Catalytic processes for manufacturing gasoline, fuel oil, diesel fuel, etc., and ways for productively utilizing relatively low grade heat from this and other sources
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Improvements in the catalytic processing of organic compounds for fuels and for other uses, and ways in order to better utilize the heat from the above processing and also from other sources.

Stivers, Scotlund (Superior, WI, US)
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B01D45/16; B01D50/00; B03C3/017; B03C3/145; C10G11/04; C10J3/08; C10J3/16; C10J3/30; C10J3/34; (IPC1-7): D21F1/66; D21C9/147
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Primary Examiner:
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Scotlund Stivers (West Branch, MI, US)

I claim:

1. The paper use of sludge from papermaking, paper recycling, and other sources to make insulation via drying and/or other means.

2. Having air, oxygen, and/or oxygen containing compounds in the feed stock to catalytic cracking units in order to prevent carbon build-up on the catalysts and/or to insure/increase the oxygenate content in the output.

3. The use of various metal, metal oxide, metal carbonate, metal silicate, metal aluminate, and like catalysts to convert organic acids in a feed stock into ketones, aldehydes, etc. for fuel and similar uses, etc.

4. The invention of claim 3 used upon vegetable oils, animal oils and greases, fats, rendering plant wastes, etc.

5. The use of vegetable oils, Animal oils and greases, fats, rendering plant wastes, etc. as part or all of the feed stock for the catalytic cracking units of claim 2.

6. The use of heat from the invention of claim 2 for making sand-lime brick.

7. The use of heat from the invention of claim 3 for making sand-lime brick.

8. The use of heat from the invention of claim 2 to manufacture insulation.

9. The use of heat from claim 3 to manufacture insulation.

10. The use of the invention in claim 3 as part of a cooler, condenser, and/or scrubber.



[0001] Subject matter was disclosed in U.S. provisional Patent application Serial No. 60/220,609 filed Jul. 25, 2000.


[0002] The invention was NOT made by an agency of the United States Government, NOR was it under contract with an agency of the United States Government.


[0003] 1. Field of the Invention

[0004] This invention relates generally to the catalytic processing of hydrocarbons and oxygenated hydrocarbons and to the utilization of heat from this and other sources.

[0005] 2. Description of the Invention

[0006] The use of catalysts for the cracking of hydrocarbons is well known in the art.

[0007] Examples include the Houdry process, an excellent process that produced fine gasoline and fuel oil. Its main drawback was that it suffered carbon build up on the catalyst, resulting in having to operate it on a cycle basis with regular down times to burn the carbon off of the catalyst. This resulted in the development of various fluid catalytic cracking systems, where the catalyst was being constantly removed from one end of the cracking reactor and the carbon burned off of it in a burn-off reactor before returning it to the other end of the cracking reactor. This type system is typically more expensive to construct and operate, wastes catalyst due to abrasion and other losses, and produces a lower quantity product than the older Houdry process. Its main advantage is continuous running in spite of carbon build-up on the catalysts.

[0008] The present invention eliminates the problem of carbon build-up on the cracking catalyst by including air, oxygen, oxygen containing compounds such as stream, carbon dioxide, biomass and/or trash destructive distillants, distillants from low grade coal, distillants from animal products, raw coal producer gas, raw coal gas from coking ovens, vaporized plant and animal oils, etc. either by themselves or mixed with the vaporized hydrocarbon feed stocks, being fed into catalytic cracker.

[0009] The oxygen in the oxygenated compounds reacts at the elevated temperature of the catalytic cracker with the carbon building up on the catalyst, forming carbon monoxide gas, etc. and thus removing the carbon as fast as it forms. The catalytic cracking catalyst (or “C” catalyst) is the first catalyst described in this invention. The second catalyst described in this invention is what I call the acid destroying (or “D”) catalyst. This is composed of an oxide, carbonate or hydroxide, of barium calcium, or thorium, or like, which either continuously at an elevated temperature, or batch-wise with a cyclic fluctuating temperature, decomposes organic acids into aldehydes and ketones plus carbon dioxide and water vapors. They also react with and remove nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, halogens, hydrogen sulphide, etc.

[0010] By generating non-acid oxygenates such as ketones and aldehydes, they improve the fuel value of the mix by increasing the octane rating, reducing pollution by including oxygenates in the fuel, plus prevent corrosion by eliminating acidic components from the mix. Obviously the two different catalytic systems (“C” and “D”) can each be used by it self, or else together in various sequences.

[0011] The “D” catalyst and its chamber can also be used as a cooler-scrubber to condense and remove certain fractions of the vaporized compounds in the gas stream and of course cool the gas stream as needed. This can be accomplished by spraying a cooling fluid into the top of the “D” catalyst chamber and drawing it off of the bottom with the condensed fraction from where it goes to separator(s), heat exchangers (to cool it and generate steam, hot water, hot air, etc.) and then around to the top of the “D” catalyst chambers again. The steam, Hot water, Hot air, etc. from the heat exchangers can be used to make sand-lime brick, building insulation by drying paper mill sludge, etc.


[0012] Briefly, the invention comprises improvements in the catalytic processing of organic compounds for fuel and/or other uses and improvements in the utilization of heat from the just mentioned catalytic processes and from other sources.


[0013] The drawing shows a “C” catalyst reactor in series with a “D” catalyst chamber which is also operating as a cooler scrubber.


[0014] Referring to the drawing, reference nuneral 10 generally identifies a catalytic processing facility in which gaseous/vaporized feed stock containing organic compounds and oxygen containing compounds are fed via pipe 12 into catalytic cracking reactor 11 containing “C” catalyst (catalytic cracking catalyst such as a Houdry-type catalyst) where the organic molecules are cracked into molecules mostly in gasoline and fuel oil boiling fractions. The oxygen contained in the feed stock reacts with any carbon forming on the catalyst via the water gas reation and/or the like, eliminating any carbon build-up. The hot gases and vapors leave reactor 11 via pipe 13 and go into the “D” catalyst chamber 14 which also functions as a cooler-scrubber and which is filled with chunks of lime stone (calcium carbonate) 15 and is kept at around 340 degrees F. by a fluid such as brine, oil, and/or water, etc. spraying down on the limestone bed 15 from the pipe 16 on the top of chamber 14. The limestone bed 15 is the “D” (acid decomposing) catalyst. The Hot gases and vapors from pipe 13 pass through the limestone bed 15 which converts any organic acids into aldehydes and ketones, and absorbs by reacting with any nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, halogens, halogen acids, etc. forming salts which are washed out by the cooling fluid together with the fuel oil fraction of organic compounds, condensed out of the gas-vapor stream, down pipe 18 into separator 17 where they are separated into fuel oil which goes out pipe 19 into storage tanks, the halogen salts, etc. which go out pipe 20, and the cooling fluid which goes out through pipe 21 into heat exchanger/waste heat boiler 22 which cools the cooling fluid back down to its normal working temperature, and generates steam in the process which goes to sand-lime brick and building insulation manufacturing facilities via pipe 23 and returns via pipe 24. The cooled cooling fluid from boiler 22 goes out through pipe 25 and on through pipe 16 back into the top of chamber 14 where it performs its duty again.

[0015] Meanwhile, the then cooled gas and gasoline (and lighter) vapors keep on rising up through limestone bed is where the last drops of fuel oil are condensed out and washed downward by the cooling fluid. The then cooled gas and gasoline vapors exit chamber 14 via pipe 26 and go to a lower temperature condenser to condense out the gasoline fraction. Limestone is added to chamber 14 periodically through port 27.