Title:
Generation non-lethal and lethal projectiles for arms
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
A projectile for use with a cartridge case comprising a nose having a nose chamber, a tail end disposed adjacent the nose and having a tail end chamber, a partition separating the nose chamber and the tail end chamber, and a valve being disposed in the partition and providing fluid communication from tail end chamber to the nose chamber.



Inventors:
Ramaswamy, Alba Lalitha (Washington, DC, US)
Application Number:
09/982081
Publication Date:
12/05/2002
Filing Date:
10/19/2001
Assignee:
RAMASWAMY ALBA LALITHA
Primary Class:
International Classes:
F42B12/36; F42B12/46; F42B12/62; (IPC1-7): F42B10/00; F42B12/00; F42B30/00
View Patent Images:
Related US Applications:



Primary Examiner:
BERGIN, JAMES S
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
DYKEMA GOSSETT PLLC (WASHINGTON, DC, US)
Claims:

What is claimed is:



1. A projectile for use with a cartridge case comprising: a nose having a nose chamber; a tail end disposed adjacent the nose and having a tail end chamber; a partition separating the nose chamber and the tail end chamber; and a valve being disposed adjacent the partition and providing fluid communication from the tail end chamber to the nose chamber.

2. The projectile, as recited in claim 1, further comprising: a propellant disposed within the tail end chamber.

3. The projectile, as recited in claim 2, wherein: the tail end has an orifice and when the propellant is burned, a gas is produced and the gas vents through the orifice.

4. The projectile, as recited in claim 2, further comprising: a payload disposed within the nose chamber.

5. The projectile, as recited in claim 4 wherein: the payload ejects out from the nose chamber after the projectile is fired out of the cartridge case.

6. The projectile, as recited in claim 4, wherein: the payload is a chemical agent.

7. The projectile, as recited in claim 4, wherein: the payload is an object made of rubber.

8. The projectile, as recited in claim 4, wherein: the payload is a balloon.

9. The projectile, as recited in claim 8, wherein: a chemical agent is disposed within the balloon.

10. Ammunition, comprising: a cartridge case having a primer being disposed in a first chamber of the cartridge case and a first propellant being disposed in a second chamber of the cartridge case; a projectile having at least one orifice disposed on a rear wall, a nose chamber, a rear portion chamber and a valve allowing fluid communication from the rear portion chamber to the nose chamber; the projectile being at least partially disposed in the cartridge case with the at least one orifice being disposed adjacent the first propellant, wherein the at least one orifice allows fluid communication between the second chamber of the cartridge case and the rear portion chamber; a second propellant being disposed in the rear portion chamber; and a payload being disposed in the nose chamber, wherein upon ignition of the primer causes the second propellant to deflagrate and produce a gas, which flows through the valve at a predetermined pressure, and the payload is pushed out of the nose cavity by the gas.

11. The ammunition, as recited in claim 10, wherein: the payload is a balloon.

12. The ammunition, as recited claim 11, further comprising: a chemical agent disposed within the balloon.

13. The ammunition, as recited in claim 12, wherein: the chemical agent is at least one of a malodorant, an irritant and laughing gas.

14. A projectile for being disposed in a cartridge case having a first propellant disposed within a chamber, the projectile comprising: a nose; a tail being disposed adjacent to the nose, the tail having a tail cavity and a rear wall with at least one orifice; and a second propellant being disposed in the tail cavity, wherein the second propellant is ignitable by the first propellant via the at least one orifice, the second propellant produces a gas after being ignited and the gas exits the at least one orifice.

15. The projectile as recited in claim 14, wherein: the nose is made of rubber.

16. The projectile as recited in claim 14, wherein: the nose is integral with the tail.

17. A method of using a weapon against a target, comprising: firing a projectile out of the weapon toward the target; ejecting a payload from the projectile; and, impacting the target with the payload, wherein the ejecting the payload occurs after the projectile exits the weapon and prior to the impacting the target.

18. The method, as recited in claim 17, wherein: the payload is a balloon.

19. The method, as recited in claim 17, wherein the ejecting step comprises: generating a gas in the projectile by deflagrating a propellant in the projectile; and exerting a pressure on the payload from the gas.

20. The method, as recited in claim 17, further comprising: propelling the projectile toward the target after the firing step by generating a gas in the projectile by deflagrating a propellant disposed in the projectile and venting the gas out of the projectile.

Description:

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application claims the benefit of provisional application 60/241,613 filed Oct. 19, 2000, which is herein incorporated by reference.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0002] 1. Field of Invention

[0003] This invention is directed towards projectiles for use in connection with ammunition for weapons or arms of different calibers, and in particular, to non-lethal and lethal projectiles.

[0004] 2. Description of Related Art

[0005] There are numerous prior art non-lethal and lethal projectiles that are being used in connection with various types of ammunition for shooting from weapons.

[0006] FIG. 12 displays prior art ammunition 202 made of conventional design. The ammunition 202 includes a cartridge case 204 and a projectile 206 or bullet in this particular design. A primer 208 is disposed within a cartridge chamber of the base of the cartridge case 204. A propellant 210 is disposed within a forward chamber of the cartridge case 204. The operation of this type of ammunition is well known. In particular, when a firing pin of a weapon, not shown, strikes the primer 208, the primer ignites and produces hot decomposition gases which go through the vent hole 212 and ignite the propellant 210. As the propellant 210 deflagrates, a hot gas is produced within the cartridge case 204. As the amount of hot gas produced increases, pressure and temperature is built up within the cartridge case 204 which expands its walls to a point where the projectile 206 is suddenly forced out and ejected from the cartridge case 204. The projectile 206 is propelled through the barrel of the weapon, not shown, with a momentum determined by the pressure of the hot gases accumulated in the cartridge case 204.

[0007] Standard projectiles or bullets are generally a solid material and often made of metal. Additionally, for non-lethal situations, some weapons have been custom designed to fire particular non-lethal ammunition, wherein the projectile is made of rubber or the like, in an attempt to immobilize but not to kill the intended target. Standard projectile and ammunition have numerous disadvantages.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0008] A disadvantage of conventional ammunition, is that the projectiles contained therein are propelled or launched in the direction of firing only by the propellant within a cartridge case.

[0009] An additional disadvantage of standard ammunition having a projectile is that they lack the versatility to be able to deploy a payload from the projectile after being fired and before hitting a target.

[0010] Further, conventional attempts to make non-lethal projectiles for ammunition have many short comings. For example, some so-called non-lethal ammunition, wherein the projectile is made of rubber, may severely injure or even kill an individual if the target is at close range or if a bystander accidentally comes in the line of fire of the weapon at close range.

[0011] Further, standard so-called non-lethal ammunition often require custom made guns or devices for firing the ammunition.

[0012] This invention provides a projectile and ammunition that overcome the deficiencies of the prior art and in particular.

[0013] This invention provides a projectile having a self-contained propellant.

[0014] This invention provides a projectile having a chamber for containing a propellant that provides additional thrust for the projectile in addition to the thrust provided by a propellant within a cartridge case of the ammunition.

[0015] This invention provides a system of launching a payload against the target, from a projectile during its flight in the direction of the target.

[0016] This invention further provides a projectile that has the ability to deploy a payload after being fired from a weapon.

[0017] This invention provides a projectile that includes a chamber for a propellant and another chamber for a payload.

[0018] This invention also provides a non-lethal projectile.

[0019] This invention provides a non-lethal projectile containing a propellant that provides additional thrust for propelling of the projectile towards the target during the flight of the projectile.

[0020] This invention further provides a non-lethal projectile that deploys a payload to incapacitate or irritate an intended target.

[0021] This invention further provides a non-lethal projectile having a balloon, which is inflated with gases produced by a burning propellant contained wherein the projectile.

[0022] This invention also provides a non-lethal projectile wherein a payload is ejected out of the projectile by the pressure of a gas produced by a burning propellant within the projectile.

[0023] This invention further provides a non-lethal projectile that deploys a balloon, which provides a “slapping” or “punching” effect upon impact with the target.

[0024] This invention further provides a non-lethal projectile, which includes a balloon containing a chemical agent, wherein the balloon once deployed from the projectile releases the chemical agent upon impact with the target.

[0025] This invention further provides a projectile having a self-contained propellant and a chamber for a payload to be deployed out of the projectile, wherein the projectile is to be used with standard cartridge cases.

[0026] This invention provides a non-lethal projectile for a cartridge case that can be fired from a standard weapon.

[0027] This invention further provides a non-lethal projectile that can be fired at a target at close range without seriously injuring or killing the target.

[0028] The invention may be described as a projectile for use with a cartridge case comprising a nose having a nose chamber; a tail end disposed adjacent the nose and having a tail end chamber; a partition separating the nose chamber and the tail end chamber; and a valve being disposed in the partition and providing fluid communication from the tail end chamber to the nose chamber.

[0029] The invention also provides ammunition, comprising a cartridge case having a primer being disposed in a first chamber of the cartridge case and a first propellant being disposed in a second chamber of the cartridge case; a projectile having at least one orifice disposed on a rear wall, a nose chamber, a rear portion chamber and a valve allowing fluid communication from the rear portion chamber to the nose chamber; the projectile being at least partially disposed within the cartridge case with the at least one orifice disposed adjacent the first propellant, wherein the at least one orifice allows fluid communication between the second chamber of the cartridge case and the rear portion chamber; a second propellant being disposed or contained in the tail chamber; and a payload being disposed or contained in the nose chamber, wherein upon ignition of the primer causes the second propellant to deflagrate and produce a gas, which, flows through the valve at a predetermined pressure, and the payload is pushed out of the nose cavity by the gas.

[0030] The invention further includes a projectile adapted to be disposed in a cartridge case having a first propellant disposed within a chamber, the projectile comprising a nose; a tail being disposed adjacent to the nose, the tail having a tail chamber and a rear wall with at least one orifice; and a second propellant being disposed in the tail chamber, wherein the second propellant is ignitable by the first propellant via the at least one orifice, the second propellant produces a gas after being ignited and the gas exits the at least one orifice.

[0031] The invention also includes a method of using a weapon against a target, comprising firing a projectile out of the weapon toward the target; ejecting a payload from the projectile; and impacting the target with the payload, wherein the ejecting the payload occurs after the projectile exits the weapon and prior to the impacting the target.

[0032] These and other features and advantages of this invention are described in or are apparent from the following detailed description of various exemplary embodiments of the projectiles, ammunition and methods according to this invention.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0033] Various exemplary embodiments will be described in detail, with reference to the following figures, wherein:

[0034] FIG. 1 is a cross-sectional view of an exemplary embodiment of ammunition according to this invention;

[0035] FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view of an exemplary embodiment of a projectile after being fired from a weapon, according to this invention;

[0036] FIG. 3 is an end view of the projectile of FIG. 2, according to this invention;

[0037] FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view of alternative exemplary embodiment of an ammunition, according to this invention;

[0038] FIGS. 5-8 are illustrations of the ammunition of FIG. 4 through various stages of deployment, namely, prior to firing the ammunition, exiting of a projectile from a cartridge case, the inflation of a balloon and the balloon exiting the projectile, according to this invention;

[0039] FIG. 9 illustrates another alternative exemplary embodiment of an ammunition, according to this invention;

[0040] FIG. 10 illustrates the deployment of a payload from the projectile of FIG. 9, according to this invention;

[0041] FIG. 11 illustrates yet another alternative embodiment of a projectile, according to this invention; and

[0042] FIG. 12 displays a prior art ammunition with a conventional projectile.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

[0043] FIG. 1 displays a cross-sectional view of an exemplary embodiment of ammunition 2, according to this invention. The ammunition 2 includes a cartridge case 4 and a projectile 6 of appropriate caliber and a primer 14. The cartridge case 4 can be any conventional or standard casing of any desired caliber. Thus, it is not necessary for the cartridge case to be identical to the case illustrated in FIG. 1.

[0044] The cartridge case 4 includes a first chamber 8 and a second chamber 10. The chambers 8 and 10 may also be referred to as cavities or compartments and may be of various shapes and sizes. The second chamber 10 is an open cylindrical chamber. The cartridge case 4 also has a vent hole 12 that provides fluid communication between the first chamber 8 and the second chamber 10.

[0045] A primer or primer cup 14 is disposed within the first chamber 8. A propellant 16 is disposed within the second chamber 10. The propellant 16 in various exemplary embodiments is of a powder form. Sealing foil and filler wads, not shown, may also be provided in the cartridge case 4 as in some standard cartridge cases.

[0046] The primer 14 ignites when struck by a firing pin, not shown. The primer 14 is any standard primer. The ignition of the primer causes the production of hot gaseous decomposition products which pass through the vent hole 12 and ignite the propellant 16 just as in standard ammunition. The propellant 16 can be any suitable standard propellant or powder.

[0047] It should be appreciated that the cartridge case 4 can also be of a “rim priming” design, wherein the primer is distributed around the periphery of the base or any other design that is fired by a weapon and propels a projectile out of the case and the weapon.

[0048] The projectile 6 is partially housed within the chamber 10. The projectile is disposed adjacent to the propellant 16.

[0049] Similar to standard ammunition, as the propellant 16 is ignited, the burning of the propellant 16 will produce a gas, which expands rapidly creating a great pressure to force the projectile 6 out of the cartridge case 4. The cartridge case 4 is held back in the weapon and the projectile will travel out of the barrel of the weapon into its flight.

[0050] The projectile 6 includes a nose portion 18 and a tail portion 20. The nose portion 18 and the tail portion 20 are integral with one another. In other various exemplary embodiments, the nose portion 18 and the tail portion 20 may be separate portions attached together.

[0051] The nose portion 18 and the tail or rear portion 20 form two chambers within the projectile 6, namely the nose chamber 22 and the tail chamber 24, respectively. The chambers 22 and 24 may also be referred to as cavities, compartments or the like. The nose chamber 22 and the tail chamber 24 are separated by a partition 26 with a hole. The partition 26 extends across the cross-section of the projectile 6. The partition is integral with the projectile 6. In other various exemplary embodiments, the portion can be inserted and attached to the projectile 6.

[0052] A valve 28 is disposed in a hole of the partition 26. The valve 28 provides fluid communication from the tail chamber 24 to the nose chamber 22. In various exemplary embodiments, the valve 28 is a micro-valve. In various exemplary embodiments, the valve 28 is a pressure-relief valve wherein when pressure is built-up in the tail chamber 24 to a predefined threshold, the valve 28 will allow a fluid within the tail chamber 24 to flow into the nose chamber 22. The valve 28 is only schematically represented in the attached figures and can be of any standard design.

[0053] A propellant 30 is disposed within the tail chamber 24. The propellant 30 is of powder form. It should be appreciated that the propellant 30 can be any conventional explosive powder or propellant that is capable of deflagrating. The propellant 30 is the same type of propellant as the propellant 16. In other various exemplary embodiments, the propellant 30 can be of a different type of propellant than the propellant 16.

[0054] The tail portion 20 includes a rear wall 32 of the projectile 6. The rear wall 32 includes at least one orifice. In the exemplary embodiment shown in FIG. 1, several orifices 34 are illustrated. The orifices 34 allow fluid communication between the second chamber 10 and the tail chamber 24. When the primer 14 is detonated, the hot gases and a detonation front pass through the vent hole 12, to ignite the propellant 16. The propellant 16 contained in the second chamber 10 burns, and the burning front of the propellant 16 progresses and gases are developed creating a great pressure within the second chamber 10. When the burning front reaches the orifices 34, it will pass through the orifices 34 and ignite the propellant 30 contained in the tail chamber 24 of the projectile 6. As the ignition of the propellant 30 takes place, the projectile 6 is forced out of the cartridge case 4 due to the enormous pressure build up by the gases of the burnt propellant 16 in the second chamber 10.

[0055] As the propellant 30 is being ignited, some of the gas that is being generated by the burning propellant will escape through the orifices 34. The gas that is generated from the burning of the propellant 30 will not escape through the valve 28 until a particular threshold pressure is reached. The pressure threshold of the valve 28 is designed to be lower than the constant steady state pressure created by the gas from the burning of propellant 30 within the tail chamber 24. Once the pressure threshold of the valve 28 is reached, gas will continue to escape through the orifices 34, but the gas will also suddenly escape through the valve 28 into the nose chamber 22.

[0056] As the pressure builds within the tail chamber 24 from the gas buildup as a result of the burning of the propellant 30, the gas that is exiting through the orifices 34 will provide additional thrust to the projectile 6. Thus, the gas escaping from the orifice 34 act as a “booster” for the projectile 6. This “booster effect” will further increase the range of projectile 6 from the range that the propellant 16 provides for the projectile 6.

[0057] A payload 36 is disposed in the nose chamber 22. The payload 36 shown in FIG. 1 is a solid material. The payload 36, in this embodiment, is similar to a standard projectile or slug. It should be appreciated that in other various exemplary embodiments, the payload 36 may take-on other various shapes and forms. For example, the payload 36 may be a solid metallic slug, a solid rubber soft slug, a powdered substance such as a chemical agent, an inflatable device, or the like.

[0058] The payload 36 will be pushed forward by the gases escaping from the tail chamber 24 into the nose chamber 22 through the valve 28. The pressure or the force of the gas passing through the valve 28 will force the payload 36 through the walls of the nose 18 of the projectile. The nose 18 may be made of various materials, such as plastic or paperboard tube. It should be appreciated that other materials may also be used. The nose portion 18 is designed to open up to allow the payload 36 to escape. The nose portion 18 will open up or break apart as the payload 36 is pressed against the walls of the nose 18. FIG. 2 displays the projectile 6 with the propellant 30 burnt completely and the payload 26 already ejected from the nose chamber 22. FIG. 2 also displays wall portions 38 of the nose 18 in the opened or broken apart state. The nose 18 is designed to break apart at predetermined score lines, which separate the wall portions 38.

[0059] Before the projectile 6 can be propelled the first ignition of the propellant 16 within the second case chamber 10 must start. The time for the projectile 6 to exit the barrel is the amount of time necessary to burn the propellant 16. The distance the projectile will travel is dependent upon the amount of the propellant 16 in the second chamber 10 less the amount of propellant 30 in the tail chamber 24. An appropriate size or diameter of the orifices 34 can be determined by the quantity of gas necessary to enter the tail chamber 24 to ignite the propellant 30, which is dependent on the propellant type and temperature and pressure of the gases released from the propellant 16. FIG. 3 displays an end view of the projectile 6. The distribution of the orifices 34 is uniform. The orifices 34 are arranged in three concentric circles with equidistant orifices in each circle. It should be understood that the number and arrangement of the orifices 34 can vary depending on the propellant type and the desired result of the projectile performance. For example, in various exemplary embodiments, there is only one orifice. In various exemplary embodiments, the orifices 34 are about 50 microns in diameter.

[0060] It should be appreciated that various types of propellants are used for launching a projectile towards a target at different ranges and various types can be used for the propellant 16 and the propellant 30. Modern smokeless propellants usually fall into one of two basic categories, simple base and double base. These designations describe the chemical make-up of the propellants, with single base propellants consisting of nitro-cellulose and double base of a combination of nitrocellulose and nitroglycerine. Within the two primary categories, there are a wide range/variety of powder types defined by geometry or shape. Regardless of the type of powder, its suitability to a given task is determined by its burning rate. The burning of the powders/ propellants can be controlled to suit the needs of a small case calling for “fast” powder or a large magnum type case calling for a very “slow” burning powder. Aside from very minor chemical differences, the burning rates of various types of propellants is largely controlled by the size and shape (surface area) and the use of different coatings such as dinitrotoluene (DNT). The coatings are applied to the kernels of the powder in varying degrees to control the burning characteristics of the finished product.

[0061] The propellant type will affect the velocity of the projectile. Further, for these various propellant types, there are ballistic tables available to determine the energy/power delivered at various distances from the muzzle end of a barrel of weapon from where the flight of the projectile starts. The energy (kinetic energy) of a projectile can be determined by the following formula (without considering the wind effects and gravitational forces): K.E.=mv2/2, where m is the mass of the projectile and v is the velocity of the flight of the projectile.

[0062] The projectile 6 may be considered to be a composite bullet having a payload and a certain quantity of propellant. The projectile 6 in various exemplary embodiments may be considered a bullet for use with a cartridge case for a small firearm or rifle.

[0063] FIG. 4 displays a cross-sectional view of an alternative exemplary embodiment of an ammunition device 62, according to this invention. The ammunition 62 is similar to the aforementioned projectile 2 with the exception of the payload within the projectile. Particularly, the ammunition 62 includes a cartridge case 64 and a projectile 66.

[0064] The cartridge case 64 is identical to the cartridge case 4 described earlier. Particularly, the cartridge case 64 includes a first case chamber 68 and a second chamber 70. The cartridge case 64 also includes a vent hole 72 that provides fluid communication between first chamber 68 and the second chamber 70. A primer cup 74 is disposed in the first chamber 68. A propellant 76 is disposed in the second chamber 70 and may be held in with a sealing foil and filling wads, not shown. The operation of the primer 74 and propellant 76 is similar to that described above for cartridge case 4.

[0065] The projectile 66 is the same as the projectile 6 described above, except for the payload. Particularly, the projectile 66 includes a nose end 78 and a tail end 80. The nose 78 and tail 80 each form a chamber, namely, a nose chamber 82 and a tail chamber 84, respectively. A partition 86 having an orifice is disposed between the nose 82 and the tail 84. A valve 88 is disposed in the orifice of the nose chamber 82. The valve 88 is similar to the valve 28 described above

[0066] A propellant 90 is placed in the tail chamber 84. A rear wall 92 includes at least one orifice. A plurality of orifices 94 may be disposed within the rear wall 92, as shown in FIG. 4 and described above.

[0067] The operation of the deflagration of the propellant 90 is the same as described earlier for the propellant 30. Similar to the embodiment described above, a payload 96 is disposed within the nose chamber 82. However, in this alternative embodiment, the payload 96 is a balloon. The balloon 96 includes a collar 98 having an orifice 100. The collar 98 is pressed onto the valve 88. The orifice 100 and valve 88 are in fluid communication. As described earlier, the gas generated within the tail chamber 84 will travel through the valve 88 and enter the balloon 96 through the orifice 100. As the gas fills the balloon 96, the balloon 96 becomes inflated and exerts a pressure on the walls of the nose 78 until eventually the nose 78 opens out allowing the balloon 96 and the collar 98 to escape from the nose chamber 82. The sequence of this transition is shown in FIGS. 5-8.

[0068] Particularly, FIG. 5 shows the ammunition 62 prior to firing.

[0069] FIG. 6 displays the ammunition 62 just after the primer 74 has been detonated and the propellant 76 ignited with the projectile 66 exiting the cartridge case 64. It is noted that the projectile 66 is shown in cross-section. At this stage, the propellant 76 is still deflagrating. The propellant 90 provides additional thrust for the projectile 66 by the gases escaping through the orifice 94. The gases generated from propellant 90 also inflate the balloon 96 .

[0070] FIG. 7 displays a cross-sectional view of the projectile 66 at the state at which the balloon 96 is almost completely inflated and at a moment when the nose chamber 82 opens up. The nose 78 may break open in a manner similar to that of the opening of the petals of a flower by way of wall portions 102. Meanwhile the projectile 66 continues to travel as indicated by the arrows 106.

[0071] FIG. 8 displays a cross-sectional view of the projectile 66 at the instant when the balloon 96 is exiting the projectile 66. The balloon 96 will separate from the projectile 66, which falls off while the balloon 96 continues traveling in the direction it was fired (arrows 106) until its kinetic energy has dissipated. It should be appreciated that the balloon 96, in various exemplary embodiments, may separate from the projectile 66 at close ranges, such as for example, five meters. The five meter distance has been considered as a safe distance for non-lethal incapacitation. This range is achieved with an appropriate amount of mass and type of propellant.

[0072] The balloon 96 is made of a soft material such as elastomer or synthetic rubber. It should be appreciated that other materials may be used for the balloon.

[0073] As the balloon 96 impacts a target, at least a portion of the gas within the balloon escapes and thus a large flat surface will effectively impact force onto the target. Thus, the balloon will have an innocuous effect if it hits any soft areas of the head. However, the balloon 96 will still have enough energy to impart a strong “slapping” blow to the target with no severe damage or injury to the target. This embodiment allows the projectile to be fired from a weapon and have a non-lethal effect at a relatively close distance from the weapon.

[0074] In this exemplary embodiment, a chemical agent 104 is disposed within the interior of the balloon 96, as shown in FIG. 4. Upon impact with the target, at least a portion of the gas within the interior of the balloon 96 as well as the chemical agent 104 will escape. The chemical agent 104 may be designed to incapacitate the intended target. The chemical agent 104 may be a variety of agents, such as, but not limited to, malodorants, an irritant, laughing gas, or other chemical to produce a desired effect. It should be appreciated that the chemical agent 104 is not necessary in all embodiments.

[0075] The chemical agent 104 escapes the balloon through the orifice 100. It should be appreciated that the balloon 96 may be designed with a particular material or wall thickness, such that the balloon 96 is inflated to a point where the balloon 96 reaches its limit of elastic deformation (i.e. its elastic modulus) before the balloon 96 releases from the projectile 66. To achieve this inflation point, it should be appreciated that the appropriate amount of propellant 76 and an appropriate amount of force to hold in the collar 98 in the nose chamber 82 will be dependent on the material used for the balloon 96. With such an arrangement, this type of balloon 96 would be designed to burst upon hitting its intended target thus releasing the chemical agent within the balloon.

[0076] In standard weapons, such as, but not limited to, guns or rifles, long pitch helical grooves are machined inside the barrel wall, which causes the projectile to emerge from the barrel with a spinning or rotary action. Thus, when used in conventional weapons having helical grooves, the projectile 66 will be caused to rotate during the travel in the barrel and thus, when the balloon 96 is ejected from the projectile 66 it will also have a rotating action, which will allow the balloon 96 to remain in its trajectory.

[0077] The projectile of this invention is tailored to travel with a certain velocity and distance to hit a target with a certain calculated impact to incapacitate the target. The intended result is controlled by varying the quantity and type of propellant in the cartridge case and in the tail chamber of the projectile.

[0078] A projectile made in accordance with this invention and including a balloon as described above, is able to rapidly incapacitate an individual with no resulting severe injuries to the individual and with no risk to the firearm shooter, since the shooter will be hitting the individual from a distance. If the intended target is holding a weapon, the projectile may be fired towards the hand of the target, which will cause the target to drop the weapon.

[0079] FIG. 9 displays another alternative embodiment of ammunition 122, in accordance with this invention. This embodiment displays one of the various projectile designs that may be used with standard cartridge cases. Any standard projectile shape may be utilized with this invention. The ammunition 122 is identical to ammunition 2 described above, except for the shape of the projectile. The ammunition 122 includes a cartridge case 124 and a projectile 126. The projectile 126 has a flat nose profile. Particularly, the projectile 126 includes a nose 128 and a tail end 130. Nose 128 and tail end 130 are separated by a partition 132, as shown by a hidden line. The projectile 126 includes a lid 134.

[0080] FIG. 10 displays an instant in time after the firearm has been fired and the projectile 126 has left the cartridge case 124. The spacing between the case 124 and the projectile 126 shown in FIG. 10 is not intended to indicate any specific lapse of time in connection with the deployment of the payload 136 from the projectile 126. In this embodiment, the payload 136 is a balloon. It should be appreciated that numerous other payloads may be utilized, as described above. As the payload is forced out of the nose portion 128, the lid 134 will be forced away from the nose portion 128 so that the payload 136 can escape from the projectile 126.

[0081] FIG. 11 displays a cross-sectional view of an alternative embodiment of a projectile 150. The projectile 150 includes a nose end 152 and a tail end 154.

[0082] The projectile 150 is similar to the projectile embodiments previously described, except for the nose end 152.

[0083] The tail end 154 includes a chamber 156. A propellant 158 is disposed within the chamber 156. Orifices 160 are disposed in a rear wall 162. The propellant 158 is ignited in a similar manner to that previously described. That is, a burning front from another propellant within a cartridge case passes through the orifices 160.

[0084] The difference with this embodiment is that the nose end 152 does not include a chamber having a payload. The “payload” is the nose end 152. Thus, the tail end 154 will act as a “booster” to provide additional thrust to the nose when the propellant 158 is deflagrating.

[0085] It should be appreciated that a projectile, according to this invention, may be extended to a variety of weapons, such as, but not limited to, small firearms, grenade launchers, large caliber firearms (e.g. artillery) or the like. Further, it should be appreciated that a projectile, in accordance with this invention may be used with different caliber sizes. Further, for non-lethal applications, the caliber size may be chosen according to the incapacitation required, i.e. riot control, one-to-one police force intervention, or military, etc.

[0086] While this invention has been described in conjunction with the specific embodiments outlined above, it is evident that many alternatives, modifications and variations will be apparent to those skilled in the art. Accordingly, the embodiments of the invention, as set forth above, are intended to be illustrative, but not limiting. Various changes may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of this invention.