Title:
Hot-water steam flashing powergenerating apparatus and method with feed and furnace regulation
United States Patent 2429035


Abstract:
This invention relates to a novel method of and apparatus for generating power from steam. The primary object of the present invention is to most economically and effectively operate a steam motor by greatly conserving heat and energy, so that a relatively small water heater, that consumes...



Inventors:
Steving Jr., John
Application Number:
US59118445A
Publication Date:
10/14/1947
Filing Date:
04/30/1945
Assignee:
Steving Jr., John
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
91/354
International Classes:
F22B3/04
View Patent Images:
US Patent References:
1687615Steam generator1928-10-16
1067101N/A1913-07-08
1008797N/A1911-11-14
0782624N/A1905-02-14
0653436N/A1900-07-10



Foreign References:
GB185701842A
GB234093A1926-08-09
GB279249A1927-10-27
Description:

This invention relates to a novel method of and apparatus for generating power from steam.

The primary object of the present invention is to most economically and effectively operate a steam motor by greatly conserving heat and energy, so that a relatively small water heater, that consumes a relatively small amount of fuel, may be utilized in place of an elaborate and expensive steam-generating apparatus.

In the conventional method of operating steam motors, it is the common practice to generate steam externally of the motor and within an elaborate and expensive steam generator whose operation requires the consumption of considerable quantities of fuel, and to then conduct the steam from the steam space of the steam generator to the steam motor for utilizing its energy in the generation of power. Considerable heat and energy is lost from the steam in its passage to the motor, and water or condensed steam is supplied to the steam generator at a relatively low temperature so that considerable heat is required to convert it into steam.

In accordance with the present invention, the water is heated to a relatively high temperature considerably above its boiling point, and is caused to remain in liquid form by maintaining it under high pressure in the heater. The highly heated water under high pressure is injected into the steam motor at timed intervals so that it expands in the motor and is instantly converted to steam directly within the motor for driving the latter. The combined heat, pressure and expansion cause efficient operation of the motor without loss of heat and pressure. In addition, the present invention provides for exhausting and forcing the spent steam under pressure from the motor into an exhaust receiver, maintaining the exhaust receiver at a temperature to cause the steam under pressure therein to be converted into hot water, and periodically forcing the hot water back to the water heater for repressuring and reheating to the said high pressure and temperature. In this way, the exhaust steam is returned to the water heater after being condensed mainly by pressure and without being materially cooled, so that very little heat is required to bring the water back to the desired high pressure and temperature for expansion and conversion into steam again within the motor.

The present invention also provides for injecting the highly heated water under high pressure into the motor in measured quantities according to the requirements of the motor. This is preferably effected by means of a measuring valve controlled by a governor responsive to the speed of the motor, said measuring valve controlling the amount of condensed steam or water supplied to an injection pump which injects the highly heated water under high pressure into the motor.

The exact nature of the present invention will become apparent from the following description when considered in connection with the accompanying drawings.

In the drawings: Figure 1 is a somewhat diagrammatic view, partly in elevation and partly in vertical section, showing a power-generating apparatus embodying the present invention and employing a steam motor or engine of the reciprocating piston type.

Figure 2 is an enlarged vertical section through the thermo-pressure device forming part of the apparatus shown in Figure 1.

Figure 3 is a fragmentary horizontal section taken substantially on line 3-3 of Figure 1.

Figure 4 is an enlarged section through the injection pump taken on line 4-4 of Figure 3.

Figure 5 is an enlarged plan view of the measuring valve forming part of the pump shown In Figure 4.

Referring in detail to the drawings, I have illustrated the present invention in connection with 30 a steam motor of the conventional reciprocating type in which a piston 5 is movable in a cylinder 6 and operatively connected to crank 1 by a connecting rod 8, crank 1 being carried by a drive shaft 9 within a crank case IB. The motor also includes a cam shaft II operated in the usual manner by gearing (not shown) from the drive shaft 9. The cam shaft II carries cams 12 and 13, for a purpose which will presently be described.

Cylinder 6 is provided with an exhaust passage 14 arranged to be uncovered when the piston 5 approaches the limit of its inward or power stroke, and this passage communicates with an exhaust receiver 15 having a cooling coil 16 therein. Also, cylinder 6 is provided at the top with an exhaust chamber 17 which is in constant communication with the exhaust receiver 15 by way of a conduit or pipe 18. Communication between the cylinder 6 and the chamber 17 is controlled by a normally seated valve 19, that is periodically opened at predetermined intervals by an operating connection between the same and the cam 12 which includes a rocker 20 bearing at one end on the upper end of the stem of valve 19 and at its other end on a vertical push rod 21 whose lower end is arranged in the path of the cam 12.

Arranged to receive the condensed steam or hot water from the exhaust receiver 15 by way of a pipe 22 is the cylinder 23 of an injection pump, and said pipe 22 has a check valve 22' to prevent return of the condensed steam or hot water from the cylinder of pump 23 back to the receiver 15.

The pump includes a piston or plunger 24 reciprocable in cylinder 24 and normally yieldingly retracted into engagement with the cam 13 by means of a helical compression spring 25. When piston 24 is retracted, a quantity of the hot water is drawn from receiver 15 into cylinder 23 by said piston, and cam 13 periodically actuates piston 24 for discharging this quantity of hot water through an outlet pipe 26. The quantity of hot water drawn into cylinder 23 by piston 24 is measured by means of a measuring valve 27 operatively connected at 28 with a governor 29 suitably driven from the drive shaft 9 of the motor.

Valve 27 consists of a sleeve rotatably journaled on the cylinder 23 and within a jacket 30 surrounding and in spaced relation to the cylinder 23. The arrangement is such that the valve 27 is rotatably adjusted according to the speed of the motor so as to regulate the quantity of hot water admitted to the pump in accordance with the motor requirements. Gradual regulation of the amount of hot water admitted to the cylinder 23 is satisfactorily accomplished by providing the valve 27 with a triangular inlet port 27'.

The invention also contemplates the provision of a water heater, and this water heater has been illustrated by way of example as including a heating coil 31 whose lower portion 31' possesses a predetermined coefficient of expansion. A burner 32 for heating the water in the coil 31 is controlled by a valve 32' whose movable member 32a is operatively connected by a link 32b with one end of a lever 32c. Lever 32c is pivoted between its ends at 32d to a suitable supporting bracket 32e, and the other end of said lever is pivoted at 32f to an end of the lower portion 31' of the heating coil 31. When the coil portion 31' is heated to a predetermined degree, it expands and closes valve member 32a through the connections described.

On the other hand, cooling of the coil portion 31' below the predetermined temperature causes its contraction and opening of the valve member 32a. In this way, a thermostatic control is provided for the burner 32 so as to maintain the temperature of the water in the coil 31 at a predetermined point. The discharge pipe 26 is connected to the upper end of coil 31, and the other end of coil 5 31 is connected to a thermo-pressure device by a pipe 33, as shown in Figures 1 and 2. This thermo-pressure device includes a spring-closed and pressure-opened check valve 33a whose inlet is connected with pipe 33 and whose outlet is 6 connected by a pipe 33b with the receiver 15.

The thermo-pressure device further includes a thermostatically controlled injection valve having its inlet connected by a pipe 33e with pipe 33 and provided with an outlet provided with an 6 injection nozzle 33d arranged to discharge into the cylinder 6 at the upper end of the latter above the upper limit of travel of piston 5. The inlet of the injection valve is controlled by a thermostatically operated valve member 33e, while the 7 outlet thereof is controlled by a spring-seated and pressure-opened valve 331. Valve member 33e is operatively connected by a lever 35 with one end of a rod 36 arranged in the casing 37 of the injection valve and having a low coefficient 7 of expansion somewhat lower than that of the casing 37. The arrangement is such as to hold the pressure and temperature of the working fluid within the proper limits so that water will convert to steam when expanded in the working cylinder 6. When the temperature of the working fluid is too low, valve member 33e will close communication to the injection nozzle 33d, and the fluid will by-pass through the check valve 33a and return to the chamber 15. On the other hand, when the temperature of the working fluid is sufficiently high, valve 33e will open so that the working fluid will open valve 33f and pass to the Injection nozzle 33d, instead of by-passing through valve 33a back to receiver 15. The seating spring of valve 33f is indicated at 38, and it is of lesser strength than the spring of 33a so that the pressure of the working fluid will open valve 33/ and will not open valve 33a when valve member 33e is open. A check valve 39 is arranged in the discharge pipe 26, and its function is to permit the injection pump to force the water to the coil 31 and to prevent the water from returning from said coil to the pump.

In the present system or apparatus, water is heated and kept under high pressure in the water heater. Preferably, the water is heated to about 10000 F. and kept at a pressure of about 3,000 pounds, the temperature and pressure being regulated by the thermo-pressure device. At the correct point of the stroke of piston 5, the working fluid is injected into the cylinder 6 by the injection pump, and such working fluid or liquid is instantly converted to steam as it expands and lowers in pressure within the cylinder 6. This occurs from the internal latent heat of the liquid, and the pressure drop at this stage is from 3,000 pounds to approximately 1,250 pounds. The injection of the working fluid into cylinder 6 by the pump discontinues at a predetermined point in the cycle when the piston 24 completes its pressure stroke, and the steam is allowed to expand adiabatically until near the end of the 45 power stroke of piston 5, when it is exhausted through passage 14 into the exhaust receiver 15.

As the piston moves on its return stroke, the secondary exhaust valve 19 is opened, and the remaining steam in the cylinder is forced into the ,0 exhaust receiver 15 by way of pipe 18. Due to the pressure of the returning piston on the steam, the steam in the chamber 15 is maintained under pressure for converting it to water. Any slight cooling that may be additionally needed can be ,5 supplied by the coil 16.

The principal advantage of this system is higher thermal efficiency, than that afforded by the conventional method. The generating part of the system is in no sense a flash generator or con0 ventional boiler, the difference being that there is no steam space. In other words, this part is completely filled with a liquid under extremely high pressure and temperature, the vaporization occurring in the cylinder during the injection 5 of the fluid. Another advantage is that the exhaust vapors are returned to the system and condensed mainly by pressure instead of being exhausted to the atmosphere or being entirely condensed by cooling in a condenser, as in a con0 ventional steam plant.

The injection pump measures the required amount of water and injects it into the motor by way of the water heater. The operation of the injection pump is similar to the fuel injec5 tion system of Diesel engine, where the pump measures the required amount of fuel and injects it into the cylinder.

A practical effect of the invention is that it allows the water to expand and convert to steam directly in the motor, contrary to conventional steam practice. In such conventional practice, the water is evaporated into the steam space of a boiler, from where it is conveyed to the engine.

Thermally, the latter is not as efficient as the former, because in the conventional practice, the working fluid leaves the heat-generating part of the system at its coolest point. It is particularly pointed out that the exhaust is condensed under considerable pressure and at a high temperature so that as many heat units as possible may be retained in the water and returned to the water heater. This reduces the bulk of the apparatus to a minimum.

Although the invention has been described in connection with a reciprocating engine, it is adaptable to an engine of the turbine type. Also, the invention is susceptible of various modifications and changes in details of construction illustrated and described.

What I claim is:1. The herein described method of generating power, which method consists in heating water in a water heater to a high temperature considerably above its boiling point and causing it to remain in liquid form at such temperature by maintaining it under high pressure in the heater, automatically injecting the highly heated water under automatic control of the temperature and pressure thereof into a steam motor at timed intervals so that it expands in the motor and is instantly converted to steam therein for driving the motor, periodically exhausting and forcing the spent steam under pressure from the motor into an exhaust receiver, maintaining the exhaust receiver at a temperature to cause the steam under pressure therein to be converted'to hot water, and periodically forcing the hot water from the receiver back to the heater for re-pressuring and reheating said hot water to the said high pressure and temperature.

2. The herein described method of generating power, which method consists in heating water in a water heater to a high temperature considerably above its boiling point and causing it to remain in liquid form at such temperature by maintaining it under high pressure in the heater, automatically injecting the highly heated water under automatic control of the temperature and pressure thereof into a steam motor at timed intervals so that it expands in the motor and is instantly converted to steam therein for driving the motor, periodically exhausting and forcing the spent steam under pressure from the motor into an exhaust receiver, maintaining the exhaust receiver at a temperature to cause the steam under pressure therein to be converted to hot water, periodically forcing the hot water from the receiver back to the water heater for repressuring and reheating said hot water to the said high pressure and temperature, and automatically measuring the quantities of hot water periodically forced back to the water heater according to the speed of the motor.

3. A power-generating apparatus of the character described comprising a water heater for heating water to a temperature considerably above its boiling point, a steam motor, means to conduct hot water from the water heater to the motor for driving the latter upon expansion of the water for conversion of the same to steam in the motor, a thermo-pressure injection device interposed between the heater and the motor and controlled by the temperature and pressure of the water in the heater to maintain the highly heated water .at a sufficiently high pressure to keep it in liquid form in the heater and to automatically inject the water at timed intervals into the motor, an exhaust receiver, exhaust means whereby the motor may periodically force the spent steam therefrom under pressure to said exhaust receiver, and a pump operated by the motor to periodically withdraw hot water from the exhaust receiver and force it under pressure to the hot water heater.

4. A power-generating apparatus of the character described comprising a water heater for heating water to a temperature above its boiling point, a steam motor, means to conduct hot water from the water heater to the motor for driving the latter upon expansion of the water for conversion of the same to steam in the motlor, a thermo-pressure injection device interposed between the heater and the motor and controlled by the temperature and pressure of the water and heater to maintain the highly heated water at a sufficiently high pressure to keep it in liquid form in the heater and to automatically inject the water at timed intervals into the motor, an exhaust receiver, exhaust means whereby the motor may periodically force the spent steam there60 from under pressure to said exhaust receiver, a pump operated by the motor to periodically withdraw hot water from the exhaust receiver and force it under pressure to the hot water heater, and means to automatically measure the amount of hot water drawn from the exhaust receiver and forced to the water heater in accordance with the speed of the motor.

JOHN STEVING, JR.

50 REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent: UNITED STATES PATENTS 55 Number 653,436 782,624 1,008,797 1,067,101 60 1,687,615 Number 1,842 65 234,093 279,249 Name Date Buck ----------- July 10, 1900 Rey ------------ Feb. 14, 1905 Drummond -------- Nov. 14, 1911 Doble ----------- July 8, 1913 Hubbard ---------- Oct 16, 1928 FOREIGN PATENTS Country Date Great Britain ------ July 2, 1857 Great Britain .---- Aug. 9, 1926 Great Britain ------ Oct. 27, 1927