Title:
Carbon/carbon heat collection storage and dissipation system
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
A carbon/carbon system is provided for collecting, storing and/or dissipating heat in a building structure. Carbon/carbon panels are used to collect heat generated by solar energy and other heating sources. The panels are interconnected either directly to each other or using heat transfer conduits. The heat collected by the carbon/carbon panels is transferred to heat storage areas or to areas for immediate use using heat transfer conduits.



Inventors:
Gottlieb, Martha M. (Harbor Springs, MI, US)
Application Number:
09/948497
Publication Date:
03/07/2002
Filing Date:
09/06/2001
Assignee:
GOTTLIEB MARTHA M.
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
126/623, 126/640, 126/621
International Classes:
C04B35/83; F24J2/00; F24J2/04; F24J2/34; F24J2/48; F24S90/00; (IPC1-7): F24J2/04; F24J2/46
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Primary Examiner:
PRICE, CARL D
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Felix L. Fischer (Torrance, CA, US)
Claims:
1. A building heat collection system comprising: a carbon/carbon panel on a building surface for absorbing heat; and an energy storage medium located in the building coupled to the panel for storing the heat energy collected by the panel.

2. A building heat collection system as defined in claim 1 wherein a conduit is used for coupling the panel to the storage medium.

3. A building heat collection system as defined in claim 2 wherein the conduit comprises a plurality of carbonized carbon fibers.

4. A building heat collection system as defined in claim 2 wherein the conduit is a carbon/carbon strip.

5. A building heat collection system as defined in claim 1 wherein the panel comprises a plurality of carbon fibers attached to a panel edge.

6. A building heat collection system as defined in claim 1 wherein the energy storage medium is a concrete slab.

7. A building heat collection system as defined in claim 1 wherein the energy storage medium is water stored in a water deposit.

8. A building heat collection system as defined in claim 1 wherein the energy storage medium comprises ceramic tiles.

9. A building heat collection system as defined in claim 1 wherein the energy storage medium is a metallic sheet.

10. A building heat collection system as defined in claim 1 wherein a plurality of carbon/carbon panels is used for absorbing heat.

11. A building heat collection system as defined in claim 10 wherein at least two of said plurality of panels are interconnected.

12. A building heat collection system as defined in claim 10 wherein at least one of the carbon/carbon panel is located on a roof of the building.

13. A building heat collection system as defined in claim 10 wherein at least one of the carbon/carbon panel is located on a wall of the building.

14. A building heat collection system as defined in claim 10 wherein at least one of the carbon/carbon panel is embedded in a wall of the building.

15. A building heat collection system as defined in claim 1 wherein a heat spreader panel is coupled to the energy storage medium for dissipating energy stored at the heat storage medium.

16. A building heat collection system as defined in claim 10 wherein a heat spreader panel is coupled to the carbon/carbon panel for dissipating energy collected by the panel.

17. A building heat collection system as defined in claim 10 wherein the heat spreader panel is a carbon/carbon panel.

18. A building heat collection system as defined in claim 10 wherein the carbon/carbon panel is coupled to surfaces of the building for heating such surfaces.

19. A building heat collection system as defined in claim 1 wherein the energy storage medium is coupled to surfaces of the building for heating such surfaces.

20. A building heat collection system comprising: a plurality of carbon/carbon panels positioned on the roof and walls of the building for absorbing heat; and an energy storage medium located in the building coupled to the panels for storing the heat energy collected by the panels.

21. A building heat collection system as defined in claim 20 wherein at least one the panels absorbs heat generated outside of the building.

22. A building heat collection system as defined in claim 20 wherein at least one of the panels has a plurality of carbon fibers attached to at least one of its edges.

23. A building heat collection system as defined in claim 20 wherein at least one of the panels absorbs heat generated inside the building.

24. A building heat collection system as defined in claim 20 wherein at least two of the panels are coupled to each other using heat transfer conduits.

25. A building heat collection system as defined in claim 20 wherein at least two of the panels are coupled to the heat storage medium.

26. A building heat collection system as defined in claim 20 wherein a heat spreader is coupled to a carbon/carbon panel.

27. A building heat collection system as defined in claim 20 wherein a heat spreader is coupled to the storage medium.

28. A building heat collection system as defined in claim 27 wherein the heat spreader is a carbon/carbon panel.

29. A building heat collection system as defined in claim 20 wherein the plurality of carbon/carbon panels is coupled to means internal or external of the building for dissipating the collected heat.

30. A building heat collection system as defined in claim 20 wherein the energy storage medium is coupled to means internal or external to the building for dissipating the stored heat.

31. A building heat collection system comprising: a carbon/carbon panel on a building surface for absorbing heat, and a heat spreader coupled to the panel for dissipating the heat collected by the panel.

32. A building heat collection system as defined in claim 31 wherein the heat spreader is a carbon/carbon panel.

33. A building heat collection system as defined in claim 31 wherein an energy storage medium is coupled to the carbon/carbon panel used for absorbing heat.

34. A building heat collection system as defined in claim 31 wherein an energy storage medium is coupled to the heat spreader.

35. A building heat collection system comprising: a carbon/carbon panel on a building surface for absorbing heat, and receiving means associated with the building for receiving and dissipating the collected heat.

36. A building heat collection system as defined in claim 35 wherein the receiving means is a heat spreader panel.

37. A building heat collection system as defined in claim 35 wherein the receiving means is a concrete slab.

38. A building heat collection system as defined in claim 35 wherein the receiving means is water located in a water deposit.

39. A building heat collection system as defined in claim 35 wherein the receiving means is a metallic panel.

40. A building heat collection system as defined in claim 35 wherein the receiving means is a driveway of the building.

41. A building heat collection system as defined in claim 35 wherein the receiving means is a carbon/carbon panel.

42. A building heat collection system as defined in claim 35 wherein an energy storage means is coupled to the carbon/carbon panel for receiving at least some of the collected heat.

43. A building heat collection system as defined in claim 35 wherein an energy storage means is coupled to the heat receiving means.

Description:

CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application claims the priority of copending application Ser. No. 60/230,636 filed on Sep. 7, 2000 having the same title as the present application.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0002] The present invention is directed to a carbon/carbon heat collection, storage and dissipation system for commercial, residential and industrial applications. Specifically, this invention is directed to an invention which uses carbon/carbon panels to collect solar or heat energy and deliver it to storage areas or other areas for immediate use.

[0003] Current systems using solar energy for heating commercial, residential and industrial buildings utilize complex designs, and complex means for transferring the energy from the collection source to a storage area. Moreover, these systems require that solar panels be always directly exposed to the sun. A system is thereby needed that will be able to collect solar energy or heat energy generated by the sun even if not directly exposed to the sun and direct such energy to storage areas or to areas for immediate use.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0004] A carbon/carbon system is provided for collecting, storing, and/or dissipating heat in a building structure. Carbon/carbon panels are stored in areas in the building for collecting heat energy. These panels are directly exposed to the sun or embedded into the walls or other structural members of the building such as the roof. The panels collect the heat energy generated by the sun and transmit it to storage areas such as concrete slabs or water stored in deposits or other panels such as metallic or carbon/carbon panels. These storage areas will be insulated for storing the collected heat energy. The collected heat is also directed to areas for immediate use such as to spreader plates located throughout the building for heating the building.

[0005] The carbon/carbon panels are connected directly to each other or interconnected using heat transfer conduits which are bundles of carbonized carbon fibers. Other types of heat transfer conduits, for example metal cables, are used to interconnect the panels. The conduits are used to transfer the heat from the panels to the heat storage areas or to areas for immediate use.

[0006] The panels are also used in place of insulation in the walls of the building. During the summer, such panels will absorb the heat energy external to the building and transfer it to a storage source or to areas for immediate use. Similarly, during winter when the building is heated, the heat generated inside the building is absorbed by the carbon/carbon panels as it tries to escape to the outside through the walls. Again the collected heat is transferred either to energy storage areas or to areas for immediate use.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0007] FIG. 1 is a top view of a unidirectional carbon/carbon panel having an interface conduit extending from opposite edges of the panel.

[0008] FIG. 2 is a top view of a carbon/carbon panel formed from woven tape layers and having an interface conduit extending from its warp and welt directions.

[0009] FIG. 3 is a top view of a heat transfer conduit connected to an edge of a carbon/carbon panel.

[0010] FIG. 4 is a top view of two carbon/carbon panels connected to each other along their edges.

[0011] FIG. 5 is a schematic view of a carbon/carbon heat collection, storage and dissipation system of the present invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0012] A carbon/carbon system is provided for collecting, storing and/or dissipating heat in a building structure. The system uses carbon/carbon panels to collect, store and/or dissipate the heat. The panels are connected to each other or are interconnected with heat transfer conduits or pipes to form the system.

[0013] Carbon/carbon panels are produced by numerous methods. In one method, panels are formed by laying up layers of carbon/phenolic prepregs. These prepreg layers are in tape or sheet form. The prepregs consist of carbon fibers impregnated with a phenolic resin. The prepregs are unidirectional or in a woven form. Unidirectional prepregs are formed by impregnating fibers aligned in a single direction with a resin to form a tape or sheet. Woven prepregs consist of fibers woven to form a fabric that is then impregnated with a resin. The woven fabrics consist of a first set of fibers woven perpendicularly with a second set of fibers forming a fabric consisting of fibers running in the warp and in the welt directions.

[0014] To form a carbon/carbon panel, the prepreg layers are laid one on top of the other. If unidirectional prepreg tape is used, the prepregs are laid such that the fibers from all the laid layers are aligned in a single direction. Alternatively, the layers are aligned in various directions. It is not uncommon for prepreg tape layers to be laid at 90° or 45° to each other. The same occurs with the woven tape. Of course, the woven tape already consists of fibers that are 90° to each other.

[0015] Once the prepreg layers are laid up to form a panel, the panel is autoclave cured, carbonized and then repeatedly re-impregnated with pitch or phenolic resin. Carbonization occurs up to five times before a desired high carbon/carbon density is achieved.

[0016] Alternatively, carbon/carbon panels are formed by producing preforms of carbon fiber pultrusions that are then densified with carbon by either chemical vapor deposition or chemical vapor infiltration. This densification process is performed until the matrix is so dense that no more carbon is deposited on the fibers. The pultrusions for example, are carbon fiber cloth or carbon fiber mat pultrusions.

[0017] The heat transfer conduits or pipes used to transfer heat from the panels are formed by bundling carbon fibers and carbonizing the bundle using chemical vapor deposition or chemical vapor infiltration. A heat transfer conduit is a unidirectional strip, of a carbon/carbon panel. The heat transfer conduits are made of metal or may be made from any suitable material capable of transferring heat. For example, a heat transfer conduit can be a metallic cable.

[0018] To interface with the heat transfer conduits, the panels 10 are formed with conduits 12 extending from the panel edges 14 (FIG. 1). These conduits extending from the panels are referred to herein as the “interface conduits.” An interface conduit is typically formed by bundling together carbon fibers at the end of the panel and carbonizing the bundle.

[0019] Because the heat absorbed by the panels travels along the panel fibers, the interface conduits extend along the direction of the fibers to provide a continuous path 20 along the fibers for the heat to travel as shown in FIGS. 1 and 2.

[0020] If a panel is to receive as well as transfer energy, then an interface conduit 12, 26 is formed on either end 14, 24 of the panel along the fiber direction (FIG. 1). Similarly, if the panel consists of fibers aligned in multiple directions, then interface conduits are formed along each direction.

[0021] When a carbon/carbon panel is formed using unidirectional prepregs laid in a single direction, an interface conduit 12 is formed by bundling the ends of the fibers forming an end of the panel (FIG. 1). Preferably, the interface conduits are formed to have either circular or rectangular cross-sections. However, other cross-sectional shapes will also suffice. If woven prepregs are used to form the panel, then the ends of the fibers running along the warp direction and forming an edge of the panel are bundled to form an interface conduit 16 along the warp direction as shown in FIG. 2. An interface conduit 18 is formed along the welt direction. The laid prepregs and bundles are then autoclave cured, carbonized and repeatedly re-impregnated with pitch or phenolic resin to form the carbon/carbon panel with interfacing conduits.

[0022] An alternate way of forming a panel with interfacing conduits is to form the panel with prepreg layers (tape or woven) that do not have resin extending all the way to the ends of the fibers. In other words, an end section of each prepreg layer is not impregnated with resin, thereby consisting of a section of non-impregnated fibers. The length of the non-impregnated fibers should be slightly longer than the length of the desired interface conduit. The layers with the non-impregnated fiber-ends are laid to form the panel. The panel is then autoclave cured and carbonized as described above. The non-impregnated fibers are then bundled and carbonized by either chemical vapor deposition or chemical infiltrations to form the interface conduit.

[0023] In another embodiment, a preform of the panel with a single or multiple interfacing conduits is made from a carbon fiber pultrusion. The entire structure is then densified with carbon by chemical vapor deposition or chemical vapor infiltration. Alternatively, a panel with interfacing conduits is cut out from a larger carbon/carbon panel.

[0024] If the panels are formed without interface conduits, the heat transfer conduits 28 are connected directly to the panel edges 30 along the fiber direction (FIG. 3). Such conduits are as wide as possible to provide a continuous path to as many carbon fibers in the panel as possible. In this regard, the energy that is collected by the panel is directed along its fibers to the connected conduits. Moreover, multiple conduits are connected to a single edge of a panel for distributing the heat collected by the panel to multiple locations. The conduits are connected to the panel using a thermally conductive adhesive or a mechanical arrangement.

[0025] Instead of using conduits to interconnect the panels, the panels are connected directly to each other. For example, two panels 32, 34 are connected to each other along their edges 36, 38 (FIG. 4). The panels are connected to each other using a thermally conductive adhesive or a mechanical arrangement. To allow for the transfer of energy from one panel to the other, the panels are connected such the fiber ends 40 of one panel, interface with the fiber ends 42 of the other panel. In this regard, heat traveling along the fibers of the first panel can continue traveling along the fibers in the second panel.

[0026] To further enhance a carbon/carbon panel's absorption of heat generated by the sun, carbon fibers 17 are attached to at least an edge of the carbon-carbon panel (FIG. 5). These fibers are attached with a thermally conductive adhesive. The fibers act as flexible conduits for absorbing the heat generated by the sun.

[0027] Once formed, the carbon/carbon panels are positioned in areas of a building structure where they are able to collect heat energy. For example, they may be placed on the roof of the building for exposure to direct sunlight. Alternatively, they may be placed on the structure in areas of heat accumulation. For example, carbon/carbon panels 44 may be placed on the roof 46 of building 48, underneath the roof tiles 45.

[0028] Once in position, if more than one panel is used, the panels are interconnected using heat transfer conduits. Alternatively, the panels are connected directly to each other. Heat transfer conduits 50 are also used to couple the panels to energy storage areas 52. Heat transfer conduits are connected to the interface conduits extending from the panels or directly to the panel edges using a thermally conductive adhesive or a mechanical arrangement.

[0029] The energy storage areas 52 for example, are insulated concrete, water stored in an insulated deposit or carbon/carbon or metallic plates stored in an insulated area for later use. For example, the heated water is later routed through the building for heating the building. Instead of directing the collected heat energy to storage areas, the energy is directed to the concrete foundation slab of the building or to ceramic tiles within the building to immediately heat the building or to a concrete driveway for melting the snow and ice that accumulated during the winter.

[0030] The energy stored is transferred from the energy storage areas 52 to a single or multiple heat spreader panels 54. This is accomplished using one or multiple heat transfer conduits 56. The energy is also transferred directly from the carbon/carbon panels 44 collecting the energy to a single or multiple heat spreader panels 54. This is accomplished using one or multiple heat transfer conduits 58. The heat spreader panels will dissipate the energy in the areas in which they are located.

[0031] The heat spreader panels are also carbon/carbon panels. Carbon/carbon heat spreader panels consist of fibers having different lengths such that the ends of individual fibers are at different locations along the panel. Heat transferred to such heat spreader panels, travels along the fibers to the fiber ends from where it is “spread” into the surrounding location.

[0032] Carbon/carbon panels 60 are also embedded in the building walls and can be used instead of insulation. When it is hot outside, the panels will absorb the heat energy external to the building. The heat energy will then be transferred using heat transfer conduits or other abutting panels to the energy storage areas for later use or to other areas such as heat spreader panels for immediate use.

[0033] Similarly, the embedded carbon/carbon panels would absorb any heat generated in the building and also transfer it to the energy storage areas or to areas for immediate use. For example, if the building is heated in the winter, the heat generated within the building will be absorbed by the panels as it tries to escape to the outside through the building walls. The heat absorbed will be routed to the energy storage areas or to other areas for immediate heating. Thus, by positioning the panels within or on the building walls, the panels will prevent the heat from entering the building in the summer and the heat from escaping from the building in the winter.

[0034] The present system is also formed in modules. For example, a module of multiple carbon/carbon panels with integral conduits is formed for interfacing with other modules or panels and conduits or for interfacing with the energy storage locations. Moreover, the entire system is formed as a single unit. Modifications to the invention as disclosed in the preferred embodiment disclosed herein may be made without departing from the scope and intent of the present invention as defined in the following claims.