Ship propulsion and power generation, aided by gyroscope and energized by sea waves
Kind Code:

The invention accesses an inexhaustible energy source of the ocean to produce ship propulsion and to generate electrical energy.

A first embodiment provides wave-powered ship propulsion. A wave-induced pitching motion of the ship is transformed into an amplified oscillating motion of an oscillating propulsor arm attached to the ship. A rear platform is rotatably mounted aft of the ship hull. The platform is isolated from wave-induced pitching motion of the ship and stabilized with an aid of a gyroscope. A propulsor arm is pivotally supported at one end below the gyroscopically stabilized platform for a rotation about a first horizontal axis. The propulsor arm is also pivotally attached to the ship hull for a rotation about a second horizontal axis, with the second axis acting as a fulcrum. When a pitching motion of the ship produces a relative movement between the first axis and the second axis, it causes a leveraged rotation of the propulsor arm about the second axis. This leveraged rotation produces an amplified oscillating motion of the propulsor arm in a vertical plane to provide propulsion to the ship.

A second embodiment teaches conversion of wave-induced motion to electrical energy using a gyroscope. The wave motion creates alternating force moment, which is transmitted to gyroscope via oscillating floating bodies. The gyroscope resists tilting by the wave-induced moment due to gyro precession, or gyrostatic moment. A relative movement is produced between the stabilized gyroscope and oscillating floating bodies, which is used to generate power. For this here are developed methods, schemes and devices converting said movement to customized power.

Gorshkov, Vladislav Vasilyevich (Alexandria, VA, US)
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Publication Date:
Filing Date:
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International Classes:
B63H19/02; (IPC1-7): B63H1/38
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Primary Examiner:
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Vladislav Gorshkov (fairfax, VA, US)

What I claim as my invention is:

1. A gyro power plant consuming sea waves energy from a carrying floating mean and assembled of: a power generator, a gyroscope keeping its gimbal ring still while a carrying float oscillates, a mechanical converter of input angle oscillations to fast uniform output shaft revolution; the mechanical converter (pitched by the floating mean) holds the gyroscope gimbal ring by own input shaft and accepts from the ring apparent relative angle oscillations, gears them up, rectifies with a differential gearing and overrunning clutches to one way jerk revolution, then smoothes it by a spring and gears up to fast uniform output shaft revolution used finally to drive the electrical power generator.

2. A gyro power plant according the claim 1, where the mechanical converter accepts the relative angle oscillations by its input gear from a toothed quadrant of great diameter mounted on the gyroscopically stabilized gimbal ring rotatably connected to the floating mean by the outer gimbal axle; this scheme significantly amplifies input angle oscillations simplifying the converter.

3. A gyro power plant according the claim 1, where the mechanical converter accepts the relative angle oscillations with its input gear from the toothed quadrant of great diameter mounted on the gyroscopically stabilized detachable floating platform rotatably connected to the basic floating mean via the outer gimbal axle; this scheme significantly amplifies input angle oscillations simplifying the converter and also makes easier maintenance of the gyro power plant.

4. A gyro power plant according to the claim 1 where a hydraulic converter is used to transform float rocking to energy of a hydraulic pressure power system; the converter consists of two pairs of hydraulic cylinders; the internal pair of cylinders is driven by gyroscope apparent oscillations relatively the gimbal frame while the external pair of the cylinders is driven by the gimbal frame apparent oscillations relatively the float hull; both head ends of each hydraulic cylinder are connected with the hydraulic lines of the pressure power system through a similar hydraulic valves connecting the current suck and the current pumping head ends respectively with low and high pressure hydraulic lines.

5. A wave power plant according to the claim 4, where a current pumping head ends of hydro cylinders are connected to low, high or extra high pressure hydraulic system line via valves controlled by the gyro precession automated control system; the system differentiates the load of each hydro cylinder in each directions of stock reciprocating motion that provides reactive extra force moments applied to the gyroscope and rushing the main gyro axis mean-line to the plumb as required.

6. Method of electric power generation converting mutual angle oscillations between a pitching float caused by sea waves and a gyroscopically stabilized support to electrical power using the mechanical converter of said angle oscillations to fast uniform output shaft revolution which finally drives an electrical power generator.

7. Method of hydro pressure power generation converting mutual angle oscillations between a rocking float caused by sea waves and the gyroscope to hydraulic power using orthogonal hydraulic cylinders, which connect the gyroscope with the gimbal frame hindering its relative oscillations about inner gimbal axis and also connect gimbal frame with the float hull hindering its relative oscillations about the outer gimbal axis; the rocking hull aided by the gyroscope surmounts resistance of the hydro cylinders enforcing them to pump oil into high pressure lines generating hydro pressure power.

8. Method stabilizing the main gyro axis mean line about the plumb by permanent returning the drifting main gyro axis back to plumb through additional gyro precession induced by torque applied to the gyroscope in direction enforcing the main gyro axis to precess to the plumb, the torque is generated by one of these: a single hydraulic pressure cylinder, which directs the torque in polar coordinates; orthogonal hydraulic cylinders creating components of the required torque in rectangular coordinates; altering the work load for orthogonal hydraulic cylinders generating power so as extra pressure in its head ends creates components of the required extra load torque precessing the gyroscope main axis to the plumb.

9. Method of power generation where a high dampening submerged body is used as a stabilized support which interacts with the rocking float through assemble of a rope wounded on a winch and connecting the submerged body and the float utilizing a spring; as a result the winch rotatably oscillates the input shaft of the mechanical converter of these oscillations to the fast uniform output shaft revolution which finally drives the electrical power generator.


[0001] This application is a divisional of the application Ser. No. 09/777,846 filled Feb. 07, 2001.


[0002] The U.S. Pat. No. 3,861,487 issued Jan. 21, 1975 is considered the most relevant publication. It suggests energy production using movements between inertial parts of a vehicle. A vehicle can be of any type: a car, an aircraft or a watercraft. This instant invention utilizes energy of the oscillating floating object in interaction with a supported gyroscope. The gyroscope is capable of maintaining a stable orientation and create reactive force moment much effectively than a relatively motionless inertia member of a vehicle, especially when converting an oscillating motion to work or power.


[0003] No funds under any federally-sponsored program or study were utilized.


[0004] Not applicable.


[0005] Oceans are one of the most powerful, and virtually inexhaustible sources of energy that can produce powerful oscillating motion in the floating bodies. Several attempts have been made in the past to transform this wave energy to power the propulsion of ships, boats, non-mechanized floating platforms, and the likes. Attempts have also been made to use this wave energy to energize floating power plants for directly producing electrical energy.

[0006] However, several of such attempts have been severely limited by the fact that the produced work output is, at best, only moderate when the waves of the seas are not sufficiently high or powerful to produce strong pitching motion of the ships or floating platforms.

[0007] This instant invention describes a mechanism to overcome the above described limitations and obtain a substantially greater work output even when the amplitude or the power of the sea waves is only moderate.

[0008] This instant invention is based on the principle that allows a gyroscope to maintain a stable orientation for its mounting base that is in pivotal attachment with a ship, even when the ship pitches violently under the forces of ocean waves. A wave-induced pitching motion of the ship hull produces a relative movement between the gyroscopically stabilized base and the ship hull, which allows a leveraged rotation of a propulsor arm that is not only pivotally mounted on the gyroscope base, but also pivotally attached to the ship hull to use it as fulcrum. This leveraged rotation produces an amplified oscillating motion of the propulsor arm that exceeds the angle by which the ship is pitching, and allows a substantially greater work output even when the amplitude or the power of the sea wave is only moderate.

[0009] This invention advantageously allows one to utilize wave energy of the ocean, thereby avoiding noise of the engines and motors, and prevent environmental pollution by reducing dependence on fossil fuels. This invention allows the benefits such as:

[0010] Power production from ecological clean and renewable sources of natural energy.

[0011] Improvement in ship performance parameters, including wholescale ship power supply.

[0012] Creating new automated, self-powered floating objects for continuous propulsion.

[0013] Power supply for coastal settlements, as well as ocean settlements of the future.


[0014] The invention accesses an inexhaustible energy source of the ocean to produce ship propulsion and to generate electrical energy. The basic principle behind the claimed invention is utilization of wave-induced oscillations of floating bodies through aid of gyroscope. To accomplish this, the oscillation driven gyro power plant is mounted on a ship. The heart of the gyro-power plant is the gyroscope supporting fulcrum shaft. This gyro power plant can produce electricity, power a pressure hydro-pneumatic system, or propel a float.

[0015] A first embodiment provides wave-powered ship propulsion. A wave-induced pitching motion of the ship is transformed into an amplified oscillating motion of an oscillating propulsor arm attached to the ship. A rear platform is rotatably mounted aft of the ship hull with a transverse axis. The platform is isolated from wave-induced pitching motion of the ship and stabilized with an aid of a gyroscope. A propulsor arm is pivotally supported at one end below the gyroscopically stabilized platform for a rotation about a first horizontal axis. The propulsor arm is also pivotally attached to the ship hull for a rotation about a second horizontal axis, with the second axis acting as a fulcrum. The pitching motion of the ship produces a relative movement between the first axis and the second axis, and causes a leveraged rotation of the propulsor arm about the second axis. This leveraged rotation produces an amplified oscillating motion of the propulsor arm in a vertical plane to provide propulsion to the ship.

[0016] A second embodiment teaches conversion of wave-induced motion to electrical energy using a gyroscope. The wave motion creates alternating force moment, which is transmitted to gyroscope via oscillating floating bodies. The gyroscope resists tilting by the wave-induced moment due to gyro precession, or gyrostatic moment. Floating bodies trimming against waves is a reason for its pitching or rolling, where a force moment is applied to the gyroscope through the energy converter. The energy converter transforms the slow oscillation motions to fast, one-way output shaft rotation. The gyro fulcrum hinders free float rocking through the loaded converter and causes trim increasing. The more energy converter is loaded, the more reactive fulcrum torque is created by the gyroscope as its reaction, and the faster gyro precession happens. Fortunately the rocking process happens periodically to both side. So the gyro precession goes to both sides also and the mean gyro axis can be stable enough time. A relative movement is produced between the stabilized gyroscope and oscillating floating bodies, which is used to generate power.


[0017] FIGS. 1(A, B, C) Gyro power plant (general appearance: A—front view; B—top view where the right converter is substituted with a support; C—section AA from the front view).

[0018] FIGS. 2(A, B) Converter of rocking motion to uniform revolution (front right or rear left flank views: A—converter of the angle oscillations to uniform shaft revolution; B—speeds up gearbox).

[0019] FIG. 3 Rocking energized floating power plant supported with gyroscope (there are shown two drive gear quadrants and a gravity mechanism for gyro precession control in polar coordinates).

[0020] FIGS. 4(A, B) Compact assembled rocking energized floating power plant having two drive gear quadrants and gravity mechanism for gyroscope precession control in rectangular coordinates (A—right side view, section AA from the top view B containing also a chart of clutch mechanisms).

[0021] FIG. 5 Shaft mounted clutch mechanism providing disengagement of the gyro from the converter.

[0022] FIGS. 6(A, B, C) Gyro precession control system chart (A) and gyro attitude sensor of pendulum type (B, C).

[0023] FIGS. 7(A, B, C, D) Gyro attitude measurement (A, B) and internal relation between gyro attitude parameters measured in rectangular and polar coordinates (C, D).

[0024] FIGS. 8(A, B) Reducing gyro axis tilt by a float left turn (A) and increasing it by the float right turn (B).

[0025] FIGS. 9(A, B) Long wise assembled gyro power plant (A) with precession control system creating force moment restoring gyro axis attitude in any required direction (B).

[0026] FIGS. 10(A, B) A ship gyro power plant (A, B—right and top ship views with a gyroscope on middle).

[0027] FIGS. 11(A, B, C) A ship gyro power plant located in the stem (A, B, C—right side, bottom and rear views).

[0028] FIGS. 12(A, B) A ship with a hydra pressure power station supplying ship services including propulsion (A—right side view and B—rear ship half-sectional view).

[0029] FIGS. 13(A, B) Gyro precession control systems (A—for the swerve hydro-cylinder: see FIG. 10; B—for each of four hydro-cylinders providing also pressure energy deriving: see FIG. 12).

[0030] FIGS. 14(A, B) Rocking propelled ship with an active rocking propulsor (A—chart of action, B—forces chart).

[0031] FIG. 15 Signs and explanation for gyroscope behavior.

[0032] FIGS. 16(A, B) Retracted under the bottom wagging propulsor with stabilized foil support (A—rear view of section BB from the B; B—right view of section AA from A without the axle cover).

[0033] FIGS. 17(A, B) Adjusted and controlled spring force moment generator (A—front section, B—half side views).

[0034] FIGS. 18(A, B) A floating power plant energized by the heaving and supported by submerged inertia body.

[0035] 1

0converter,121frame guide,
2coupling,123roller bearing,
3step-up gear,124hinge,
4coupling,125stiffening rib,
5spin rectifier,126stand,
6speed-up gear,127pin,
8gyro spin axis,129pin,
9speed up drive,130mounting,
12input shaft,133internal gear,
13output shaft,134deck house,
14rocking shaft,135engine,
15shaft nest,136cargo hold,
17fore-aft axle,138rudder,
18base plate,139propeller,
20input shaft,141gearbox,
21output shaft,142motor,
23shaft lock,144rudder house,
26satellite gear,147battery hold,
27satellite gear,148slot,
28bevel gear,149slot,
29cylinder,150keel guides,
30bevel gear,151rocker guide,
31twist spring,152pulley,
32bevel pinion,153foil axle,
33overrun clutch,154rudder stock,
34main shaft,155foil base rib,
35one way dram,156nozzle,
36bevel gear,157hydraulic drive,
37overrun clutch,158cylinder,
38bearing spider,159hinge stop,
39internal gear,160cylinder,
40internal gear,161clutcj,
41sun gear,162cantilever,
42brake gear,163machine room,
43bearing,164left space,
44gear quadrant,165piston,
45driven gear,166right space,
46ring suspension,167stock,
47guide,168control valve,
48gear rack,169control valve,
49xwivel carriage,170low pressure,
50weight,171high pressure,
51slider,172extra high pressure
52liner drive,173control valve,
53pinion,174spring-ball valve,
54round drive,175spring-ball valve
55roll,176spring-ball valve
56opening,177spring-ball valve
57support,178rest lever,
58pipe union,179bearing,
59guide slide,180rope,
61clutch frame,182shaft-pulley,
62bush member,183spindle,
63cylinder,184propulsor arm,
64spline shaft,185bifoil,
65stock mount,186wave line,
68control valve,189axis,
69high pressure,190bob,
70low pressure,191vertical keel,
71far position,192opposite wave
73electromagnet,194pitch center,
76thrust washer,197pin,
77tie-rod,198slide frame,
78draw nut,199sliding bush,
79gear off-position,200rocker,
84gyro rotor,205bottom,
86guider groove,207spline bush,
87angle sensor,208gear,
88angle sensor,209roller,
89integrator,210spline bush,
93moment drive,214cog,
94moment drive,215cog,
95gravity sensor,216cog,
98counter weight,219spline bush,
99pendulum,220inner dram,
101slip rings222bridge,
103rings assembly,224port-light,
106rotor,227sealing hose,
107angle sensor,228sealing,
108null-point,229anchor rope,
109vertical,230lifting ring,
110spin direction,231hollow ball,
111cross track,232hole,
112cantilever,233closed flap,
113bell crank,234closed flap,
114stop,235closed flap,
115axle cover,236opened flap,
117rest,238heavy base,
118opened flap,239axle
119opened flap,


[0036] a—prefix of allowable parameter; {circumflex over ( )}, /, · ×( )—power, division, multiplication, square root signs;

[0037] x,y,z—axis′: longitudinal, transverse, vertical; X,Y—shift size for upper and lower weights;

[0038] ∫—integrating function; >—amplification; e—extreme highest point; ι—gyro inclination;

[0039] ι′—mesured inclination; W—angular momentum vector; Ω—angular speed; ο—pitch center;

[0040] h—height of the extreme point; JOK—gyro disk plane; JK—highest line tangent to gyro disk;

[0041] ιx, ιy—gyro inclinations to (x) and to (y) axis; α—extreme point course angle, peak wave slope;

[0042] P—precession, pitch; gyro power plant—gyroscope supported and rocking energized power plant; Wxy—projection of vector W to horizontal plane; Wz—projection of W-vector to vertical axis; Mz—force moment applied to a gyro; QWL—quit WL; H—amplitude foil swing stroke; B—buoyancy; LL—support force centers line; N—normal foil drag force; R—wave resistance; T—thrust; G—float gravity; Q—drag force vertical projection; b—vertical buoyancy projection; C—gravity center; J—moment of inertia; υ—specific material strength (maximum allowable tangent velocity for the circular loop gyroscope).


[0043] 1. Developing the Mechanical Structures Converting the Float Rocking to Customary Power.

[0044] 1.1. Physical Basis.

[0045] Each flank of the gyro power plant (FIGS. 1a,c) consists of the generator 1, the step up gearbox 3, the converter ‘angle oscillations to shaft revolution’ 5-6. Its right flank (if presented) is the mirror reflection of the left flank. Between these there is the gyroscope 7. The gyro power plant is mounted on base plate 18 transmitting pitch motion to all components except the gyroscope 7. The gyro 7 is mounted with its external frame 10 on the flattened shaft ends 14 of the converters 6. We explain working process for the left flank.

[0046] For further consideration let's build floating system of orthogonal coordinates on a floating object assuming that:

[0047] x—diametrical (longitudinal) axis being also axis of precession oscillations,

[0048] y—transverse axis being also an axis of pitching and of fulcrum support,

[0049] z—vertical axis (plumb).

[0050] If a floating object is a ship all these axis's are coincide with diametrical, transverse and vertical axis's of the ship. If a float object is something else the named orthogonal axis's may be chosen by any convenient way.

[0051] When the float is rocking the converter 6 its input shaft 14 is kept immobile by the still frame 10 of the gyroscope 7 with the flattened end. Thus the shaft 14 and the converter case 6 oscillate relatively each other. The converter 5-6 transforms oscillations of the input shaft 14 to one way revolutions of the output shaft 21. Then the step up gearbox 3 accelerates this revolution and drives the generator 1 producing electric current. The FIGS. 1a and 1c clear functions of other parts. The gyro power plant of a single flank is shown on FIG. 1b.

[0052] Now the float can not freely pitch following to seas. Only its raised trim can pitch the float further. Overcoming reactive force moment from the converter case 5-6 the pitching float body performs useful work powering the gyro power plant or propulsion. The greater generated power the greater trim is needed to pitch the float. The rocking angle stroke range is reduced when the trim raises. There exists the gold middle of load: the trim should not exceed half of wave slope.

[0053] 1.2. Two Stage Conversion ‘Float Rocking to Fast Uniform Shaft Revolution’.

[0054] The converter 5-6 function is very important because revolution of the generator 1 revolution with speed 55 rpm can not be redirected in every 3-5 seconds. Other wise redirection will take all rocking energy owing to inertia of revolving mass. So fast parts of the converter and the generator must be revolved uniformly. For that speeding gearbox part is picked out and organized as the single gearbox 3 (FIG. 1) and its rear view is shown in detail on FIG. 2b. The chart (FIG. 2b) and formula were borrowed from [1, page 216] as convenient for our usage: the small clearance limits with the efficiency for speed up function. Transmission ratio for this separated speed up gearbox is defined as:


[0055] where:

[0056] ωN—angular speed of the gear wheel number N as shown on FIG. 2b;

[0057] zN—number of teeth on the gear wheel number N as shown on FIG. 2b.

[0058] The converter 5-6 consists of two aggregates (FIG. 2A—rear view). The first one is the speed up gear stage 6 having the same chart as the last gear stage (FIG. 2b). It has less speed and much more clearance limits to keep giant forces and moments. Nevertheless it is pictured in the same size in order to explain the basic ideas. The angle oscillations of the input shaft 14 revolves the female gear 40 which is engaged with gear 26 of planet rigid couple having the second gear 27 engaged with still female gear 39. The different wheel diameters impacts speed up revolution of the carrier 25 and said planet wheels. As a result the sun gear 41 transmits much greater angle (rotary now) oscillations to the connecting shaft 34.

[0059] The second aggregate is the rotary oscillations rectifier 5 converting rotary oscillations of the input shaft 34 to the output shaft 21 uniform revolution. For that the shaft 34 rotary oscillates the bevel gear 32 and rotates the dram 35 to single direction through the overrun clutch 33. In own turn the bevel gear 32 oscillates the bevel gears 30 and 36 supported by the still tube bearing 38. Both of them transmit rotation to the bevel gear 28 connected via the overrun clutch 37 to said dram 35. When the shaft 34 revolves the dram 35 to right direction the bevel gear 28 rotates to the back direction in which the overrun clutch 37 does no impact. When the shaft 34 revolves backward it revolves the dram 35 again in the right direction but through the bevel gear 28 which now impacts on the dram 35 through the overrun clutch 37.

[0060] So any shaft 34 motion (right or back) swirls the spring 31 through the dram 35. So this spring uniformly transmits one way revolution to the output shaft 21 through the outer dram 29. This revolution is speeded up by the gearbox 3 and transmitted to the electric generator 1 (FIG. 1).

[0061] 2. Basics of Gyro Precession Control to Rush the Gyro Axis Mean-Line to Plumb.

[0062] 2.1. The Brake Method Controlling Gyro Precession.

[0063] Additionally to the rule: “the trim is to not exceed half of wave slope” (p. 1.1) we need to limit the load for gyro power plant. It is because the range of gyroscope precession swings increases when the growing load transmits the greater moment to the gyro frame 10 through the input shaft 14 (FIG. 1). The gyro 7 trials the growing moment and equilibrates it by the own dynamic fulcrum reaction requiring gyro precession span greater.

[0064] Also the important is the behavior of the gyro axis mean-line that must stay upright. To control its location the converter 5-6 is provided by the brake 82 (FIGS. 1, 2, 4, 6a, 11). The brake 82 is periodically switched on accordance rocking rhythm to add the load for only one way angle oscillations of the shaft 14 (FIG. 1). The asymmetrical load torque enforces the gyroscope to precess mainly to one side than the other. This predominate side (left or right) depends of which way the shaft 14 angle oscillations the brake 82 acts to. If it is applied in times when the float pitches forward then the gyro axis will additionally precess to the right side. If we need to shift it to the left side then the brake 82 must be applied in times of backward pitching. If the gyro axis mean-line follows to the plumb we use the brake 82 correctly. We assume here that the gyro angular momentum W (FIG. 1) directs upward. Otherwise all movements and moments should be considered in the opposite directions.

[0065] There are two disadvantages of the break method of the gyro precession control. The first disadvantage is the necessity to turn temporally the float to left or to right in order to make forward or backward gyro axis mean-line drifts as the right or left side tilts. After that we can use this method for eliminating them. The second disadvantage of the break method is its disability when there is no rocking.

[0066] 2.2. The Gravity Polar and Cartesian Methods for the Gyroscope Precession Control.

[0067] The polar type gyroscope precession control (FIG. 3) includes the swivel carriage 49 revolving into the ring suspension 46 with rolls 55. The needed carriage 49 position is reached with the controlled drive 54 via the pinion 122 and the female gear of the ring suspension 46. The issued carriage 49 position makes the arc shaped guide 47 transverse directed. Thus the gyro precession hesitations do not have influence on the weight 50. It remains in the lowest position on the guide 47 and allows the gyroscope to hesitate freely because of the rolls 51.

[0068] When the gyro axis mean-line shifts left or right side then the carriage 49 should be set in the fore-aft position with the drive 122 as shown (FIG. 3). Then the weight 50 must be displaced respectively aft or fore with its bevel pinion 53 engaged with the bevel gear rack 48 cut on the guide 47 side. And the vector of the force moment produced by the shifted weight 50 directs where the gyro axis must follow to.

[0069] The Cartesian gyroscope precession control system (FIG. 4) contains two shifted weights 50 (upper and lower) which can be moved separately along the transverse axis (y) with the shift Y and longitudinal axis (x) with the shift X in order to manage separately the mean gyro axis drifts. The weights 50 are moved along the guides 47 with the drive 52 and its pinions 53 engaged with internal gear racks 48 on the guide 47.

[0070] 2.3. The Gyroscope Couplers Operating Description.

[0071] The couplers provide disconnection the gyroscope from the load in order to avoid its influence on the mean gyro axis alignment. The engaging and disengaging are accomplished (FIG. 4b) with the identical couplers. For example, the aft coupler moves the gear 45 along the splined shaft 64 with the round sliding ring bush 62 being the part of the frame 61. This frame slides along the guide 59 (FIG. 4a) of the support 57 under the pressure in the cylinder 63.

[0072] When the cylinder 63 pushes its stock 66 it disengages the gear 45 with the toothed quadrant 44 by moving itself aside from the around sliding end mount 65. Engaging (opposite operation) is accomplished by the valve 68 controlled by electromagnets 67. It connects the high-pressure hydraulic pipe 69 with the side pipe union 58 and the low-pressure hydraulic pipe 70—with the bottom union 58. As a result the cylinder 63 pulls itself for the end mount 65 together with the frame 61, the bush 62 and the gear 45 toward the toothed quadrant 44 and engages them.

[0073] The other design of the gyroscope coupler (FIG. 5) uses the electromagnet 75 fixed on the splined shaft 64. The shaft 64 takes the torque from sliding gear 45 driven by the toothed quadrant 44 if the movable electromagnet 73 is pulled up to the electromagnet 75. The electromagnet 73 action pushes the gear 45 into the engaging by the stock 77 sliding into cylinder space of the splined shaft 64. If the electric current is changes direction then the electromagnets 73 and 75 are mutual repulsing and the stock 77 pulls out the gear 45 with the draw nut 78 and the screw 81 along the longitudinal groove 86. As result the gear 45 is disengaged from the quadrant 44 and the last one finishes to apply the force moment to the gyroscope 7.

[0074] The one more gyroscope coupler is shown on the FIG. 9. It contains additional element 55. It is the roll mounted on the splined shift 64 to compensate the side component of engagement force of the gear 45. And the gear 45 is disengaged by the cylinder 63 through the lever 113 and the round sliding bush 62.

[0075] 2.4. The Automated Gyroscope Precession Control System.

[0076] In accordance with the typical chart (FIG. 6a) of the gyro precession automated control system measurers the gyroscope inclination (ιx) relatively the axis (x) with the angle sensor 87 mounted on the shaft 14 (the axis y). In order to limit interference proceeding from pitching the control loop has the integrator 89 renewing the summarized signal ιx from the angle sensor 87 during the some past period, amplifies it with the amplifier 91 and apply it to the moment generator 93. This one creates the force moment Mx around the axis (x). To reduce the gyroscope plane positive inclination mean value (ιx) the moment vector Mx must point the positive direction of the axis x (FIG. 7c).

[0077] The similar control loop is organized to reduce the mean value of gyroscope plane inclination (ιy) relatively the axis (y). It consists of: the angle sensor 88, the integrator 90, the amplifier 92 and the moment generator 94. Here the integrator 90 limits interference of rolling and the transverse precession hesitations. The angles (ιx) and (ιy) can be interpreted also as angles of the gyro axis mean drifts from the plumb in the transverse and central lateral planes.

[0078] To limit rocking interference more the system should be equipped (FIG. 6a) with the mounted on the gyroscope pendulum angles meter 95 that can be two types: Cartesian (FIG. 6b) and polar (FIG. 6c). The similar sensors 87, 88 of the pendulum Cartesian angles meter (FIG. 6b) picks up correct signals ιx and ιy. However to get the mean values of the gyro plane side inclinations (ιx, ιy) the system has to average them during the nearest some past period. This is because the work gyroscope hesitates under altering precession induced by the gyro power plant.

[0079] The pendulum polar angles meter (FIGS. 6c, 7a,b) picks up the vertical gyro axis inclination (ι) relatively the plumb with the sensor 107 and the course angle a relatively axis (x) with the sensor 105 (FIG. 6c). The mean values of them can be use to control gyroscope precession with the polar system (FIG. 3) or with the Cartesian system (FIG. 4) because measure results can be converted between both systems.

[0080] In fact the angular momentum vector W is deflected (FIG. 7) from the plumb (axis z) on an angle (ι), so the gyroscope plane crosses the coordinate planes along the 111, OJ and OK lines. The line JK is passed horizontal through the extreme disk point e located on the height h. The plane JLK is horizontal. So the vector W is in the plane OLeS. The course angle α is the second angle measured by the polar system. The desired angles (ιx) and (ιy) can be calculated by the formulas:

tgιy=h/(y)=h/(1·cos α)=tgι/cos α, (1)

tgιx=h/(x)=h/(1·sin α)=tgι/sin α, (2)

[0081] where:

[0082] 1—the length of the line x-y (FIG. 7c).

[0083] The FIG. 7d shows the usage opposite conversion when we want to get the polar angles from rectangular Cartesian measured angles. For that we should use the formulas:

tgα=tgιy/tgιx, (3)

tgι=h/os=tgιx/cos α, or

tgι=tgιy/sin α). (4)

[0084] 2.5. Efficacy of the Gravity Force Moment Generators and Developing its Hydraulic Design.

[0085] The force moment generators 93, 94 (FIG. 6a) present the generators of gravity type: polar (FIG. 3) and Cartesian (FIG. 4). Have they enough capacity to manage the gyro axis precession? The control force moment cM created by the weight 50 is defined as follows:

cM=wG×1, (5)

[0086] where:

[0087] wG—weight gravity,

[0088] 1—horizontal displacement of the weight 50 from the vertical axis z.

[0089] If the weight gravity wG=35 kN and 1=2 m then cM=70 kN·m. For our example the gyro disk has the rotation speed Ω=258.3 radian/sec, the gyro disk mass m=35.65 Mg, ρ{circumflex over ( )}2=2.88 m{circumflex over ( )}2, the moment of inertia J=102.7×10{circumflex over ( )}6 kg·m{circumflex over ( )}2, the angular momentum (formula 1—see Appendix) W=26.53×10{circumflex over ( )}9 N·m·sec. And the gyroscope precession speed under this force moment calculated with the formula 2 (see Appendix): ω=cM/W=7×10{circumflex over ( )}4/26.53×10{circumflex over ( )}9=2.64/10{circumflex over ( )}6 radian/sec. It means that during one hour the gyro precession is 0.0095 radian (or 0.545° per hour). This is too slowly. Earth revolves 27.5 times faster (15° per hour) that makes apparent precession much greater.

[0090] 2.6. Hydraulic Pressure Systems Operating the Gyro Axis Mean Drift.

[0091] 2.6.1. Polar System.

[0092] We need to generate the control moment cM 50-100 times greater, for example cM≧4 MN·m. Let's to try the hydraulic pressure system (FIG. 9) to operate the gyro axis mean drift. If the force arm is the same 1=2.5 m (FIG. 9b) then the force created by the hydraulic cylinder 132 must be at least F=1.6 MN. The cylinder of diameter 0.5 m requires the pressure 1.57 MPa or 16 atm to manage the gyro precession properly. To reduce this pressure or cylinder diameter we can use two cylinders 132 mounted symmetric and opposite on the same shaft 127 of the column 128 (FIG. 9b) and generating the couples of opposite forces applied to the gyroscope 7.

[0093] 2.6.2. Courtesan System.

[0094] Courtesan system contains four cylinders (FIGS. 12A, 12B). Each pair of opposite hydraulic cylinders can apply torque to the gyroscope 7 around respective axis: longitudinal x or transverse y. The precession automated control system is able decompose the total torque, required to direct giro axis mean to the plumb, to values of its components on axis's x and y.

[0095] The advantage of both schemes is its elasticity providing for the force moment constancy independently of the gyroscope hesitation and the float body rocking.

[0096] 3. Peculiarities of Floating Objects Such a Ship Using the Gyro Power Production.

[0097] Watercrafts (like ships, boats, vessels, barges etc.) are the most wisely spread floating objects. They have deep-seated traditional architectures where no place exists for the gyro power plant disposition. This element did not exist before. Now we try to insert it in the ship architecture.

[0098] 3.1. The Ship with the Gyroscope Located in the Middle.

[0099] Here (FIG. 10) the gyro power plant contains all elements presented on the FIG. 9. And it contains also the standard engine 135 able to drive the generator 1 when the gyroscope 7 is switched off with the clutch 63 (FIG. 9). The unit contains also the battery hold 147, the motor 142 and the gearbox 141, the propeller 139 and its shaft 140. When the rocking is absent or it is not enough the ordinary engine 135 can power the ship propulsion and services. In other case the gyro power plant does it,, and the batteries 147 accumulate superfluous energy.

[0100] 3.2. A Ship of Two Floating Sections Joined by Hinges.

[0101] The other example of the ship with the gyro power plant (FIG. 11) contains the floating gyroscope ball 145 fixed to the ship hull with axles 14. The gyro ball provides the fulcrum moment relatively this axis stabilizing the gear quadrant 44. The gyroscope 7 is suspended on the inner axis' 17 (FIG. 9) and the gyroscope 7 hesitates around this axis owing to precession when it keeps steady gear quadrant 44 against the load torque of the gyro power plant. This ship architecture provides more space for the cargo-hold 136. And secondly it lets to detach the gyro ball 145 from the hull for quick exchange and maintenance.

[0102] Also the project is equipped with the heavy vertical telescopic keel 191 providing pendulum capability to the ship. As explained in paragraph A. 4.2., it obtains heave energy and transforms it to the pitching energy utilized by gyro power plant. The single condition of it is the equivalence (or a little excess) of the free ship pitching period to the seas period. To equalize the free ship pitching period (ship-pendulum period) to the wave period the heavy vertical keel rigged with bob 190 (FIG. 11) which can be lowered or lifted with its rack 49 by the drive 53.

[0103] 3.3. The Floating Gyro Power Plant with the Hydraulic Converter of Rocking to Power.

[0104] Earlier (p.1.1) we have scrutinized the floating gyro power plant with the mechanical converter of rocking energy to the electrical power. The hydraulic converter also can be used for power production and ship propulsion separately or together with the mechanical one (FIG. 12). The mechanical converter 3-5 can take energy from the quadrant 44 if it is clutched. In this case the cylinders 158 of the central lateral plane and the cylinders 160 of the transverse plane should also work as the moment generators under supervision of the gyro precession automated control system as described in the paragraph 2.4.

[0105] In this case each cylinder can operate by it through the hydraulic monitor (FIG. 13a). If the valves 168, 169 are both set vertical as shown or horizontal then both cylinder spaces are connected by the single pipe between the valves. Thus the piston 165 can practically move inside the cylinder without resistance. If the valves 168, 169 are set different then there are the different pressures into spaces because the valves connect them with the lines 170 and 171 of high and low pressures. To change direction of the force moment created by the single cylinder it is enough to set the valves 168, 169 to opposite state. Each cylinder can accomplish the stop function in order to arrest the gyroscope. For that both valves 168, 169 have to be set into third cut off state.

[0106] If the mechanical converter 3-5 is disengaged from the gear quadrant 44 with the clutch 161 (FIG. 12a) then the only hydraulic converter can produce the power by the scheme (FIG. 13b). For that the cylinders should be connected with the hydraulic power system by closing the valve 175 as shown for single cylinder 158 (FIG. 13b). The cylinders 158 (FIG. 12) in this case should work as the pumps (FIG. 13b) filing the high pressure tank (line 171) or extra high pressure tank (line 172) of the hydraulic power system with oil when the ship is rocked by the seas. In this case the gyro precession automated control system should differentiate the load for both directions of each cylinder using valves 168, 169 (FIG. 13b).

[0107] We see if the valve 175 is set as shown (cut off) then through the valves 173, 176 the oil is suck in from the line 170 (low pressure) by the space 164 or 166 depending of the direction that the piston 165 is moved on. Both valves close the access of the high pressed oil into the line 170. The high pressure is created by the piston 165 in the space 164 or 166 where it moves to. The piston 165 pushes the oil out of both spaces (in turn) through the valves 174, 177 into the line 171 (high pressure) or the line 172 (extra high pressure) depending of which directions the valves 168, 169 are set on. These are defined by the gyro precession automated control system depending of which the piston 165 motion must have additional resistance accordance the control rule: the control force moment vector cM must follow from the gyro axis mean-line W′ to the plumb (FIG. 7c).

[0108] This scheme of the gyro power plant with a few of cylinders (FIG. 12) can produce the power from the pitching, heaving (if the ship has the pendulum layout) and also from the rolling. The cylinders 160 (FIG. 12b) can be loaded if there is rolling. For that the cylinders 160 are mounted by face on the cantilevers 162 and by stocks on the cantilever 112 of the gyroscope 7 bottom.

[0109] 3.4. Rocking Ship Propulsion and a Ship Powered via the Gyroscope Support

[0110] The U.S. Pat. No. 09/323,857 offers the rocking ship propulsion using the long rocking keel propulsor. It consisting of two opposite longitudinally projected arms keeping under water flapping hydrofoils producing the thrust when the ship is rocking. To provide high speed of foil swings the arms are made as long as possible. The gyroscope gives the new possibility to increase the foil vertical swings under the rocking motion without essential arms lengthening.

[0111] Let see the rocking propelled ship, supported by the gyroscope (FIG. 14a). When the sea 186 pitches the ship hull 193 on the pitch angle P, as shown, the gyro ball 145 rests vertical. As a result the line joining axis's 189 on the ball and 187 on the corbel 188 inclines together with the arm 184 on the angle S that exceeds the pitch angle on D=S-P as shown. Thus the foil 185 has the stroke much more than it has if only the arm 184 was fixed on the ship bottom. It is also true for ship opposite pitching under wave 192. So the sum stroke 2H is great enough to develop fast vertical motion and to get the thrust developing custom ship velocity.

[0112] Once again the vertical keel 191 with the heavy bob 190 imparts to the ship the pendulum property in order to convert heaving energy to pitching energy. Also the lowering of ship gravity center is need to provide the transverse ship stability (FIG. 14b). Roughly the ship can be descry under action of forces B—buoyancy, G—gravity and N—foil water drag. To save stability the gravity center C must be located lower the line LL connecting points, where the force projections Q and b are applied. And also the projection T (thrust) must be greater than wave resistance R in order to impart the ship translation.

[0113] 3.5. Method of Steerage of Floating Objects.

[0114] The gyroscope mobility limited around the transverse axis y can hamper float maneuvering (FIG. 8). When the inclined gyroscope disk 7 is arrested around said axis then the float can safely try to swerve only left turn (FIG. 8a) inducing the force moment Mz applied to the gyroscope 7. Its component M, perpendicular to the angular momentum vector W, forces the disk 7 to precess safely to wanted plumb. This is why the left turn is safe. The other component Mw has no influence on the gyroscope 7 because it is directed along the angular momentum vector W and does not meet any resistance.

[0115] The float can't do any right turn safely if the mean gyro axis stays not up right (FIG. 8b) because in this case the moment M applied to the disk 7 is directed to the other side causing the angular momentum vector W to precess from the wanted plumb. So the right turn increases gyroscope 7 inclination. This is why the right turn is not safe. And the worse thing is the float can not do the right turn until the arrested gyroscope axis turns down.

[0116] When the input shaft 14 of the converter ‘pitching oscillation to power’ connected with the gyroscope 7 through the clutch mechanism 62-63 (FIG. 9a) the gyroscope 7 partially arrested around the transverse axis y. Common method of steerage of a floating object (especially ships) carrying the tilted vigorous gyroscope includes:

[0117] catching moment when the gyro main axis crosses the vertical plane,

[0118] clutching off the gyroscope temporally from any converter limiting the gyroscope freedom,

[0119] swerve the floating object to required course,

[0120] clutching on the gyroscope to the converter (for continuation of energy deriving).

[0121] The first step is made for a gyroscope precessing oscillatory, i.e. periodically crossing the diametrical plane and so at this moment the gyro main axis has the minimum drift from the plumb.

[0122] 4. The Retracting Rocking Ship Propulsor Rigged with the Uniform Deflecting Foil.

[0123] 4.1. The Uniform Foil Deflection.

[0124] The gyroscope gives possibility to use rocking motion to swing a foil propulsor. The propulsor 184 (FIG. 14) has the amplified angle of oscillations S comparably with angle of ship pitching P in order to get the great stroke 2H for the foil 185 producing the thrust T. But it must be provided (FIG. 16) without angle oscillating the rest lever 178 in order to uniform conditions for the foil work. The foil 185 resists against deflection by pressure of water flow with the rest lever 178 and the spring 202. Always it must be deflected on similar angle depending only of its velocity. For that the rest lever 178 should save its angle attitude parallel to the ship bottom 205.

[0125] So even though the propulsor 184 oscillates with angle amplitude S the rest lever 178 must pitch together with the ship only on angle P<S. Satisfaction of this condition guarantees the effective propulsor work. Other wise the propulsor can not produce considerable thrust and even more it can give the negative thrust in extreme areas.

[0126] 4.2. The Propulsor Retracting and Opening

[0127] And the third requirement is the propulsor must have retracting capability providing the maneuverability in straitened circumstances (channels, bays, ports etc.). For that it includes (FIG. 16) several parts. The pin 197, which allows variation in the distance between axis 187 and axis 189, is mounted on and stabilized by the gyro ball 145. The rocker 200 is mounted with the spindles 183 on two corbels 203, 204 welded to the ship body 193. The sliding frame 198 and bush 199 are connected to the rocker 200 by the cylinder 160 and guides 121. Two cylinders 100 also connect the rocker 200 and the corbels 203, 204 via two stops 114.

[0128] Before propulsor retracts the rocker should be aligned with the bottom guides 150. For that the remote automated control system enforces the cylinder 160 to lower down the sliding frame 198 together with the bush 199 and so disconnect the rocker from the gyro ball 145 (pin 197). Further the cylinders 100 are switched on and align the rocker guides 151 with the bottom guides 150 spreading under the ship bottom 205 as the ship keel. The propulsor retraction is accomplished with the submerged drive 53 via the pinion 52 engaged with the arm rack 49. In time of such retraction the guide 151 of the rocker 200 and the keel guides 150 should be aligned. This is because the grooves 148 of the propulsor arm 184 and the grooves 149 of its internal shaft-pulley 182 must be moved smoothly along both of these guides. The cylinders 100 provide the alignment of the rocker and the bottom guides 151 and 150 in order the propulsor 184 can be retracted under the bottom 205 along the keel guides 150. Both of these are welded up to the bottom 205 in order to keep the propulsor 184 between them with grooves 148.

[0129] When the propulsor extends by the drive 53 then the cylinder 160 lifts up the frame 198 and the bush 199 (hinged with the pins 195, 196 and oriented vertically with the spring 201). The pins 195, 196 represent the axis 189. The bush 199 catches the pin 197 to get the joint. Then the corbels 203, 204 and the stable pin 197 swing the rocker 200, the arm 184 and the foil 185 to propel the ship when it is pitching.

[0130] 4.3. Working Process of the Propulsor.

[0131] The swings of the rocker 200, inducted by the ship pitching, are imparted to the arm 184 via guides 151 and slots 148 and it oscillates around the still shaft-pulley 182. This shaft is having slots for the ledges 181 (FIG. 16a) of both short shafts 183 kept also motionless by the corbels 203, 204 via the bushing keys 97. When the rocker 200 swings it transmits own motion to the arm 184 through the rocker guides 151 and the arm slots 148 engaged each with other on both sides of the propulsor. In its turn the arm 184 wags the bifoil 185 able to oscillate at its end around axis 153 owing to the axle 153 the spring 202 and the lever 178. The last one is stabilized because the arm 184 can not turn the short shaft-pulley 182. It remains steady owing to its engagement with the steady shafts 183 by ledges 181. On the side section view of the propulsor (FIG. 16b) the cover 115 is taken off.

[0132] The motionless shaft-pulley 182 keeps the end pulley 152 also steady because both pulleys are hard toughed by the rope 180. When the arm 184 swings the pulley 152 then its lever 178 saves its angle attitude steady. Now the water stream deflects the bifoil 185 from constant angle base, defined by the motionless lever 178. This design of the propulsor with the stabilized rest lever 178 sharply increases its efficacy because the water stream always deflects the foil 185 on the optimal angle measured from the ship bottom 205 (or lever 178) direction. The deflecting resistance of the bifoil must depend on the pitching power and it can be adjusted with the end screw of the spring, 202 located inside space of the base rib 155.

[0133] 5. The Torque (Force Moment) Generator Controlled Automatically

[0134] Earlier when we searched ways to control gyroscope precession in order to keep the gyro axis mean drift from the plumb as small as possible we used the brake 82 (FIGS. 1, 2, 4, 6, 11). The brake 82 creates the force moment added to the gyro power plant loading force moment but it is applied to the only transverse axis of the gyroscope 7. The way is chosen to apply the additional moment to the gyro in order to enforce it to precess additionally to the side that brings the gyro axis mean-line to the longitudinal vertical plane. The brake method has two disadvantages:

[0135] Complicated control system designed to switch on the brake 82 only when the ship pitch applies the force moment directed to the side providing the needed gyro precession and to switch off when the pitch is directed to opposite side;

[0136] Losing the rocking energy in the brake process.

[0137] Here is developed the effective scheme creating the needed force moment and simultaneously saving the energy for useful utilization (FIG. 17). Instead of the brake 82 the torque generator can be mounted on the gearbox 6 (FIGS. 1, 2, 4, 6, 11) or on other frame 213 (FIG. 17a) of some part of the gyro power plant having the round oscillating mechanical process starting from the gyroscope 7 including the axles 14, 17. This generator 211 exerts the force moment to the one of the gyroscope axles directly or through the gearbox. In common situation the force moment generator case 211 is mounted on the frame 213 from which the splined shaft 64 is leaded out. It is connected through the gearbox 6 with the one of the gyroscope axles 14 or 17 so as any force moment generated by it on the shaft 64 is added to the force moments applying to one of the gyroscope axles.

[0138] The required force moment value is set by the drive 119 (FIG. 17) through the pinion 45 revolving the gear wheel 208 and the female geared dram 40 in opposite directions. And it keeps them steady in this required position by itself mounting on the cover 212. The cogs 215 and 216 located on the revolved dram 40 and the wheel 208 revolve also oppositely drams 29 and 220. These hold and twirl the spring 218 on the start angle providing the required level of the force moment produced by the spring 218. The oscillating shaft 64 produces the work twirling. For that the second control device-the cylinder 63 clutches the shaft 64 with the splined bush 207 or 210 by sliding the double splined bush 219 via the tie-tube 206 and the stock 66.

[0139] The cylinder 63 can set it to three positions: the neutral (as shown), the right—to clutch the splined bush 210 or to the left—to clutch the splined bush 207. If it is right then the angle oscillations of the splined shaft 64 are transmitted to the splined bush 210 through the double splined bush 219. These oscillations are transmitted further to the internal dram 220 but only to one direction overcoming the force of the spring 218. The shaft 64 can turn back freely owing to the overrun clutching between the bush 210 and the dram 220. Their adjacent surfaces and the rollers 209 provide the overrun clutching (example in the [1]) so that the cog 217 can be turned only toward to a reader (FIG. 17a).

[0140] When the shaft 64 and thus the bush 219 and the bush 210 are turning back the spring helps the shaft 64 to do it and gives back the accumulated energy to the gyro power plant until the cog 217 bumps on the cog 216 of the steady wheel 208. Then the motion can not meet the spring resistance further owing to overrun clutching action. But when the shaft 64 again turns forward it meets the spring 218 resistance and transmits it back as force moment to the gyro power plant. The second end of the spring 218 is still because it is held up by the outer dram 29 insisting with its cog 214 on the cog 215 of the geared dram 40 which was set and is now kept steady by the pinion 45 of the drive 119. The described cycle of the force moment creating and the energy giving back is repeated automatically with the pitching process.

[0141] The opposite force moment is created against the shaft 64 when the cylinder 63 slides the double splined bush 219 to the left side and clutches the opposite internal bush 207. It can be swirled by the shaft 64 only to direction opposite of the bush 210 can be swirled. This is owing to the second overrun clutching of the bush 207 with the outer dram 29 providing by rollers 209. Overcoming the spring 218 resistance the outer drum 29 winds the spring 218 with its outside end. In the same time the spring inner end is held steady on the inner dram 220 owing to the cogs 217, 216 (of the wheel 208) and owing to the motionless pinion 45. The work cycle is similar to the described before for the direct force moment.

[0142] It is important the force moment generator can work also when the shaft 64 does not hesitate. For that the case 211 must be turned relatively and fixed on the frame 213 up to the angle needed to have the required force moment value. The turning is performed by the drive 54 with the pinion 122 in direction opposite to desired force moment direction. To redirect the force moment the generator must be turned back and then up to the opposite angle.

[0143] 6. Floating Power Plant Energized by the Heaving Process

[0144] In conditions when the navigating is not required the power production is much easier. It is because we don't need to steer the floating craft if we are only producing the power. It is enough to keep the gyro axis mean drift to minimum as possible. The power producing floating craft can have round shape and keep the gyro power plant as shown on the FIG. 12 but without the gearbox 5, the propulsive 139 and steering 156 complexes, any transmissions to it. The accumulated hydraulic power is converted to the electric power by any generator driven with the hydraulic motor 157.

[0145] Further the absence of the navigating necessity presents the possibility to remove the gyroscope and to build the simplest buoyant rocking power plant as shown on the FIG. 18. The buoyant rocking power plant consists of: the hull 193 (FIG. 18a) heaving under the seas action, the column 128 containing the spring 201 stretching the rope 180 winded on the winch 120 and dropped down to suspend the hollow ball 231 (FIG. 18b). The machine room (163) is hermetically sealed by the corrugated flexible hose ( 227) allowing the rope 180 to be kept stable by the ball 231 when the hull 193 is lifted up by a sea.

[0146] The lifting stage means also that the rope 180 is untwisted down from the winch 120 by resistance forces and the rope twists on the winch 120 stretching the spring 201. The hallow ball 231 (FIG. 18b) holds the rope 180 down mainly owing to the inertia of inner water masses and the hydrodynamic resistance of the opened flaps 236, 118, 119. The rope 180 is fixed to the central point of the winch 120 so the great holding force from the ball 231 together with two supports 22 create the force moment on the shaft of the winch 120. And it is revolving the speed-up gear 6, the spin rectifier 5, the speed-up gear 3 and at last the generator 1.

[0147] When the hull 193 is down the ball does not create the force. It goes down under base weight 238 and the flaps don't interrupt now to do it because they can clasp to the ball 231 by the water flow. To increase or reduce the ball sink capability the holes 232 can have adjustable size. Any way the submerged rope 180 does not interrupt the winch 120 to revolve back under the spring 201 action. The rest of buoyant rocking power plant work cycle is the same as for gyro power plant (p.1.2). The only difference is the amplitude of the input shaft angle motion becomes a few revolutions instead only {fraction (1/50)}÷{fraction (1/30)} revolution. It is much better for designing of the converter ‘rocking to revolution’.

[0148] The buoyant rocking power plant can drift or be anchored with the anchor cable 229 united functionality of the anchor rope and the submerged electric cable transmitting the electric power on the shore. Tens and hundreds of buoyant rocking power plants can power supply a few coastal settlements.

[0149] Method for Analysis Force Interaction of a Rocking Float and a Gyroscope.

[0150] A.1. Basic Principles.

[0151] According the definition [2] a gyroscope should have the very high angular speed Ω about the main gyro axis and the great moment of inertia J so that the gyroscope angular momentum should be great as possible:

W=J×Ω (1),

[0152] The principal theorem of the gyroscope expresses the interaction between a force moment M applied to the gyroscope to tilt it and its real movement (precession). If a force moment M acts on the gyroscope (FIG. 15) about an axis x perpendicular to the main gyro axis z then the gyroscope with its angular momentum W rotates slowly with speed ω about the third axis y. This slow rotation is named as precession and denoted by vector P. It is perpendicular to both axis' called first and it is directed to turn the main gyro axis (and so the angular momentum vector W) to the force moment vector M. The speed of slowly rotation called precession is calculated by formula:

ω=M/W (2).

[0153] Everywhere signed vectors are subjected to the right screw rule. It means the rotation is directed similar swirling a right screw to drive it as the vector shows. This theorem is the basic rule to control the gyro axis mean drift. As shown on the FIG. 15, it enough to redirect the moment M from x-axis to y-axis in order to change the precession from y-axis to x-axis. To turn precession back it is enough to turn back the moment M. Actually the gyroscope is loaded by the load force moment M produced by the converter 5-6 under the pitching process. And we need to apply to the gyroscope the special control force moment with its vector directed from the tip of the gyro axis mean-line to its central plumb. It is the basic rule for controlling the gyro axis mean drift through the directing gyro precession to the plumb.

[0154] One of the basic gyroscope parameter is its moment of mass inertia [3] defined as follows:

J=m×ρ{circumflex over ( )}2, (3)

ρ{circumflex over ( )}2=χ×R{circumflex over ( )}2, (4)

[0155] where:

[0156] ρ—gyration radius,

[0157] χ—gyration coefficient (1—for circular hoop, 0.5—for disc),

[0158] m—gyro mass, it calculated as follows:

m=d×Q, (5)

[0159] d—mass density,

[0160] Q—gyroscope volume.

[0161] We need to determine size of the gyroscope with torque fulcrum able to resists against to the pitching force moment. The formulas substituting 5,4→3→1 and result transforming with formulas (2) and V=ω·R we have got the formula to calculate the gyroscope fulcrum moment capacity:

M={overscore (ω)}×d×Q×χ×V×R. (6)

[0162] Now if we have input parameters: allowable gyroscope mass m, allowable velocities {overscore (ω)} (precession), V (peripheral) and required fulcrum moment M, we can define the required gyroscope radius as follows:

R≧M/(χ×V×{overscore (ω)}×m). (7)

[0163] A.2. Physical Limitations for the Peripheral Gyro Velocity.

[0164] In conformity with [3] the stress in the rotation gyroscope is defined as follows:

σ=V{circumflex over ( )}d/f, (8)

[0165] where:

[0166] V—peripheral (tangent linear) velocity,

[0167] f—velocity factor (1—for circular hoop, 3—for disc).

[0168] If aσ—allowable stress (material strength) then we can calculate the allowable tangent linear disk velocity limit as follows:

aV={square root}f×υ, (9)

[0169] where:

[0170] υ={square root}(aσ/d), (10)

[0171] υ—the maximum tangent velocity for circular loop gyroscope expressed as the squire root of the integrated material property, i.e. specific material strength

ss=aσ/d. (11).

[0172] The circle loop produced from the spring steel (d=7.8 mg/mm{circumflex over ( )}3 and strength aσ=1 kN/mm{circumflex over ( )}2, ss=128205 (m/sec){circumflex over ( )}2) allows the tangent velocity υ={square root}(ss)=358 m/sec.

[0173] A.3. The Allowable Gyroscope Precession Speed.

[0174] The total gyroscope inclination (climb) relatively the float hull I is sum of:

[0175] D—the maximum gyro axis mean drift,

[0176] Θ—the maximum roll angle (amplitude),

[0177] P—the maximum precession angle (amplitude).

[0178] So the allowable angle of precession hesitation depends of how precisely (perfectly) the gyro precession automated control system keeps the mean gyro axis upright, i.e. it depends of the controlled gyro axis mean drift D. And also it depends of the roll angle amplitude Θ. The better is the gyro precession automated control system then the gyro axis mean drift is smaller. The allowable gyro precession angle (amplitude) is calculated as follows:

aP=I−Θ−D. (12)

[0179] Now we can define the allowable precession angular speed:

{overscore (ω)}=4×aP/T, (13)

[0180] where:

[0181] T—pitching period of the floating body.

[0182] If aP=0.3 radian (17.2 degrees) and the pitching period T=6 sec then {circumflex over (ω)}=0.2/sec.

[0183] A.4. Capability Evaluation Examples for a Gyro Power Plant Mounted on Floats Like a Ship.

[0184] A.4.1. An Ordinary Ship as an Example of a Floating Body.

[0185] The reason of float pitching is the gap between the buoyancy vector and the float gravity center (FIG. 14B). If there is no resistance for the pitching process (pitch moment of inertia is absent or negligible) then the float trim induced by sea is small as well. The gyro power plant transmits the gyroscope fulcrum moment back to the floating body 193 (FIG. 6a) as the gyro power plant reaction. The greater load the bigger trim should be done by a sea in order to overcome the load resistance.

[0186] Let's consider a floating body like a ship then its trim Δ is the difference in draught between the bow and stern. It is measured in centimeters (cm). There exists the formula to calculate the specific moment to trim Δ=1 centimeter [5]:

·μ=G×A/(100×L), (14)

[0187] where:

[0188] G—ship weight,

[0189] A—longitudinal metacentre height (altitude),

[0190] L—ship length on waterline.

[0191] If the trim is measured with angle δ (radians) between static QWL and trimmed WL then the trim Δ can be calculated as follows [5]:

Δ=δ×100. (15)

[0192] If the trim Δ is known then the sea work force moment applied to the ship is defined as follows:

M=μ×Δ. (16)

[0193] To make clear our reasoning we suppose the best ideal variant for transmission waves energy to the ship and thus to the gyro power plant when the only work load resists against sea action. In this ideal case the waving will pitch the ship with the constant moment and trim. So the work load level causes its corresponding trim. Let's to assume the wave period T=6 sec then the average wave height h=2.5 m and its length λ=56 m are accepted from the hand book [4]. It also helps us to calculate a mean peak wave slope α=0.14 radians (it is 8 degrees) with the formula:

α=3.14×h/λ. (17)

[0194] Let's assume the load resistance of the gyro power plant causes the trim δ=0.02 radian. Because the ship pitching motion lags behind wave sloping α with the trim δ then between each contiguous peak slopes (half wave) the size of pitch angle motion is defined as φ=2×(α−δ). And whole pitch stroke for single wave has the size:

φ=4×(α−δ). (18)

[0195] For our example the slope of a single wave accomplishes angle motion 4·α=0.56 radians during its period but the ship pitching stroke is only φ=0.48 radians. The greater work load moment M the less work stroke φ is accepted by the gyro power plant. The derived power arises while δ<α/2.

[0196] The power produced by the gyro power plant using seas motion can be calculated with formula:

=ξ×M×φ/T, (19)

[0197] where:

[0198] ξ—the gyro power plant efficiency coefficient.

[0199] If the longitudinal metacentre altitude A=41 m, the ship weight=2304 kN and the length L=35 m, then the use formula (11) gives the specific moment sought μ=27 kN·m/cm. When δ=0.02 radian then Δ=7 cm and the load moment M=189 kN·m. Now the potential power (ξ=1) is calculated with the formula (19) is =15.12 Kw. For comparison the trims Δ: 14, 21 cm correspond the moments M: 378, 567 kN·m, the pitch strokes φ: 0.40, 0.32 radian, and the powers : 25.2, 30.24 kW.

[0200] A.4.2. A Ship of the Pendulum Layout as Example of a Floating Body.

[0201] This effective way of energy transmission is possible if a ship has the pendulum layout (FIGS. 14a,b) i.e. its gravity center is below the pitch center. The oscillations period of this ‘ship-pendulum’ is coincide with wave period and the heaving (scend) energy is transmitted to pitch process and it is added to the gyro power plant. Lets to evaluate it for our example. Every time when a wave raises our ‘ship-pendulum’ on own crest the ship accepts the gravity energy magnitude as:

E=G×h. (20)

[0202] And the ship body adds it as additional power to pitching process during wave period. So the inducted pitching enables the ‘ship-pendulum’ to overcome the bigger resistance force moment of the gyro power plant. Disregarding of the energy losses we can evaluate additional the heaving (scend) power as:

Ψ=G×h/T. (21)

[0203] For our example Ψ=2304 kN×2.5 m/6 sec=960 kW.

[0204] So the total power accepted by the ‘ship-pendulum’ is sum of pitching and heaving energies:

∃=Ψ+ (22)

[0205] The maximum evaluation of it for our example is ∃=960+30.24=990.24 kW. If to suppose the consumption coefficient ç=0.5 and efficiency coefficient ξ=0.4 then: the total energy usage η=0.5×0.4=0.2, the use power input is 495.12 kW and the use power output is 198 kW. It is enough to propel the ship fast as 10 knots in heavy sea. The force moment applied to the gyro power plant and provided by the gyroscope is defined by reversing the formula (19) and taking ç=0.5 into account:

M=ç×∃×T/φ. (23)

[0206] For our example this moment M=495.12 kW×6/0.56=5.305×10{circumflex over ( )}6 N·m. Here we have took φ=4·α because the ‘ship-pendulum’ continues to pitch and to follow to a wave until the trim δ=0. Heaving (scend) energy is accumulated by the ‘ship-pendulum’ as kinetic in time of wave lowering causing it to continue swing far from the wave hollow to inflection point where a wave has the peak slope as well as the ‘ship-pendulum’ has the pick pitch angle.

[0207] A.5. The Gyro Power Plant Basic Geometric and Motion Parameters.

[0208] Now all input parameters are ready to calculate the constructive gyro power plant parameters. In our example the floating body width is β=5.64 m, so the gyro disk radius can not be more then 2.5 m. Let's take the gyro radius R=2.4 m. Using the formula (7) and (9) we obtain

m=M/({overscore (ω)}×χ×{square root}f×υ×R)— (24)

[0209] the gyroscope disk mass m=5.305×10{circumflex over ( )}6/(0.2×0.5×1.732×358×2.4)=35.65 Mg; the volume Q=4.57 m{circumflex over ( )}3, and thickness H=0.2525 m, the weight 350 kN, the linear velocity V=620 m/sec, rotation speed Ω=258.3 radian/sec. The mass ratio of circle hoop shaped and some other way shaped equal gyroscopes is calculated as follows:

γ=χ×{square root}f. (25)

[0210] For hoop/disc γ0.5×1.732=0.866. If we take the internal hoop radius 0.8×R{circumflex over ( )}2=1.92 m then we obtain mass m=30.9 Mg, volume Q=3.96 m{circumflex over ( )}3, weight 303 kN, the thickness H=0.61 m, linear speed υ=358 m/sec; rotation speed Ω=149.17 radian/sec. We see the circle hoop has not significant weight advantage against the equal gyroscope shaped as a disk. Everywhere here we did not take the safety factor into account.

[0211] A.6. Conclusions and Basic Layout Improvement.

[0212] Numerical calculations have shown that the gyro power plant mounted with the layout shown on the FIG. 1 can not accept the rocking energy fully because of the too small radius of gyro disk unable to create sufficient fulcrum moment. The second reason of it is the necessity to produce the oscillating shaft 14 (see FIG. 1) with a very great diameter. In reference to our example where the required fulcrum moment must be greater then 5.305×10{circumflex over ( )}6 N·m that requires the single shafts 14 diameter can not be less 0.27 m.

[0213] In order to come nearer to practice the more acceptable layout to transmit the fulcrum moment is developed and given on the FIGS. 3, 4 and 9. On the layout (FIG. 3) the shafts 14 do not transmit any moment. Instead of it the fulcrum is created by the toothed quadrant 44 for gears 45 of gearboxes 6. When pitching they are revolving around the still toothed quadrants 44 owing to the base-plate 18 pitched together with the float. Now if the gear ratio is 20 then the required diameter of the input shafts 64 carrying the gear wheels 45 is only 0.1 m.


[0214] [1] D. N. Reshetov. Machine elements. Russia. Moscow. Publishing house Mashinostroenie. 1989.

[0215] [2] J. P. Den Hartog. Mechanics. Dover Publications, Inc. New York. 1948.

[0216] [3] Kurt & Reiner Gieck. Engineering Formula. 7th edition. McGraw-Hill, Inc. Germany 1997.

[0217] [4] Long-range cruise captain's hand book. Russia. Moscow. Publishing house Transport. 1988.

[0218] [5] V. B. Jinkin. Theory and ship design. Russia. St-Petersburg. Publish. house Shipbuilding. 1995.