Title:
Mechanical discharge self-supercharging engine
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
When considering the main types of commercial engines available on the market, whether two-stroke, four-stroke or rotary-type, it is found that, and this is commonplace, said engines are highly polluting. The main reason for this lies in the difficulty to manufacture worn gas filters which would not induce restriction However, that difficulty can be overcome by producing an engine which is itself capable of sustaining a high rate of restriction. The technical solutions disclosed by the invention present several embodiments enabling the engine to tolerate a higher level of restriction and consequently a more dense filtering. These various technical embodiments provide for a novel path for fresh gases through the engine. The invention provides a solution, which is not primarily concerned with fresh gas supply but rather with waste gas absorption, followed by their subsequent evacuation constituting the first stroke of said engine. Indeed, the waste gases are evacuated outwards by two successive steps: the gases are evacuated outwards by pumping, and said discharge generates, in turn, a vacuum which sucks in the burnt fresh gases which in turn finally suck in the fresh gases. Said techniques have the further advantage of producing two stroke engines powered with gas only, and consequently cleaner and more efficient.



Inventors:
Beaudoin, Normand (Suresnes, FR)
Application Number:
09/979281
Publication Date:
10/31/2002
Filing Date:
11/21/2001
Assignee:
BEAUDOIN NORMAND
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
92/181P, 92/181R
International Classes:
F02B33/10; F02B33/14; F02B35/00; F02B53/08; F02B75/30; F02B75/02; (IPC1-7): F04B39/10
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Primary Examiner:
NGUYEN, HOANG M
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
George R Pettit (Washington, DC, US)
Claims:
1. An engine, compressor and pump type machine comprising in its composition: a machine block, a means of propulsion such as a rod and crankshaft arrangement, the latter being mounted in rotary fashion in this block, a cylinder fixed rigidly in this block, a cylinder piston connected indirectly to the means of propulsion, and whose interior hollow forms a cylinder in which the counter-piston is slid, a rod, connecting the cylinder piston to the crank pin of the crankshaft, a counter-piston connected rigidly to the upper part of the head of the main cylinder by a means such as a sleeve, this counter-piston being inserted in the cylinder of the cylinder piston, an exhaust pipe equipped with a non-return valve, a pipe supplying the waste gases to the exhaust pre-chambers a fresh gas supply pipe, appropriate segment systems.

2. An engine, compressor and pump type machine comprising in its composition: an engine block, a means of propulsion such as a rod and crankshaft arrangement, the latter being mounted in rotary fashion in this block, a cylinder fixed rigidly, connected to the engine block, a horizontal H piston inserted in the cylinder and connected indirectly to the means of propulsion, and whose thin central part is inserted in the wall of the counter-cylinder, a rod, connecting the H piston to the crank pin of the crankshaft, a counter-cylinder, fixed rigidly and transversely to the wall of the cylinder, and equipped with a pipe enabling the sliding of the centre of the H piston, an exhaust pipe equipped with a non-return valve, a waste gas supply system, a fresh gas supply system, appropriate segment systems.

3. An engine, pump and compressor type machine comprising in its composition: a machine block, a means of propulsion such as a crankshaft positioned in the block, this crankshaft being equipped with two crank pins in opposite directions, two cylinders attached rigidly to this block, two T pistons whose sleeves, after passing through the wall of the counter-cylinder, are each connected indirectly to the means of propulsion in opposite positions, a counter-cylinder positioned transversely and rigidly in the wall of the main cylinder and equipped with a pipe enabling the passage of the T piston, waste gas intake pipes connecting each pre-exhaust chamber to the opposite cylinder of the fresh gas intake pipes, waste gas evacuation pipes, and the appropriate segment systems.

4. An engine, compressor and pump type machine comprising in its composition: an engine block, in which a crankshaft is mounted in rotary fashion, a cylinder attached rigidly to this engine block. a counter-cylinder parallel to the main cylinder and rigidly connected to the head of this main cylinder, a W piston simultaneously inserted in the cylinder and the counter-cylinder and attached indirectly by its lower part to a means of propulsion such as a rod connected to the crank pin of a crankshaft, a rod attached at each end to the piston and to the crank pin of the crankshaft, burnt gas, fresh gas and exhaust integration pipes, the required segmentation systems.

5. A machine as per claim 4, but in which the shape of the piston is an inverted T while the cylinder is M-shaped.

6. An engine as per claims 1 and 2, whose gas supply is provided from the pre-admission chambers connected to the carburetion system.

7. An engine as per claims 1 and 2, whose gas intake chambers serve to pump air serving to create an air cushion between the waste and fresh gases.

8. An engine as per claims 1 and 2, whose gas pre-intake chambers serve as a cooling pump for the engine.

9. An engine as per claim 8, whose pumped and heated air outlet supplies the carburetion system.

10. An engine, pump and compressor type machine comprising in its composition: an engine block, in which a crankshaft is mounted in rotary fashion, a cylinder attached rigidly to the engine block. a piston inserted in this cylinder and connected indirectly to the crankshaft by a means such as a rod, a rod attached at each end to the piston and the crankshaft, an exhaust piston valve.

11. An engine, compressor and pump type machine comprising in its composition: an engine block, in which a crankshaft is mounted in rotary fashion, a cylinder attached rigidly to the engine block. a piston inserted in this cylinder and attached to a rod, a rod attached at each end to the piston, and at the other indirectly to the crank pin of the crankshaft, by the use of a cam, a cam mounted in rotary fashion on the crank pin of the crankshaft, this cam being equipped with a gear, this gear being coupled to an induction gear, an induction gear, rigidly positioned on a pin passing transversely though the crankshaft and attached rigidly to the engine block.

12. An engine, pump and compressor type machine comprising in its composition: two complementary piston blades, one convex and the other concave. burnt gas intake pipes, from the cylinders to the burnt gas intake chambers, and fresh gas intake pipes.

Description:
[0001] The main commercial engines available on the market, whether of the two-stroke, four-stroke or rotary type, all have a common fault in that they do not withstand restriction on the exhaust. This is what makes them much more difficult to filter, because normally the more efficient a filter is, the more restriction it causes. The difficulty in filtering therefore leaves these engines in their highly polluting state.

[0002] If we take for example two-stroke engines (FIG. I), the exhaust matter is obtained by the pressure of the fresh gases from the base of the engine (9) on the old gases still located in the cylinder (100). The old gases can escape through an opening located in the side of the cylinder. If this opening is blocked and the exit of the burnt gases is consequently restricted, the fresh gases will not have enough power to fill the cylinder, whereas the burnt gases will be compressed rather than exit, with the result that the gases located in the combustion chamber on the next compression will be of low combustibility and explosive, because they are largely composed of old gases. The engine will suffocate and stop.

[0003] A different but similar phenomenon occurs if we restrict the exit of the burnt gases from a four-stroke or rotary engine (FIG. II).

[0004] The difficulty stems from the fact that, at the time of the explosion, the combustion chambers (10) must retain a certain size to obtain an optimum, explosive gas pressure. Consequently, as the path of the piston is the same in the engine evacuation phase as in the explosion phase, the cylinder has a certain size, even at the end of the evacuation (FIG. II). Then, as in the case of two-stroke engines, if we restrict the output of the waste gases, these will still have enough space to be compressed and therefore, rather than evacuating, will remain in the chambers and re-expand when the piston comes down again, with the result that the intake of fresh gases will also be deficient. One only has to place one's hand on the exhaust pipe of a car to ascertain that the engine is then very fragile and easy to asphyxiate and suffocate. It is easy to understand, as in the first case, that these engines do not tolerate the restriction which efficient filtering could offer.

[0005] We think that this fault in internal combustion engines of having an exhaust more receptive to the restriction of a filter stems from the very way in which they were initially designed. Internal combustion engines are derived from steam engines. This led to a natural lack of concern about the exhaust, since steam was non-polluting. A second basic assumption, also spontaneous in the design of these engines, is that they must be supplied in order to operate that gases must first and foremost be introduced into them. This conception seemed to be almost self-evident. Indeed, if the engine is not supplied, it will not function. Hence the idea that the exhaust of waste gases is only a consequence of the introduction and burning of these gases. This way of thinking, which considers the exhaust as a resulting effect, is at the origin of the fact that the exhaust of these engines is not only secondary but deficient. All the filters or catalysers must therefore be designed in such as way as not to increase the output restriction on exit of waste gases from the engine. This way of thinking makes all filters and catalysers limited in their filtering capacity, with the result that the engines remain highly polluting.

[0006] The primary aim of this invention is to show that while such a design is logical in terms of the burning of the gases, it is not necessary logical from the mechanical point of view, in fluid terms. The purpose of this technical solution is to show that although it is true that the engines must be supplied, this does not imply that this must necessarily be the first phase of the engine.

[0007] This technical solution proposes first of all a different design of the gas circulation, and consequently of the supply of the engine. Indeed, contrary to tradition, this technical solution is aimed primarily at the exit of the waste gases, as if this were the first stroke of the engine, when the engine is in operation. Our design goes even further, since it considers the intake of fresh gases not as the cause but as the result, as the consequence or the effect, of the evacuation of the waste gases. Because it gives first priority to the total evacuation of the gases, this solution will enable a high level of restriction and consequently a high rate of filtering.

[0008] A first embodiment of the invention is obtained (FIG. III) by the use of a fixed subsidiary piston which we shall call the counter-piston (12). The counter-piston is located in the cylinder (5) and is connected to the top of the cylinder by a sleeve which we shall call the counter piston sleeve (13).

[0009] A piston (1), the inside of which is hollowed cylindrically, which is why we shall call it the cylinder piston (11), is inserted in the main piston of the engine (17), in such a way that the counter-piston (12) is located inside it. Naturally, the assembly must provide a piston comprising two parts subsequently connected to each other in a fixed way after the intrusion of the counter-piston. The lower part of the cylinder piston will be connected by means of a rod (2) which in turn will be connected to the crank pin of the crankshaft (3).

[0010] This assembly of parts will enable us to distinguish three types of chambers. First of all a chamber located between the head of the cylinder piston and the head of the cylinder which we shall call the main cylinder (19) as opposed to the cylinder of the piston. A second chamber, located between the lower part of the counter-piston and the lower part of the cylinder piston will be called the exhaust pre-chamber or waste gas intake chamber (18). Lastly, a third chamber, located between the upper part of the counter-piston and the upper part of the cylinder piston will be called the fresh substance intake pre-chamber (22).

[0011] We can now deal with the specific functioning of this engine. The first stroke of the engine could rightly be considered as the gas exhaust stroke. This exhaust—as we shall see—will be total and may consequently allow maximum restriction and therefore filtering (FIG. III). Indeed, when the cylinder piston (11) rises again in the main cylinder (17), we notice that the pre-exhaust chambers (18) have been reduced to zero, which forces the total evacuation of waste gases. This total evacuation, acting as a pump, therefore withstands very well a restriction of the engine caused by the filtering of the gases.

[0012] When the cylinder piston (11) comes down again, the exhaust pre-chamber (18) will have grown bigger, the exhaust valve will have closed and all the openings will be in the occlusion phase. A vacuum is then created in this chamber. At the time of its arrival at its lowest level, the counter-pistons and the cylinder piston will clear the openings of the waste gas intake pipe (40). The waste gases will then be taken in through the waste gas intake pipe to the pre-exhaust chamber. The waste gases therefore enter the exhaust pre-chamber (18) by suction, this pre-chamber being, unlike in conventional engines, in its most expanded phase simultaneously with the most expanded phase of the main cylinder.

[0013] On the other side of the main cylinder will be placed a fresh gas intake pipe (21), to which will be connected a carburettor (6). In this way, therefore, the suction of the burnt gases into the exhaust chamber will lead to that of the fresh gases (22) into the main cylinder. This is what leads us to say that in this engine, the gas intake stroke is subsequent and consequent to the gas ejection stroke.

[0014] The cylinder piston then rises again, and as fresh gases have been taken in, when the cylinder piston is again completely at the top, we can speak of compression and explosion of the gases while simultaneously, from the exhaust pre-chamber, a total pressurised exhaust takes place again.

[0015] It now remains for us to comment on the functions which can be attributed to the third chamber, namely the fresh substance pre-intake chamber. Three main functions can be attributed to it.

[0016] Firstly, this chamber can serve as a subsidiary means of supply of fresh gases, through an intake pipe (26) located in the sleeve of the counter-piston and through a non-return valve (27) located on the upper face of the counter-piston (12). The expansion of this chamber will suck in the fresh gases during the rise of the cylinder piston, and being compressed when it falls again, it may be injected complementarily in the main cylinder through openings located in the lower part (28) of the sleeve of the counter-piston. This thrust of the fresh gases will be carried out in a manner complementary to its intake. Naturally, in this version, the carburettor will be attached to the intake pipe of the pre-intake chamber.

[0017] A second function can be assigned to the pre-intake chamber. Indeed, we can choose to continue to supply the engine with gas from the openings already mentioned, in the side of the main cylinder, and simply admit air into the pre-intake chamber. This air can perform various functions. It can for example be injected in the engine just between the waste gases and the fresh gases, to form an air cushion between them, ensuring the cleanliness of the fresh gases. We shall then speak of a three-stroke engine.

[0018] One can also choose to use the intake pre-chamber as an air pump serving as a cooling system for the cylinder and the engine block (101). In this last version, the heated air can exit at the entry of the carburettor. All these functions can also be calibrated and thus be used in a mixed way, the intake pre-chamber being used both for supplying the air cushion and for ventilating the engine and pumping in the carburettor.

[0019] It should be noted that in addition therefore to providing the possibility of better filtering, these types of engines enable two-stroke type supplies, but only of gas, which adds to the saving of energy.

[0020] In addition, these types of total exhaust engines can be combined with conventional intakes.

[0021] A second embodiment of the invention possesses similar properties to the previous one and will be obtained by the use of a piston whose shape, if we make a transverse cut, is that of a letter H, hence the name “H piston” (36). This H piston, which will be slid into the main cylinder (17), will be simultaneously joined to a counter-cylinder (35) (FIG. IV).

[0022] Indeed, a piston whose lateral shape recalls that of a letter H is inserted into the main cylinder (17), in such a way that each side of this letter H is located on either side of a wall rigidly fixed in the main cylinder and which we shall call the counter-cylinder (35). This counter-cylinder is perforated in its centre and enables the intrusion and sliding of the narrow part constituting the central sleeve of the H piston (37).

[0023] The H piston (36) will be connected at its base to a rod which, at its other end, will be connected to the crank pin of the crankshaft (3).

[0024] As in the previous embodiment, this configuration allows three separate chambers to be established, namely the main cylinder (17), the exhaust pre-chamber (18) and the intake pre-chamber (40).

[0025] As in the previous configuration, since the gases are taken in by suction, the first stroke of this engine will be the exhaust stroke.

[0026] In FIG. 5b, the exhaust pre-chamber is reduced to zero. The waste gases are injected into the exhaust pipe (23), and passing through the non-return valve they reach the filter. This way of providing for the exhaust can accept a high restriction produced by a high level of filtering.

[0027] The H piston will then come down again and the exhaust valve will close again automatically. This descent will cause a vacuum in the exhaust pre-chamber. At the lowest level of descent of the H piston (FIG. 5a), a pipe passing through the wall of the counter-cylinder (19) will allow the compressed gases in the chamber of the main cylinder to be sucked in by the exhaust pre-chamber, or waste gas intake chamber (18). Pipes located in the opposite part of the main cylinder, attached to the carburetion system, will enable the fresh gases to be sucked into the main cylinder (37) by the emptying of the waste gases (20) to the pre-exhaust chamber (18).

[0028] The subsequent rise of the H piston will recompress the fresh gases, along with the waste gases located in the exhaust pre-chamber. At the end of this rise, the gases will be exploded in the main cylinder (17) while the waste gases will again be one hundred percent ejected towards the filtering.

[0029] As in the previous embodiment, various functions can be attributed to the fresh substance pre-intake chamber. It may be primarily this chamber which completes the intake. Indeed, a pipe (43) to which the carburettor will be connected may be located in the wall of the counter-cylinder and a non-return valve (44) may be located at the output of this pipe, on the external and upper surface of the wall of the counter-cylinder. The gases will then be simultaneously pushed and sucked into the cylinder.

[0030] A different configuration will allow air to be integrated in the intake pre-chamber. This air will be injected between the waste gases and the fresh gas intake. Another configuration will allow the pre-intake chamber to be used as an air pump for cooling the gases. Finally, a mixed solution can be used by injecting some of the heated gases into the carburettor, with the rest of the gases being used as a cushion.

[0031] A simplified embodiment of this invention will require two systems with cylinder (17), counter-cylinder (35) and T piston (47).

[0032] In this configuration, the T piston (47) is inserted into the main cylinder (17) and its sleeve will be inserted into the pipe of the wall which constitutes the counter-cylinder (35). The end of this sleeve will be connected to a means such as a rod, which will in turn be connected to the crank pin of the crankshaft (3).

[0033] The effect of this configuration is to produce two different chambers, one of the main cylinder (17) and one of the pre-exhaust (18), the first being located between the head of the piston and the main cylinder, and the second between the upper wall of the counter-cylinder and the internal surface of the T piston.

[0034] In this configuration, two systems are necessary because the expansion of an exhaust pre-chamber must be coupled to the cylinder of the complementary system in such a way as to suck in the waste gases when the T piston is in its lowest position, thus sucking in the fresh gases. Simultaneously, the exhaust intake system explodes in its upper part (19), while the system in gas intake phase expels its gases (18) in the lower part of its system.

[0035] Another embodiment of this invention (FIG. IX) proposes, to attain similar results, the use of a W piston (57). A W piston, i.e. a piston equipped with a circular crucible suitable for accommodating the internal cylinder of the poly-cylinders (104) will be, at its upper end, interleaved both in the main cylinder and in the secondary cylinder, and will have its lower end attached to the crankshaft by a means such as a rod. We shall call the chambers located between the surface of the doughnut shaped part of the piston and the secondary cylinder, the exhaust pre-chamber (18). In this configuration, we observe that when the piston W is in its lowest phase, the exhaust pre-chamber (18) is in a vacuum state. An opening (17) located between the main cylinder and the exhaust pre-chamber will enable intake of the waste gases (26). In turn, the expulsion of burnt gases will suck in the fresh gases from the outside into the main cylinder (28). When the piston rises again, the gases contained in the main cylinder will be ignited. As the top of the secondary cylinder will be lower, the gases contained in the secondary cylinder will be totally evacuated and the engine will be capable of withstanding a high level of restriction and therefore of filtering.

[0036] The next technical solution (FIG. XI and XII) is an embodiment similar to the previous ones, but with the piston having an overturned T shape.

[0037] We can also note an adaptation of the present design of the engines to rotary type engines (FIG. XIII). Indeed, we can assume a more convex triangle piston (60) capable of ejecting gases one hundred percent, and therefore of sucking in new waste gases and, hence, lead to the filling of the main cylinder with new fresh gases.

[0038] The next embodiment can be applied in that it is necessary to retain a four-stroke engine system. In this case, we can assume the use of an active counter-piston as an exhaust valve (70). This secondary piston will, on exhaust, approach the main piston in such a way as to reduce the exhaust chamber to zero. This method will be capable of accepting a high level of resistance.

[0039] A final solution, of a more mechanical type, aims to raise the main piston higher during the exhaust than in the explosive phase, sufficiently to reduce the possible compression of the gases to zero.

[0040] To obtain this mechanical solution, the lower end of the rod (2) must be connected to a cam (83) positioned in rotary fashion around the crank pin of the crankshaft. To this cam a gear (84) is rigidly attached, this gear being coupled to a fixed gear (85), attached to a sleeve (80) passing through the crankshaft and connected rigidly to the body of the engine.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF FIGURES

[0041] FIG. I is a transverse cross section of a two-stroke type engine. The gases are injected from the base of the engine under pressure in the cylinder.

[0042] FIG. II represents the position of the piston during maximum exhaust of a four-stroke engine.

[0043] FIG. III a) and b) represents a transverse cross section of an anti-discharge self-supercharging engine. We notice the main cylinder (17), the cylinder piston (11) and the counter-piston (12), the assembly of which determines the chambers of the main cylinder (17), the exhaust pre-chamber (18) and the fresh substance intake pre-chamber (19). In b), the engine is in its waste gas expulsion phase, the first stroke of this type of engine, whereas in a) the parts have been placed in the waste and fresh substance intake phase.

[0044] FIG. IV is a three-dimensional view of the previous embodiment.

[0045] FIG. V a) and b) represents a transverse cross section of a different embodiment of this invention. Here, the piston is more H-shaped, and with the cylinder and the counter-cylinder (12), it separates three chambers, i.e. the main cylinder (17), the exhaust pre-chamber, or waste gas intake chamber (18), and the fresh substance pre-intake chamber.

[0046] In b), the piston is at its highest level, and the exhaust pre-chamber being compressed, the engine is in its exhaust phase, whereas in a) the parts have been placed in the waste and fresh gas intake phase.

[0047] FIG. VI is a similar configuration to the previous one, but the parts have been placed in three dimensions.

[0048] FIG. VII is a schematic cross section of an engine comprising in its composition two complementary T-shaped piston engine systems, where the exhaust pre-chamber of one become the waste gas suction pump of the other, and vice versa.

[0049] FIG. VIII is a three-dimensional view of the previous embodiment.

[0050] FIG. IX shows an embodiment of the invention using a W-shaped piston, inserted in a poly-cylinder. Here we see the waste gases being transferred from the main cylinder to the exhaust pre-chambers, and thereby sucking in fresh gases.

[0051] FIG. X is a three-dimensional view of the previous embodiment.

[0052] FIG. XI shows a simplified version of the invention made by the use of a reversed T-shaped piston. Here, the wide part of the piston is inserted in the widest part of the cylinder, while the narrow part is inserted into the narrowest part of the cylinder. We then see that when the piston is, as here, in its lowest position, the gases are sucked in from the main cylinder to the waste gas intake chamber, which implies intake of the fresh gases into the main cylinder.

[0053] FIG. XII is a three-dimensional view of the previous embodiment.

[0054] FIG. XIII shows the embodiment of a rotary type anti-discharge engine. One of the two blades, the more convex one, ejects the old gases and sucks in new waste gases. These actions have the effect of introducing fresh gases in the main cylinder. We should note that the blade attributed to the waste gases could be replaced by a piston system.

[0055] FIG. XIV shows a four-stroke engine whose total exhaust will be obtained by a piston valve, this valve filling the gap remaining at the end of the travel of the piston.

[0056] FIG. XV shows an engine in which a crankshaft is positioned in rotary fashion. On the crank pin of the crankshaft is mounted a cam equipped with a gear interleaved with another gear located on a transverse pin crossing on its length and rigidly attached to the body of the engine. As the rod and the piston are attached and therefore subject to this action of this cam, every other rotation, i.e. on exhaust, they will be raised higher to close the exhaust chambers completely.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF FIGURES

[0057] FIG. 1 is a reproduction of a conventional two-stroke engine. In this case, the parts have been placed in the gas intake phase. We see here a piston (1) connected to a rod (2), this rod being connected in rotary fashion to a crankshaft (3). The whole assembly is inserted in an engine block (4), to which a cylinder (5) is rigidly attached. The entry of the gases (200) in the base of the engine is controlled by a valve (7) and a carburettor (6). On opening of the supply pipes (202), the fresh gases are in their maximum state of low compression, and the low chamber formed by the engine block is its most restricted dimension. Consequently, they will be injected by thrust into the cylinder (17) and will therefore expel the waste gases (100).

[0058] As the chamber of the cylinder is then in its most enlarged phase, it goes without saying that a blockage or restriction of the exit would automatically cause the compression rather than the evacuation of the waste gases, which would make subsequent burning impossible. Any use of the gas filters which has a restrictive action will therefore be inapplicable.

[0059] FIG. II represents a four-stroke engine in its evacuation phase. We see here the piston (1), the rod (2) and the crankshaft (3), the whole assembly mounted in an engine block (4) and a cylinder (5). As the movement of these parts is the same during compression/explosion as during exhaust, the free spaces located above the piston (10) will therefore be the equivalent of the combustion chambers, and consequently, if we prevent or restrict the gas exhaust paths, an undue compression of the waste gases, which will thus remain in the cylinder, will subsequently prevent normal supply of the engine. The engine will then be asphyxiated and suffocate in its old gas. For these reasons, as in the first case, this engine does not accept restrictive filters. The same applies to rotary engines, whether two-stroke or four-stroke.

[0060] FIG. III represents the two main strokes in an anti-discharge self-supercharging engine, namely the waste gas intake phase A, and the waste gas total expulsion phase B. Here, the parts have been placed in what we will consider to be the two main strokes of the engine, namely the intake of the waste gases into the exhaust pre-chamber (18) and the total expulsion of the waste gases (18). In this type of engine, we will find first of all an engine block (4) in which a crankshaft is mounted in rotary fashion. To this block is attached a cylinder (5) in which will be inserted a different type of piston which we shall call the cylinder piston (3). A new piston type component, which we shall call the counter-piston (11) will be rigidly connected to a sleeve (13), this sleeve itself being, at its opposite end, connected in fixed fashion to the head of the cylinder. The cylinder piston, so called because it is equipped with an internal cylinder, will be simultaneously inserted in the main cylinder and coupled to the counter-piston in such a way that the counter-piston is inserted in its own internal cylinder (17). Naturally, in practice, the cylinder piston (12) must be constructed in two parts, to make it possible to insert the counter-piston in it and then close the exhaust pre-chambers or waste gas intake pre-chambers (8).

[0061] The lower part of the cylinder piston (11) will be indirectly connected to the crank pin of the crankshaft (3) by a means such as a rod (2). We notice that the attachment of these parts creates three different chambers which we shall call the main cylinder (17) the exhaust pre-chamber (18) and the fresh substance pre-intake chamber (19).

[0062] The aforementioned parts will function as follows:

[0063] At the present stage (FIG. 3a), a limit vacuum has been created between the lower parts of the counter-piston and the cylinder piston, in what we will call the exhaust pre-chamber (18). At this moment, the piston is located at a precise point where openings passing through it join pipes (40) located in the cylinder and whose second outlet will be just above the cylinder piston. We shall call these pipes ‘burnt gas intake pipes’ (40). At this stage, as the cylinder piston and the counter-piston simultaneously clear the inlets, and as the exhaust pre-chamber is in a state of maximum depression, the gases located in the main cylinder will be sucked (20) into the exhaust pre-chambers. We therefore see that, unlike in conventional engines, the chambers in question, namely the burnt gas intake chamber (18) and the cylinder chamber must be simultaneously in their maximum expansion phase. We also see that the fresh gas intake is a consequence and not a cause. Indeed, on the opposite side to the main cylinder there will be located pipes passing through it, which we shall call ‘fresh gas intake pipes’ (21), which will be connected to the carburettor (6).

[0064] The suction of the waste gases towards the pre-exhaust chambers, or old gas intake chamber (18) will cause the intake of the fresh gases into the main cylinder (22).

[0065] When it rises again, the cylinder piston will close the openings of the waste and fresh gas intake pipes. A pressure will form in the exhaust pre-chamber. This pressure will totally push the gases into the exhaust pipe (23) located in the sleeve of the counter-piston and will open the non-return exhaust valve (24). These gases, thus forced outwards by a pump type action without any direct link with the engine supply, may consequently accept a high level of restriction, and therefore be filtered with high restriction filters, i.e. ones which are very anti-polluting. In addition, as the explosion has no contact with the outside, we can dispense with the need for an exhaust pipe on these engines. It should also be noted that this design produces two-stroke engines only with gas, which reduces the pollution aspect of the engines while increasing their efficiency.

[0066] During this total evacuation of the gases, on the main cylinder (17) side we will notice that the gases located there are in a compression state, and the engine is also in the conventional explosion phase.

[0067] We can now take a closer look at the functions which can be attributed to the fresh substance pre-intake chambers (19), the chambers which are located between the upper part of the cylinder of the cylinder piston and the upper part of the counter-piston.

[0068] Three main functions can be attributed to them. First of all, they can act in a way complementing the fresh gas intake. Indeed, the gases can be admitted through a fresh substance intake pipe (26) passing through the sleeve of the counter-piston and leading to a non-return valve (21) located on the upper face of the counter-piston. We shall call these components the supply pipes and fresh substance supply valve. When the cylinder piston rises, the pre-intake chamber will be enlarged, causing the intake valve to open, and fresh gases will be sucked into it. When the cylinder piston completely descends again, a means, such as half-moon openings in the bottom of the sleeve of the counter-piston for example, will enable the gases located in the pre-intake chamber to be propelled into the main cylinder, replacing the waste gases sucked in by the exhaust pre-chambers. These could be fresh gases, this method of intake replacing the first one and complementing the suction mentioned above.

[0069] Another way of using the intake pre-chambers is to get them to incorporate air. This method will allow an air cushion to be injected into the cylinder between the fresh and waste gases, separating them, and ensuring both the cleanliness of the fresh gases and the complete evacuation of the waste gases. What could be called a three-stroke engine will be produced in this way.

[0070] By another method again, we can use the pumping action of the intake pre-chambers to propel fresh air into the walls of the bodies of the cylinder and the engine block, with the aim of creating a system for cooling the engine with air.

[0071] We should note that a combination of these solutions for use of the intake pre-chambers can be produced by propelling hot air which has passed through the walls of the engine into the carburetion system, reserving some of this air to act as an air cushion.

[0072] Before moving on to the next figure, let us briefly say a few words concerning the segmentation of this type of engine.

[0073] Firstly, segments will be necessary on the external surface of the rim of the counter-piston (33). Indeed, on the inside first of all, segments will preferably be placed between the cylinder piston and the sleeve of the counter-piston (32) so as to isolate the master cylinder completely from the pre-intake chambers (18). As regards the outside, segments must be placed at the top and bottom of the cylinder piston (11).

[0074] Lastly, a small circular segment (34) may be installed on the lower opening of the waste gas exhaust pipe, such that when it rises the exhaust and intake pipes do not communicate via the circumference of the cylinder piston. In addition, it should be noted that the exhaust pipe must not be in the exact direction of the movement of the cylinder piston, so that its upper opening is not located opposite that of the cylinder piston. Indeed, in the upper part of its travel, the waste gas intake pipe of the piston itself must remain in a blocked state.

[0075] FIG. IV shows a three-dimensional view of an embodiment as described in the previous figure. We find the main components here, namely the engine block (4), the engine cylinder (5), the crankshaft (3), the rod (2), the counter-piston (12) and its sleeve (13), the cylinder piston (11), the waste gas intake pipe (40), the air intake pipe (28), and the exhaust pipe (23). We find also the main segments of the counter-piston (12), the internal cylinder (17) and the cylinder piston (11).

[0076] Here, the engine has been placed in waste gas (20) and fresh gas intake phase. The fresh gases, simultaneously with the suction of the intake pre-chambers, will receive heated air from the air intake chamber which has circulated throughout the engine.

[0077] FIG. V represents a transverse cross section of the two main strokes of a different embodiment of the invention. Like the first, this embodiment succeeds in totally driving out the waste gases from the engine, complying with a high level of restriction which high density filters can offer.

[0078] In this embodiment, a crankshaft (3) is positioned in rotary fashion in an engine block (4). A cylinder (5) is rigidly attached to this block. In this block, which we shall call the main cylinder, a wall is located transversely, equipped at its centre with a pipe enabling the movement of the thin part of the H piston (36). We shall call this wall the counter-cylinder (35). In combination, and in such a way that each part of its H is located on a different side of the counter-cylinder, an H piston is inserted in the main cylinder, and simultaneously has its narrow part in the centre, the sleeve of the piston inserted in the central pipe of the counter-cylinder (38). We call it an H piston because a transverse cross section of such a piston is shaped like a letter H. The lowest part of this counter-piston will be connected (16) indirectly to the crank pin of the crankshaft by a means such as a rod (2).

[0079] In this embodiment, we find three independent chambers, which will have the same properties and parts lists as in the previous embodiment. These are the exhaust pre-chambers or waste gas intake chambers (18), the main cylinder (17) and, finally, the fresh substance pre-intake chambers (40). The first of these will be located between the lower part of the H piston and the lower side of the wall of the counter-cylinder. The main cylinder, meanwhile, will be located between the highest part of the piston and the main cylinder itself. The fresh gas pre-intake chamber will be located between the upper part of the H piston and the upper part of the wall of the counter-cylinder.

[0080] As in the first case, when the H piston descends to the lowest level, the waste gas pre-intake chamber has enlarged to its maximum, creating a vacuum. A means such as a small half-moon located in the top of the sleeve part of the H piston (39) will cancel out the segmentation effect and therefore allow the waste gases of the main cylinder to be sucked in (20) under the effect of the intake, into the pre-exhaust chamber through waste gas intake pipes (19) which in this version pass through the partition of the counter-cylinder.

[0081] As in the first case, the fresh gases will replace the waste gases by suction. In this case, they will be integrated by intake pipes (91) located in the wall of the main cylinder and connected to the carburetion system.

[0082] When it rises, the exhaust pre-chamber (18) and the chamber of the main cylinder will be reduced. The waste gases will therefore be totally evacuated, accepting the restriction of high filtering, while the compressed fresh gases will be exploded.

[0083] As in the first embodiment, segments will be necessary at strategic points, in such a manner as to correctly isolate the various chambers. First of all, on the circumference of each enlarged part of the H piston (11), bearing on the main cylinder. Then inside the main pipe of the counter-cylinder, bearing on the thin part of the H piston (42).

[0084] Again as in the first embodiment, the fresh gas pre-intake chamber can be produced in various ways. It can serve first of all as a complementary fresh gas intake system. In such a case, a pipe externally connecting the carburetion system to the engine will be made in the wall of the counter-cylinder, and will be terminated on the upper part of the counter-cylinder by a non-return valve (44). Under the effect of the enlargement of this chamber, the fresh gases will be pre-admitted in the engine. When it closes, the pre-intake chamber will compress these gases which, by a means such as a half-moon made in the main cylinder (18) may cancel out the effect of the segmentation and penetrate the cylinder, acting in a manner complementary to the suction of the waste gases.

[0085] The intake pre-chamber can also serve as an air pump, serving either to integrate an air cushion between the waste and fresh gases, or as a pump for air cooling of the cylinder and the engine block. Lastly, all these effects can be combined, forcing the heated air of the engine to supply the carburetion system under pressure.

[0086] FIG. VI is a three-dimensional view of the previous embodiment.

[0087] Here we find the engine block (4), the cylinder (5), the rod (2), the counter-cylinder (35), the H piston (39), the waste gas pre-intake chambers (40) of the main cylinder (17) for pre-intake of fresh gases (18), the segments of the counter-piston (46) and piston, the exhaust pipes and valve (24), intake pipes and valves and air circulation pipes.

[0088] FIG. VII is a transverse cross section of two main strokes of a simplified embodiment of the previous ones which nevertheless requires two T piston systems (47) coupled with a counter-cylinder.

[0089] In this embodiment, two systems are indeed necessary and simultaneously perform the opposite strokes of this engine. In this embodiment, a crankshaft (3) possessing two crank pins (46) in opposite positions, is positioned in rotary fashion in an engine block (4). To this block are attached two cylinders (5) in which counter-cylinders (3) are placed rigidly. In each cylinder is inserted a T piston, the sleeve of which (47) is inserted in the internal pipe of the counter-cylinder (48). Each of these T pipes is indirectly connected at its lower end by a means such as a rod (37) to a crank pin of the crankshaft.

[0090] In this type of arrangement, two chambers are created, namely the chamber of the main cylinder (17) and the gas pre-intake chamber (18). The latter chamber is located in the lower part of the T piston and the wall of the counter-cylinder. In this chamber, we can decide to pre-admit fresh gases to send them subsequently into the cylinder. This method will make it possible to produce a two-stroke engine only with gas, which has already been obtained, but on which the restriction of the exhaust cannot be controlled.

[0091] We can nevertheless act differently if we bring the two systems into operation simultaneously. Indeed, by connecting the exhaust gas (18) intake pre-chamber of one system to the cylinder of the complementary system (19) we can then ensure that the vacuum created in the gas pre-intake chamber of one system sucks in the waste gases of the complementary system (20). As in the previous case, pipes located in the wall of the cylinder and connected to a carburetion system will allow the burnt gases to be replaced by fresh gases (21) by a suction effect in the complementary system. One half-revolution further on, it is the opposite situation which will arise, since it will be the gas pre-intake system of the second system which will supply the main system. For the same reasons as before, this engine will accept a high level of restriction caused by the filters, will no longer require any exhaust silencer, and will only have two strokes, namely suction-suction and compression-compression.

[0092] FIG. VIII represents a three-dimensional cross section of the previous embodiment. Here we find the engine block (4), the crankshaft (3), the two cylinders (5) and counter-cylinder, the two T pistons (41), together with the waste gas (20), fresh gas (21) and exhaust (23, 24) intake pipes.

[0093] FIG. IX is a transverse cross-section of an embodiment even more elementary than the previous ones. Here, a crankshaft (3) is positioned in rotary fashion in the engine block (4), and to this block a cylinder (5) is rigidly attached. A counter-cylinder (35) has been rigidly fitted in this cylinder, but this time it is not transverse but in the same direction as the cylinder itself (17). A W piston (51), i.e. a piston in which a cylindrically-shaped part has been cut, and which consequently is shaped like a letter W when represented in cross section, is slid both into the cylinder and into the counter-cylinder (220).

[0094] This method makes it possible to distinguish for this configuration two separate chambers, namely, as previously, the waste gas intake chamber (18) and the chamber of the main cylinder (17). It should be noted that the opposite arrangement would give the same result.

[0095] In the first stroke of the engine, the W piston is at its highest level, and thus the gas pre-intake chamber is in a state of vacuum and therefore suction. We can imagine that at this stage a pipe located in the wall of the vertical counter-cylinder cancels out the sealing of the two chambers. This is the burnt gas intake pipe. As before, therefore, the waste gases located in the chamber of the main cylinder will be sucked into the pre-exhaust chamber.

[0096] If we assume, as before, that fresh gas intake pipes (21) are located in the wall of the main cylinder and connected to a carburetion system, we will note that, as previously, under the effect of the suction, the fresh gases will be sucked in to replace the old gases The exhaust gases will thus be able to accept a high degree of restriction caused by a high filtering density.

[0097] FIG. X represents a three-dimensional cross section of the previous embodiment. Here we find the engine block (4), the rod (2), the W piston (51), the cylinder (17), the vertical counter-cylinder (40), the waste gas intake (40), exhaust (23) and fresh gas intake (21) pipes, together with the fresh gas intake chambers and the main cylinder (17).

[0098] FIG. XI represents a schematic cross section of a second simplified version of this invention. Here, the piston has an inverted T shape (300). This piston is inserted in the cylinder which has a complementary shape (301), and is also connected by a means such as rod to a means such as a crankshaft. This method separates the burnt gas intake chambers (18) and a main cylinder (17). As previously, the burnt gases will be first pumped towards the outside (302) thus creating, when the piston comes down again, a vacuum in the burnt gas intake chambers, which will suck in new burnt gases (303), and thereby suck in new fresh gases (304) into the main cylinder.

[0099] FIG. XII is a three-dimensional view of the previous embodiment. Here we find the inverted T piston, the main and auxiliary cylinder, the waste gas intake chambers (18), the waste gas intake pipes, the main cylinder (17), the fresh gas inlet (305) and burnt gas exhaust pipes.

[0100] FIG. XIII represents a schematic cross section of what could be the embodiment of such a design in a rotary engine. We should assume two triangular pistons, one convex (60) and the other concave (61). The more bulbous of the two would drain out almost one hundred percent of the old gases and would cause a suction stroke similar to the previous embodiments, sucking into the complementary chamber, through pipes positioned for this purpose (40), waste gases which would in turn suck in the fresh gases (21). On the following stroke, while a piston would drain the gas, the additional piston would be in a state of explosion.

[0101] FIG. XIV represents a more mechanical manner of obtaining a maximum evacuation. In this embodiment, a crankshaft (3) is positioned in rotary fashion in an engine block (4) and a cylinder (5) is attached rigidly to this block. A piston (1) is inserted in this cylinder (17) and is connected to the crankshaft (3) by a means such as a rod. A piston valve (70), attached to a cam (14), covers the head of the cylinder and, while clearing the fixed valve (71), opening every other revolution, lowers itself (73) towards the height of the piston in such a way as to reduce the combustion chambers to zero and thus force the complete evacuation of the gases, accepting a high rate of restriction caused by high density filters.

[0102] FIG. XV represents another mechanical way of obtaining a total evacuation of the gases. This time, a crankshaft is mounted in rotary fashion in the block of an engine (4) supported on one of its sides on a pin (80). To this block is rigidly attached a cylinder (5) in which a piston is located in sliding fashion. This piston is connected to a rod (2). This rod is connected at its other end to the crank pin of the crankshaft by the insertion of a cam (83). This cam is mounted on the crank pin of the crankshaft and is fitted with a gear (4). This gear is coupled to a gear fixed (85) rigidly to a pin (80) passing through the main sleeve of the crankshaft and rigidly connected to the body of the engine.

[0103] By calibration of the gears of this configuration, we can influence the cam of the crank pin in such a way that every other revolution, the piston is totally embedded in the cylinder and thus forces the total evacuation of the gases, and consequently a high restriction tolerance.