Title:
P300 transgenic animal
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
The present invention relates to a transgenic animal wherein DNA encoding p300 and a promoter exerting its activity in myocardial cells are introduced, and a screening method using the same.



Inventors:
Hasegawa, Koji (Kyoto, JP)
Kawase, Yosuke (Shizuoka, JP)
Suzuki, Hiroshi (Shizuoka, JP)
Application Number:
10/332966
Publication Date:
10/02/2003
Filing Date:
01/14/2003
Assignee:
HASEGAWA KOJI
KAWASE YOSUKE
SUZUKI HIROSHI
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
514/1, 800/8
International Classes:
A01K67/027; A61P9/04; C07K14/47; C12N15/12; C12N15/85; (IPC1-7): A01K67/00; A61K31/00
View Patent Images:



Primary Examiner:
CHEN, SHIN LIN
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Davidson, Davidson & Kappel, LLC (New York, NY, US)
Claims:
1. A transgenic animal wherein DNA encoding p300 and a promoter exerting its activity in myocardial cells are introduced.

2. The transgenic animal according to claim 1, wherein the promoter exerting its activity in myocardial cells is α-myosin heavy chain promoter.

3. A method of screening a substance having therapeutic activity for heart failure, the method comprising the steps of: (1) administering a test substance to a transgenic animal according to claim 1 or 2; and (2) confirming whether or not cardiac hypertrophy is suppressed in the transgenic animal.

4. A substance obtained by a screening method of claim 3.

5. A therapeutic agent for heart failure containing as an active component a substance obtained by a screening method of claim 3.

Description:

TECHNICAL FIELD

[0001] The present invention relates to an animal into which DNA encoding p300 (hereinafter referred to as “p300 gene”) is introduced so as to be expressed in myocardial cells, and a screening method using the same animal.

BACKGROUND ART

[0002] The heart is an organ with the unique function of continually repeated contraction and relaxation. Myocardial cells, which are the main components of the heart, maintain division potential after differentiation, and keep actively dividing and proliferating during the prenatal period. However, they lose their division potential at the time of birth, and thereafter the growth of the heart is dependent on the growth in size of individual myocardial cells (physiological hypertrophy).

[0003] There are some cases wherein the heart responds to various stimuli such as hypertension thereby growing in size more than it would physiologically, and this is called in general cardiac hypertrophy. Cardiac hypertrophy is a compensatory mechanism having a limitation and does not reduce contraction function of the heart in itself. However, a high hypertrophy exceeding the limitation causes biochemical changes in the myocardial cells, so that the heart suffers contraction dysfunction (heart failure).

[0004] There have been already some reports on the onset mechanism of heart failure. For example, Hasegawa et al. reported that GATA transcription factors played an important role in intracellular signal transduction at the onset of heart failure (Hasegawa K et al.: Circulation 1997;96:3943-3953). Morimoto et al. reported that among the GATA transcription factors, GATA-5 played a particularly important role (Morimoto T et al.: J. Biol. Chem. 1999;274:12811-12818). Further, Iwanaga et al. reported that the expression enhancement of endothelin-1 in cardiac muscle played an important role in the development from compensatory cardiac hypertrophy caused by hypertension to heart failure (Iwanaga Y et al.: Circulation 1998;98:2065). Furthermore, Hasegawa et al. reported that p300, which is an adenovirus E1A binding protein, functioned as a co-activator of GATA-5 (Hasegawa Koji et al.: Blood Pressure vol. 6 1999:665-669). Meanwhile, Kanai et al. confirmed that p300 induced apoptosis in myocardial cells (Presentation, the 63th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Japanese Circulation Society, Mar. 27, 1999-Mar. 29, 1999), and also suggested that there is a possibility that p300 works to suppress cardiac hypertrophy. Thus, the relation between p300 and cardiac hypertrophy is not clear.

[0005] Although the onset mechanism of heart failure is gradually being revealed as described above, there are many points which have not sufficiently been unraveled yet. One reason for this lag in the research is the fact that experimental animals to be models of heart failure have not been developed yet.

DISCLOSURE OF THE INVENTION

[0006] The present invention has been made against this technical background, and an object of the present invention is to provide a model animal to be affected by heart failure, which is useful to elucidate the onset mechanism of heart failure.

[0007] The present inventors have focused their attention on p300 from among various factors associated with the onset of heart failure, and found it possible to develop a pathology nearly identical to heart failure by introducing a p300 gene into an animal. They have accomplished the present invention based on this finding.

[0008] Namely, the present invention is a transgenic animal wherein a p300 gene and a promoter exerting its activity in myocardial cells are introduced.

[0009] Further, the present invention is a screening method of a substance having therapeutic activity for heart failure, which comprises the following steps:

[0010] (1) administering a test substance to the transgenic animal; and

[0011] (2) confirming whether cardiac hypertrophy is suppressed or not in the transgenic animal.

[0012] Furthermore, the present invention is a substance obtained by the above screening method.

[0013] Moreover, the present invention is a heart failure therapeutic agent containing as an active component a substance obtained by the above screening method. The transgenic animal of the present invention has the feature that a p300 gene and a promoter exerting its activity in myocardial cells are introduced.

[0014] Hereinafter, the present invention will be described in detail.

[0015] The transgenic animal of the present invention is characterized by that a p300 gene and a promoter exerting its activity in myocardial cells are introduced thereinto.

[0016] The animal may be any kind of animal except human, but preferable examples of the animal include mice, rats, rabbits, miniature pigs, and pigs.

[0017] As a p300 gene, for example, p300 gene (SEQ ID NO: 1) derived from human can be used, but any p300 genes other than this may be used.

[0018] As long as a promoter to be introduced has activity in myocardial cells and increases its activity as the animal grows, it is not particularly limited. As a preferable promoter, α-myosin heavy chain promoter (SEQ ID NO:2) may be noted. This promoter shows low activity during the prenatal period and increases its activity as the animal grows. Accordingly, it is possible by using this promoter to prevent the animal from developing heart failure and dying at a stage when the animal is not sufficiently matured.

[0019] The transgenic animal of the present invention can be, for example, produced as follows.

[0020] {circle over (1)} A vector carrying a p300 gene and a promoter exerting its activity in myocardial cells is prepared. A p300 gene derived from a human can be prepared based on the sequence described in SEQ ID NO:1. Further, the sequences of other p300 genes are open to the public in GenBank managed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information, USA. Thus, based on these sequences, the p300 gene can be prepared. α-myosin heavy chain promoter which is one of the promoters having activity in myocardial cells can be prepared based on the sequence described in SEQ ID NO:2. The p300 gene and the promoter exerting its activity in myocardial cells, both prepared as above, are inserted into a commercially available vector, e.g. pBluescript II, thereby preparing a target vector.

[0021] {circle over (2)} An expression cassette is excised from the prepared vector and introduced into a totipotent cell. As the totipotent cell, a fertilized egg, an early embryo, an ES cell, etc. can be used. The introduction of the expression cassettes into the totipotent cells can be performed by the electrostatic pulse method, liposome method, calcium phosphate method, microinjection method, etc.

[0022] {circle over (3)} The above treated totipotent cells are transferred into the oviducts of pseudopregnant recipients. Then, offspring are born, and from among them, individuals having foreign p300 genes are selected. Whether or not an individual has a foreign p300 gene is determined by Southern blotting or PCR using a probe or primer specific to the foreign p300 gene. An individual having the foreign p300 gene shows higher level of expression of p300 gene than an individual having only endogenous genes, and thus it is possible to determine the above, based on the difference in expression level.

[0023] The transgenic animal of the present invention shows pathologies specific to heart failure such as cardiac hypertrophy or excessive synthesis of endothelin-1 in the heart muscle, and therefore it can be used as a model animal for heart failure.

[0024] Further, a test substance is administered to the transgenic animal of the present invention, and thereafter the screening of substances having therapeutic activity for heart failure can be performed by confirming whether or not cardiac hypertrophy is suppressed in this animal.

[0025] The test substance is not particularly limited, but examples thereof include peptides, proteins, nonpeptidic compounds, synthetic compounds, and fermented products, cell extracts.

[0026] The administration means of the test substance is not particularly limited, but oral administration, injection administration, etc. are exemplified.

[0027] Whether or not cardiac hypertrophy is suppressed is determined by extirpating the heart of the transgenic animal to which the test substance is administered, measuring the weight of that heart, and then comparing that weight with the weight of the heart from the control (the transgenic animal to which the test substance is not administered). Further, the occurrence of cardiac hypertrophy can be confirmed by echocardiography, etc., and thus the occurrence of the suppression is determined. Furthermore, as cardiac hypertrophy occurs, excessive synthesis of atrial natriuretic peptides or expression of β-myosin heavy chain genes is observed. Accordingly, these can be used as indices for determining the occurrence of the suppression. It is noted that the expression of β-myosin heavy chain genes is confirmed by the method of Hasegawa et al. (Hasegawa K et al.: Circulation 1977:96:3943-3953). In addition to these methods, the occurrence of the suppression of cardiac hypertrophy may be determined by mortality rate, because there is a high probability that the transgenic animal of the present invention develops heart failure unless cardiac hypertrophy is suppressed, thereby leading to death.

[0028] Since the substance obtained by the above screening method has therapeutic activity for heart failure, the substance is formulated by a known pharmaceutical production method and can be used as a therapeutic or preventive agent for heart failure.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0029] FIG. 1 shows the structures of pCMVwtp300, α-MHC clone 26, and pα MHC-p300.

[0030] FIG. 2 shows the results of Southern hybridization carried out in Example 2.

[0031] FIG. 3 shows the results of Western blotting carried out in Example 3.

[0032] FIG. 4 is a group of graphs (4A to 4F) illustrating comparisons of mice, by ages in months, among measurement values by echocardiography carried out in Example 6.

[0033] FIG. 5 shows M-mode echocardiography carried out in Example 6, and each measurement value.

[0034] This specification includes the contents as disclosed in the specification of Japanese Patent Application No. 2000-215143, which is a priority document of the present application.

BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION

EXAMPLE 1

[0035] A pCMVwtp300 was treated with NotI and HindIII, a fragment carrying a p300 gene was excised, and thereafter NotI restriction site of this fragment was blunted. Meanwhile, α-MHC Clone 26 (accession no. U71441) carrying an α-myosin heavy chain promoter (αMHC promoter) was treated with SalI and HindIII, and thereafter SalI restriction site was blunted and the above described fragment carrying the p300 gene (Eckner, R. et al.: Genes Dev. 1994:8:869-884, accession no.U01877) was inserted into this restriction site. Then, pαMHC-p300 carrying αMHC promoter and the p300 gene were prepared. The structures of pCMVwtp300, α-MHC Clone26, and pαMHC-p300 are shown in FIG. 1. It is noted that pCMVwtp300 and α-MHC Clone26 were furnished from Drs. Richard Eckner and David M. Livingston (Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass.) and Robbins, J. (Molecular Card. Biol., Children's Hospital, Cincinati, Ohio), respectively.

[0036] pαMHC-p300 was digested by NotI and a fragment carrying αMHC promoter and p300 gene was excised. After adjusting the concentration of this DNA fragment to 3 ng/μl, the DNA fragment was injected into a frozen-thawed pronuclear stage fertilized egg, which had been taken from a C57BL/6J strain mouse (Clea Japan, Inc.) and cryopreserved. The injection of the DNA into the fertilized egg was performed by microinjection method (Ueda Otoya et al.: Latest Technology of Gene Targeting: 2000:190-207). Among 319 fertilized eggs to which the DNAs were injected, 236 eggs survived and, of those, 199 were differentiated to 2-cell embryos. These 2-cell embryos were transferred into the oviducts of pseudopregnant recipient mice (ICR strain, Clea Japan, Inc.) that had been made pseudopregnant in advance. 54 offspring were obtained. The obtained offspring were checked using the Southern blotting method for whether or not they had the αMHC promoter and p300 gene. As a probe, a DNA fragment was used, which is amplified by PCR using pαMHC-p300 as a template and the following primers. 1

(SEQ ID NO:3)
Sense primer: TCTTAGCAAACCTCAGGCAC
(corresponding to 5230 to 5249 of SEQ ID NO:2)
(SEQ ID NO:4)
Antisense primer: CCACCATTGGTTAGTCCCAA
(corresponding to 1356 to 1375 of SEQ ID NO:1)

[0037] As a result of Southern blotting, it was confirmed that the objective DNA was contained in 6 individuals. Transgenic mice strains for 3 mice out of 6 individuals were established.

[0038] These three mice (21, 39, and 40 strains) were crossed with wild type of C57BL/6J mice to obtain the offsprings. Whether or not these offspring mice have the introduced gene was checked by the same Southern blotting method as described above. The following table shows sex of the offspring mice and the presence or absence of the introduced gene. 2

TABLE 1
Presence or absence
ParentIndividualof an introduced
StrainNo.geneSex
216PresentFemale
5PresentFemale
9PresentMale
1PresentMale
3PresentMale
7PresentMale
2AbsentMale
8AbsentMale
12AbsentFemale
3934PresentFemale
56PresentMale
20PresentFemale
32PresentMale
36PresentMale
6AbsentFemale
59AbsentFemale
8AbsentMale
35AbsentMale
55AbsentMale
4061PresentMale
34PresentFemale
51PresentMale
32PresentFemale
33AbsentFemale
49AbsentMale

EXAMPLE 2

[0039] Whether or not the introduced human p300 gene was expressed in various organs of the transgenic mouse was examined by RT-PCR using the primer specific to this gene and RT-Southern hybridization using the probe specific to this gene.

[0040] From the heart, lung, liver, kidney of a transgenic mouse (individual no. 6) and the hearts of wild type mice (individual nos. 56, 2, and 59), mRNAs were prepared and RT-PCR was conducted using the mRNAs as templates. The preparation of mRNAs from each organ was conducted in accordance with the manual of RNA extract reagent “ISOGEN” (Nippon Gene Co., Ltd.). RT-PCR was conducted as follows, in accordance with the manual of “mRNA Selective PCR kit” (TaKaRa).

[0041] First, the RT reaction mixture having the composition shown in Table 2 was prepared and reacted: for 10 minutes at 30° C.; for 22 minutes at 46° C.; and for 5 minutes at 5° C. Next, a PCR reaction mixture was prepared from various reagents and the above RT reaction mixture having the composition shown in Table 3, and then RT-PCR was conducted under the reaction condition of: 40 cycles (heating and cooling) of 30 seconds at 85° C., 30 seconds at 55° C., and 60 seconds at 72° C. The primers used were as follows. 3

(SEQ ID NO:5)
Sense primer: GCA ACA GGT GCT TAG TAT CC
(corresponding to 7400 to 7419 bases of p300 gene
(SEQ ID NO:1))
(SEQ ID NO:6)
Antisense primer: CTG TTG CAT GTG ATG CTG CA
(corresponding to 7879 to 7898 bases of p300 gene
(SEQ ID NO:1))

[0042] 4

TABLE 2
ReagentAmount (μl)
2xmRNA Selective PCR Buffer I25
MgCl210
dNTP/analog mixture5
RNase Inhibitor1
AMV RTase XL1
Oligo dT Primer1
RNA2 (= 2 μg)
RNase Free dH2O5

[0043] 5

TABLE 3
ReagentAmount to be used (μl)
2xmRNA Selective PCR Buffer I20
MgCl28
dNTP/analog mixture4
AM V-Optimized Taq1
sense primer2.5
antisense primer2.5
RT reaction mixture10 or 2 *
dH2O2 or 10*

[0044] The amplified products of RT-PCR were separated by 1% agarose gel electrophoresis and blotted onto nylon filters. Thus RT-Southern hybridization was performed. The hybridization was performed in accordance with the manual of “Express Hyb Hybridization Solution (CLONTECH)” As a probe; a product was used, which was amplified by PCR using pCMVwtp300 as a template and the above primers.

[0045] The results of RT-Southern hybridization on the transgenic mouse are shown in FIG. 2. As shown in this figure, in the case of the transgenic mouse, p300 genes were expressed only in the heart and not expressed in other organs. And in the case of the wild type mice, p300 genes were not expressed even in the heart thereof. (not shown in the figure).

EXAMPLE 3

[0046] Myocardial cells were taken from transgenic mice (individual nos. 5, 9 and 36) and wild type mice (individual nos. 8, 12 and 35), and proteins were extracted from these cells. Protein extraction was performed in accordance with the method of Hasegawa et al. (Hasegawa K. et al.: Circulation 1997:96:3943-3953). The proteins derived from myocardial cells were examined by Western blotting using anti-human p300 antibodies (CT-Power ClonalTM, Upstate Biotechnology Inc.) for confirming whether or not they contain p300. The antibodies are capable of reacting with endogenous mouse p300 not only human-derived p300 that is an expression product of the introduced gene, but also with. The Western blotting was performed in accordance with the method of Morimoto et al. (Morimoto T et al.: The Journal of Biological Chemistry 2000:275:13721-13726).

[0047] The results of the Western blotting are shown in FIG. 3. As shown in this figure, although p300 was detected from wild type mice (WT), the amount thereof was far less than that of the transgenic mice (TG).

EXAMPLE 4

[0048] The amounts of endothelin-1 in cardiac muscle of mice were determined in accordance with the method of Iwanaga et al. (Circulation 1998 98:2065-2073).

[0049] Transgenic mice (individual nos. 1, 3, 7, 20, 32, 34, 51, and 56) and wild type mice (individual nos. 2, 33, 49, 55, and 59) were anesthetized with pentobarbital and the hearts were extirpated. The atria were removed from the heart of each mouse, and the right and left ventricles of the heart were washed with cold physiological saline. The right and left ventricles were put into a Polytron homogenizer with 9 mol/L acetic acid aqueous solution (containing 0.1% Triton-X) and homogenized for 30 seconds, boiled for 7 minutes, and then centrifuged (2000 g, 30 minutes, 4° C.). The supernatant thereof was taken and stored at −80° C.

[0050] Extraction of endothelin-1 from the supernatant of the ventricle tissue homogenate was performed in accordance with Kitamura et al. (Kitamura et al. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1989;156:1182-1186). Also, the endothelin-1 content was measured in accordance with the method of Suzuki et al. (Suzuki et al. J. Immunol. Methods. 1989;118:245-250) using an EIA kit (Wako Pure Chemical Industries, Ltd.). This measurement method enables the detection of endothelin-1 at a concentration of up to 0.5 pg/ml, and further has a crossreactivity of 0.1% or less between endothelin-3 and big endothelin-1.

[0051] The endothelin-1 contents in cardiac muscles of individual mice are shown in the following table. 6

TABLE 4
IndividualExpressionEndothelin-1
No.typecontent (pg/ml)
2Wild type3.0
33Wild type3.0
49Wild type9.0
55Wild type7.0
59Wild type7.0
1Transgenic10.0
3Transgenic16.0
7Transgenic9.0
20Transgenic14.0
32Transgenic13.0
34Transgenic11.0
51Transgenic5.0
56Transgenic15.0

[0052] As shown in the above table, the transgenic mice had noticeably larger amounts endothelin-1 in the cardiac muscles than the wild type mice.

EXAMPLE 5

[0053] For the purpose of investigating the relationship between the expression of p300 gene and hypertrophy of myocardial cells, heart weights and total body weights of the transgenic mice and wild type mice were examined. The results thereof are shown in the following table. 7

TABLE 5
Total
bodyHeartRatio of
ParentIndividualExpressionBirthweightweightheart to total
strainNo.Sextypedate(kg)(g)body weight
214FemaleTransgenic99/8/1721.11175.55
5FemaleTransgenic99/8/1721.21225.75
6FemaleTransgenic99/8/1721.41235.75
25FemaleTransgenic99/8/1720.91316.27
11FemaleWild type99/8/1723.51205.11
12FemaleWild type99/8/17251024.08
13FemaleWild type99/8/1723.81134.75
1MaleTransgenic99/8/1729.21495.10
3MaleTransgenic99/8/17331554.70
9MaleTransgenic99/8/17291475.07
2MaleWild type99/8/17301334.43
7MaleWild type99/8/1727.21375.04
8MaleWild type99/8/1728.51304.56
3920FemaleTransgenic99/8/18251335.32
59FemaleWild type99/6/2826.71505.62
56MaleTransgenic99/6/2834.12076.07
55MaleWild type99/6/2831.11454.66
36MaleTransgenic99/9/1327.51465.31
35MaleWild type99/9/1327.31314.80
4034FemaleTransgenic99/10/122.91215.28
32FemaleWild type99/10/121.91125.11
33FemaleWild type99/10/122.31104.93
50MaleTransgenic99/10/2024.71255.06
51MaleTransgenic99/10/20261254.81
48MaleWild type99/10/2023.91044.35
49MaleWild type99/10/2026.31485.63

[0054] Among the individuals indicated in the above table, groups were made of individuals having the same parent strain, sex, and birth date. The expression type and the ratio of heart to total body weight were investigated within such groups. The results thereof were shown in the table below. 8

TABLE 6
Average ratio
Expressionof heart to
GrouptypeIndividual No.total body weight
ATransgenic4, 5, 6, 255.83
Wild type11, 12, 134.64
BTransgenic1, 3, 94.96
Wild type2, 7, 8,4.68
CTransgenic566.07
Wild type554.66
DTransgenic365.31
Wild type354.80

[0055] As shown in the above table, the heart to total body weight ratios of the transgenic mice were approximately 10 to 30% higher than those of the wild type mice.

EXAMPLE 6

[0056] For the purpose of investigating the relationship between the expression of p300 gene and hypertrophy of myocardial cells, echocardiography was performed on transgenic and wild type mice with ages of 2, 6 and 10 months.

[0057] The mice were anesthetized with ketamine (50 mg/kg) and xylazine (2.5 mg/kg), and transthoracic echocardiography was performed with a cardiac ultrasound recorder (Toshiba Power Vision SSA-380A), using a 7.5-MHz transducer.

[0058] After obtaining high quality two-dimensional images, echocardiography were performed in M mode, and left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (LVDd) and left ventricular end-systolic dimension (LVDs) were measured by the leading-edge-to-leading-edge convention adopted by the American Society of Echocardiography. Further, left ventricular fractional shortening (%FS) was calculated in accordance with the equation below.

%FS=[(LVDd−LVDs)/LVDd]×100

[0059] In addition, the other measured values were treated by referring to the method of Inoko et al. (Inoko et al. Am. J. Physiol. 1994;267:2471-2481).

[0060] The results are shown in the following table and in FIGS. 4 and 5. The notations used in the table and figures are as follows.

[0061] HR: Heart rate (beat/min)

[0062] (LV)Dd: Left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (unit: mm)

[0063] (LV)Ds: Left ventricular end-systolic dimension (unit: mm)

[0064] IVST: Interventricular septum thickness (unit: mm)

[0065] LVPWT: Left ventricular posterior wall thickness (unit: mm)

[0066] %FS: Left ventricular fractional shortening 9

TABLE 7
ParentExpressionAge in
strainID No.typeSexmonthsHRDdDsIVSTLVPWT% FS
39334TransgenicF25702.20.60.81.172.7
335TransgenicF25172.10.90.60.857.1
336Wild typeF2
337Wild typeF2
338Wild typeF2
39339Wild typeM255631.30.90.756.7
340TransgenicM25003.72.10.70.843.2
341Wild typeM25172.910.60.665.5
342TransgenicM22.91.30.8155.2
343Wild typeM25843.11.10.91.264.5
39280TransgenicF66004.73.90.80.717.0
281TransgenicF66524.63.310.828.3
284Wild typeF64503.111.10.867.7
285Wild typeF65062.50.70.81.572.0
39286TransgenicM63006.260.70.63.2
287Wild typeM6616310.70.966.7
288Wild typeM66822.8110.964.3
289TransgenicM62506.76.410.74.5
290TransgenicM665.20.61.313.3
40203TransgenicM105844.73.80.9119.1
206Wild typeM102.10.71.81.566.7
207TransgenicM106.85.80.60.714.7
227TransgenicM10
228Wild typeM106923.30.70.60.878.8
229Wild typeM106822.30.910.960.9
230TransgenicM10
Blank: N.D.

[0067] As understood from the above table and FIGS. 4 and 5, with respect to left ventricular end-diastolic and left ventricular end-systolic dimensions, there was almost no difference at the age of 2 months. However, at the ages of 6 months and 10 months, the transgenic mice showed significantly larger values on these dimensions than the wild type mice. Further, at the ages of 6 months and 10 months, the transgenic mice had lower heart rates and left ventricular fractional shortenings, and thus it was recognized that the transgenic mice suffered from heart failures. In addition, there were small changes according to age in interventricular septum thickness and left ventricular posterior wall thickness, and no statistical significances thereon were observed between the transgenic mice and wild type mice.

[0068] All publications, patents and patent applications cited herein are incorporated by reference in their entirety.

INDUSTRIAL APPLICABILITY

[0069] The present invention provides a novel transgenic animal. This transgenic animal is useful for elucidation of the onset mechanism of heart failure and development of therapeutic agents for heart failure.

[0070] Sequence Listing Free Text

[0071] SEQ ID NO:3: A sense primer used for PCR in Example 1

[0072] SEQ ID NO: 4: An antisense primer used for PCR in Example 1

[0073] SEQ ID NO: 5: A sense primer used for PCR in Example 2

[0074] SEQ ID NO: 6: An antisense primer used for PCR in Example 2

[0075]