Title:
Lattice girder supporting frame having oblique cut truss braces
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
A lattice girder supporting frame for mine and tunnel lining has a plurality of boom members arranged in parallel relative to each other, forming a triangle. The boom members are spatially connected to each other by straight braces arranged along the edges of a pyramid so as to form a truss brace. The braces are each welded to the boom members at the contact faces between a straight brace part and an upper boom and a straight brace part and a lower boom. The lower booms are connected to each other via cross-ties arranged at right angle relative to such booms and the cross-ties form two sides of the pyramid base surface wherein four comer points of the base are defined by the truss braces at the contact points between the lower booms and braces.



Inventors:
Seiz, Rudolf (Herrsching, DE)
Podjadtke, Rudi (Herne, DE)
Application Number:
09/841246
Publication Date:
01/03/2002
Filing Date:
04/25/2001
Assignee:
SEIZ RUDOLF
PODJADTKE RUDI
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
52/650.3, 52/655.1, 52/667, 52/668, 52/690
International Classes:
E21D11/15; (IPC1-7): E04B1/18; E04B5/10; E04B5/18; E04C2/42; E04C3/02; E04C3/30; E04C5/04; E04F15/06; E04F19/10; E04H12/00
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Primary Examiner:
AMIRI, NAHID
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
SUGHRUE, MION, ZINN, MACPEAK & SEAS, PLLC (WASHINGTON, DC, US)
Claims:

What is claimed is:



1. A lattice girder supporting frame comprising: boom members arranged in parallel to each other, spaced apart in a triangle shape, wherein two of said boom members are lower boom members and one of said boom members is an upper boom member; and four straight truss braces welded to said boom members, wherein a length of said truss braces define outer edges of a pyramid shape, a first end of each of said truss braces defining the four corner points of the base of the pyramid and a second end of each of said truss braces defining a truncated top of the pyramid, wherein a welded connection is provided to connect at least one of said first and second ends of said truss braces to at least one of said upper and lower boom members.

2. A lattice girder supporting frame according to claim 1, wherein at least one of said first and second ends of said truss braces has an oblique surface.

3. A lattice girder supporting frame according to claim 1, wherein at least one of said first and second ends of said truss braces has a chambered surface.

4. A lattice girder supporting frame according to claim 1, wherein the pyramid base is a square or a rectangle shape.

5. A lattice girder supporting frame according to claim 4, further comprising cross ties disposed perpendicular to said lower boom members, wherein two of said cross-ties define two opposed edges of the pyramid base and said lower boom members define the other two opposed edges of the pyramid base.

6. A lattice girder supporting frame according to claim 2, wherein said oblique surface of said truss member is angled so as that an entire surface area of said oblique surface contacts said boom member being welded thereto.

7. A lattice girder supporting frame according to claim 3, wherein said chamfered surface of said truss member is arranged so that a surface area of said chamfered surface is welded to said at least one of said upper and lower boom members.

8. A lattice girder supporting frame according to claim 4, further comprising a third cross-tie welded to said second ends of said truss members at an interior portion of the pyramid.

9. A lattice girder supporting frame comprising: boom members disposed in parallel with respect to each other and forming a triangle; and straight truss braces connected to said boom members, wherein each of said straight truss braces has at least one oblique end connected to said boom members.

10. A lattice girder supporting frame for mine tunnel lining having at least three boom members arranged in parallel relative to each other and forming a triangle, spatially connected to each other by means of bracing elements wherein each of the bracing elements consists of four straight braces arranged along edges of a pyramid, which are welded to each other at contact faces between a straight brace part and an upper boom and a straight brace part and a lower boom, so as to form a truss brace, wherein the plane of symmetry of each truss brace is located in the plane extending from the axes of each of the upper booms and the lower booms, while the lower booms are connected to each other via cross-ties arranged at right angles relative to the lower booms and wherein said cross-ties form two sides of a pyramid base surface, and wherein four comer points of the truss brace define pyramid base comers at the contact points between said lower booms and said straight brace parts.

11. A lattice girder supporting frame as defined in claim 1, wherein the pyramid base surface is a square or rectangle.

12. A lattice girder supporting frame according to claim 10, wherein two opposed lines of the base surface each are formed by the lower boom members or by the cross-ties respectively.

13. A lattice girder supporting frame according to claim 10, wherein the four straight braces are arranged along the edges of the pyramid.

14. A lattice girder supporting frame according to claim 10, wherein ends of the straight braces are cut to have an oblique surface according to the pyramid angle in such a manner that the oblique surfaces are in contact with the boom members over the whole surfaces of the oblique surfaces, and the oblique surfaces are chamfered so as to accommodate a welding seam between the boom member and the straight braces.

15. A lattice girder supporting frame according to claim 10, wherein the pyramid formed by the straight braces is truncated near the upper boom member so that a pyramid trunk is produced at an area where the four straight truss braces meet.

16. Lattice girder supporting frame as defined in claim 15, wherein the four straight braces meeting at the top of the pyramid are fixedly secured in position by a cross tie.

17. Lattice girder supporting frame as defined in claim 16, wherein a surface of the pyramid trunk created in the area of the upper boom has the same side ratio as the pyramid base surface.

18. A bracing element for a lattice girder supporting frame having four straight truss braces arranged along edges of a pyramid, wherein parts of the truss braces in the area of a base surface of the pyramid are connected to each other by cross-ties that have been welded to the brace parts.

19. A bracing element for a lattice girder supporting frame according to claim 18, wherein the four straight braces meet at a top of the pyramid and are fixedly secured in their positions by a cross tie.

20. A bracing element for a lattice girder supporting frame as defined in claim 18, wherein sections of the truss braces in the area of the pyramid base surface and the top of the pyramid are arranged in oblique positions to conform to the pyramid angle so that so that a tapered horizontal surface is created in the two areas at the contact surfaces of the boom members.

Description:

TECHNICAL FIELD

[0001] The present invention relates to lattice girder supporting frames. In particular, the present invention is directed to lattice girder supporting frames for mine and tunnel lining, in which boom members are connected to brace members and cross-ties to provide a high load-bearing capacity.

[0002] This application is based on German Patent Application 100 20 006.0, which is incorporated herein by reference.

BACKGROUND

[0003] Lattice girders are described in DE 19711627 C/2, wherein bracing elements have braces connected to boom members. The braces are bent in the area where the boom members connect to the boom members. This is disadvantageous because the braces have a limited diameter with this arrangement.

[0004] EP 0073 733 A1, FR-PS 1.098003, DE 82 06 277, and DE 40 03 525 A1 also describe similar lattice girders. Each of these girders suffers from the same problem as above.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0005] A lattice girder supporting frame is provided in which three or four boom members are arranged in parallel to each other, so that a side view of the boom members forms the comers of a triangle or square. The boom members are spatially connected to each other by means of bracing elements. Each of the bracing elements includes a plurality of straight truss braces arranged in a pyramid shape. The straight truss braces are arranged along the edge of the pyramid shape, extending between lower and upper boom members.

[0006] The straight truss braces have ends that are bevel cut, or chamfered, so as to conform to the pyramid angle and the bevel cut ends contact with the boom members. Also, the ends of the truss braces are obliquely cut, and these oblique surfaces are welded to the boom members. In the area of the pyramid base, the straight truss braces are fixedly secured by cross-ties connecting the boom members to each other.

[0007] With the present invention, increased bearing loads and rigidity are possible due to the greater cross-sections of the ends of the braces connected to the boom members. Bends are generally avoided altogether, or at least reduced, because the straight truss braces, which are arranged along the edges of a pyramid between the boom members, are in contact with the surfaces of the boom members through an oblique and beveled cut conforming to the pyramid angle and are welded to the boom members in the area of these miter cuts, and the truss braces are fixedly secured in their position by means of cross-ties in the base area and at the top of the truncated pyramid and the cross-ties simultaneously connect the lower boom members in the base area of the pyramid.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0008] The above objects and advantages of the present invention will become more apparent by describing in detail preferred embodiments thereof with reference to the attached drawings in which:

[0009] FIG. 1a shows a detailed cross-sectional view of a four-boom lattice girder frame of the present invention along line 1a-1a of FIG. 1B;

[0010] FIG. 1b shows a lateral view of the four-boom lattice girder frame shown in FIG. 1a;

[0011] FIG. 2a shows a cross-sectional view of a three-boom lattice girder frame along line 2a-2a of FIG. 2b;

[0012] FIG. 2b shows a lateral view of the three-boom lattice girder frame shown in FIG. 2a;

[0013] FIG. 2c shows a cross-sectional view of a four-boom lattice girder frame along line 2c-2c of FIG. 2d;

[0014] FIG. 2d shows a lateral view of the four-boom lattice girder frame shown in FIG. 2c;

[0015] FIG. 3 shows a top view of the three-boom lattice girder frame; and

[0016] FIG. 4 shows a top view of an alternative embodiment of the present invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0017] A lattice girder supporting frame for mine and tunnel lining is provided with boom members 2 arranged in parallel to each other as shown in FIGS. 1a-2d.

[0018] FIGS. 1a and 1b show welds between boom members 2, truss braces 3, and cross-ties 4. Specifically, a welded connection 1 is provided between boom member 2 and truss brace 3, a welded connection 6 is provided between the truss brace 3 and the cross-tie 4, and a welded connection 5 is provided between the boom member 2 and the cross-tie 4.

[0019] As illustrated in FIGS. 2a-2d, three or four boom members 2 may be provided. A bracing element, consisting of four straight truss braces 3 and two or three cross-ties 4 which are arranged between the boom members 2, is discussed below.

[0020] The boom members 2 are arranged in parallel to each other so as to form a triangle (see FIGS. 2a and 2c). The boom members 2 may also be arranged to form a square (not shown). The boom members 2 are spatially connected to each other by means of bracing elements, which include four straight truss braces 3 arranged in such a manner to form a pyramid shape. The truss braces 3 are disposed along the edges of the pyramid, and are each welded, by the welded connection 1, to upper and lower boom members 2 at contact faces of the truss braces 3. A longitudinal axis of each of the truss braces 3 is disposed along a plane P extending from the axes of the upper and lower boom members 2, as shown in FIGS. 1a, 2a and 2c.

[0021] The truss braces 3 are located in the plane P connecting the upper and lower boom axis, so that no additional moments can occur.

[0022] The truss braces 3 at the truncated pyramid top are fixedly secured in a similar manner by cross-ties 4 arranged on an interior side of the pyramid. A plane of symmetry S of the outer pyramid surface, and thus also of each truss brace axis, lies in the plane extending from the axes of the upper boom to a plane on which the lower booms lie.

[0023] Each truss brace 3 has a beveled cut end so as to have chamfered surfaces 3a. Also, the ends of each truss brace 3 are obliquely cut so as to have an oblique surface 3b. The chamfered and oblique surfaces 3a, 3b are welded to the boom members at the weld connections 1.

[0024] This structure provides a substantially increased load-bearing capacity and rigidity due to the selection of greater material cross-sections of the truss braces. The load-bearing capacity in the conventional girder arrangement is limited by the radii at the bends of the truss braces 3 in the area of the boom members 2, which conform to the standards and increasing diameters of required truss braces, as well as by the problems of dimensioning and arranging the welds according to the greater brace cross-sections in such a manner that the load bearing capacity of the welds corresponds to the forces acting out from the diagonals of the structure.

[0025] With the structure of the present invention, the bracing element of the lattice girder is laid out so as to generally avoid bends. The straight truss braces 3 which are arranged along the edges of the pyramid in the area of the boom members 2, are in contact with the surfaces of the boom members 2 through an oblique surface 3b conforming to the pyramid angle and are welded to the surfaces in the area of the mitre cuts, and the truss braces 3 are fixedly secured in their position by means of cross-ties 4 in the base area and the cross-ties 4 simultaneously connect the lower boom members 2 in the base area of the pyramid. In FIGS. 2c and 2d, the cross-tie 4 may also be provided at the top of the truncated pyramid.

[0026] Fabrication of the straight truss braces 3 from tube, round bar or structural steel is most easily achieved by cutting to length with a bevel cut, which is required as a result of the V-shape arrangement conforming to the pyramid edge. The four straight truss braces 3, that are welded together by the three cross-ties 4 to form a bracing element, are identical.

[0027] With the present invention, the pyramid structure of the bracing elements forms a truss. The pyramid angle of the bracing elements in the girder axis may be chosen depending on the stress. The oblique surfaces 3a of the ends of the truss braces 3 are angled in accordance with the pyramid angle. The trusses are positioned between the boom members 2 in series at varying spacings Z, Z′ (for example, as shown in FIGS. 2b and 2d) depending on project-specific requirements, and welded to the boom members 2 accordingly. The lattice arches that are used in mine and tunnel lining are fabricated in segments which are then fitted together to form an arch. The segments are provided at their ends with connections which transfer the cutting forces.

[0028] FIG. 3 illustrates a three-boom girder lattice frame embodiment from a top view. In particular, the bracing element imparting rigidity to the girder consists of four straight truss braces 3 and three cross-ties 4, which have been welded to the boom members 2 at the welded connections 1 and 5 in the manner described above. By arranging several bracing elements in series, a truss structure is created.

[0029] FIG. 4 is an embodiment of a bracing element welded in the manner described for FIGS. 1a and 1b, consisting of four straight truss braces 3 to which the three cross-ties 4 have been welded at the welded connections 6 to impart rigidity.

[0030] While this invention has been particularly shown and described with reference to preferred embodiments thereof, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that various changes in form and details may be made therein without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as defined by the appended claims.