Title:
Method for insulating against heat and/or cold and/or sound and /or fire, and device for carrying out said method
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
The walls (5, 29, 25) are covered with one or several insulating bodies (1) according to this method for insulating against heat and/or cold and/or sound and/or fire wherein each insulating body (1) comprises two plates (2) disposed at the distance from each other, wherein the intermediate space (4) of the plates (2) is filled with insulating material, is airtight closed toward the outside and is evacuated. The air contents or, respectively, the vacuum in the intermediate space (4) offering the insulating body (1) or the insulating bodies (1) and therewith the thermal or sound conductivity of the insulating body (1) is changed depending on the surrounding temperature, the inner temperature and/or the outside temperature or the prevailing sound level in the region or room (7, 8, 21, 32, 34) to be insulated. (FIG. 2). The damming and insulating effect of the insulation tender therewith to be increased and adapted to the respective requirements, the insulation can also be made transparent for employing the ambient temperature as required. Upon employment as a fire protection, the intermediate space (4) of the insulating body (1) or of the insulating bodies (1) can be additionally flooded with a noncombustible gas, for example halon gas, triggered by a fire alarm.



Inventors:
Scholz, Reinhard (Wiesental, DE)
Application Number:
10/204364
Publication Date:
03/13/2003
Filing Date:
08/16/2002
Assignee:
SCHOLZ REINHARD
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
52/3
International Classes:
E04B1/90; E04B1/80; E04B1/94; (IPC1-7): E04B1/00; E04G21/00; E04G23/00
View Patent Images:



Primary Examiner:
FRIEDMAN, CARL D
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Horst M Kasper (Warren, NJ, US)
Claims:

Patent claims



1. Methods for insulating against heat and/or cold and/or sound and/or fire, wherein a wall or walls are covered with one or several insulating bodies (1), wherein each of the insulating bodies (1) comprises two plates (2) disposed at a distance, wherein the intermediate space (4) of the plates (2) is filled with insulating material, sealed airtight toward the outside and evacuated, characterized in that the air contents or, respectively, the vacuum in the intermediate space (4) of the insulating body (1) or of the insulating bodies (1) and there this is the heat conductivity or sound conductivity of the intermediate space (4) is changed depending on the surrounding temperature, the inner temperature and/or the outside temperature or of the prevailing sound level in the area or room (7, 8, 21, 32, 34) to be insulated.

2. Method according to claim 1 characterized in that the intermediate space (4) of the insulating body (1) or of the insulating bodies (1) is evacuated or ventilated as required controlled by a program depending on the surrounding temperature, the inner temperature and/or the outside temperature or the prevailing sound level in the region or room (7, 8, 21, 32, 34) to be insulated.

3. Method according to claim 2 characterized in that the inner temperature of a room (7, 8, 21) to be insulated is automatically controlled by an automatic controller (13) to a set point value preselected in the automatic controller (13) by evacuating and ventilating of the intermediate space (4) of the insulating body (1) or of the insulating bodies (1).

4. Method according to claim 3 characterized in that the air contents or, respectively, the vacuum in the intermediate space (4) of the insulating body (1) or of the insulating bodies (1) is controlled by the automatic controller (13) depending on the difference between the set point value of the inner temperature of the room (7, 8, 21) to be insulated and the outside temperature.

5. Method according to claim 1 characterized in that the air contents or, respectively, the vacuum in the intermediate space (4) of the insulating body (1) or of the insulating bodies (1) are controlled depending on a measured sound level.

6. Method according to claim 1 characterized in that the air contents or, respectively, the vacuum in the intermediate space (4) of the insulating body (1) or of the insulating bodies (1) is controlled depending on time.

7. Method according to claim 1 characterized in that the intermediate space (4) of the insulating body (1) or of the insulating bodies (1) is flooded with a noncombustible gas, for example a halon gas upon responding of a fire alarm.

8. Device for performing the method according to claim 1, characterized in that the intermediate space (4) of one insulating body (1) or of several insulating bodies (1) on the one hand is connected to the suction connector of a vacuum pump (11) and on the other hand is connected to a connector offered ventilation wealth (12), wherein the vacuum pump (11) and the ventilation valve (12) are connected through in each case a control connection to the output connectors of an automatic controller (13), wherein a first measurement sensor (14) measuring the internal temperature of the room (7, 8, 21) to be insulated and a second measurement sensor (15) measuring the outside temperature at the room (7, 8, 21) to be insulated are connected to the inputs of the automatic controller (13) and wherein the operation of the vacuum pump (11) and the opening and closing of the ventilation wealth (12) are programmed controlled by the automatic controller (13) depending on the measured internal temperature and/or outside temperature of the room (7, 8, 21) to be insulated.

9. Device for the performing of the method according to claim 1 characterized in that the intermediate space (4) of one insulating body (1) or several insulating bodies (1) is connected on the one hand to the suction connector of a vacuum pump (11) and on the air and to a connector offered ventilation valve (12), wherein the vacuum farm (11) and the ventilation wealth (12) are connected to the output connectors of a control device through in each case a control connector, wherein a measurement sensor (14) measuring the sound level of a region to be monitored is connected to the inputs of the control device and wherein the operation of the vacuum pump (11) and the opening and closing of the ventilation valve (12) are programmed controlled by the control device depending on the measured sound level.

10. Device for the performing of the method according to claim 1 characterized in that the intermediate space (4) of one insulating body (1) or of several insulating bodies (1) is connected on the one hand to a suction connection of a vacuum pump (11) and on the other hand to the connector of the gas pressure container (26) through a valve (25) closed in its starting position, wherein the gas pressure container (26) is filled with a noncombustible gas and wherein the valve (25) is controllable by a control device upon responding of a fire alarm for flooding of the intermediate space (4) or of the intermediate spaces (4) with the non-combustible gas.

11. Device according to one of the claims 8 through 10, characterized in that the intermediate space (4) of one insulating body (1) or of several insulating bodies (1) is connected to the vacuum pump (11) and to the ventilation valve (12) through a pneumatic buffer (10).

12. Device according to claim 11 characterized in that an insulating valve (37) controllable by the temperature controller (13) is incorporated between the intermediate space (4) or the intermediate spaces (4) of one or several insulating bodies (1) and the pneumatic buffer (10), wherein the insulating valve (37) cooperates with an automatic pressure controller (38) inserted between the intermediate space (4) or the intermediate spaces (4) and the temperature controller (13).

13. Device according to one of the claims 8 through 12 characterized in that several insulating bodies (1) are composed like modules for covering or jacketing of a wall (5, 29, 30) of one room (7, 8, 21, 32) to be insulated, wherein the intermediate spaces (4) of the module like composed insulating bodies (1) are connected to each other and form a common intermediate space (4).

14. Device according to one of the claims 8 through 12 characterized in that several insulating bodies (1) for covering or jacketing of a wall (5, 29, 30) of a room (7, 8, 21, 32) to be insulated or of a firewall are composed like modules, wherein the intermediate spaces (4) of the insulating bodies (1) composed like modules are sealed airtight against each other and wherein the air contents or, respectively, the vacuum is differently controllable in these intermediate spaces (4).

15. Device according to claim 14 characterized in that a measurement point (23) is furnished at each of the intermediate spaces (4) airtight sealed against each other, wherein the air pressure in the intermediate space (4) can be measured at the measurement point (23).

16. Device for the performing of the method according to claim 1 characterized in that one insulating body (1) or several insulating bodies (1) are inserted into the firewall (24) of a building.

17. Device for performing the method according to claim 1 characterized in that the noise protection wall (35) is covered with one insulating body (1) or several insulating bodies (1) between the region (33) to be shielded against the sound and a sound source (24) on the side disposed toward the sound source (34) and wherein the plates (2′) of the insulating body (1) or of the insulating bodies (1) disposed toward the sound source (34) is rounded toward the sound source (24).

18. Device according to claim 17 characterized in that the intermediate space (4) expanding toward the top by the rounding of the one plate (2′) of the insulating body (1) is stiffened and reinforced by way of permeable intermediate walls (36).

19. Device for performing the method according to claim 1 characterized in that the insulating body (1) comprises two plastic plates (2) disposed at a distance, wherein he the intermediate space (4) closed airtight toward the outside is filled with comminuted or shredded plastic wastes.

20. Device for performing the method according to claim 1 characterized in that the plastic plates (2) are connected to each other at the distance by support braces (3).

21. Device for performing the method according to claim 1 characterized in that the insulating body (1) is adapted in its shape to the surface of the wall of a room (7, 8, 21, 32) to be insulated or of an object.

Description:

DESCRIPTION

[0001] The Invention relates to a method for insulating against heat and/or cold and/or sound and/or fire, wherein a wall or walls are jacketed with one or several insulating bodies, wherein each insulating body comprises two plates disposed at a distance, wherein the intermediate space between the two plates is filled with insulating material, that is airtight sealed toward the outside and is evacuated and to a device for performing the method.

[0002] Conventionally only the surrounding outer walls and inner walls of a chamber are jacketed with an insulating material for purposes of heat insulation or of cold insulation of the chamber, however also for the sound protection of the chamber. Sound protection walls are established in the free environment for example at heavily driven roads. In particular firewalls are placed at or in buildings for fire protection, wherein the firewalls prevent the expansion of a fire or at least are to delay the expansion of a fire. Presently, the employed insulating materials comprised mostly a foamed plastic; the insulating and damming effect of the foamed plastic resides on the slight thermal conductivity of the plastic itself and on the slight thermal connectivity of the air bubbles enclosed in the plastic. The sound absorbing property of the material has more importance in the situation of noise protection. The thermal conductivity is different from plastic to plastic, however the thermal conductivity is always less as compared to the thermal conductivity of air. Limits are placed with these insulating materials and the insulating and damming effect achievable with these materials based on the thermal conductivity of the air and of the employed plastic as well as the microporosity of the plastic. The thickness of the plastic jacketing cannot be increased to a certain degree for improving the damming effect. The spacial content of the chamber to be insulated and its wall thicknesses have to be standing in a justifiable relationship already based on purely economic reasons; this is most obvious in connection with transport containers, mobile cooling containers, liquid gas tanks and the like.

[0003] In order to increase the damming or insulating effects of a closed cell plastic insulating material, it is known from the German printed Patent document DE-OS 44241042 to evacuate the production space initially for the closed cell plastic such that an under pressure prevails in the closed cell plastic while the production of the plastic material is started; consequently also the individual cells of the finished plastic surround a certain vacuum—each cell forms an under pressure cell—whereby the thermal conductivity relative to cells filled with air is again clearly reduced. The ball shaped form of the cells can later resist standard atmospheric pressure well.

[0004] The production of plastic under vacuum or, respectively, in an under pressure chamber, is very expensive and cost intensive and is only sensible in connection with closed cell plastics. The reuse of plastic waste materials is only possible to a limited extent during the production of said plastics and is charging the environment, since plastics of the various kinds are collected in connection with the collection of plastic wastes.

[0005] A vacuum insulation system is known where the insulation lining panels are employed, which comprise stainless-steel sheet metal, wherein the stainless steel sheet metal is welded onto profile frames according to the information flyer “Informationsblatt des Bundesministeriums für Wirtschaft und Technologie in Germany ‘Information Aktuell’ of Nov. 9, 1999”. The hollow space between the stainless steel sheet metal is filled with a special micro-porous insulating material and a micro-vacuum is generated in the following within the lining panel. The thermal damming is therewith improved again, since the thermal conductivity in vacuum is 0 for practical purposes. The thickness of these lining panels can be clearly reduced relative to the otherwise used foamed plastic plates in order to achieve the same damming and insulating effect.

[0006] All known thermal insulations or cold insulations to be applied at the outer walls of a container or of a building have a certain value maintaining, unchangeable thermal conductivity or damming effect, at best the thermal connectivity or damming effect can deteriorate in the course of time by penetrating air in the case of a vacuumed plastic. The thermal insulations or the cold insulations prevent or dam both a heating from the outside the case of high or relatively high environmental temperatures, for example upon sun irradiation during the day, as well as a cooling off, that is a heat elimination from a room to the outside in case of low environmental temperatures, that is during the night or during cool weather. In order to maintain a uniform temperature, for example in the rooms of a building, that presently required still expensive and cost intensive air conditioning plants, which are frequently detrimental and harmful to the well-being and the health of persons present in the rooms. The continuous insulation having a uniform effect leads in addition frequently to the formation of condensate water and to the mold formation in the rooms, where such formation can in most cases only be insufficiently counteracted with a ventilation by an opening of a window.

[0007] It is an object of the present Invention to furnish a method and a device for insulating against heat and/or cold and/or sound and/or fire, which method or device are clearly more effective relative to conventional methods or devices without having to rely on a certain kind of plastic such as the closed cell plastic or a special micro-porous insulating material and on an expensive method for its production. The reuse of plastic wastes is to be possible to a large extent without that an additional environmental damaging is to be accepted in connection with the processing. Furthermore the thermal conductivity of the employed insulation is to be variable corresponding to the respective requirements. Both the method as well as the production and the operation of the device are to be cost favorable, gentle on the environment and energy-saving. The possibility of employment is to be as varied as possible.

[0008] This is accomplished according to the Invention by having the air content or, respectively, the vacuum in the intermediate space of the insulating body or insulating bodies and thereby its or their thermal conductivity or sound conductivity changed depending on the surrounding temperature, the internal temperature and/or the outer temperature or of the prevailing noise level in the region to be insulated or in the room. Thus the quality of vacuum or, respectively, the contents part in air in the intermediate space changes the thermal conductivity and also the transferability of sound waves and is adaptable to the requirements. In order to be able to employ sun energy in connection with the temperature conditioning of for example a living room to a temperature of about 20 degrees centigrade, the insulation can be made transparent in case the outer temperature reaches 20 degrees centigrade, such that a heat exchange can take place. Vice versa a lower outer temperature can be employed when a cooling of a room is required.

[0009] The intermediate space of the insulating body or of the insulating bodies is preferably evacuated and ventilated as required by program control, depending on the environmental temperature or, respectively, the inner temperature and/or the outer temperature or of the prevailing sound level in the region or the room to be insulated.

[0010] The inner temperature of a room to be insulated can be automatically controlled by an automatic controller to a set point value preselected in this automatic controller based on evacuation and ventilation of the intermediate space of the insulating body or of the insulating bodies as required.

[0011] The air contents or, respectively, the vacuum in the intermediate space of the insulating body or of the insulating bodies can be controlled by an automatic controller depending on the difference between the set point of the internal temperature of the room to be insulated and of the outer temperature. Similarly the air contents or vacuum in the intermediate space of the insulating body or of the insulating bodies can be controlled depending on a measured sound or noise level. The control of the air contents or of the vacuum can also be performed depending on time. The vacuum does not have to be (fully) maintained during low sound times or while the temperature does not have to be maintained temporarily at the certain value, whereby energy can be saved.

[0012] The intermediate space of the insulating body or insulating bodies can be flooded additionally with a non-inflammable gas for example Halon (halogenated hydrocarbon) gas upon responding of a fire alarm in case of employment as a fire protection.

[0013] The immediate space of one or several insulating bodies is connected on the one hand to the suction connection of a vacuum pump and on the other hand to a connection of a ventilating valve in connection with a device for performing the method, wherein the suction connection and the connection of the ventilating valve each is connected by in each case a control connection to the output connections of an automatic controller; a first measurement sensor measuring the inner temperature of the room to be insulated and a second measurement sensor measuring the outer temperature of the room to be insulated are connected to the inputs of this automatic controller and the operation of the vacuum pump and the opening and closing of the ventilation valve are program controlled by the automatic controller depending on the measured inner temperature and/or outer temperature of the room to be insulated.

[0014] Similarly the vacuum pump and the ventilation valve can be connected to the output connectors of a control device by in each case a control connection, wherein a measurement sensor measuring the noise level of a region to be monitored is connected to the inputs of the control device; the operation of the vacuum pump and the opening and closing of the ventilation valve is then performed by the control device depending on the measured noise level and preferably controlled by a program.

[0015] Upon use in a fire protection plant, the intermediate space of one or more insulating bodies can be connected on the one hand to the suction connection of a vacuum pump and on the other hand to the connector of a gas pressure container through a valve closed in its starting position, wherein the gas pressure container is filled with a non-combustible gas, for example halon (halogenated hydrocarbon) gas; the valve is controlled and opened upon responding of a fire alarm for flooding of the intermediate space of the intermediate spaces with the non-combustible gas.

[0016] The intermediate space of one or several insulating bodies can be connected to the vacuum pump and to the ventilation valve through a pneumatic buffer.

[0017] In case any insulating valve controllable by the temperature automatic controller is intermediately connected between the intermediate space for the intermediate spaces of one or several insulating bodies and the pneumatic buffer, wherein the insulating valve cooperates with a pressure automatic controller disposed between the intermediate space or the intermediate spaces and the automatic temperature controller, then the overall operating time of the vacuum pump can be reduced, whereby the energy use is lowered. The operating safety of the system can be increased with a monitoring of the insulating valve.

[0018] Several insulating bodies can be composed like a module advantageously for jacketing or covering of a wall of a room to be insulated or for establishing a noise protection wall or a firewall; the intermediate spaces of these insulating bodies composed like modules can be connected amongst each other and can form a common intermediate space.

[0019] The intermediate spaces of insulating bodies composed like modules however can also be airtight closed relative to each other such that the contents in air or, respectively, the vacuum is differently controllable in these intermediate spaces. This is particularly advantageous in a situation wherein for example different rooms of a building or several chambers of a transport aircraft are to be automatically controlled or, respectively, set to different inner temperatures. The excellent damming effect allows thereby the simultaneous transport for example of frozen goods, fresh goods and dry goods in multiple chamber motor vehicles.

[0020] Preferably a measurement point is furnished at each of the intermediate spaces sealed airtight relative to each other, wherein the air pressure in the intermediate space can be measured and controlled at the measurement point. This very much alleviates and accelerates the searching for errors and the removal of interferences based on possibly occurring leakages. Otherwise necessary expensive thermal analyses can be dispensed with.

[0021] One or several insulating bodies can be inserted into a firewall of a building as a fire protection.

[0022] The noise protection wall between one region and to be shielded against noise and a source of noise or sound can be covered on the side disposed toward the noise or sound source with one or several insulating bodies, wherein then the plate of the insulating body or of the insulating bodies disposed toward the source of noise or sound is rounded advantageously toward the source of noise or sound. Sound waves reflected at the plate are thereby reflected again in the direction toward the source of noise or sound and to a lesser extent into the environment.

[0023] The intermediate space expanding upwardly by the rounding of a plate of the insulating body can be stiffened with permeable intermediate walls or braced reinforcements.

[0024] The insulating bodies employable according to the present invention comprise advantageously two plastic plates disposed at a distance from each other, wherein the intermediate space sealed airtight against the outside is filled with comminuted plastic waste. Advantageously all kinds of plastic waste in any occurring mixture can be employed here without that these plastic wastes would have to be subjected to a particular intermediate treatment. Therefore the waste recovery economy is relieved and the environment is cared for. The problem of the non-decayable plastics can be resolved at least in part.

[0025] The plastic plates can be connected to each other at the distance by support braces; the plastic plates are thereby safely maintained at a distance and the stability of the insulating body is increased.

[0026] Advantageously, the insulating body can be adapted in its shape to the surface of the wall of a room or of an object to be insulated.

[0027] The method and the device for the performance of the method are universally employable always there where insulation is to be provided against heat or cold or fire. Also the noise protection is improved. By way of example of this several application regions for the Invention are recited here without claiming any completeness or without being limited to such examples:

[0028] Construction technology, insulating technology, aircraft and space technology, motor vehicle technology, ship navigation technology, underwater technology, water supply technology, wastewater discharge technology, medical technology, chemical technology, biotechnology, research technology, and laboratory technology, clothing technology in particular for sports clothing. Sound protection walls and sound protection covers, fire protection walls, floor coverings, sound recording rooms, protection rooms, rooms safe against interception and others are possible as fields of application in buildings. Furthermore, consideration is to be given to sound protection cabins for machines of all kinds, for motor vehicles, for rail vehicles, for rail construction, for boat turbines, for aircraft, for space vehicles etc. in the industrial region and in the motor vehicle region. The noise protection at vehicular roads, rail tracks, building parts, swing out roller shutter systems, door systems etc. can be improved.

[0029] The layer at the walls to be vacuum according to the present Invention does have to amount in most cases to only a few millimeters, whereby a tremendous gain of useful space results for example in connection with transport vehicles. Also the outer walls themselves can be formed less strong. If for example today still outer wall thicknesses of 36.5 cm are masoned and insulated at buildings with conventional insulation for reaching of a low energy house, then only a wall thickness of 10 cm is required to application of the insulation according to the present invention. The house or the room to be insulated in general becomes a heat storage or cold storage just as required. Energy is saved which can be used for other purposes.

[0030] The insulation could be completely dispensed with in construction of prefabricated houses, since the hollow spaces can be evacuated upon corresponding construction, which further simplifies the application of the present Invention and furnishes advantages to the pre-fabricated house construction.

[0031] The invention is described in more detail by way of example in the following based on the attached drawing:

[0032] FIG. 1 shows the construction of a plate shaped insulating body by way of example such as the insulating body can be employed according to the present invention,

[0033] FIG. 2 shows schematically a device according to the present invention by way of example in connection with a wall of a building,

[0034] FIG. 3 illustrates the method according to the present invention by way of example of a residential home to be insulated against excess heat and against cold,

[0035] FIG. 4 shows another example of an embodiment for the method according to the present invention,

[0036] FIG. 5 shows by way of example the invention in connection with the wall construction of a building,

[0037] FIG. 6 illustrates the application as a sound protection for a machine,

[0038] FIG. 7 shows an application as a fire protection and as sound protection, and

[0039] FIG. 8 shows a sound protective for wall at a traffic road.

[0040] The insulating body 1 in FIG. 1 comprises two plates 2, wherein the two plates 2 are connected to each other at a distance relative to each other by for example grid shaped disposed support braces 3 having passage openings (not illustrated), wherein the support braces 3 on the one hand maintain the distance between the plates 2 and on the other hand assure the stability of the insulating body 1. The plates 2 can be supported in a frame not illustrated. The intermediate space 4 between the plates 2 is sealed airtight against the outside which can be accomplished for example with the aid of a weldable foil surrounding the insulating body 1. Here initially however the intermediate space 4 is maintained open toward one side, preferably toward the top, such that the intermediate space 4 can be filled with plastic granulate or preferably comminuted plastic wastes. For this purpose the most different plastic wastes in an arbitrary mixture can be employed, wherein the most different plastic wastes do not require any further treatment. The intermediate space 4 is finally closed airtight toward the outside after the filling, and the air enclosed therein is pumped off with the aid of a vacuum pump through a connector furnished for this purpose. If the connector for the vacuum pump is thereafter also closed airtight, one obtains an insulating body 1, wherein the insulating body 1 exhibits with respect to thermal conductivity similar properties as the closed cell foam plastic produced under vacuum and wherein the insulating body 1 obtains a good stability by the plates 2, by the support braces 3 and by a frame capturing the plates 2. Here the plates 2, the frames supporting the plates 2, and the support braces 3 can comprise all also plastic, whereby not only the weight is reduced relative to the known lining panels out of stainless-steel plates welded into profile frames, but also the production costs are substantially reduced. The possibilities of application are multiplied by the lower weight and transport and mounting are rendered easier. Since no sound transmission occurs in vacuum, such insulating bodies are also excellently suitable for sound shielding, whether sound shielding is required or desired.

[0041] The insulating body 1 itself can have a flat plate form as shown in FIG. 1, however the insulating body 1 can also without problem have an arbitrary different form, for example a curved form especially by employing of plastic as a material, wherein the arbitrary different form adapts to the surface to be jacketed, for example the surface of the wall of a boiler, of a tube or also of a building.

[0042] Several insulating bodies 1 can be connected to each other like modules for jacketing and covering of a wall of a room to be insulated against heat or cold or sound and the insulating body can this way be adapted to the pre-given dimensions and shapes. The intermediate spaces for of the insulating bodies 1 connected to each other like a module can be connected amongst each other such that finally a common intermediate space 4 is generated. However it can be also of advantage when the intermediate spaces 4 of individual insulating bodies 1 remain airtight sealed against each other. This way in fact the search for errors and the treatment of interferences, for example based on leakages possibly occurring in the course of time, is simplified and alleviated.

[0043] The intermediate space 4 of one or several insulating bodies 1 remains connected to a vacuum pump and the operation of the vacuum pump is controlled according to a program and this way the under pressure in the intermediate space 4 and thereby the thermal conductivity and/or the sound damming of the insulating body 1 are changed in order to render the thermal connectivity and the sound damming of an insulating body 1 changeable and thereby adaptable to outer situations such as for example the outer temperature or the traffic volume, or to different set point values of the internal temperature, for example during the day and during night.

[0044] This is schematically and by way of example illustrated in FIG. 2 in connection with the automatic temperature control of a building. The outer wall of an arbitrary building is designated with reference numeral 5, wherein the arbitrary building is subdivided in its interior by intermediate ceilings 6 and by intermediate walls not illustrated into different rooms 7, 8. The outer wall 5 is covered at its outer face with plate shaped insulating bodies 1, such as they are described above. The face of the insulating body 1 directed toward the outside can be furnished with the usual exterior rendering or plastering. The insulating bodies 1 are part of the automatic control distance of an automatic control circuit by way of which the inner temperature in the rooms 7, 8 of the building is automatically controlled and maintained at assert value, for example 20 degrees centigrade. Here during the day depending on the time of the year and the weather there is to be exploited the heat irradiation of the sun for the heating of the rooms 7, 8 or there is to be avoided a too strong warming of the rooms 7, 8, wherein the thermal conductivity of the insulating bodies 1 is to be made changeable for this purpose.

[0045] The intermediate space 4 of the insulating bodies 1 is filled with plastic granulate or with comminuted plastic and is for this purpose connected both with a vacuum pump 11 as well as with a ventilation valve 12, preferably through a pneumatic buffer 10, wherein under pressure in the intermediate spaces is influenced by a controller 13 through the vacuum pump 11 and the ventilation valve 12, that is changed and also can be completely lifted by ventilation. For this purpose the value of the inner temperature of the building or, respectively, of the rooms 7, 8 of the building from a first measurement sensor 14 and the value of the outer temperature through a second measurement sensor 15 are fed to the automatic controller 13. The actual value of the inner temperature representing the instantaneous value of the temperature to be automatically controlled is compared with its adjusted set point value in the automatic controller 13 and the vacuum pump 11 or at the ventilation valve 12 is correspondingly controlled in case of a deviation by an output signal and thereby the vacuum or, respectively, the air content in the insulating bodies 1 and thereby the thermal conductivity of the insulating bodies 1 is correspondingly changed. In addition also a control of the thermal conductivity of the insulating bodies 1 is possible depending on the actual outer temperature determined by the second measurement sensor 15. In addition the possibility is indicated in FIG. 2 at reference numeral 16 to control the thermal permeability of the respective insulating bodies 1 for a room 7 or 8 depending on whether a window 17 is opened or closed, in order to avoid an unnecessary cooling of the room while the window 17 is opened. A contact 18 is connected to the window wing, wherein the contact 18 sends a message to the automatic controller 13 in case the window 17 is open and in order to activate then the insulation of the room such that the stored heat in the room cannot be discharged or can only be in a possibly reduced measure discharged through the outer wall.

[0046] A check valve 37 can be inserted between the insulating bodies 1 or, respectively, the intermediate spaces 4 of the insulating bodies 1 and the pneumatic buffer 10, wherein the check valve 37 cooperates with a pressure automatic controller 38 furnished for the monitoring of the under pressure. The operation time of the vacuum pump 11 is shortened thereby upon corresponding layout of the pneumatic buffer 10 and the energy use is reduced. In addition to the operational safety of the system can be increased by the monitoring of the check valve 37.

[0047] The mode of operation of the methods and of the apparatus for the performance of the method becomes clear from a view of FIG. 2 and FIG. 3 together.

[0048] The outer walls 5 of a building 19 in FIG. 3 are covered with plate shaped insulating bodies 1 according to FIG. 2 and the intermediate spaces 4 of the insulating bodies 1 are connected with an automatic control device as described above. In the inner room 7 or the inner rooms 7 of the building 19, for example of a residential building, are to be maintained with heating technology at a uniform remaining temperature of 20 degrees centigrade. For this purpose not only the air in the room but also the surrounding walls have to be warmed. As long as the outer temperature is disposed below 20 degrees centigrade, a discharge of heat from the building has to be avoided through the outer walls 5. This means that the intermediate spaces 4 of the insulating bodies 1, wherein the outer walls 5 are covered within the insulating body 1, are evacuated with the connected vacuum pump 11 to such an extent and thereby the heat conductivity is reduced, that nearly no heat can be discharged from the building 19. If the outside temperature reaches 20 degrees centigrade and more, then the insulation is rendered transparent by separating the vacuum pump 11 and by ventilating the insulating bodies 1 or, respectively, the intermediate spaces 4 of the insulating bodies 1 by opening of the ventilation valve 12, this means that the thermal connectivity is increased such that heat from the outside can be funneled into the building 19. This way solar energy is used for heating the rooms 7 of the building 19 and of the walls 5 surrounding the rooms 7. The ventilation valve 12 is closed again through the automatic controller 13, wherein the value of the inner temperature is signalized by the first measurement sensor 14 to the automatic controller 13, and if necessary the intermediate space 4 of the insulating bodies 1 is again evacuated (in part) by the vacuum pump 11 before the inner temperature in the building 19 can increase too much based on the solar irradiation. This way the inner temperature is automatically controlled to a desired value through the automatic controller 13, by setting and resetting the under pressure or, respectively, the air content in the intermediate spaces 4 of the insulating bodies 1 by opening and closing of the ventilation valve 12 and separating and connecting the vacuum pump 11 to a value, wherein the value gives a thermal conductivity of the insulating body 1, which thermal conductivity maintains the inner temperature at a constant value. This value in turn is depending on the outer temperature, which outer temperature is signalized to the automatic controller 13 through the measurement sensor 15 such that this value can be reset in the same way by the automatic controller 13.

[0049] With this temperature setting of the inner room or of the inner rooms of a building there is generated no air circulation in the rooms and no vortex formation of dust particles and bacteria with their unpleasant or even damaging consequences in contrast to conventional heating and air conditioning plants, such that the well-being of persons is increased substantially. Since the walls of the building equally breathe based on the changeability of their thermal conductivity and since the continuous temperature balancing occurs, also no condensate water can form in the rooms and mold formation is avoided.

[0050] As mentioned above, the insulating bodies 1 are composed like modules in order to be able to cover a larger area such as the outside wall of a building, wherein the intermediate spaces 4 of the individual modules are in connection amongst each other or can be closed off airtight against each other as desired or required. Thus it becomes possible to maintain different rooms 7, 8 of a building at temperatures deviating from each other. For this purpose, the intermediate spaces 4 of the insulating bodies 1, which cover the outer wall of a room 7, are connected to each other, but are airtight sealed against the intermediate spaces 4 of another, neighboring room 8. The automatic controller 13 can control the air contents or the vacuum in the respective intermediate spaces 4 in such a different way according to a corresponding program that the internal temperature of the rooms 7, 8 is automatically controlled to different values.

[0051] The method and the device can be equally employed in cases where care has been taken for cooling off for example to a constant value of six degrees centigrade, as is the case for example with cool transport of food materials. In these cases the insulating is made transparent in the described way as soon as the outside temperature falls to six degrees centigrade and below such that then the low outside temperature takes care of the cooling by heat flow from the inner space into the environment and thereby energy can be saved.

[0052] A further embodiment is shown in FIG. 4. The conducting pipes 20 can be surrounded with insulating bodies 1 of the described kind adapted on the surface of the conducting pipes 20 and the temperature in the interior 21 of the conducting pipe 20 can be automatically controlled by controlling the air content or the under pressure in the intermediate space 4 of the insulating bodies 20 to for example constant six degrees centigrade, such that an undesired warming of the water and losses by evaporation can be avoided in for example very hot areas, where the water supply represents a problem and where drinking water has to be transported over long distances through pipe conduits. Also in this case the insulating bodies 20 are composed like modules in sections 22. The intermediate spaces 4 of the individual insulating bodies 1 for the sections 22 preferably remain airtight sealed from each other and a measurement point 22 can be furnished in each section 22, wherein the pressure in the respective intermediate space 4 can be controlled at the measurement point 22. Occurring disturbances based on leakages can thereby be quickly and simply located and corrected. The expensive thermal analysis required for this purpose in connection with conventional insulations can be dispensed with.

[0053] FIG. 5 shows the application of the Invention at the firewall 24 of a building for improving the fire protection. The insulating body 1 or the insulating bodies 1 are inserted into the firewall 24 between two buildings or building parts, for example between rowhouses or townhouses. For this purpose, the firewall 24 is to be built in two layers. While pulling up the wall, initially the one layer 24′ can be produced, whereupon the insulating bodies 1 are placed and attached at this layer 24′; in the following the second layer 24″ of the firewall 24 is finished. The evacuated insulating bodies 1 based on their reduced thermal conductivity offer in principle an improved fire protection. The gripping over of flames is prevented or at least substantially more difficult based on the lack of oxygen in the intermediate spaces 4 of the insulating bodies 1. The fire protection however can be further optimized by flooding the intermediate space 4 of the insulating bodies 1 in case of a fire additionally with a noncombustible gas, for example halon (halogenated hydrocarbon). For this purpose, the intermediate space is connected to the gas pressure container 26 through a standardwise closed valve 25, wherein the gas pressure container 26 is filled for example with halon gas. As already described by way of FIG. 2, there exists the connection through a valve 27 and the pneumatic buffer 10 to the vacuum pump 11. Triggered by a fire alarm in case of a fire, the valve 25 is opened and the intermediate space 4 is charged with halon gas. If the firewall 24 is damaged from one side by the fire and if the flames penetrate up to the insulating body 1 such that the insulating body 1 becomes unsealed, then the halon gas can flow out of the intermediate space 4 of the respective insulating body 1 and further flow from the pressure container 26 into the room, where the fire occurred. The flames cannot further expand based on the withdrawal of oxygen and the fire is finally extinguished.

[0054] In a standard situation, that is no fire has been signaled, the insulating body 1 operates in the firewall 24 in the above described fashion as a standard sound insulation and thermal insulation and cold insulation.

[0055] The gas pressure container 26 can be incorporated into the buildings as a storage; the halonization of the insulating bodies 1 can be performed centrally controlled through a computer system. The application is offered in particular for buildings which are very high and which are already equipped with a conducting system of the building for air conditioning plants. A retrofitting is here possible without larger problems during reconstruction in the individual floors. The costs are here also in an acceptable frame, since the striking plastics can be employed and also known larger static problems are generated. The fire regulations are met based on the employment of noncombustible recycling plastics. The control can be adapted in the same way as is the case in the thermal insulation and cold insulation to the requirement of the respective application, the insulation can be made more or less transparent such that a gas exchange can take place corresponding to the heat exchange.

[0056] The wall construction of a noise protection cabin for a machine 28 with large noise generation, for example a press machine or a shredding machine is illustrated by way of example in FIG. 5. The machine 28 is surrounded by a sound protection cabin, wherein the walls 29 and the ceiling 30 of the sound protection cabin are covered from the inside with insulating bodies 1 abutting. The intermediate spaces 4 of the individual insulating bodies 1 can preferably be connected to each other at the connection points 31. The intermediate spaces 4 over all are connected to the vacuum pump 11 in the way already described through the valve 27 and the pneumatic buffer 10. Here the insulating bodies 1 operate also primarily as a noise protection toward the outside, since the sound waves cannot be transferred in the air free space. The noise protection does have to be fully effective only during the operation of the machine 28. Therefore the evacuation of the intermediate spaces of the insulating bodies 1 can be controlled depending on the sound level through a control not illustrated. Similarly a safety device can be furnished which effects that the machine 28 can only be operated in case of an effective noise insulation, that is vacuum in the intermediate spaces 4.

[0057] FIG. 7 shows the wall construction of an interior room 32, wherein the walls 29 and the ceiling 30 of the inner room 32 are covered from the inside with insulating bodies 1 abutting in analogy to the sound protection shown in FIG. 6. The intermediate spaces for the insulating bodies 1 are again connected to vacuum pump 11 through a valve 17 and a pneumatic buffer 10 such that initially a standard sound insulation and thermal insulation and cold insulation as described above can be performed. In addition, the intermediate spaces 4 are connected to a gas pressure container 26 through a further valve 25 closed under standard conditions, wherein a noncombustible gas, for example halon gas, is stored in the gas pressure container 26. If a fire should breakout in the room 32, then the insulating bodies 1 operate immediately as fire protection based on the vacuum prevailing in the intermediate spaces 4 and prevent that the fire catches over to neighboring rooms in a short time period. Furthermore, the valve 25 is opened controlled through a fire alarm and the intermediate spaces 4 are flooded with halon gas and thereby the effectivity of the fire protection is substantially increased. If the intermediate spaces 4 are damaged or, respectively, made unsealed by the fire, then the halon gas flows also into the inner room 32; the flames are extinguished in a short time based on the withdrawal of oxygen, there takes place then also a direct fight with the fire. In case the insulating bodies 1 remained undamaged, the intermediate spaces 4 remained sealed, then the halon gas can be sucked off again after the fire and can be reused.

[0058] FIG. 8 shows the construction of a sound protection wall at for example a heavily driven motor vehicle road. At the reference numeral 33 the region to be protected against noise is assumed, for example a residential area, at reference numeral 34 there is to be present a sound source, for example a motor vehicle road or also a railroad. A noise protection wall 35 is constructed between the area 33 to be protected and the motor vehicle road 34, wherein the area of the sound protection wall 35 disposed toward the noise source is covered with insulating bodies 1. Preferably the plate 2′ of the insulating body 1 disposed toward the motor vehicle road as a noise source 34 is curved such that sound waves reflected at the plate 2′ are back deflected in the direction of the sound source 34 or of the motor vehicle road. The intermediate space 4 expanding upwardly and generated between the curved plate 2′ and the plane a plate 2″ of the insulating body 1 resting at the sound protection wall 35 can be stabilized by several permeable separating walls 36. The intermediate space 4 is vacuumed also in this case or, respectively, connected to a vacuum pump 11 through a valve 25 and a pneumatic buffer 10. The vacuum enclosed in the intermediate space 4 acts in addition sound damming and can be adapted to the noise level controlled through the vacuum pump.

[0059] The Invention has been described by way of several application examples, the field of application of the Invention however is unlimited for practical purposes; the Invention can always be applied to where insulation is sought against heat and/or cold, against sound or fire.