
22: rebar anchor24: hat channel
26: wedge anchors for hat channel28: grooves for electric
30: groove for threaded rod

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

[0024] The recycled building component system consists of various sizes of interlocking and non-interlocking blocks and panels used for building real estate. Technical data and description of characteristics:

[0025] (01) ASTM C-518 (insulation value): R-value of R16-R40 depending on model and thickness.

[0026] (02) ASTM E-136 (fire/combustibility): Application of a direct flame from a propane torch to the component's surface will not cause combustion. When the torch is removed, even after minutes, the building system component will not support combustion and cools off quickly, showing only mild surface roughage and discoloration where the frame was directly applied to the material. This recycled building component system will revolutionize the way that the Insurance Industry looks at policies due to the fire resistance achieved by the invention and can minimize the use of lumber, brick and concrete block in the construction of industrial, residential and commercial buildings.

[0027] (03) ASTM C-67 (sampling and testing of brick): These test methods cover procedures for the sampling and testing of brick and structural clay tile. Although not necessarily applicable to all types of units, tests include modulus of rupture, compressive strength, absorption, saturation coefficient, effect of freezing and thawing, efflorescence, initial rate of absorption and determination of weight, size, warpage, length change, and void area.

[0028] Screws and nails: The recycled building components systems accept screws and nails in a similar fashion as wood, yet it will not support combustion and it is certified to resist combustion for more but not limited to 4 hours.

[0029] Sawing: The recycled building components can be sawed with standard saw in order to accommodate any potential necessity/desire of odd sizes and shapes.

[0030] Direct sledge hammer blows: Direct blow with a 20 pound sledge hammer only cause a small indentation and mild external surface damage to the recycled building components as they will not break or shatter in pieces as cement and brick will. With repeated manic-power-blows, you can obviously create local hairline fractures here and there and also cause eventual fragmentation, but only after repeated manic sledge hammer-blows, with the same sledge hammer that you can shatter any concrete block or brick with on just one blow.

[0031] Extreme shock resistance: Shock absorbency is further proved by the recycled building component's ability to absorb the impact of a, but not limited to, 357 Magnum bullet fired at almost point-blank range.

[0032] A wall built with the recycled building component stops the bullet and holds it in without shattering or breaking in pieces as a cement block or brick would in such a scenario, recommending the bullet proofing attributes of constructions built with this recycled building component system in accordance to the invention.

[0033] These facts proves the recycled building component's superiority when compared against typical building materials such as wood, brick, adobe and cement block as specified by the international ASTM building standards.

[0034] (04) Complies with ASTM C-140 (compression load): This proves that the recycled building component system's load bearing capabilities fully complies with the required standards currently in force.

[0035] (05) Complies with ASTM C-666 (weathering): Immersion in water and 300+freeze-thaw cycles caused no loss of internal or structural integrity, only minor surface damage due to the extreme punishment caused by the test. Non-treated samples can absorb water and also lose the water automatically. However, this causes no swelling or weakness in the untreated samples. Components treated with water-repellent additives do not absorb water. Even untreated soaked samples maintain their strength and comply with ASTM standards.

[0036] Procedures for use in construction: The recycled building component systems is comprised of various interlocking and non interlocking building components comprising of blocks (Referenced herein to as “block(s) or component(s)”) and pre formed wall panels (Referenced here to as “panel(s) or component(s)”) in accordance to the invention.

[0037] Below are the basic guidelines for building with interlocking and non-interlocking blocks followed by the guidelines for building with the panels. A combination of panels and blocks can be used at the contractor or designer's discretion. The blocks and panels are easy to install and to finish. It is important to plan dimensions of structures in ways that minimize need for cuts, drilling and waste. Plans based on 16-inch increments work best. The following procedures and specifications are compatible with accepted building practices and are recommended for best results. They should be made an integral part of the building plans.

[0038] Building with the blocks: Blocks in accordance with the invention are available in two different interlocking and non-interlocking components. Sizes of 6″×6″×20″(FIGS. 1A and 1B) and 8″×10″×16″(FIG. 1C) are available as and the same building techniques apply to both sizes. Custom sizes, shapes and forms are available if desired. The blocks are stacked with an adhesive and steel-reinforced rebar or with at least 9″ nails.

[0039] For long walls with no openings vertical rebar, anchored in concrete footings, should be installed at intervals according to local code requirements (FIG. 2A). These should extend through the block cells and be grouted. The top end of the rebar should be fitted with a threaded rod for bolting to the top plate. The blocks can be grooved horizontally if lateral steel in the wall becomes required can be accommodated by using the grooved block component described below.

[0040] If there is a basement: Footings, foundations and stem walls should be engineered to meet house plan and site conditions. Structures with dimensions that work on 12-inch increments are recommended to take best advantage of the block's interlocks and cells. If you are working with a 10″ wide block, the standard 8″ concrete foundation will work if block is centered above this structure and the foundation is properly engineered. However, allow for a one-inch over lap on your deck floor. A 9-foot foundation wall will be required if an 8-foot ceiling is desired.

[0041] One option is a 10″ thick concrete foundation, which is formed with a 2″ indent at the top to accommodate a ledger board to which the joists are attached (FIG. 3A)

[0042] In other words, the basement foundation walls need to be taller (by the width of the joist plus ¾″ or better) than they ordinarily would be, because the joists are inside (instead of on top of) the foundation. Otherwise, the foundation uses typical techniques. Standard framing codes should be referenced for compliance.

[0043] Make sure the top of the floor joists are ¾″ below the level of the stem wall, so that the sub-floor is flush with the top of the stem wall. This is important because the inside edge of the first course of block will extend from the foundation across the sub-floor about 2 inches. Beam pockets and elevations should be checked for the sake of starting from the maintaining everything level and plumb.

[0044] A simpler joist/block option: Cut notches in blocks at least 3″ deep to accommodate width ofjoists, which are then sandwiched between the wall blocks, and rest on top of the foundation. If house is on slab: No first-floor joist system required. Use rebar coming out of slab footings as described under “installation tips” below, and proceed with block walls as with foundation/stem wall system.

[0045] Rebar layout: Advance and accurate rebar layout is essential. Remember that rebar (or all-thread), alter being extended through the blocks to the top plate of each wall, will be used to bolt the block system to the foundation. (Optional, those same top-plate bolts also can be used, with customized metal clips, to bolt down the roof trusses).

[0046] The interlocking models are designed with cells fro the installation of electric wiring. Custom cells can be drilled if the need arises on the job site by using a common drill and wood bit. The distance between vertical re-bars is at the discretion of the builder, except that there should be a rebar placed at least every 48-60″, and there must be one placed within 12″ of each side of a window or door opening. Blocks are sawed to fit around door and window openings.

[0047] Start planning the rebar from the corners. The corner blocks will have matching cells to allow placement of a rebar on a 4″ center from each outside edge of the foundation corner (FIG. 4A). This provides maximum interlock strength at the corners. Use these as your starting points for rebar placement, making necessary adjustments along the walls for window and door openings (rebar within 12″).

[0048] Rebar and block installation tips: Install rebar, with a 4″ 90 bend at base, 6″-12″ deep in the stem wall. Rebar should stick up at least 30″ above the top of the stem wall. This will allow for 4 courses of blocks to be stacked 24″ high before attaching the next rebar stem. Plywood boards with holes drilled in them make a good jig for positioning and holding the rebar while concrete is wet. Tack them to the top of the forms.

[0049] Make sure the first course of blocks is set level and plum in a mortar bed of acrylic modified cement. Let this course dry completely (6-8 hours) before proceeding with other courses. Rebar can be welded with a single bead on each side, a minimum of 4″. Or it can be wire-tied with a minimum of 12″ lap & double-tied. The cell of wire-tied rebar must be grouted. If they are welded, all welds should be cleaned and painted with a rust inhibitor. Grouting of cells with welded rebar is optional. Again, the distance between the vertical rebar should be no more than 48″. Use of All-Thread instead of rebar is an option.

[0050] Openings for windows and doors: Specifications for windows and doors should be verified by drawings from competent professional. Rough openings for window/door bucks should be as exact and square as possible, allowing for shims of up to ¼″. The bucks are easy to install with the use of 5″-6″ deck screws used every 16″. Headers above the openings can be framed made of exposed solid wood beams, steel angle iron or be reinforced concrete poured in laid-in forms. Their span should be carried on at least 12″ of block wall, either side of the opening.

[0051] Installing horizontal steel rebar: When necessary, every block can have a channel deep enough to accommodate No. 4 steel rebar horizontally and wide enough to allow the wire-type of overlapping rebars. These provide lateral strength for the wall and should be wire-tied to grouted vertical re-bars wherever intersections occur. It is not necessary to insert horizontal steel in every course. Lateral steel at the 2-foot, 4-foot and 6-foot course levels should be sufficient in an 8-foot wall, but follow whatever local building codes may require. The lateral steel should be grouted in its groove. At the top of the wall, the rebar with welded threads should extend about 5″ to accommodate a 2″×10″ top plate (s). As walls rise past six feet during construction, safety dictates they should be supported against wind until roof trusses are installed.

[0052] Building with the panels: The recycled building component system's panels are similar to the block building, being made of the same compounds and formulas, but have distinct assembling differences, including but not limited to the size, manufacturing and installation methods.

[0053] The panels we use are generally standardized to 32″×8″×96″(FIG. 5A) or 32″×8″×10′ but they can easily be adapted depending on the desired specifications, such as ceiling height, wall thickness and other variations that may be needed to achieve a desired effect. We also provide as a standard half size panel model that is only 16″ wide and used to keep wall dimensions even. Keep in mind the panel's 8″×8″×96″ end caps when drafting your floor plans. We suggest keeping your floor plans in even numbers so that you don't have to order custom panels.

[0054] The floor plans should be drawn by a competent professional; in accordance to the specifications required in order to eliminate any waste in planning and allow us to give helpful suggestions. All panels are designed with 2″ grooves on three sides top, bottom and end the other remaining end has a 2″ tongue that fits into the next wall (FIG. 5A). This tongue has a ½″-1″ groove for placement of threaded rod. The interlocking design helps in assembly. The panels also include grooves for wiring on the insides of the panels, this means you only have to cut out for boxes and switches where necessary. The panels are currently available with, but not limited to, either wire mesh or rebar inner-structure depending on the local code requirements.

[0055] Start with an 8″ thick concrete foundation, which is formed with a 2″ indent at the top to accommodate a ledger board to which the joists are attached. The ledger board will be attached by drilling the concrete for installation of anchors. The joists will then be attached to the ledger board by metal hangers.

[0056] In other words, the basement foundation walls need to be taller (by the width of the joist plus ¾″ or better) than they ordinarily would be, because the joists are inside (instead of on top of) the foundation (FIG. 3A). Otherwise, the foundation uses typical techniques. Standard framing codes should be referenced.

[0057] Make sure the top of the floor joists are ¾″ below the level of the stem wall, so that the sub-floor is flush with the top of the stem wall. This is important because the inside edge of the first course of block will extend from the foundation across the sub-floor about 2 inches.

[0058] Once your ledger boards are accounted for you can start setting the anchors for the hat channel in place. This hat channel will be used to align the wall system (FIG. 6A) and it will be fitted with nuts for bolting the walls into place and securing them to the foundation. The channel should be anchored with ½″×5″ wedge type anchor bolts.

[0059] These anchors should be on 16 inch centers and staggered along the channel. Once the channel is placed you can fit it with the anchoring nuts welding them to the channel (this can be prefabricated).

[0060] Start at one corner and measure out 9″ from the end (to allow for end cap) and centered on the foundation wall, this will be the placement for the first nut. From the first nut measure every 32″ for each individual panel involved, with each corner nut ending 9″ from the end (these are allowing for end caps). Set the first end cap and fit it with the threaded rod in the groove provided. It extends from the top of the panel to the foundation bolting to the bottom channel.

[0061] Set the first section of panels with a crane truck or bobcat. The panels are temporarily fitted with bolt on eyehooks for easy pickup. Full size panels weight between 700-1000 lbs. you should always have at least 3-4 people on site to assist with placement. Once the first panel is placed you will need to temporarily brace all the panels until trusses are set or top channel is securely in place. At this point you should insert a grade 8 (or 10) threaded rod 8′ long.

[0062] Thread this rod into the nut fastened to the channel leaving 2-3 inches above the top of the wall for the top plate to be fitted to. Being that the walls are designed with a 2″ groove on top this will allow for the top plate to be flush with the top of the wall and help secure the wall from side to side action. Once three walls have been temporarily secured you can set the first top steel plate and tighten the bolts to help secure these walls.

[0063] Average length of plate is 8′ custom sizes are available (10′-12′ lengths). Top plates will touch end to end and be tack welded to form one continuous steel plate around the perimeter. When assembled correctly you will end up with a grade 8 (or 10) threaded bolt every 32″ bolting the top plate to the foundation. Walls will be interlocked end to end and all exposed grooves are capped.

[0064] Having a steel plate around the whole upper perimeter of the building allows for special truss tie down systems or brackets to be installed (ex. high wind areas). The panels are pre grooved for electrical installation so the only routing or cutting needed is for the boxes and switches.

[0065] Electric Installation:

[0066] Wiring is from the top down through the walls.

[0067] There are four options.

[0068] 1. Using the cells of the blocks or panels for electric chases. Then cutting out for outlets at the third course and light switch boxes at the ninth course.

[0069] 2. Cut or route grooves into the surface of the block wall for wiring and fill with grout.

[0070] 3. Install the wiring directly on the interior surface of the walls and use furring strips or Z channel to shim out for drywall then dig out as necessary for installation of outlet boxes before applying drywall. (See notes on interior finish below).

[0071] 4. Use preformed blocks available by special order or with pre-cut notches for specific needs. In this case, the builder may decide whether or not it is necessary to grout or “backfill” the channel after wire installation, depending upon surface finish.

[0072] Either of these methods can be used when there is to be interior drywall but keep in mind that the standard blocks or panels come with grooves for the wiring as a standard so the only additional work is to route or cut out for the switches and boxes.

[0073] Interior construction: Floor decking, joists, bridging, trusses and interior walls and ceilings all follow standard wood or metal frame procedures. Make sure top plates are lapped properly. For attaching first wall stud to wall surface, use 4″-6″ screws at 16″ spacing with adhesive.

[0074] Interior load bearing walls will require beam and pier supports from basement level bearing walls that are at right angles to the exterior walls and should be sway-braced and the top plate should be lapped over the wall as in typical framing procedure.

[0075] Interior finish: The walls can be direct-plastered if the electrical is run through the pre-cored block or panel. Plaster (2 coats) can be colored and sealed to eliminate painting and toxins associated with paint. The wall can also be block-filled and painted similar to concrete block. Direct texturing is also possible.

[0076] Another option, when electrical is run directly on the interior wall surface, is to apply 2″ metal Z furring channels. Filling with 2″ Drylite (EPS) insulation is an option before attaching drywall. If this method is used do not overlook this extra thickness in your floor plans. Ceilings and wall surfaces can be standard sheetrock or drywall. Wood backing set in walls for the cabinets, handrails, shelving, etc., is not necessary. The walls hold the nails and screws. Longer length fasteners are preferred.

[0077] Exterior finish: In addition to stucco, siding, thin brick; any exterior system can be implemented. Even though water doesn't damage the blocks and panels installed, stucco can be done with or without a vapor barrier and lath. If a vapor barrier is not used, use a waterproof synthetic stucco to seal the walls from accidental water penetration. Use proper sealants at all the floors/windows/vents, etc. 35-year silicone/acrylic caulk is typical. Screws should be used for attaching all siding systems. Vapor barriers and lath can be nailed or stapled (1″ crown×1¼″ leg) using an air gun, prior to certain stucco finishes.

[0078] If building two stories: If a second level is planned, every core that contains rebar should be grouted from the first level to the top of the second level. Most codes require that this grouting takes placed in stages of a few courses of block at a time as the wall goes up and the rebar is extended vertically. All the cells can be grouted if extra strength is desired, and hat channel can be used between every course.

[0079] Otherwise, procedures are the same as for single story. In proceeding to a second story, blocks should be stacked two courses higher than the desired floor level elevation.

[0080] A ledger board must be installed against or within the wall at this desired level. Preferably, blocks or panels, preformed with a 2″ notch on the inside surface can be used. If and when using blocks and when two courses of these blocks are set atop the first story of blocks below, the result is a recess in the block wall which will accept a 2″×12″ ledger board. The ledger board is installed with adhesive and anchors. The metal joist hangers are attached to the ledger board for introduction of second-floor joists.

[0081] An alternative is to attach the ledger board directly to the face of the component. This ledger board can be temporarily attached using deck screws. This will hold it in place while holes are drilled for anchors (9″ masonry anchors). Use 2″ washers against the ledger and zigzag the boltholes across the breadth of the ledger at 16″ centers.

[0082] Once second floor deck is in place, proceed with the stacking of blocks or panels, whichever are used, as explained for the first story, taking care to erect temporary wall supports as it rises. Leave these in place until the roof trusses are installed.

[0083] Use of block below grade: Unprotected and untreated, the components will absorb water. However, they will not swell or loose structural integrity when wet. Nevertheless, it should be used below grade only when it is water proofed and rebar is used as suggested above, and every cell is grouted. The exterior must be coated or covered with a waterproof membrane of choice. (Note: Asphalt or tar coatings are not waterproof)

[0084] Standard water proofed components should be used (or waterproofing should extend over the footing) to insure that no ground water penetrates at the stem wall/footing intersection. Proper drainage techniques around the footings and drain-away surface landscaping are essential. Terrain and soil, which promote the build up of hydrostatic pressures, should be avoided.

[0085] Some special notes: Once the first floor deck or surface is in place, chalk lining the interior wall edge for positioning the components is in order. While doing this, mark out the spots for window and door openings and indicate where the electrical outlets should be positioned.

[0086] When using blocks, after laying the first course of block, stock enough block on the deck of the floor to make the next three courses of block. Arrange them neatly in rows about 3 feet to the inside. Timesaving masons and carpenters always keep their material and tools at hand. When you make cut-offs, place them in a pile near the center of the floor space. Some of them may be useful for fitting needs for other partial blocks.

[0087] How to plan your block needs on a typical floor plan with an average ceiling height of 8 feet. Dimensions may vary depending on which size you use. Blocks with dimensions of 10″×8″×16″ equal 1.125 sq. ft. of face surface. To calculate how many blocks you need for a single story wall (8 ft. high) take the linear footage of wall perimeter and multiply by 9. Then multiply that by 0.75. The end result will be approximately the number of blocks you need for an 8-foot wall. This formula takes into account the average surface square footage taken up by door and window openings (average=20-25%).

[0088] If using a 6″×6″×20″ block the surface face is 0.8 sq. ft. Although the surface size is different the same formula is used with a slight change, you multiply the linear feet by 9.6 first, then by 0.75 the end result is the amount of blocks needed minus 20-25% for windows and doors (the average).

[0089] Example: structure is 48′×36′=168 linear feet. Multiplied by 9 (feet high)=1,512 ×.75 (for openings)=1,134 blocks so to be safe, your may want to plan for 1,200-1,300 blocks for the purpose of this example.

[0090] If you have a structure with an unusual amount of openings, calculate following this formula: Linear feet in the perimeter of wall ×8. This will give you total wall surface. Then calculate the square footage of all window and door openings, as measured from the top plate to the bottom of the opening. Divide the total square footage of the openings by the total wall surface. The decimal, subtracted from 100 will give you a multiplier different than 0.75. Use that number in the final formula instead of 0.75 to determine number of blocks needed.

[0091] Blocks using hat channel: The blocks can be designed with a keyway in the bottom meant to mate with a metal hat channel. This horizontal galvanized hat channel ({fraction (1/16)}″ thick) comes in 8-foot lengths and is designed with holes to align with the cells in the block so that rebar can pass vertically through the wall.

[0092] The hat channel is fastened with screws or nails to the flat top surface of a give course of blocks. Building requirements suggest that this strip of metal be used below the first course, the fourth course, the eighth course and the twelfth course. To order the correct amount of hat channel, simply multiply the linear feet of the structure's perimeter by four. You will probably have some left over because of opening in the wall, unless you deduct about 10% of the total length.

[0093] Plumbing installation: Most floor plans allow for the plumbing to be ruffed through the flooring, but when its necessary to go through or along a wall you can easily drill a hole with a typical drill and bit; if it's needed to run along the wall you can easily use a carbide saw or basic skill saw with carbide blade to cut necessary grooves and use a claw hammer to clean out debris. Panels already have vertical grooves so keep this in mind when planning. If a larger pipe such as sewer or drain pipe needs to go through a wall drill a pilot whole large enough for a sawzall or reciprocating saw blade to go through then cut out as needed.

[0094] Wall Cost Planning: (See earlier page). This will depend upon the interior and exterior finishes selected.

[0095] Typical blocks weight from 40-45 pounds depending on the size you choose, and typical panels weigh between 700-1000 pounds depending on the size and style selected. The use of a crane truck, bobcat or front loader will be needed for unloading and setting in panels in place.

[0096] Storage & Use Note: On site, untreated components should be covered to present the absorption of water from the elements. This avoids sealing moisture in the wall when the structure is encased with its exterior and interior finishes. Otherwise, wetting and drying or freezing and thawing do not negatively affect the components. We never recommend building with blocks that have not been fully cured or treated with waterproofing.

[0097] Tools Required:

[0098] Copy of, or familiarity with, Uniform Building Code

[0099] Safety glasses

[0100] Respirators, disposable fabric type, (dusty when sawing)

[0101] 100′ tape useful for checking square of foundation

[0102] 4′ level

[0103] 8′ straight edge

[0104] Framing square

[0105] 25″ measuring tape

[0106] Hammer

[0107] Felt market (small tip)

[0108] Pencils

[0109] Chalk box

[0110] Line level for checking corner to corner on long runs

[0111] 14-2 electrical cords, well grounded & good shape

[0112] 1″×12″ auger bit, similar to electricians

[0113] ½″ power drill

[0114] 7¼″ circle saw & several carbide-tipped blades

[0115] 14″ Compound saw

[0116] Caulking gun

[0117] Scaffold with locking castor wheels

[0118] Saw horses, planks

[0119] Small hand dolly for moving blocks around on deck

[0120] Mason's trowel, small mortar board & putty knife

[0121] Wood rasp

[0122] Screw gun tips, various sizes (e.g. #2 Phillips)

[0123] Electrical pliers

[0124] Funnel (made from plastic jug for use in grouting cells)

[0125] Crescent wrench

[0126] Small cement mixer (if job size warrants)

[0127] Small Mig welder (if rebar is welded)

[0128] Laser Level

[0129] Bobcat/or Crane Truck

[0130] Belt Sander

[0131] 14″ Metal Chop Saw

[0132] One block recycles between 30-50 lbs. of fly ash and wood. In a current referred embodiment, each block component has dimensions of 10″×8″×16″ or 6″×6″×20″. Various properties of the ingredients produce components with various characteristics. We have also learned that different size blocks make a difference for engineering purposes. Below are the basic formulas for the components used at this time. Also keep in mind that similar to concrete, the recycled building components constantly undergo a process of improvement and enhancements directly deriving from the invention.

[0133] The formulas used to manufacture the components may vary according to specific requirements and product performance desired. 2 basic formulas are used and derived from and multiplied according to size and weight.

[0134] Formula 100A

[0135] 2.75-4.5 lbs.=Wood

[0136] 1.75-8.25 lbs.=Sawdust

[0137] 15.75-47.25 lbs.=Fly ash

[0138] 6.25-11.25 lbs.=Polyvinyl Acetate Copolymer

[0139] 1.25-5.25 lbs.=Water

[0140] 0.75-3.25 lbs.=Lime

[0141] Formula 121A

[0142] 3.33 lbs.-3.50 lbs.=Wood

[0143] 30 lbs.-35 lbs.=Fly ash

[0144] 20 lbs.-25 lbs.=Water

[0145] 6.50 lbs-6.75 lbs.=Hydrated Rotary Lime

[0146] 5 lbs.-6 lbs.=Plaster of Paris

[0147] 16 Oz.-18 oz.=Anhydrous Sodium Metasilicate

[0148] Component production process: We collect the raw, recycled, fly ash and wood (chips and sawdust) from various industrial sources such as power plants, landfills, etc. We then mix the ingredients simultaneously in mixers/processors; we then pour it in molds.

[0149] Here the product sits for about 5 hours or more depending on humidity. The molds are then removed and the material is set to cure in whichever shape it was molded, such as an interlocking block shape, squares, panels, round or as otherwise desired.

[0150] We can also utilize an extrusion machine as an alternate form of producing. The extrusion process takes the place of pouring the compound in forms.

[0151] With this type of production the ingredients are mixed together in a large mixer that discharges into a screw auger (depending on the size desired).

[0152] The product is then extruded through a die in whichever shape is preferred, such as an interlocking shape, square, round, or otherwise.

[0153] Another other form of production is to utilize a typical adobe block. Most styles of this type of machine are based on ram extrusion methods. We tend not to use these due to the fact that most of these machines are small mobile machines that run on gasoline engines, thus contributing to the pollution problem, not decreasing it.

[0154] The production process in accordance with the invention will not produce further damage to the environment. As there are neither polluting smoke stacks nor contaminated production dumping sites.

[0155] Due to the nature of our process, the only byproduct is fly ash caused by the use of electricity in our production and rinse water. Fly ash is the very same raw material we use and mass recycle into the recycled building components, making our production a clean and healthy alternative.

[0156] Our rinse water is trapped and reused over and over again, avoiding unnecessary damage to the environment. The components have also been tested and are certified to be environmentally safe by the American Environmental Laboratories of St. Louis, Mo.

[0157] At present, nearly all of the Portland cement used in the United States comes from overseas. This will also minimize the need for lumber, a marginal renewable source, in construction projects, thus helping to save the world's forests. A superior generation of energy efficient, higher quality construction will be born and millions of tons of fly ash and wood waste will be recycled worldwide every day.

[0158] The positive environmental impact derived by minimizing the destructive effect that the extraction of lumber and the production of cement cause Mother Earth will be considerable. The use of a building material in accordance with the invention can nearly eliminate the dumping of wood and fly ash on a grand scale.

[0159] Accordingly, the reader will see that the objects set forth above, among those made apparent in the proceeding description, are efficiently obtained and, since certain changes may be made in the above constructions and processes without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention, it is intended that all matter contained in the above description or shown in the accompanied drawings shall be interpreted as illustrative, and not in the limiting sense as limits have not been determined herein.

[0160] It will also be understood that the following Claims are intended to cover all of the generic and specific features of the invention, herein described, and all statements of the scope of the invention which, as a matter of language, might be said to fall there between.