Title:
Apparatus for diffusion
United States Patent 2012298


Abstract:
This invention pertains generally to apparatus for extracting solute from a solute-containing solids by means of a solvent, and more particularly to apparatus of such character capable of operating on the counter-current principle. In my copending application Serial No. 514,515, now Patent...



Inventors:
Julien, Berge
Application Number:
US63161432A
Publication Date:
08/27/1935
Filing Date:
09/03/1932
Assignee:
Raffinerie, Tirlemontoise SA.
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
422/271, 422/273
International Classes:
C13B10/10
View Patent Images:



Description:

This invention pertains generally to apparatus for extracting solute from a solute-containing solids by means of a solvent, and more particularly to apparatus of such character capable of operating on the counter-current principle.

In my copending application Serial No. 514,515, now Patent No. 2,004,184 dated June 11, 1935, I have described and claimed a process of diffusion employing the countercurrent principle in which the columns of solvent and solids are divided into segregated masses. The procedure is such that each segregated mass of solvent comes consecutively into contact with a predetermined number of segregated masses of solids of progressively increasing percentages of solute content, and such that each segregated mass of solids comes consecutively into contact with a predetermined number of segregated masses of solvent of progressively decreasing percentages of solute concentration.

As set forth in said copending application, new, unexpected and highly beneficial results are obtained by conducting the process so that the segregated masses of solvent do not become mixed with each other and so that the segregated masses of solids do not become mixed with each other.

This application is in part a division of said above mentioned copending application and in part a continuation of my copending application, Serial No. 550,749 filed July 14, 1931, both of which applications disclose apparatus of the above mentained character.

The above mentioned process makes it feasible to add diffusers without limit in view of the fact that the pressure head on the individual diffuser is not increased thereby. In view of the low pressure head on the individual diffuser, circulation difficulties are entirely avoided because there is no tendency for the solids to become impacted as is the case with high pressure.

By splitting up the columns of solvent and solids, the solute is more uniformly extracted from the solids throughout each diffuser and a 4., higher percentage of solute is extracted per diffuser.

The process permits large savings in the amount of solvent ordinarily required in diffusion processes, and the solvent leaving the process 5o has a higher degree of solute concentration. The solids are more thoroughly exhausted than in ordinary diffusion processes.

In view of the fact that a simple bathing of the solids is substituted for forced circulation at 53 high pressure, points of low solute exhaustion in the individual diffuser, known as nests, are eliminated.

Many other advantages result from the use of the process, some of which will more particularly appear as the specification proceeds. i The apparatus disclosed herein is particularly adapted for carrying out said process.

In such apparatus each separate mass of solvent is contained within a separate compartment.

The compartments are arranged consecutively. Each separate mass of solids, by means of an arrangement of revolving blades or scoops and a series of plates forming troughs or chutes, is caused to pass through the compartments separately from the other masses of solids and countercurrently to the movement of the compartments and consequently countercurrently to the solvent The compartments are conveniently though not necessarily formed by the turns of a screw which may be disposed within the inside of a cylindrical or otherwise shaped casing which forms a common outer wall for all of the compartments. Each turn of the screw will then bound one compartment. The number of consecutive compartments may thus be multiplied without limit.

Each revolving blade or scoop is perforated and may be conveniently disposed between and attached to adjacent walls of the screw. These blades or scoops do not lift the solvent because go of the perforations. Each blade or scoop, however, carries with it any solids that may be in the compartment through which it passes and deposits the same into a trough or chute which in turn deposits such solids into a compartment further on in the series.

The troughs or chutes may be stationary, as disclosed in copending application, Serial No. 514,515, or may revolve with the screw as disclosed in copending application, Serial No. 550,749, or may revolve otherwise.

The invention will be more fully understood upon reference to the drawings in which: Fig. 1 is a sectional elevation of one form of the invention; Fig. 2 is a section on line 2-2 of Pig. 1; Fig. 3 is a sectional elevation on line 3-3 of Fig. 4 of another form of the invention; Fig. 4 is a section on line 4-4 of Fig. 3; 50 Fig. 5 is a section on line 5-5 of Fig. 3; Fig. 6 is an elevation partly in section on the line 6-6 of Fig. 4; Fig. 7 is a transverse sectional elevation of a further form of the invention; Fig. 8 is a plan view shown broken of the chute structure of the form shown in Fig. 7; Fig. 9 is an elevation of the chute structure shown in Pig. 8; Fig. 10 is a sectional plan view shown broken on line 10-10 of Fig. 11 showing a further form of the invention; Fig. 11 is an end view; Fig. 12 is a sectional elevation shown broken online 12-12 of Fig. 11; Fig. 13 is a perspective view of the chute structure of the form of the invention shown in Figs. 10, 11 and 12; Fig. 14 is an elevation of another form of the invention; Fig. 15 is a top plan view; Mg. 16 is a sectional view; Fig. 17 is a section on line 17-17 of Fig. 15; and Fig. 18 is a perspective view illustrating the revolving scoop and chute structure of the form of the invention shown in Figs. 14, 15, 16 and 17.

Referring now more particularly to Figs. 1 and 2, 10 is a longitudinally disposed casing illustrated as cylindrical, in which is disposed a heli-" cal shaped screw II. Screw II is hollow at the center 12 and contacts the inner wall 13 of casing 10 to form a liquid-tight joint. The outer pe-" ripheral edge of screw II may be welded to the inner periphery of casing 10 for this purpose if desired, or a joint may be effected in any other manner.

Screw I I may be of any suitable shape and may be very similar to an Archimedean screw.

3 If casing 10 were filled with liquid to the level represented by the line C-C, each full turn of the screw would bound a compartment 16 containing a segregated mass of liquid.

Now if screw II is rotated about its longitudinal axis the level of the liquid in each compartment will remain substantially horizontal and the liquid in each compartment will be moved in a direction parallel to the axis of the casing 10, depending upon the direction of rotation. New compartments will be continuously formed at one end and existing compartments will continuously disappear at the other.

It will be noted that this progression of liquid from one end to the other of the casing 10 takes place without any mixture of the liquid of one compartment with that of another. Upon each complete revolution of the casing 10 the liquid in each compartment advances one step, that is, a distance equal to the pitch of the screw, or in other words, substantially the width of one compartment.

If the rotation is counterclockwise, as shown in Fig. 2, and the screw is right-handed, the liquid will progress from right to left, as seen in Fig. 1.

Upon each revolution one new compartment will be created at the right to receive fresh liquid and one existing compartment will disappear at the left after the discharge of its liquid. The perforated blades above referred to are shown at 18. These blades 18 are shown arranged between the turns of the screw II and are conveniently placed in line longitudinally of the casing 10. In Fig. 2, six longitudinal sets of perforated blades 18 are shown at 19, 20, 21, 22, 23 and 24. However, as will subsequently appear, it is merely necessary to have two diametrically disposed longitudinal sets of blades 18. The additional sets increase the number of individual masses of solids which will be passed through -a single compartment per revolution and thereby make it possible to divide each mass of solids of the ordinary diffusion processes into any desired number of parts for better diffusion.

The solvent passes through the perforations of 6 blades 18 and is not raised thereby. Any solids in the compartments, however, will be picked up by the blades 18 and will be carried up out of the solvent to somewhere near the top of casing 10, from which points each individual mass of solids, with the structure so far described, will fall vertically to the bottom of casing 10. Any solvent adhering to any mass of solids will have drained back into its compartment before the solids reach their point of fall. With diametrically disposed longitudinal sets of blades 18, say, for instance, sets 19 and 22, all solids falling from blades 18 of the set 19 will be deposited within the paths of the blades 18 of the set 22. These solids will then be picked up by the blades 18 of set 22 and redeposited in front of blades 18 of the set 19.

Let us consider the solids occupying a particular compartment, such for instance as compartment 16f. By the time the solids reach the falling point, the liquid from which they have been lifted will have advanced to the left, a distance slightly less than one-half of the pitch of the screw, or in other words the compartment will have advanced to the left a distance slightly less than one-half of its width. The solids, therefore, just prior to falling, will be above compartments 16f and 16g, with the compartment division line about half way between, and the solids, upon falling, will divide between the two compartments. Because the solids do not slide materially' on the inner wall of casing 10 between turns of the screw II, there will be no movement of the solids longitudinally of the casing 10. In order to effect a longitudinal movement of the solids through the casing 10 contra to the movement of the solvent, I provide a plurality of inclined plates 31. Plates 31 are shown mounted on a longitudinal support 26 comprising spaced members 27 and 28 at the center of casing 10. Members 27 and 28 are shown supported upon uprights 29 and 30. This construction is merely for the purposes of illustration, and any other construction may be substituted therefor.

The longitudinal component of the inclination of each plate is equal to approximately one-half of the pitch of the screw. Each plate 31, therefore, will advance solids falling thereon longitudinally to the right as seen in Fig. 1, a distance approximately equal to one-half the pitch of the screw.

As previously pointed out, during the time in which the solids from any one cbmpartment travel from the bottom to the top of the casing 10, the compartment itself advances to the left as seen in Fg. 1 a distance approximately equal to one-half the pitch of the screw. Therefore, such solids, upon being advanced longitudinally to the right by virtue of the inclined plates 31, will be completely deposited into the next compartment on the right. This compartment contains no other solids at the time of such deposit.

The solids, therefore, progress from left to right from one compartment to the next without a mixing of the solids from one compartment with those from another.

Plates 31 may have any desired shape and angle as long as the function above set forth is accomplished. That is, they may be flat, or curved to conform to the shape of the screw at their edges, or may be of any other suitable shape and/or inclination.

From the foregoing it will be seen that each individual mass of solids passes through two compartments per revolution of casing 10 and advances to the right a distance equal to the pitch of the screw. Iri ther words, each individual mass passes twice over the slanting plates 31 per revolution.

From this it will be seen that if there are ten blades 18 in each of the sets 19 and 22 capable of picking up solids out of compartments holding solvent, each individual mass of solids will pass through twenty individual masses of solvent before being discharged at the right, and each individual mass of solvent will have been in contact with 20 separate masses of solids before discharge at the left. This is the equivalent of twenty diffusers.

By increasing the number of oppositely disposed longitudinal sets of blades 18, that is, by adding sets 20 and 23 and sets 21 and 24 and increasing the number of plates 31 per turn of the screw from two to six as shown in dotted lines, so that one plate 31 per turn of the screw is always available to completely deposit the solids into the next compartment, the number of individual masses which can be handled by the device is multiplied by three. That is, instead of one mass of solids passing through each mass of solvent per half revolution, there are three masses.

The weight or volume of these masses of solids is, of course, dependent upon the rate of feeding of solids at the left and the weight or volume of each mass of solvent depends upon the rate of feeding of solvent at the right. This makes it possible to adjust the weight of volume of one with respect to the other.

If it is desired to approximate prior practice in the beet sugar industry, for instance, in which the weight of water per diffuser is about equal to the weight of beet slices, if the sets 19 and 22 of blades 18 only are used, the weight of each new mass of beet slices would be adjusted so as to be about equal to the weight of each new mass of water. If all six sets of blades 18 were employed, the weight of each new mass of beet slices would be about one-third the weight of each new mass of water, etc. In the latter case three masses of beet slices would be the equivalent of the beet slices of one diffuser and considering the masses of beet slices as being divided into sets of three, the first mass of each set may be compared to the top one-third, the second mass to the middle one-third, and the third mass to the bottom one-third of beet slices in an ordinary diffuser.

It should be strictly understood that this is merely by way of illustration and that the weights of the masses of beet slices and of the masses of water may be varied in any manner desired. From the foregoing it will be seen that the device permits continuous diffusion in any desired manner, prevents undesirable mixtures, and takes the place of twice as many consecutive Sdiffusers as there are spires in the helical screw 11.

Furthermore, the solids of each diffuser may be divided up into any desired number of separate masses by increasing the number of oppositely disposed sets of blades 18, and preferably the number of plates 31 so that the latter may conform to the former.

Undesirable mixtures are eliminated because the solvent of any one compartment does not come into contact at any time with the solvent of any other compartment and the individual masses of solids do not become mixed with each other.

The masses of solids travel through the apparatus at exactly the same rate and each mass is therefore exposed to diffusion for the same period of time.

SThe solvent and the solids progress simultaneously in opposite directions. The feeding of fresh solids and the discharge of exhausted solids takes place at opposite ends of the casing 10. The feeding of solvent and the removal of liquor also takes place at opposite ends of the casing 10.

For the purposes of ilustration, casing 10 is shown provided with circumferential flanges 32, which fit between flanges 33 on rollers 34 mounted between supports 35. Four sets of rollers 34 are illustrated in spaced relation.

It is, of course, understood that any other structure may be substituted for rotation purposes as well as for the other parts specifically described in connection with the description of Figs. 1 and 2 without departing from the spirit of the invention.

Referring now to Figs. 3, 4, 5 and 6, it will be seen that in this form of the invention each perforated blade has a corresponding chute arranged within the casing 40 and that each chute revolves with the screw. The masses of solids are lifted from the respective compartments by the perforated blades leaving the masses of solvent behind, and then each mass of solids is caused to move through a chute to a compartment further on in the series. Inasmuch as there is one chute for each blade there will be, of course, a plurality of chutes arranged longitudinally through the center of the casing. The construction will be simplified by keeping the number of blades per turn of the screw at a minimum. Complicated structure and construction difficulties are thus avoided. In the form of the invention shown in Figs. 1 and 2 I have shown that two, four or six blades per turn of the screw, and perhaps more, may be employed. In this form of the invention, I show three blades per turn of the screw. However, more may be added, particularly if complicated structure is not of importance.

Helical screw 41 may be in all respects similar to screw 1I. The perforated blades may be in all respects similar to the blades 18. Three longitudinal sets, to wit: sets 42, 43 and 44, are shown, spaced at regular intervals.

Longitudinally arranged at the center of screw 41 is a triangular construction 45 comprising three plates, 46, 47 and 48. The structure 45 is shown secured in place so that the meeting edges of the supporting plates 46, 47 and 48 are adjacent the blades of sets 42, 43 and 44.

Mounted upon each supporting plate 46, 47 and 48 are slanting plates 49, 50 and 51 respectively. The slanting plates are shown substantially vertically arranged with respect to their supporting surfaces and form the inclines chutes through which the solids such as beet slices or other particles are caused to fall or slide by grayity into the next turn of the screw. The arrangement of the inclined plates may be best seen in Figs. 3 and 6.

Let is be assumed that the casing 40 rotates counterclockwise as seen in Figs. 4 and 5 or as seen in Figs. 3 and 6, the top of casing 40 moves toward the observer.

The blades 42 are at their highest points in Figs. 3 and 6. The group of solids which will be carried up by the blade 42a, for instance, will fall or slide into the chute formed by the inclined plates 49a and 49b and will fall upon a blade 43b not shown in Fig. 3 but shown in Fig. 6 in the next turn of the screw to the right. This group of solids will follow the blade 43b to the bottom of casing 40 where it will remain until it is picked up and raised to the top of the casing 40 by the blade 42b. This group of solids will then fall or slide through the chute formed by the inclined plates 49b and 49c on to the next blade 43 in the next turn of the screw toward the right, that is, upon the blade 43c. This group of solids will then be relowered to the bottom of the casing 40 where it will remain until it is picked up by the blade 42c and is again advanced a unit distance to the right. This mass or group of solids will eventually arrive at the righthand end of the drum, and will be discharged for instance into a receptacle shown diagrammatically at 52. During this time solvent, which will enter at the righthand end of casing 40 in a continuous column and will be divided into segregated masses by virtue of the turns of the screw 41, will have advanced through the casing 40 to the left between the turns of the screw 41 and will have been discharging at the lefthand end, for instance into a receptacle shown diagrammatically at 53.

Inasmuch as any single group of solids moves to the right a distance equal to the pitch of the screw per revolution of casing 40 and any single mass of solvent moves to the left an equal amount, the relative movement between groups of solids and masses of solvent per revolution is twice the pitch of the screw. If it is assumed that there are ten full operative turns of screw 4 1, any single group of solids will move relatively to twenty consecutive masses of solvent and will come into contact with every other mass of solvent. The very next group of solids will come into contact with the alternate masses of solvent not contacted by the first mentioned group. The third group of solids will come into contact with the same masses of solvent as the first mentioned group of solids. The fourth group of solids will come into contact with the alternate masses the same as the second group of solids, etc.

Means for supplying solvent, which generally will be plain water, at the righthand end of the casing 40 is shown diagrammatically at 54. It is, of course, understood that when the device is in full operation each blade 42 carries solids to the top of the casing 40 during each revolution of the casing 40, and that each mass or group of solids is advanced to the right a distance equal to the pitch of the screw.

Means for charging solids at the lefthand end of the casing 40 is shown diagrammatically at 55.

The blades 43 operate in a manner similar to the blades 42. In this instance, the inclined plates 50 form the troughs or chutes and precipitate the solids to the right on to the backs of the blades 44 which in turn lower the solids to the bottom of the casing 40 where they remain until picked up by the next blade 43 on the right in each instance.

The blades 44 also operate in a manner similar to the blades 42 and 43 by raising the solids to the top whereupon they are precipitated to the right onto the backs of blades 42 through chutes 5 formed by the inclined plates 51.

It is, of course, understood that the solids may be fed at the left at any desired rate within the capacity of the device and that the solvent may be fed at the right at any desired rate within the capacity of the device. The solvent, of course, preferably does not overrun the inner edge of the screw 41, otherwise the solvent of the compartments will become mixed.

The horizontal component of the inclination of the plates 49, 50 and 51 is approximately equal to one and one-third of the pitch of the screw 41.

That is, when a group of solids is raised to the top by the blade 42a, for instance, and is deposited on to the back of the blade 43b, the mass of solids advances to the right a distance approximately equal to one and one-third of the pitch of the screw 41. By the time this mass of solids is picked up by the blade 42b, it will have moved back to the left a distance approximately equal to one-third the pitch of the screw so that the resultant advance to the right is equal to the pitch of the screw.

During each complete revolution, three separate masses of solids pass through each compartment. One of these masses will be manipulated between a blade 42 and a blade 43, a second of these masses will be manipulated between a blade 43 and a blade 44, and a third of these masses will be manipulated between a blade 44 and a blade 42. The ratio of the weight or volume of solids per segregated mass to the weight or volume of solvent per segregated mass may be controlled by the rate of feeding of solids and solvent at 55 and 54 respectively. One may be varied at will with respect to the other within the capacity of the particular device in use. It will be seen that the capacity of the device is a mere matter of dimensions and will be taken into consideration at the time the device is constructed. The form shown in Figs. 7, 8 and 9 is similar in all respects to the form shown in Figs. 3 to 6 inclusive except that a single supporting plate 56 is arranged within the hollow center of the screw.

The supporting plate 56 has inclined plates on each surface so that in effect it takes the place of two of the supporting plates 46, 47 and 48 arranged back to back. The chutes formed by the inclined plates 57 on one side of the supporting plate 56 are fed by the perforated blades 58 and 80 the chutes formed by the inclined plates 59 on the other side of supporting plate 56 are fed by the perforated blades 60. The inclination of the plates 57 and 59 is such that the chutes formed thereby will advance the solids such as beet slices or other particles in a direction opposite to the flow of the solvent propelled by the screw. The horizontal component of the slanting plates 57 and 59 is approximately equal to one and onehalf the pitch of the screw instead of one and one-third the pitch of the screw as is the case in the form shown in Figs. 3 to 6 inclusive. Any mass of solids precipitated, for instance, from a perforated blade 58 to the right as indicated in Fig. 8 on to the back of a perforated blade 60 will be moved backwardly to the left by the screw a distance approximately equal to one-half the pitch of the screw before such mass will be picked up by the next perforated blade 58 on the right.

The resulting movement to the right, therefore, is equal to the pitch of the screw.

In the forms of the invention shown in Figs. 3 to 6 and Figs. 7 to 9, the opening at the center of the screw has been shown circular and the inclined plates have been shown as having a 76 curved periphery. The opening at the center of the screw and/or the inclined plates may have any other suitable peripheral shape such, for instance, as rectangular.

6 In Figs. 10 to 13 inclusive is shown a form of the invention very similar to that shown in Figs. 7 to 9 except that the central opening of the screw is square in shape and the inclined plates are rectangular. Screw III is secured to the inner wall of the casing 40 as in the other forms.

The inner supporting plate is illustrated at 66 having quadrilateral inclined plates 67 on one side and similar plates 69 on the other side.

Perforated blades 68 feed the chutes formed by the inclined plates 69 and perforated blades 70 feed the chutes formed by inclined plates 67 when the device is rotated counterclockwise as seen in Fig. 11. The position of the inclined plates 67 and 69 with respect to the screw 11I is illustrated in Figs. 10 and 12. The position of the inclined plates 67 and 69 on the supporting plate 66 is illustrated in perspective at Fig. 13.

The form shown in Figs. 10 to 13 inclusive is otherwise similar to the form shown in Figs. 3 to 6 and the form shown in Figs. 7 to 9.

I have for the purpose of illustration considered the casing 40 as rotating counterclockwise. However, it is obvious that it may be rotated clockwise if desired in which case the feeding of solids and the feeding of solvent would each take place at the opposite end of casing 40 from that shown.

It is obvious that the screw might be lefthanded or righthanded as desired, the other parts being made to conform therewith.

While the invention is shown and described in connection with a construction in which the screw is attached to the casing so that both the screw and the casing rotate, the invention is in no way limited thereto. If the screw should fit tightly within the casing so as to form a substantially liquid tight joint at the bottom and if frictional difficulties should be overcome, it is obvious that the screw and the perforated blades might turn and the casing might be stationary, in which case part of the top of the casing might be removed, if desired, particularly if the perforated blades were made in the shape of scoops, or that one might otherwise move relatively to the other, all of which modified forms are within the scope of the invention.

The fundamental features of the invention comprise a construction in which separate compartments are employed for moving solvent in separate masses and in which means are provided for automatically lowering and raising separate masses of solids into and out of the compartments and for moving the solids in separate masses. The moving of the solids and solvent countercurrently applies the countercurrent principle of extraction as described in my copending application. However, the structure can be modified to move both in the same direction.

This will take place in the form of Figs. 1 and 2, for instance, by reversing the rotation of casing 10.

The forms shown in Figs. 3 to 13 inclusive wherein the chute structure is supported within the casing so as to eliminate stationary supports outside of the casing, permit the casing to be made of any length and the screw to have any number of turns without involving constructional difficulties which may result from the necessity of having stationary end supports for the chute structure.

In the forms shown in Figs. 3 to 13 inclusive each turn of the screw corresponds to one diffuser so that if the screw has 40 turns, for instance, the device corresponds to a battery of 40 diffusers. Inasmuch as the solids in the forms E shown in Figs. 3 to 13 inclusive move a total distance equal to the pitch of the screw per revolution of the casing, each mass of solids would pass successively through forty different bodies of solvent, the solute content of which decreases progressively as the solids advance.

The chute forming plates may, of course, have any other suitable shape and/or inclination or be of any other suitable number.

As previously pointed out, I prefer to employ a revolving screw for the purpose of creating the moving compartments for the solvent. However, this may be accomplished in other ways. For instance, the compartments might be formed by separate containers having screw-shaped side SO walls of about one-half a spire or less in length.

Such containers might move synchronously with a revolving scoop and chute structure, similar to that suggested in Fig. 8 except that blades 58 and 60 would have side walls to form perforated scoops. Each scoop would thread its way into and out of consecutive containers to lift the solids therefrom and by virtue of the chute structure would deposit the solids into the second next container in the series. s0 Such an arrangement is suggested in Figs. 14 to 18 in which are shown compartment-forming containers 80 having screw-shaped side walls 81 and 82 and an arcuate bottom 83. Adjacent containers 80 may be joined together at their ex- 86 treme lower edges by means of a hinge illustrated at 84 in Fig. 16 so as to form an endless construction similar to that of an endless conveyor.

A frame 85 having an upper guiding member 86 and a lower guiding member 87 might be provided for holding the containers 80 in contiguous relationship particularly when the same are passing underneath the revolving scoop and chute structure illustrated at 88.

It will be seen that while the compartments 80 are underneath the revolving scoop and chute structure illustrated at 88, they are in close contact with each other and are in most respects very similar to the lower portion of the screw and casing structure previously described. Containers 80 might be provided with U-shaped straps 90 for sliding upon the guide member 86 and with angular members 91 attached to straps 90 having ends 92 for sliding underneath the longitudinal edges of the guide member 86 for holding the containers 80 in upright position.

Straps 90 might be provided with lugs 93 for engagement by transverse slots 94 in spaced wheels 95 and 96 attached to shafts 97 and 98 respectively. go The framework 85 might be supported at opposite ends by outwardly extending members 100 on opposite sides which in turn might rest on uprights 101.

The revolving scoop and chute structure 88 W would comprise a central plate 103 having staggered extensions 104 on opposite longitudinal edges. It would be in shape very similar to a longitudinal cross section of a male thread of which the contiguous containers would form the TO lower half or less of the corresponding female thread. The staggered spaces 105 between extensions 104 would be in width approximately equal to the thickness of a side wall 81 plus the thickness of a side wall 82 and spaced so as to fi permit the side walls to pass therebetween and so that the extensions 104 would be of a width to permit them to thread through containers 80.

The extensions 104 would, of course, be perforated and might have three side walls to form a scoop at the entrance end of each chute.

The chutes formed by plates 107 would advance the solids to. the right as seen in Figs. 14 and 15; the containers 80 moving to the left along the top stretch.

The inclination of plates 107 would be such that the horizontal component would be approximately equal to one and one half the pitch of the theoretical screw.

The revolution of the scoop and chute structure 88 would be synchronized with respect to the movement of the containers 80, for instance by the drive suggested at 108, so that the extensions 104 would thread their way in and out of the 90 containers 80.

Solids could be fed at 109 and removed at 110.

The containers could be filled with solvent by any means such as a pipe suggested at II . The containers would, of course, automatically dis$5. charge their contents at the left.

It will be seen that the operation would be very similar to the forms shown in Figs. 3 to 13 inclusive.

The containers, of course, need not be fas80 tened into an endless conveyor but might be separately handled and placed upon a conveyor at the right of Figs. 14 and 15 and removed at the left.

Any other structure might be substituted for 85 the parts shown in detail.

The invention may be applied to the extraction of any type of solute from any type of solid matter with any type of solvent. It is particularly adapted to the extraction of soluble carbohydrate from vegetable products and more particularly to the extraction of sugar from beet slices, cossettes or chips, the extraction of sugar from sugar cane, etc.

The invention is also adapted to the treatment of chicory root, Jerusalem artichokes, dahlias or other roots and tubercles, for instance, in extracting inuline therefrom.

Other uses of the device herein disclosed will become apparent to persons skilled in the art upon becoming familiar with this invention.

Having described my invention, it is obvious that many other modifications may be made in the same within the scope of the claims without departing from the spirit thereof.

S I claim: 1. In a device of the kind described, means for moving segregated masses of liquid in compartments in one direction, said means including a substantially horizontally disposed screw, means associated with said screw for raising and lowering segregated masses of solids in and out of said compartments, and means for advancing said segregated masses of solids in a direction opposite to the movement of said liquid.

S 2. In a device of the kind described, means for moving segregated masses of liquid in compartments in one direction, said means including a substantially horizontally disposed internal screw, means associated with and revolved with said screw for raising and lowering segregated masses of solids in and out of said compartments, and means comprising inclined stationary plates disposed through the center of said screw for advancing said segregated masses of solids in a direction opposite to the movement of said liquid.

3. In a device of the kind described, means for moving segregated masses of liquid in compartments in one direction, said means including a substantially horizontally disposed internal screw, means associated with and revolving with said screw for raising and lowering segregated masses of solids in and out of said compartments, and means disposed through the center of said screw and revolving therewith for advancing said segregated masses of solids In a direction opposite to the movement of said liquid.

4. In a device of the kind described, a revolving drum, means within said drum for causing the flow of a continuous column of liquid in segregated masses, means within said drum and rotating therewith for raising and lowering a continuous column of divided material in segregated masses in and out of said segregated masses of liquid, and means within said drum for advancing said segregated masses of divided material through said drum countercurrently to said liquid.

5. A device of the kind described comprising a longitudinally disposed drum, a helical screw disposed within said drum and contacting the inner walls thereof, a plurality of spaced perforated blades joining the spires of said screw and forming a plurality of separate compartments with said spires, a plurality of inclined chutes longitudinally arranged along the center of said screw, the inlet of each chute disposed adjacent a perforated blade and the outlet of each chute displaced longitudinally from said inlet, so 85 as to deliver material passing therethrough into an adjacent compartment in a direction countercurrent to the progression of said screw, said chutes being fixed within said drum so as to rotate therewith. 6. In a device of the kind described, means for causing the flow of a continuous column of liquid in segregated masses, and means for causing the flow of a continuous column of divided material in segregated masses countercurrent to said liquid, so that the segregated masses of divided material come progressively into contact with certain segregated masses of liquid, said first and second mentioned means being combined into a unitary revolving structure. 0o 7. In a device of the kind described, revolving means causing the flow of a continuous column of liquid in segregated masses, and means revolving with said last mentioned means for causing the flow of a continuous column of divided material in segregated masses countercurrently to said liquid, so that the segregated masses of divided material come progressively into contact with successive segregated masses of liquid.

8. In a device of the kind described, a horizontally disposed rotating casing, a horizontally disposed screw in said casing, the periphery of said screw forming a tight joint with said casing, a plurality of oppositely disposed longitudinally aligned perforated plates joining spires of said screw, and inclined baffle plates at the center of said screw.

9. In a device of the kind described, a horizontally disposed rotating casing, a horizontally disposed screw in said casing, the periphery of said screw forming a tight joint with said casing, and baffle plates at the center of said screw, said baffle plates inclined so as to move matter falling thereon in a directio alonng the axis of said screw a distance equal to one-half the pitch of said screw, and perforated plates interposed between and joining the adjacent turns of said screw.

10. In a device of the kind described, a revolving drum, means within said drum and rotating therewith for dividing a continuous column of liquid into segregated masses, means within said drum and rotating therewith for dividing a continuous column of solid matter into segregated masses, and means within said drum for causing said column of liquid and said column of solid matter to move countercurrently therethrough and in a manner so that the segregated masses of solid matter remain substantially completely segregated from each other and come progressively into contact with the segregated masses of liquid which also remain substantially completely segregated from each other.

11. In a diffusion apparatus for extracting sugar from beet slices and the like, means for producing a column of liquid in segregated masses comprising a series of coaxially associated contiguous compartments each adapted to hold a mass of liquid in segregated relation to the liquid contained in the adjacent compartments of said series, means for moving said separate compartments in a substantially horizontal path, whereby said segregated masses of liquid are moved therewith, said first-mentioned means also forming compartments for producing a column of segregated masses of beet slices, and means for moving said column of beet slices within said firstmentioned means in diffusing relationship and in countercurrent to said column of liquid, said lastmentioned means being operatively associated with said compartments for moving a series of segregated masses of beet slices into and out of said compartments and means communicating with the respective compartments for ad- f vancing said segregated masses of beet slices in a direction opposite to the movement of said masses of liquid.

12. In a diffusion apparatus for extracting sugar from beet slices and the like, means for producing a column of liquid in segregated masses comprising a series of coaxially associated contiguous compartments each adapted to hold a mass of liquid in segregated relation to the liquid contained in the adjacent compartments of said series, means for moving said separate compartments in a substantially horizontal path, whereby said segregated masses of liquid are moved therewith, said first-mentioned means also forming compartments for producing a column of segregated masses of beet slices, and means for moving said column of beet slices within said first-mentioned means in diffusing relationship and in countercurrent to said column of liquid, said last-mentioned means being operatively associated with said compartments for moving a series of segregated masses of beet slices into and out of said compartments and revolving means communicating with the respective compartments for advancing said segregated masses of beet slices in a direction opposite to the movement of said masses of liquid.

JULIEN BERGE.