Title:
Floor and wall furnace
United States Patent 2491664


Abstract:
The invention relates to heating units And particularly units for heating and circulating air in order to maintain room space at a desirable-temperature. In contrast with central heating systems, operation of individual space heating devices adapted to heat room space by means of circulation...



Inventors:
James, Richard E.
Application Number:
US65474346A
Publication Date:
12/20/1949
Filing Date:
03/15/1946
Assignee:
RHEEM MFG CO
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
126/90R
International Classes:
F24C3/00
View Patent Images:
US Patent References:
2163928Wall furnace1939-06-27
2160264Heater1939-05-30
1660690Wall heater1928-02-28
1655211Stove1928-01-03



Description:

The invention relates to heating units And particularly units for heating and circulating air in order to maintain room space at a desirable-temperature.

In contrast with central heating systems, operation of individual space heating devices adapted to heat room space by means of circulation -or radiation of heat frequently overlooks the importance of heating all of the air in the space or room -so that there is no strata of air wherein 1I the temperature differs markedly from the temperature of the rest of the room. Most frequently in heating units of this type improper provision is made for heating the stratum of air immediately adjacent the floor level. Wall heaters and space heaters of conventional-types heretofore manufactured, while performing-with reasonable success so far as maintaining an ade*quate temperature in the room is concerned, have -been-inefficient in heating the lower levels of air. It is commonly known that the coldest 'air is heaviest and seeks the lowest level in -the heated :room. Heaters vhich have -an intake or which begin the -circulation of air from .a level above the 'surface of the floor are inclined to draw'air from .levels -distant from ithe floor surface 'by a substantial am6unit,-and.no means of positive circulation is provided for air at the floor level.

'Consequently, this layer remains cold.; While it is also true that 'heating devices of certain sorts and particularly central heating systems have been reasonably successful in the over-all heating of a room or space, spot heaters .or space 'heaters which are designed: and ibuiltifor heating a, single room have not been designed-to :perform with the same degree of efficiency.

In certain portions of the United States where the weather is not exceptionally severe space heaters are resorted to entirely, in some instances, to supply adequate heat during the cold '40 portions of the day. In the same sections of the country houses and buildings are customarily built without cellar space beneath the first floor.

Installation difficulties and expense is therefore materially saved when heating units can be installed at or above ground level.

For most effective heating the products of combustion should be vented and only the room air circulated through the heating unit. Certain types of units frequently referred to as floor fur- '50 naces have been provided, but to date units of the floor furnace type have -usually necessitated the provision of a pit of some kind or other below the surface of the ground in order to house all of the necessary portions of 'the furnaces. Floor '55 furnaces of the type requiring a sub-surface pit entail a high cost of installation, and th operating parts are relatively inaccessible for service and repair when that becomes necessary.

It is, therefore, among the objects of theinve.intioh to provide a new and improved combination floor furnace and wall heater unit which is adapted to provide uniform heating for all'levels of air in a room or space.

Another object is to provide a new and'improved conibination floor furnace and wall heater which can be installed within :a building withoit the necessity of providing a pit or space below the usual floor construction.

Still another object of the invention is to provide a new and improved floor furnace and wall .heater unit so designed that the burner ismaintained at a level at or below the surface of the floor of the space to be heated and which .is provided with suitably located air intakes and air outlets to promote circulation of all levels of air in the space so that there may not remain any undisturbed strata of air unaffected by operation of the heating unit.

.Still further among the objects of the inventioi is to provide a convenient and efficient floor furnace and wall heater which is easily disassembled so as to render the working parts :readily .accessible, which has a pilot burner readily accessible from the exterior without disassembly, .and which is productive of a highly efficient circulation of air without there being present objectionable hot spots at the surface of the unit.

With these and other objects in view, the invention consists in the.construction, arrangement and combination of the various parts of the device whereby the objects contemplated are attained, as hereinafter more fully set forth, pointed out in the claims and illustrated in the accompanying drawings,in which: Figure 1 is a side elevational view of a coiibination floor furnace ard wall 'heater unit shown in the position it would occupy when 'installed in a room.

Figure 2 is a longitudinal, elevational, end view of the heater shown in Figure-1.

Figure 3 is a cross-sectional view taken on the line 3-3 of Figure 4.

Figure 4 is a longitudinal, elevational! view in section taken on the line 4-4 of Figure 1.

Figure 5 is a fragmentary view in longitudinal section .showing a 'lower corner -of the unit incorporating doors giving access to a pildt.

Figure 6 is a fragmentary, cross-sectional'view on the line 6-6 of-Figure 4.

Figure 7 is a longitudinal, sectional, exploded view showing certain portions of the device in removed position.

Figure 8 is a vertical, sectional view taken on the line 8-8 of Figure 4.

It has been found that for best all-around results complete circulation of air in a space which is to be heated is highly desirable. This means that layers of air at all levels must be maintained in circulation. To best accomplish this the heater unit must have its intake at the cold air level and its outlet spaced a sufficient distance above the cold air intake so that there is a draft induced within the unit sufficient to maintain a steady uniform circulation. In some types of units there are provided radiating sources of heat in an attempt to provide quick heat or flash heat for a room. Radiating sources of heat have the disadvantage of not promoting a well-defined circulation of air and the disadvantage of making it necessary to provide a very hot source of radiating heat energy which is actually too hot at distances relatively close to the source. There is the further danger of having the heat sources so hot that they are dangerous to the touch and therefore must be provided with special guards.

In an embodiment chosen to illustrate the invention there is shown a unit which combines a floor level intake and burner member with a heating member located in the wall, the unit being incorporated in a casing 10 having side faces II and 12 on opposite sides of a stud partition wall 13. The bottom of the casing extends downwardly to substantially the surface of a floor 14 and is provided with warm air outlet louvers 15 and an aperture 16 functioning, in part, as a down draft diverter. A door 17 is shown at the lower portion of one side which when opened gives access to a pilot.

As best viewed in Figure 4, it will be found that the unit consists of a portion above the floor surface all housed within the casing 10 and a portion below the floor surface which is housed within a fire resistant burner compartment or pit 18 consisting of side walls 19 and a bottom wall 20 of metal or other suitable material. The compartment is made of such a size that it will fit within floor joists 211 of conventional size and spacing. The depth of the compartment is made less than the depth of the joints so that there may be applied a surface structure 22 against the bottoms of the joists which extends uninterruptedly under the compartment 18.

Although in the example chosen there has been illustrated a double unit which is capable of heating spaces on opposite sides of a partition wall, it will be appreciated that the description applies equally well to a unit which might be so designed as to heat space adjacent only one wall.

It will be noted that the unit is one of special advantage when gas heat is used. A gas line 25 is shown extending parallel to and below the floor surface. The gas line extends through one of the floor joists, a side wall 19 and into the compartment 18 where it is connected to a control valve unit 26. The control valve unit here illustrated contains one valve 27 adapted to control the flow of gas through a pilot line 28 and pilot light 29. A second valve 30 controls the flow of gas through a gas line 31 which supplies a burner 32 of somewhat elongated construction, as indicated by the dotted lines in Figure 3 and full lines in Figure 8.

It is important to note that the burner is loS cated at a level substantially at or slightly belov S the surface level of the floor 14.

The compartment 18 communicates with the adjacent space or spaces to be heated by meanĂ½ of air intakes covered by grills 33 located substantially at the level of the floor surface al. though for convenience there may be providec a molding or fitting 34 for securing the gril which may extend a fraction of an inch abovc the actual surface of the floor. Substantially al: of the air which finds its way into the compartment 18 enters through the grills 33 which are constantly open. Air is supplied by this means to the burner 32 as well as for separate heatinE and recirculation throughout the space which is to be heated by the unit.

To provide a space for the unit the partition wall 13 is broken away to form an opening oi aperture substantially the size of the casing 10. Inasmuch as the lower portion of one stud 23 must be removed, studs 38 and 39 at the sides are reinforced by securing to them short stud members 38' and 39' which support a beam 24 upon which the cut-off stud 23 may rest. For supporting the casing and the portions of unit within the casing there may be provided what may be considered s an open frame or spider, indicated generally by the character 35, which consists of longitudinal legs 36 and lateral legs 37, the ends of the legs being preferably connected to the grills 33. The grills in turn are supported upon the floor surface in the manner shown. By means of the spider the entire unit may be hung directly beneath the partition wall and in proper position at the top of the compartment 18.

Around the inner portion of the spider there is provided a retainer ring element 40 in which is a recess 41, the elongated shaped of which can be particularly discerned in Figure 3. A heating element or heating stack 42 has its lower edge seated within the recess 41 by means of which the heating element is supported. By constructing the ring 40 and the recess 41 so that they are at a level slightly above the top of the burner 32 and surrounding the burner, all of the products of combustion from the burner are directed upwardly through the heating element.

In order to make most effective use of the heating element, baffles 43, 44 and 45 are located transversely and in spaced relation within the heating element and provided with suitable apertures 46, 47 and 48 to divert the products of combustion in a circuitous path upwardly within Sthe heating element so that a sufficient exchange of heat takes place in order to keep the unit operating properly. The products of combustion eventually find their way upwardly through a stack unit 49 which telescopes with a second stack unit 50 from which the gases pass into a chamber 51, thence through apertures 52 in an angularly disposed down draft diverting baffle 53 emerging into passages 54. The passages 54 also communicate through apertures 16 with the space which is to be heated.

Since the products of combustion induce a draft upwardly, they travel upward through a vent 55 and an insulated passage 56 within the partition wall 13. Although some small portion of the products of combustion may escape outwardly into the heated space through the aperture 16, the general direction of flow will cause air from the heated space to enter the passages 54 through the aperture 16 and proceed upward.ly through the vent together with the products of combustion.

Air from the space which is to be heated is caused to circulate past the heating unit 42. This is accomplished by providing inner air liners 60 on each side which form circulating warm air passages 61. The warm air passages 61 are open at the bottom so as to communicate with the compartment 18 and open at the top so that air from the circulating warm air passages may pass ] from the bottom upwardly, striking baffles 62, if need be, and thence outwardly through the outlet louvers 15. The inner air liners 60 have their bottom edges 64 retained by a flange 65 in the spider 35; The bottom edges of the inner air liners, as illustrated in Figures 4 and 7 particularly, are located slightly below the bottom edge of the heating element 42.

Above the baffles 62 is a space 64 separated from the chamber 51 by means of a partition wall 865 . Breather holes 66 give access to the space 64.

In addition to the inner air liners 60 providing circulating warm air passages 61, by reason of their being spaced inwardly from the casing walls :11 and 12, they likewise provide air passages 70.

These air passages have a bottom opening at about the level of the lowermost portion of the spider into which air from the compartment 18 may pass directly and travel upwardly between the casing walls and the inner air liners to a point 71 where the air emerges, mixing with heated air from the circulating warm air passages 61, and thence passing outwardly through the louvers 15. By providing air passages 10. the outer surface of the unit comprising the casing walls is maintained relatively cool. Although radiation of heat from the unit is thus reduced to substantially a minimum, the construction has the -effect of improving the circulation of air through the unit which has the advantage of causing a more complete circulation of air in the space to be heated. Since the side walls have their bottom edges 72 retained by suitable flanges 75 a substantial distance below floor level, incoming air through the grill 33 is deflected downwardly before it can enter the bottoms of any of the passages within the unit.

In order to give access to the pilot 29, doors are provided in the various portions of the unit.

At the base of the heating unit is provided a door 15. A door 76 is located near the bottom of 'the adjacent inner air liner, each of which is aligned with the door 17 located near the bottom of the wall II of the outer casing. A link 18 is attached to the door 75 and extends through a suitable opening in the door 76. A leaf spring 79 on the door IT is adapted to press endwise against the end of the link when the doors are in closed position in order to force the doors 15 and 76 into closed position.

To open the doors and gain access to the pilot light the door IT is first opened, after which the doors T6 and 75 may be simultaneously opened by reason of their inter-connection through the link 78, the open doors assuming the positions shown in Figure 5. When the doors are in open position access is had to the pilot 29 which can then be lighted or adjusted.

In order further to facilitate installation and temporary removal of parts of the device for reconditioning or repair of the interior, the heating element 42 and each of the inner air liners 60, as well as each of the sides II and 12 of the casing, can be removed. Although Figure 7 $illstrates the elements on one side only in removed position, it will be appreciated that both sides may be removed in the same manner, if desired.

To facilitate removal of the parts to the positions shown in Figure 7 the chamber 51, stack unit 50 and vent 55, together with face plates 67, are built as a unit and mounted in the wall so that they can be moved a limited distance upwardly and downwardly. A piece 68 of insulation may be applied on each side for a precaution against overheating within the partition wall.

Necessary space 69 is provided to permit the required movement upwardly. When the unit thus described is lifted as shown in Figure 7 the top 5 edge 80 of the portion of the casing comprising the side wall 12 is free and permits removal of the side wall from its position beneath the lower edge of the baffle 53 which normally locks the side wall in position. The side wall can then be 0O lifted so that the bottom is entirely free from the spider and can then be set aside. Next, the adjacent inner air liner 60 may be similarly lifted from its position on the spider and also removed.

Following removal of the inner air liner the lower ,5 edge of the heating element 42 may be lifted free from the recess 41 since the stack element 49 can be freed from the stack element 50 by lifting the stack element 50 as previously described.

For this removal of the heating element the link 78 must be disengaged from its position in the door 76. With the parts thus removed ready access is had to the compartment 18 wherein is located the burner 72 and pilot 29.

The removal also gives somewhat limited access to the control valve unit 26. Should it be desired, however, the opposite side portion of the unit may be similarly removed giving complete access to the burner compartment.

The heating element, inner air liners and side walls of the casing may be replaced with equal facility into a position of permanent operative assembly.

From the foregoing description it will be apparent that there has been provided a heating unit which incorporates the advantages both of a floor intake and a wall outlet. The compartment 18, which may readily be designated as a burner pit, is located between the floor joists. A special pit below the floor construction is therefore unnecessary. Substantially all of the products of combustion are vented, and only clean air from the space to be heated is recirculated continuously through the unit. Since the grills 33 are located at floor level, the coldest layer of air which is the layer of air at floor level is drawn directly into the compartment 18 from whence it is then passed upwardly either to the burner, through the circulating warm air passages, or through the air i0 passages 70 which maintain the outer surface of the casing somewhat cool. By supplying the burner with its air for combustion from air in a space which is to be heated, infiltration of air into the heated space is promoted thereby facilitating the constant introduction of some fresh air into the heated space. At the same time no special provision need be made for introducing air for combustion purposes into the space around the burner from some other source.

By the arrangement of deflecting baffles described, located between the top of the heating unit and the bottom of the vent 55, an effective down draft eliminator is provided along somewhat conventional lines for operation with a device having the unique.features hereinddescribed4 .The device described is one which is particularly simple in installation and can be added to a building structure which is already in existence 'as readily as it can be installed during the initial construction of the building.

Although the invention has been herein shown and described in what is conceived to be the most practical and preferred embodiment, it is recognized that departures may be made therefrom within the scope of the invention, which is not to be limited to the details disclosed herein but is to be accorded the full scope of the claims so as to embrace any and all equivalent structures.

The invention having been herein described, what is claimed and sought to be secured by Letters Patent is: 1. A floor and wall furnace adapted for installation in and to be supported by a floor at its juncture with a building wall supported by said floor and said wall having a recess therein for reception of a part of said furnace comprising: means forming a burner pit, said means having outwardly extending upper marginal flanges adapted to be supported by said floor and to underlie the opening in said wall, an open frame superadjacent said burner pit means and having marginal edges adapted to be supported by said floor, a gas burner centrally disposed in said burner pit below the level of the marginal flanges thereof, a hollow heat exchange unit superadjacent said burner having a lower open end and an upper flue outlet to receive products of combustion from said burner and adapted to be positioned in the recess in said wall, an outer casing supported by said open frame having marginal edges adapted to overlie portions of said wall adjacent the recess therein and having a lower open end and an opening adjacent the top thereof, and an inner liner spaced between said heat exchange unit and said outer casing defining inner and outer air passages in conjunction with said heat exchange unit and said outer casing respectively.

2. A floor and wall furnace adapted for installation in and to be supported by a floor at its juncture with a building wall supported by said floor and said wall having a recess therein for reception of a part of said furnace comprising: means forming a burner pit, said means having outwardly extending upper marginal flanges adapted to be supported by said floor and to underlie said wall, an open frame superadjacent said burner pit means and having marginal edges adapted to be supported by said floor, a gas burner centrally disposed in said burner pit below the 5 level of the marginal flanges thereof, a hollow heat exchange unit superadjacent said burner having a lower open end and an upper flue outlet to receive products of combustion from said burner and adapted to be positioned in the recess 6 in said wall, an outer casing having a lower open end supported by the frame inwardly of the marginal edges of said frame and said casing having marginal edges adapted to overlie portions of said wall adjacent the recess therein, an inner 6 liner spaced between said heat exchange unit and said outer casing defining inner and outer air passages in conjunction with said heat exchange unit and said outer casing respectively, means forming a warm air discharge in com- 7 munication with said passages, and a downdraft diverter adapted to be positioned in said wall and communicating with said heat exchange unit and adapted for limited, vertical movement whereby 'etainig engagement is effected with said heat 7 exchange unit and said outer casing in its lower position and disengagement is effected therewith in its upper position.

3. A floor and wall furnace adapted for installation in and to be supported by a floor at its juncture with a building wall supported by said floor and said wall having a recess therein for reception of a part of said furnace comprising: means forming a burner pit, said means having outwardly extending upper marginal flanges adapted to be supported by said floor and to underlie said wall, an open frame superadjacent said burner pit means and having marginal edges adapted to be supported by said floor and being formed with outer, intermediate and inner retaining elements, a gas burner centrally disposed in-said burner pit below the level of the marginal flanges thereof, a hollow heat exchange unit supported by said inner retaining element superadjacent said burner having a lower open end and an upper flue outlet to receive products of combustion from said burner and adapted to be positioned in said recess in said wall, an outer casing having a lower open end supported by the frame inwardly of the marginal edges of said frame, said casing having lateral marginal edges adapted to overlie portions of said wall, an inner liner supported by said intermediate retaining element and spaced between said heat exchange unit and said outer casing defining inner and outer air passages in conjunction with said heat exchange unit and said outer casing respectively, means forming a warm air discharge in communication with said passages, and a downdraft diverter adapted to be positioned in said wall and communicating with said heat exchange unit and adapted for limited vertical movement whereby retaining engagement is effected with said heat exchange unit and said outer casing in its lower position and disengagement is effected therewith in its upper position.

4. A floor and wall furnace adapted for installation in a floor at its juncture with a building wall supported by said floor, said floor and said wall having a recess therein for reception of parts of said furnace, comprising: means forming a burner pit adapted to be positioned below the floor level, a frame overlying said burner pit means and having marginal edges adapted to overlie 0i portions of said floor adjacent said recess, said frame being formed with openings to permit the entry of relatively cold air from floor level to enter into the burner pit, a fuel burner disposed below the level of the marginal flanges thereof in 5i said burner pit, a hollow heat exchange unit superadjacent said burner having a lower open end and an upper flue outlet to receive products of combustion from said burner and adapted to be positioned in the recess in said wall and to 0 extend above the floor level, an outer casing having a lower open end supported by the frame inwardly of the marginal edges of said frame, said frame having lateral marginal edge portions adapted to overlie portions of said wall adjacent 5 said recess, an inner liner spaced between said outer casing and said heat exchange unit defining air passages in conjunction with said outer casing and said heat exchange unit respectively, said passages .being in communica0 tion with said burner pit, and means defining a warm air discharge in communication with said passages.

5. A floor and wall furnace adapted for installation in and to be supported by a floor at its 6 juncture with a building wall supported by said floor, said floor and said wall having a recess therein for reception of parts of said furnace, comprising: means forming a burner pit adapted to be positioned below the floor level, a frame overlying said burner pit means and having marginal edges adapted to overlie portions of said floor adjacent said recess, said frame being formed with openings to permit the entry of relatively cold air from floor level to enter into the burner pit, a fuel burner disposed below the level of the marginal flanges thereof in said burner pit, a hollow heat exchange unit superadjacent said burner having a lower open end and an upper flue outlet to receive products of combustion from said burner and adapted to be positioned in the recess in said wall and to extend above the floor level, an outer casing having a lower open end supported by the frame inwardly of the marginal edges of said frame, said frame having lateral marginal edge portions adapted to overlie portions of said wall adjacent said recess, an inner liner spaced between said outer casing and said heat exchange unit defining air passages In conjunction with said outer casing and said heat exchange unit respectively and means forming a warm air discharge in communication with said passages.

6. A floor and wall furnace adapted for installation in and to be supported by a floor at its juncture with a building wall supported by said floor, said floor and said wall having a recess therein for reception of parts of said furnace, comprising: means forming a burner pit adapted to be positioned below the floor level, said means having outwardly extending upper marginal flanges adapted to be supported by said floor, an open frame overlying said burner pit means and having marginal edges adapted to be supported by said floor, said frame being formed with openings to permit the entry of relatively cold air from floor level into the burner pit, a fuel burner disposed in said burner pit below the level of the marginal flanges thereof, a hollow heat exchange unit superadjacent said burner having a lower open end and an upper flue outlet to receive products of combustion from said burner and adapted to be positioned in the recess in said wall above the floor level, an outer casing having a lower open end supported by the frame inwardly of the marginal edges of said frame, said frame having lateral marginal edge portions adapted to overlie portions of said wall adjacent said recess, said outer casing being also formed with openings adjacent the top thereof adapted to permit escape of relatively warm air therethrough, and an inner liner spaced between said outer casing and said heat exchange unit defining air passages in conjunction with said outer casing and said heat exchange unit respectively, said passages communicating between said burner pit and the opeflings of said outer casing.

RICHARD E. JAMES.

REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent: 30 UNITED STATES PATENTS Number 1,655,211 1,660,690 2,160,264 2,163,928 Name Date Terry ----------- Jan. 3, 1928 Terry _______-- - Feb. 28, 1928 Furlong ---------- May 30, 1939 Andrews _---- - June 27, 1939