Title:
Elevator guide means
United States Patent 2309123


Abstract:
This invention is a novel elevator guide means, comprising running devices or guide elements adapted to be mounted upon elevators for the secure and smooth guidance of the car in its vertical travel, as between fixed guide rails, whether within a vertical shaft or in open construction; such...



Inventors:
Kiesling, Roy LE. H.
Application Number:
US39682141A
Publication Date:
01/26/1943
Filing Date:
06/06/1941
Assignee:
Kiesling, Roy LE. H.
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
187/410
International Classes:
B66B7/02
View Patent Images:



Description:

This invention is a novel elevator guide means, comprising running devices or guide elements adapted to be mounted upon elevators for the secure and smooth guidance of the car in its vertical travel, as between fixed guide rails, whether within a vertical shaft or in open construction; such guide means being of utility for elevators of various types, including freight and passenger elevators, and this term being intended to include dumbwaiters, and as well the heavy counterweights frequently connected to travel alongside an elevator. It is conventional to guide an elevator between rails located at the opposite sides of the shaft or way, although in some cases the car may receive guidance by the use of a rail at one side only, the omission of the other rail being offset by the provision of small supplemental means to. hold the guide means of the car in snug running contact with the single rail; and in either of such cases the present invention is of advantageous utility.

In the prior art have been known a number of types and many constructions of elevator guide means, and these in general may be divided into two types, according to whether the guiding parts on the car are adapted to ride or run along the guide rail as shoes with simple sliding or slipping contact and guidance or, on the other hand, rolling engagement between car and rail. Both types have been long known and used, the sliding type having the advantage of simplicity and effectiveness, but being more subject to wear and consequent inaccuracy of fit, looseness and noisiness; and for complementary reasons the rolling type of guide element possesses high smoothness and permanence, rendering it so highly desirable that much effort has been devoted to devising rolling guide means for elevators, the principles of which are not subject to certain mechanical objections and drawbacks. The difficulties in pro- 4 viding a wholly satisfactory roller-type guide means are well known, a problem having been presented and still existing to afford roller guidance to an elevator in a manner to secure all of the theoretical advantages, even in the not un- 4 common cases of travel as fast as 1000 feet per minute. A review of the prevailing state of the art of elevator roller type guide means and of unexpired patents disclosing such structures indicates the making of a great variety of at- 51 tempts to meet the underlying requirements of such a structure.

The general objects of the present invention are to provide, for elevator guidance, a roller guide means which avoids the drawbacks of heretofore known constructions and provides in a practical way the theoretical advantages of such type of structure. A further object is to afford an elevator guide means of the roller type which is not merely efficient in use but is simple of structure, sturdy and durable, and not prohibitive in cost.

Other and further objects and advantages of the invention will be explained in, or understood from, the hereinafter described disclosure of one or more illustrative embodiments of the invention. To the attainment of such objects and advantages the invention consists in the novel elevator guide means and the novel features of combination, construction and arrangement herein illustrated or described.

In the accompanying drawings Fig. 1, on a small scale, is a perspective view of a conventional elevator car with suitable mountings, including the present invention, for its vertical guidance between upright fixed guide rails.

Fig. 2, on a larger scale, may be considered a right hand elevation view of one of the left hand rolling guide means and rail, certain structural parts of the car being shown in vertical section view taken on the section line 2-2 indicated in Fig. 1.

Fig. 3 is a front elevation of the same parts shown in Fig. 2, that is, looking toward the right hand side of Fig. 2.

Fig. 4, on the same scale with Figs. 2 and 3, is a top plan view, the rail and certain parts of the guide means being indicated in section to ;5 show interior structure.

Fig. 5, on a still larger scale, is a more or less diagrammatic view illustrating certain principles of the invention.

Fig. 6 is a view generally similar to Fig. 4 but 0 showing a modification of structure; and Fig. 7 is another similar view showing a still further modification or embodiment of the invention.

Conventionally shown are the following gen5 eral elevator structural elements. In Fig. 1 is indicated at one side a part of a shaft wall 10, and this may have a metal lining I 1 as shown in certain other figures. By means of clips 12, Fig. 4, a T-form of rail 14 may be attached to the build0 ing or wall structure, two opposite such rails being shown in Fig. 1, each comprising a foot or base 15 for its mounting, and a shank 16. Other conventional fixed rail forms are shown in Figs. 6 and 7, with any of which and others the present 5 invention may be employed.

2 2,30C In all of the illustrated structures each of the guiding rails is characterized as having a form in which there are three guiding surfaces, which are here defined as a front surface 1, furthest removed from the shaft wall, a lefthand surface 18 and a righthand surface 19. This front and these two opposite side guiding surfaces are assumed to be smooth or suitably finished to serve for the proper guidance of the elevator shoe devices riding thereon. The front rail surface 17 meets the left surface 18 at a front corner of the rail and similarly meets the surface 19 at another front corner. This is a conventional form of rail, and one advantage of the present invention as to be disclosed, is that it may be used in association with preexisting and standard forms of fixed guide rails, so that an elevator may be equipped with the present improvement without need of altering, reconstructing or replacing the rails. As already indicated, a car may be guided from one instead of a pair of such rails, if the omission of the other thereof is recompensed by the providing of some substitute to hold the guided car against the firstmentioned rail.

The car 21 is shown for convenience simply as an open box, with side walls, roof and floor, and these are surrounded by what may be termed a yoke structure comprising a pair of structural uprights 22 interconnected above and below by crossheads or bolsters. The uprights are shown as channel members, preferably exterior to the car, and each crosshead is shown as comprising a pair of horizontal channel members spaced slightly apart, connected to the uprights and preferably strengthened and closed above or below by a horizontal top or bottom plate 24. On these crossheads or the plates 24 are mounted the guide means to be described and, conventionally, there may be a guide means at each end of each crosshead, a total of four as indicated in Fig. 1.

So much of the structure is well known and may be conventional. Each guide means hereof may be generally described as comprising a carrier, mounted upon the car or crosshead and giving support to a pair of separate guide elements, preferably opposed to each other, and collectively embracing the guide rail and riding upon its three guide surfaces, at the front, left and right sides thereof; at least one, and preferably both, of said guide means consisting each of a guide roller which is mounted upon the carrier by bearings so as to rotate about a substantially horizontal axis which is diagonally inclined to the planes of the adjacent front and side bearing surfaces of the rail, and for that matter inclined to all three of the surfaces 17, 18 and 19; each such guide roller being characterized by a structure having at its rim two rolling faces that are adapted to run respectively upon the front surface and upon one side surface of the rail, in such a way that the roller straddles one of the two front corners of the guide rail and with rolling contact at the rail front and adjacent side surface. As specifically illustrated this structure may be further described as follows.

Describing now each of the guide means of the set, it may be attached upon the car top or bottom, preferably upon the crosshead cover plate 24, by means of bolts 26. Each guide device comprises a fixture 27 the base of which is shown attached to the crosshead by the bolts 26 and each being formed with a barrel slideway ),123 28, conveniently made cylindrical to contain interior cylindrical sliding parts. For simplicity the description will be applied to the upper left guide device in Fig. 1.

The cylinder or barrel 28 gives guidance to a carrier 30 upon which the rolling elements are actually mounted as will be described. The carrier comprises a plunger 31 slidable smoothly within the cylinder, this having a shank 32 ex0 tending through to the inner end, where it emerges from the barrel and carries a stop or nut 33 limiting the outward movement of the carrier as caused by a strong resilient means or spring 34.

At the outer end of the plunger, facing the guide rail, the carrier 30 is formed with a head, from which rigidly project diagonally, preferably each at 45° to the carrier length or axis a pair of studs or axles 35, upon which the respective rollers turn, each such axle carrying at its end a nut or collar 36 to confine the rolling parts thereon. The carrier head and axles in effect constitute a Y-shape fork, and on each stud may be means for adjusting the exact position Sof the roller to cooperate with the ge guide rail.

The springs 34 while not always essential are preferable, holding the opposite guide means snugly against the opposite rails, under resilient pressure, with the car in steady equilibrium between them.

Roller or ball bearings are highly desirable, and Fig. 4 shows conventionally a double thrust and radial bearing consisting of an inside race or ring 38 confined upon the stud 35 and an outside bearing ring 39 secured within the roller 41 or 42, as by a drive fit.

The left and right guide rollers 41 and 42 are preferably identical for manufacturing reasons, but are arranged symmetrically to each other with respect to the rail. A total of these two rollers is sufficient for effective guidance with the present invention, although if desired, each of the roller guide means might be supplemented by duplicate rollers, and these might be in stag,j. gered arrangement, although preferably directly opposed to each other on the rail.

As already stated each of the rollers 41 and 42 is mounted to rotate about a horizontal axis which is diagonally inclined to a vertical plane ao extending through the plunger axis and at right angles to the front guide surface 17. These axes are indicated at 43, and each is shown set at a 45° diagonal to said vertical plane, the two axes being of course the axes of the studs 35.

r, The diagonal angle is preferably 45° but might be varied and, the arrangement being symmetrical, the two axes 43, 43 stand at 90° to each other.

Each of the symmetrical rollers is shown as formed with a deep groove 44, embracing the near corner of the rail, this groove separating the two rolling faces 45 and 46 of the roller.

Thus, referring to the righthand roller 42 in Figs. 4 and 5, its rolling face 45 rolls on the rail front surface 17, while the roller face 46 runs on the rail side surface 19. As a whole therefore this roller straddles one of the front or outer corners of the guide rail, giving rolling contact upon the two adjoining rail surfaces.

7) In Figs. 2 to 5 is shown an advantageous structural feature permitting the roller guide means to cooperate with the three guide surfaces of a T-rail which has a relatively narrow shank, a widely used rail form. This feature has to do with the accommodating of the diagonally opposite rollers with the narrow rail and with each other, and consists in truncating at 450 to its own axis the portion of each roller which runs on the front surface 17 of the rail, this shaping of the roller affording an annular surface 48 which is at 450 to the roller axis but stands at right angles to the rail surface 17.

This truncating of one roller is shown on an enlarged scale in Fig. 5, and on Fig. 4 it is clear that the surfaces 48 of the two rollers may substantially contact each other, although a slight clearance might be provided. This feature however is optional and may be omitted in such embodiments as those shown in Figs. 6 and 7 where the opposite rollers are spaced at considerable distance apart and do not require truncating.

Another feature of advantage is that each rolling contact face of each roller 41 or 42 is not merely curved annularly about the roller 2 axis, but is convexly curved also in its sectional contour, so that this convexity affords rolling contact consisting of a mere point or a very small area between each roller face and the smoothly finished adjacent surface of the rail. 2 This convexity may be determined and described as follows. The roller face 46 which runs on the rail side may be slightly convex, its curvature being described about a center 50, as shown on Fig. 4. Although the curvature is apparently 3 slight it affords the desired function, and in ig. the curvature is somewhat exaggerated for better illustration of the matter, the contact point or small area 51 being the point of tangency between face 46 and surface 19. Similarly the 35 roller face 45 is convexly curved to afford a contact point 52, in this case contacting the center of the front surface 17 of the rail; and the surface 45 may be described about a center 53 as indicated on Fig. 4. The curved contours 40 45 of the two rollers are preferably continuations of each other, both described as arcs about the center 52.

A feature of preferred specific construction may be described as follows. While each of the 45 rollers might be split through, at the groove 44 to form in effect two half rollers, which then could turn at slightly different speeds when in rolling motion, it is preferred that each roller be unitary or an integral piece, as shown; and 50 in that case, to avoid any differential rolling motion, the radius of the contact circle 51, and that of the contact circle 52 of the roller should be equal. In other words the construction line 54 shown on Fig. 5, connecting the points 51 5 and 52, should be parallel to the rotation axis of the roller, in this case at 45° to the surfaces of the rail, as shown.

By the combination of the several essential and optional features described a highly advantageous rolling guide means is provided, wherein 60 the guide means embraces and runs on the three guide surfaces of the rail, each of the rollers having two guide faces, each with a small contact area or point, and these both of the same 65 radius, so that true rolling contact is provided throughout, minimizing wear and resulting looseness while providing smooth, efficient and quiet running qualities.

The embodiment shown in Fig. 6 is on the 70 principles already described. The rail 14a is here a plate or vertical steel strip, attached by a bolt or shank 16 to the shaftway wall, a structure frequently heretofore used for dumbwaiter guidance. The rail has side guiding surfaces 18f 75 and f 9a at the left and right, but the front guiding surface 17a is elongated or separated into two portions, one for each of the two rollers 4ia and 42a. On the car 21 is a complementary pair of fixtures 27a and extending from these are a pair of carriers or heads 30a from which extend the diagonal studs 35a on which the rollers are confined by nuts 36a. The rollers here being further separated than in Fig. 4 they are not formed with any truncated surface 48 and do not mutually contact in their rolling actions.

In Fig. 7 the separation of rollers shown in Fig. 6 is carried somewhat further, in this case the rail being split or separated into two portions 4b, both mounted by bolts 1b on the same shaftway wall and being in alinement so as to receive symmetrically the rolling elements 41b and h42b, which have contact with the front surfaces 17b and the side surfaces 18b and IGb of the two0 part rail. In this figure the parts 27b, 3.b 3b and 3b" correspond substantially with 27a, n a, 35 and V6P in Fig. 6. Each of these figures is an illustration of a construction wherein the roller carrying parts are not spring pressed on the 5 car toward the rails, as in Fig. 4, the engagement being maintained otherwise in well known manner. In the case of any embodiment the rails are preferably of cold rolled steel or else machined at their contact surface; while the roll3 ers are preferably cast in brass or bronze, or other metal, although they might be composed of a non-metallic plastic, and in any case might be thinly coated with a rubber or similar coating.

There has thus been described an elevator guide i means embodying the principles and attaining the objects of the present invention; but since many matters of combination, construction and arrangement may be variously modified without departing from the principles involved, it is not intended to limit the invention thereto except to the extent set forth in the appended claims.

What is claimed is: 1. An elevator guide means adapted to cooperate with a vertical guide rail that is formed with one front and two parallel opposite side guiding surfaces meeting at two square front corners; said guide means comprising a fixture mountable on the elevator car and having thereon an opposed pair of separate guide rollers collectively embracing the rail and riding upon its said three guiding surfaces, at least one of said rollers being mounted to rotate about a substantially horizontal axis diagonally inclined to the planes of said guiding surfaces, and having at its rim two separate rolling faces adapted to run respectively upon the front surface and one side surface of the rail, whereby such roller straddles one front corner of the rail, with rolling contact at the rail front and adjacent side surfaces.

2. An elevator guide means adapted to cooperate with a vertical guide rail that is formed with one front and two opposite side guiding surfaces meeting at two front corners; said guide means comprising a fixture mountable on the elevator car and having thereon an opposed pair of separate guide rollers collectively embracing the rail and riding upon its said three guiding surfaces, each of said rollers being mounted to rotate about a substantially horizontal axis diagonally inclined to the planes of said guiding surfaces, and having at its rim two rolling faces adapted to run respectively upon the front surface and one side surface of the rail, whereby such roller straddles one front corner of the rail, with rolling contact at the rail front and adjacent side surfaces.

3. An elevator guide means as in claim 2 and wherein each roller has a deep rim groove between the two separate rolling faces, into which groove extends the angular front corner of the rail.

4. An elevator guide means adapted to cooperate with a vertical guide rail that is formed with one front and two opposite side guiding surfaces meeting at two front corners; said guide means comprising a fixture mountable on the elevator car and having thereon an opposed pair of separate guide rollers collectively embracing the rail and riding upon its said three guiding surfaces, each of said rollers being mounted to rotate about a substantially horizontal axis diagonally inclined to the planes of said guiding surfaces, and having at its rim two cambered rolling faces adapted to run respectively upon the front surface and one side surface of the rail, whereby each of the two rollers straddles one front corner of the rail, with rolling contact of 2E one roller at each side surface of the rail, and of both rollers at the front surface thereof.

5. An elevator guide means adapted to cooperate with a vertical narrow guide rail that is formed with one front and two opposite side guiding surfaces meeting at two front corners; said guide means comprising a fixture mountable on the elevator car and having thereon an opposed pair of separate guide rollers collectively embracing the rail and riding upon its said three guiding surfaces, each of said rollers being mounted to rotate about a substantially horizontal axis diagonally inclined to the planes of said guiding surfaces, and having at its rim two rolling faces adapted to run respectively upon the front surface and one side surface of the rail, whereby each of the rollers straddles one front corner of the rail, with rolling contact at the rail front and adjacent side surfaces; and said two rollers, at the faces thereof rolling on the narrow front rail surface, being truncated in complementary manner, thereby forming truncation surfaces which rotate in mutual proximity or contact with each other.

LE ROY H. KIESLING.