Title:
Assembly of construction blocks and method of manufacture therof
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
An assembly consisting of a first building construction block with a substantially parallelepipedal shape and a second building construction block with a substantially parallelepipedal shape, said first and second blocks being able to fit together by mortice and tenon, each block comprising a first opening in the form of a splayed U on each of the transverse sides of the parallelepiped and a second opening extending over at least part of the surface of the longitudinal side, the first and second openings being joined together in the top part of the splayed U, at least one edge forming the junction between the longitudinal side and the top part of the legs of the splayed U of the first block forming a recess intended to receive a predetermined quantity of mortar binder and the second block comprising at least one protuberance situated at the base of the splayed U enabling the construction block to nest and slide, the protuberance on the second block coming into contact with the mortar binder and participating in the fitting of the second construction block in the opening in the longitudinal side of the first construction block.



Inventors:
Huberty J. D. (Bruxelles, BE)
Application Number:
09/909127
Publication Date:
04/04/2002
Filing Date:
07/20/2001
Assignee:
ROOSENS SERVICE (Bois d'Haine, BE)
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
52/604
International Classes:
B28B7/24; E04B2/18; E04B2/02; (IPC1-7): E04C2/04
View Patent Images:
Related US Applications:



Primary Examiner:
AMIRI, NAHID
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Browdy and Neimark, PLLC (Washington, DC, US)
Claims:

What is claimed is:



1. An assembly consisting of a first building construction block with a substantially parallelepipedal shape and a second building construction block with a substantially parallelepipedal shape, said first and second blocks being able to fit together by mortice and tenon, each block comprising a first opening in the form of a splayed U on each of the transverse sides of the parallelepiped and a second opening extending over at least part of the surface of the longitudinal side, the first and second openings being joined together in the top part of the splayed U, at least one edge forming the junction between the longitudinal side and the top part of the legs of the splayed U of the first block forming a recess intended to receive a predetermined quantity of mortar binder and the second block comprising at least one protuberance situated at the base of the splayed U enabling the construction block to nest and slide, the protuberance on the second block coming into contact with the mortar binder and participating in the fitting of the second construction block in the opening in the longitudinal side of the first construction block.

2. An assembly as claimed in claim 1, said assembly comprising a third block, wherein said third block comprises an opening in the form of a splayed U on the transverse sides of the parallelepiped and an open longitudinal side whose opening at least partially forms the top part of the splayed U, and wherein it comprises a substantially flat surface at the base of the splayed U.

3. An assembly as claimed in claim 1, said assembly comprising a fourth block, wherein the protuberance comprises a tongue extending under the entire external face of the protuberance, this tongue having a stepped profile with a width less than the width of said protuberance so as to be able to be inserted in the opening in another block in the assembly.

4. An assembly as claimed in claim 1, said assembly comprising a fifth block, wherein the tongue extends over half the length of the protuberance at the base of the block.

5. An assembly as claimed in claim 1, said assembly comprising a sixth block, wherein said sixth block is solid and comprises a tongue which extends over substantially half the length of the external face of the protuberance.

6. An assembly as claimed in claim 1, said assembly comprising a seventh block, wherein said seventh block is solid and comprises a tongue which extends over the entire length of the external face of the protuberance.

7. An assembly as claimed in claim 1, said assembly comprising an eighth block, wherein the tongue on the protuberance comprises two lateral parts on each side of a central part, the lateral parts having substantially identical thicknesses and the central part having a thickness substantially equal to that of the protuberance itself and said lateral parts and the central part of the tongue extending longitudinally as far as approximately half the external face of the protuberance.

8. An assembly as claimed in claim 7, said assembly comprising a ninth block, wherein the lateral parts and the central part of the tongue extend over the entire length of the external face of the protuberance.

9. A building construction block as a component of the assembly as claimed in one of claims 1 to 8, wherein the protuberance situated at the base of the splayed U has a thickness (hp) substantially equal to at least one fifth of the height (hT) of the longitudinal wall of said construction block.

10. A construction block as a component of the assembly as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 8, wherein the protuberance has a width equal to at least two thirds of the width of the transverse side of the construction block.

11. A construction block as a component of the assembly as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 8, wherein the opening in the form of a splayed U extends over at least 50% of the height of said construction block.

12. A construction block as a component of the assembly as claimed in any one of claims I to 8, comprising a drainage hole disposed at the bottom of the block at one end of said block, the hole passing right through the base of the block from the top internal face of the base to the external face of the base and the internal face of the block having a slope whose bottom part is situated level with the drainage hole.

13. A construction block as a component of the assembly as claimed in claim 12, wherein the drainage hole is disposed at the centre of the base of the block, the bottom part of the slope of the internal face of the base of the block being situated level with said drainage hole.

14. A construction block as a component of the assembly as claimed in any one of the preceding claims, wherein the length of the block is substantially equal to twice its width and said length is also substantially equal to twice the height of the block.

15. A construction block as a component of the assembly as claimed in any one of the preceding claims, wherein the length of the block is substantially equal to its width and to its height.

16. A construction block as a component of the assembly as claimed in any one of the preceding claims, characterised in that it consists of a material chosen from amongst concrete and terracotta.

17. A construction block as claimed in claim 16, preferentially composed of concrete for instantaneous mould stripping.

18. A joint for a construction block as a component of the assembly as claimed in claim 1, arranged to be disposed between two blocks of the assembly as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 16, the profile of the joint being traced on the lateral profile of the blocks between which it is disposed, the width of the said joint being less than that of the lateral profile of the blocks between which it is disposed, said joint being thus arranged to be inserted in the opening in another block disposed staggered under the two blocks.

19. A joint as claimed in claim 18, made from a resilient material chosen from amongst polystyrene and Neoprene®.

20. A mould for forming at least two building construction blocks, the mould comprising at least a first sequence of cells and at least a second sequence of cells substantially in the form of a U disposed so that the first sequence of cells and the second sequence of cells are disposed straddling one another.

21. Use of the mould as claimed in claim 20, for forming building construction blocks as a component of the assembly as claimed in one of claims 1 to 8.

Description:
[0001] The present invention relates to an assembly consisting of a first building construction block with a substantially parallelepipedal shape and a second building construction block with a substantially parallelepipedal shape, the said first and second blocks being able to be fitted together by mortice and tenon.

[0002] In the field of construction there are so-called “traditional” blocks which are connected together by a layer of mortar and blocks which are connected together dry by mortice and tenon and are then filled with a mortar grout. Construction blocks generally have an internal cavity for receiving the mortar which connects the blocks together in order to form a wall, for example.

[0003] It is important, on a construction site, to obtain strong buildings, meeting strict safety standards whilst having an acceptable cost, both for the manufacture of the construction blocks and their installation. To do this, the design of the building construction blocks is a major element. However, it is difficult to obtain blocks which are easy to fit together, using only a little mortar and with a moderate manufacturing cost, and having a good-quality finish.

[0004] The standards which are in particular taken into consideration are, for masonry, the Belgian standard NBN B24-001 and, for construction blocks, the Belgian standard NBN B21-001.

[0005] The British patent application GB 2 091 775 A describes a construction block whose shape allows fitting together provided that the blocks are sealed together with a normal quantity of mortar. The constructions produced will therefore have a cost equivalent to those produced with so-called “traditional” blocks.

[0006] The purpose of the present invention is to obtain building construction blocks whose design allows construction by nesting, which is easier to produce and requires only very little mortar, in particular mortar binder, without for all that impairing the strength of the construction produced. The blocks described in the present invention are assimilated to so-called “hollow” blocks since the hollowed-out part of the blocks according to the present invention represents more than 10% of the volume of these blocks.

[0007] The constructions produced with the block according to the invention also have a lesser cost compared with traditional constructions whilst having better quality, both with regard to the strength of the buildings and with regard to the finish.

[0008] In addition, impermeability to water and air is a particularly important feature when the construction block is designed to be used in visible masonry.

[0009] To this end, the invention provides for an assembly consisting of a first building construction block with a substantially parallelepipedal shape and a second building construction block with a substantially parallelepipedal shape, the said first and second blocks being able to be fitted together by mortice and tenon, each block comprising a first U-shaped opening splayed on each of the transverse sides of the parallelepiped and a second opening extending over at least part of the surface of the longitudinal side, the first and second opening joining in the upper part of the splayed U, at least one edge forming the junction between the longitudinal side and the upper part of the legs of the splayed U of the first block forms a recess intended to receive a predetermined quantity of mortar binder and the second block comprises at least one protuberance situated at the base of the splayed U allowing the nesting and sliding of the construction block, the protuberance on the second block coming into contact with the mortar binder and participating in the fitting of the second construction block in the opening in the longitudinal side of the first construction block.

[0010] This assembly according to the present invention makes it possible to produce precise and stable connections of at least two blocks. The protuberance at the base of the splayed U on a first block fitting with precision in the cavity formed by the upper part of the splayed U of a second block. The assembly of the blocks can also be disposed head down without posing problems of stability.

[0011] In addition impermeability to air and water is improved compared with the assemblies of conventional blocks by virtue of the small quantity of mortar binder disposed at the junction between the top block and the bottom block. This is because the fact that the mortar binder is disposed at this precise point, which forms a recess, enables the mortar binder to spread over the entire surface of the interstice which is at the junction between the longitudinal side of the first block and the upper part of the splayed U on the second block. Thus not only is the impermeability excellent but in addition, since the mortar binder is deposited in a very small quantity, determined according to the volume of the recess to be filled, it does not overflow and the assembly thus produced has a good finish without having to remove excess mortar binder. The assembly of blocks according to the invention can be used for producing an edifice by superimposing horizontal rows of blocks disposed, in particular, so that the vertical joints of the construction blocks are staggered.

[0012] This type of construction in which the blocks are disposed so as to have the vertical joints of the blocks staggered is referred to as the “broken joints” type.

[0013] The present invention also makes provision for an assembly comprising a third block which comprises an opening in the form of a splayed U on the transverse sides of the parallelepiped and an open longitudinal side, the opening of which forms at least partially the upper part of the splayed U, and in that it comprises a substantially flat surface at the base of the splayed U.

[0014] This embodiment makes it possible to use this type of block at the base of constructions, their great stability being provided by the substantially flat surface being in contact with the ground. The stop ends can also be produced with this type of block.

[0015] The present invention also makes provision for a fourth block as a component of the assembly, on which the protuberance comprises a tongue disposed under the external face of the protuberance, this tongue having a stepped profile with a width less than the width of the said protuberance so as to be able to be inserted in the opening of another block in the assembly.

[0016] This fourth type of block is used in so-called visible masonry, that is to say the walls constructed in this way do not need then to be roughcast or covered with rendering. The assembled blocks have an excellent finish.

[0017] A fifth type of block is provided by the invention with a protuberance which comprises a tongue extending over half the length of the protuberance at the base of the block.

[0018] This type of block of the invention can be used in a so-called “broken joint” construction.

[0019] One of the advantages of the present invention is the form of the first embodiment of a construction block according to the invention, where the opening in the form of a splayed U represents at least 50% of the height of the block.

[0020] This form makes it possible in fact to have a hollow block which allows stable and precise fitting together with at least one other block of the same type. It is also possible to place reinforcements inside the blocks in order to form lintels or for returns. It is also possible to place cables or pipes inside these blocks, the internal space formed by the opening in the form of a splayed U being sufficiently large for this.

[0021] Another advantage of the construction block according to the invention is that, when it has a protuberance at the base of the splayed U, this protuberance has a thickness (hp) at least substantially equal to one fifth of the height (hT) of the longitudinal wall of the said construction block.

[0022] An additional advantage of the present invention is providing a construction block, the length of which is substantially equal to twice its width and substantially equal to twice its height. There is also provided, according to the invention, a block whose length is substantially equal to its width and height.

[0023] The present invention also relates to a joint for a construction block as a component of the assembly of the invention, this joint being arranged to be disposed between two blocks of the assembly, the profile of the joint being traced on the lateral profile of the blocks between which it is disposed, the width of the said joint being less than that of the lateral profile of the blocks between which it is disposed, the said joint being thus arranged to be inserted in the opening in another block disposed under the two blocks in a staggered fashion.

[0024] This joint makes it possible to produce assemblies in visible masonry. The joint disposed between the blocks makes it possible to obtain a separation which compensates for the discrepancies which may exist between the blocks. In this way an even wall is obtained with great ease of positioning of the blocks.

[0025] In addition, this joint makes it possible to obtain an excellent vertical impermeability to air and water, which supplements the horizontal impermeability provided by the mortar binder disposed at the junction between blocks in staggered assembly.

[0026] The joint is produced from a resilient material, preferably polystyrene or Neoprene®. This makes it possible to take up any inequalities in length and the resilience of the material is also adapted to variations in temperature.

[0027] Provision is also made by the present invention for disposing a water drainage hole which is disposed at the bottom of the blocks, either in the middle or at one of the ends of the block. The bottom of the block is then sloping so that the lowest part is at the level of the drainage hole so as to allow the natural flow of the water and to prevent it stagnating at the bottom of the blocks.

[0028] This type of assembly also makes it possible to use only a small quantity of mortar binder to fix the blocks vertically whilst obtaining excellent strength of the construction. In addition, the blocks according to the invention, which comprise a substantially flat surface at the base of the splayed U, make it possible to resolve right angles, lintels and stop ends.

[0029] The present invention also concerns a mould for forming at least two building construction blocks comprising at least a first sequence of substantially U-shaped cells, disposed so that the first sequence of cells and the second sequence of cells are disposed with one straddling the other.

[0030] The invention also concerns the use of such a mould for forming substantially parallelepipedal-shaped building construction blocks, able to be fitted together by mortice and tenon, the said block comprising an opening in the form of a splayed U on the transverse side of the parallelepiped and an open longitudinal side whose opening at least partially forms the upper part of the splayed U and comprising a protuberance situated at the base of the splayed U.

[0031] The invention concerns the use of the mould described above for forming substantially parallelepipedal-shaped building construction blocks, able to be fitted together by mortice and tenon, the said blocks comprising an opening in the form of a splayed U on the transverse sides of the parallelepiped and an open longitudinal side whose opening at least partially forms the upper part of the splayed U and comprising a substantially flat surface at the base of the splayed U.

[0032] The use of these types of mould makes it possible to manufacture a large number of blocks using only two types of mould. The first type of mould is used for forming the blocks with or without a protuberance, for which the length L of the block is substantially equal to twice the width w and twice the height h. The second type of mould is used for forming the blocks with or without a protuberance for which the length L of the block is substantially equal to the width w and the height h of the block. Each mould can be used for several blocks at a time. This is because, since the blocks have openings in the form of a splayed U on the transverse sides, it is possible to fit them together vertically. This method of manufacture on edge is fast and of moderate cost, since a large number of blocks can be manufactured at the same time with high efficiency.

[0033] Details concerning the invention are described below, making reference to the drawings, which illustrate one embodiment of the invention.

[0034] FIG. 1 shows a transverse section of a construction block according to the invention.

[0035] FIGS. 2a, b, c show, in transverse section with breaks, the nesting of two construction blocks according to the invention with the placing of a small quantity of mortar binder, which is spread on the contact surface between the blocks without overflowing.

[0036] FIG. 3 shows a perspective view, with breaks, of a method of producing a wall with blocks according to the invention.

[0037] FIG. 4 shows a perspective view, with breaks, of a mould for manufacturing blocks according to the invention.

[0038] FIG. 5 shows a perspective view, with breaks, of an example of a construction produced with blocks according to the invention.

[0039] FIG. 6a shows a perspective view of one of the blocks of the invention comprising a protuberance with a tongue extending over half of the protuberance, the said tongue being divided into two parts and the block also comprising a drainage hole.

[0040] FIG. 6b shows a perspective view of one of the blocks of the invention in which the tongue extends over the entire length of the protuberance, the said tongue being divided into two parts.

[0041] FIG. 7 is a longitudinal section of the block depicted in FIG. 6a.

[0042] FIG. 8 depicts a joint as described in the present invention.

[0043] FIG. 9 is a perspective view of an example of a construction produced with blocks of the invention between which the joints are disposed.

[0044] The present invention therefore provides for at least nine types of block:

[0045] a first and a second type of block having a protuberance at the base of the splayed U, the first block having a length L or L/2 and the second block having a length L or L/2,

[0046] a third type of block without a protuberance at the base of the splayed U, having either a length L or a length L/2,

[0047] a fourth type of block with a protuberance with a tongue at the base of the splayed U,

[0048] a fifth type of block with a protuberance with a tongue at the base of the splayed U, the tongue extending over substantially half of the length of the protuberance,

[0049] a sixth type of solid block with a protuberance with a tongue, the tongue extending over substantially half of the protuberance,

[0050] a seventh type of solid block with a protuberance with a tongue, the tongue extending over the entire length of the protuberance,

[0051] an eighth type of solid block with a protuberance with a tongue, the tongue being divided into two parts substantially parallel with respect to each other, extending over substantially half of the length of the protuberance, and

[0052] a ninth identical solid block with a protuberance with a tongue, this tongue being divided into two parts substantially parallel with respect to each other, extending over the entire length of the protuberance.

[0053] According to FIG. 1, an example of a construction block according to the invention is shown in transverse section. The construction block depicted comprises an opening in the form of a splayed U on the transverse sides of the block and this opening extends, in a preferred embodiment, over approximately 70% of the depth of the block, which makes it possible to fill the cavity thus formed with mortar.

[0054] The preferential proportions of a construction block according to the present invention are as follows: the length of the block is substantially equal to twice its width. Likewise, the length of the block is substantially equal to twice its height. An example of dimensions is a length L=30 cm, a width

w=15 cm and a height h=15 cm.

[0055] Preferentially, the protuberance provided at the base of the splayed U has sufficient thickness to allow stable fitting together with another construction block of the invention, and for example this protuberance has a thickness representing approximately two thirds of the thickness of a wall of the construction block.

[0056] FIG. 2 shows, in transverse section, how two blocks 1, 2 according to the invention can be fitted together. The first step (FIG. 2a) consists of adding, at the top corner of the legs of the splayed U of a block, a small quantity of mortar binder 3. FIG. 2b shows that a second block 1 is then fitted on the first 2. This has the effect, because of the pressure exerted by the second block on the first, of enabling the mortar binder 3 to extend over the entire contact surface between the blocks at the time of nesting, as shown in FIG. 2c. In addition, a rim is provided on the external top corner of the legs of the splayed U. This rim constitutes an edge which contains the mortar binder in a cavity created by this rim, between the two blocks to be connected. This therefore prevents the mortar binder from overflowing beyond the two blocks after they are assembled. FIG. 2c also shows the fitting together and anchoring of the blocks completely effected in an optimum fashion with a minimum quantity of mortar binder. This method affords a saving of material whilst ensuring a firm and precise fitting together of the construction blocks with each other, and in addition there is no overflow of mortar binder to the outside, which provides a very neat finish.

[0057] Examples of constructions effected with construction blocks according to the invention are shown in FIGS. 3 and 5. The wall, seen in perspective in FIG. 3, shows an example of use of at least four types of block provided by the invention. This wall is produced by fitting together blocks with “broken joints”. The assembly of the blocks is in fact effected so as to superimpose horizontal rows of blocks disposed one on the other so that the vertical joints of the construction blocks are staggered and do not form a straight vertical line.

[0058] The construction block with protuberance 4 is therefore fitted in the so-called “broken joint” manner in a construction block and in a construction block 6. It can be seen that the construction block 4 has a length substantially equal to twice that of the blocks 5.

[0059] The row of construction blocks constituting the base of the wall is produced with construction blocks of the invention which do not have a protuberance at the base of the splayed U 7, this profile affording great stability of the construction thus produced. This type of construction block where the surface at the base of the splayed U is substantially flat makes it possible to resolve other particular construction points, as shown in FIG. 5. This is because the wall shown in perspective in this figure describes the different possibilities offered by the construction blocks according to the invention for resolving different points in the construction of a building, some of which are set out below.

[0060] For the stop ends, the construction blocks having a substantially flat surface at the base of the splayed U 8 are disposed perpendicularly with respect to the adjacent blocks, which closes the end of the walls. The blocks adjacent to these blocks of the stop ends 8 are composed of blocks with a protuberance at the base of the splayed U, these blocks have a length L 4 or L/2 5 and are superimposed in alternation.

[0061] The door and window lintels are resolved by the placement in the cavity of the construction blocks 7 of iron reinforcements 9 embedded in mortar in order to connect adjacent blocks together and thus form solid lintels.

[0062] The corners of walls are produced in the same way as stop ends, putting, on each side of the blocks 8, blocks 4 and 5, which are stacked in alternation, as is shown in FIG. 5.

[0063] This construction method entails dimensional regularity of the profile of the construction blocks. This is obtained during manufacture of the construction blocks according to the invention by complete shuttering of the block.

[0064] The casting of these blocks is therefore carried out on edge with extrusion of the cast block, as is shown in FIG. 4.

[0065] In the same mould, several sequences of cells substantially in the form of a splayed U are provided in order to be able to manufacture several blocks at a time, which represents a saving in time and energy, and consequently substantially reduces the production costs of the blocks according to the invention. The different sequences of cells are disposed straddling each other, which makes it possible to obtain more blocks in the same time.

[0066] Preferably, the material used for manufacturing the construction blocks according to the invention is concrete for instantaneous mould stripping (approximately 20 seconds); this is a concrete which is very dry. The blocks thus removed from the mould are next placed in an oven for 24 hours. Other materials, such as terracotta for example, can be used. The moulds used for forming the blocks of the invention make it possible to obtain a large number of construction blocks at the same time by virtue of the arrangement of the sequences of cells, which are disposed straddling each other and are therefore highly interlocked with each other. In fact, in this way rows of blocks are obtained which are placed on the transverse side alternating with rows of blocks disposed in the other direction so as to interlock two longitudinal walls of two adjacent blocks 10, 11 in the internal cavity of a third block 12, as is shown in FIG. 4.

[0067] Two types of mould are used in order to obtain construction blocks with or without a protuberance on the surface of the splayed U, which substantially reduces the production costs whilst obtaining an excellent finish of the construction blocks thus obtained.

[0068] FIGS. 6a and 6b show two embodiments of a block according to the invention which have, at the base of the splayed U, a protuberance comprising a tongue 13 divided into two parts substantially parallel to each other and which extend either over substantially half the length of the external face or over the entire length of the external face of the protuberance. In this figure, a drainage hole 14 is provided, disposed in the bottom of the block and one of the ends.

[0069] When the tongue 13 on the protuberance extends over substantially half the length of the protuberance, this block can in particular be connected with a solid block also having a tongue 13 over half the length of the protuberance. The solid block forms a wall stop end and is inserted staggered in a hollow block.

[0070] The blocks in FIGS. 6a, 6b and 7 are used in particular for constructions with visible masonry.

[0071] FIG. 7 shows a profile block which comprises a protuberance provided with a tongue 13 over half its length. The substantially horizontal line depicted in dotted lines represents the bottom of the block, which is sloping, the lower part of the slope being situated at one end of the block where a drainage hole 14 is disposed. The drainage hole 14 can be situated at another point on the block according to the use which it is wished to make of the block. If the drainage hole 14 is in the central part of the bottom of the block, the bottom of the block will have a slope descending towards the central part of the block so as to allow a natural flow of water. This avoids stagnation and any increase in moisture inside the walls constructed with these blocks.

[0072] FIG. 8 shows an example of a joint 15 used in combination with the blocks of the invention. Its profile corresponds to the lateral profile of a block with a protuberance but the width of the joint 5 is less than the width of the block so as to obtain a construction having a satisfactory aesthetic appearance. This is because these joints 5 are used for producing walls with visible masonry; they are inserted in a staggered fashion in the hollow blocks of the invention and make it possible to compensate for any discrepancies between the blocks in order to obtain a construction of even appearance with excellent properties of impermeability to water and air by virtue of the presence of the joints and the connection of the blocks by means of mortar binder disposed in particular on the edges of the splayed U of the blocks. This allows a joining of the blocks which is completely impervious and without causing any overflow of mortar binder. Installation is therefore rapid, without any additional step of wiping away a surplus of mortar binder and the finish and aesthetic qualities of the construction are excellent.

[0073] An example of a construction in visible masonry produced with blocks of the invention is shown in FIG. 9.

[0074] The physical characteristics of the block according to the invention are as follows:

[0075] mechanical strength: 2 mPa-4 mPa

[0076] fire resistance: FR 1 hour

[0077] thermal insulation: R=0.1 to 0.3 m20K/W

[0078] acoustic insulation: class IIIa-IIb (Belgian standards)

[0079] weight of blocks: 4 and 8.5 kg