Title:
USER EQUIPMENT IN A CONGESTION CONTROLLED CDMA SYSTEM
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A system for controlling congestion in a code division multiple access system with multi-user detection capabilities is disclosed. The system includes at least one user equipment, a base station, and a radio network controller. Each user equipment includes a receiver having multi-user detection capabilities. The base station includes a receiver having multi-user detection capabilities, an intra-cell interference measuring device, and an inter-cell interference measuring device. The radio network controller includes a radio resource management device configured to control congestion based on measurements taken by the base station.


Inventors:
Zuniga, Juan Carlos (Montreal, CA)
Application Number:
14/087426
Publication Date:
06/05/2014
Filing Date:
11/22/2013
Assignee:
InterDigital Technology Corporation (Wilmington, DE)
Primary Class:
International Classes:
H04B17/00; H04J13/00; H04L1/00; H04B1/707; H04B7/005; H04W52/26; H04W52/34
View Patent Images:
Claims:
What is claimed is:

1. A system for controlling congestion in a code division multiple access (CDMA) system with multi-user detection capabilities, comprising: at least one user equipment including: a receiver having multi-user detection capabilities; a base station including: a receiver having multi-user detection capabilities; an intra-cell interference measuring device; and an inter-cell interference measuring device; and a radio network controller including: a radio resource management device configured to control congestion based on measurements taken by the base station.

2. The system of claim 1, wherein the system is configured to: calculate a noise rise value that is indicative of interference in the CDMA system; monitor the noise rise value to detect congestion; and implement congestion relieving measures on a condition that congestion is detected, whereby the system controls congestion.

3. A system for controlling congestion in a code division multiple access (CDMA) system with multi-user detection capabilities, comprising: at least one user equipment including: a receiver having multi-user detection capabilities; an intra-cell interference measuring device; and an intra-cell interference signaling device configured to send a signal that is indicative of intra-cell interference to a base station; the base station including: a receiver having multi-user detection capabilities; and an intra-cell interference signal receiver configured to receive the signal sent by the intra-cell interference signaling device; and a radio network controller including: a radio resource management device configured to control congestion based on measurements taken by the at least one user equipment.

4. The system of claim 3, wherein the system is configured to: calculate a noise rise value that is indicative of interference in the CDMA system; monitor the noise rise value to detect congestion; and implement congestion relieving measures on a condition that congestion is detected, whereby the system controls congestion.

5. A system for controlling congestion in a code division multiple access (CDMA) system with multi-user detection capabilities, comprising: at least one user equipment; a base station including: a receiver having multi-user detection capabilities; an intra-cell interference measuring device; and an inter-cell interference measuring device; and a radio network controller including: a radio resource management device configured to: calculate a noise rise value that is indicative of interference in the CDMA system; monitor the noise rise value to detect congestion; and implement congestion relieving measures on a condition that congestion is detected, whereby the radio resource management device controls congestion.

6. A system for controlling uplink congestion in a code division multiple access (CDMA) system with multi-user detection capabilities, comprising: a base station including: a receiver having multi-user detection capabilities; and an inter-cell interference measuring device; at least one user equipment including: a receiver having multi-user detection capabilities; an intra-cell interference measuring device; and an intra-cell interference signaling device configured to send a signal that is indicative of intra-cell interference to the base station; and a radio network controller (RNC) including: a radio resource management device configured to control congestion based on the intra-cell interference signal from the at least one user equipment and the inter-cell interference measured by the base station.

7. The system of claim 6, wherein the RNC is configured to: determine a class of service for each user equipment; calculate a contribution to noise rise for each user equipment; select a user equipment that is currently contributing the most to noise rise and has a lowest class of service; and reduce a data transmission rate of the selected user equipment, whereby the RNC controls congestion.

8. The system of claim 6, wherein the RNC is configured to calculate a noise rise value based on at least one user equipment's measurements of intra-cell interference, and wherein inter-cell interference is taken into account by a predetermined value for a ratio of inter-cell interference to intra-cell interference.

Description:

CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/004,219, filed Dec. 20, 2007, issuing as U.S. Pat. No. 8,605,577 on Dec. 10, 2013, which is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/265,046, filed on Oct. 4, 2002, now U.S. Pat. No. 7,313,091, issued Dec. 25, 2007, which claims priority from U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 60/383,025, filed on May 24, 2002, which are incorporated by reference as if fully set forth herein.

BACKGROUND

The present invention relates to code division multiple access (CDMA) systems with multi-user detection (MUD) capabilities, where the capacity of the system is limited by non-cancelled intra-cell interference, non-cancelled inter-cell interference and interference associated with the noise floor.

In CDMA systems, one of the factors that limit the capacity of the system is interference. In general, these systems try to generate as little interference as possible. Power control is one approach that is commonly used in order to maintain the interference limits as low as possible. Nevertheless, when a CDMA system attempts to support many users, even if the transmission power is being controlled, the levels of interference may not be acceptable.

The concept of CDMA uplink (UL) pole capacity has been widely used for evaluating when a system is becoming congested. This concept is based on the exponential growth of interference caused by a CDMA system, i.e. all interference above the noise floor. The interference caused by a CDMA system is made up of intra-cell interference and inter-cell interference. Intra-cell interference is interference generated in a cell that is occupied by a user. Inter-cell interference, in contrast, is interference generated from all sources outside of the cell in which the user is located. The pole capacity is the theoretical maximum capacity assuming the mobiles have infinite available transmitting power. The actual capacity is typically a fraction of the pole capacity. Although the concept generally applies to any point-to-multipoint CDMA system, the use of a MUD in the receiver that cancels some of the intra-cell interference varies the principle on which the concept is based thereby rendering the concept not applicable.

A method is therefore needed for evaluating congestion in CDMA systems having MUD capabilities.

SUMMARY

A system for controlling congestion in a code division multiple access (CDMA) system with multi-user detection capabilities is disclosed. The system includes at least one user equipment, a base station, and a radio network controller. Each user equipment includes a receiver having multi-user detection capabilities. The base station includes a receiver having multi-user detection capabilities, an intra-cell interference measuring device, and an inter-cell interference measuring device. The radio network controller includes a radio resource management device configured to control congestion based on measurements taken by the base station.

A system for controlling congestion in a CDMA system with multi-user detection capabilities includes at least one user equipment, a base station, and a radio network controller. Each user equipment includes a receiver having multi-user detection capabilities, an intra-cell interference measuring device, and an intra-cell interference signaling device configured to send a signal that is indicative of intra-cell interference to the base station. The base station includes a receiver having multi-user detection capabilities and an intra-cell interference signal receiver configured to receive the signal sent by the intra-cell interference signaling device. The radio network controller includes a radio resource management device configured to control congestion based on measurements taken by the at least one user equipment.

A system for controlling congestion in a CDMA system with multi-user detection capabilities includes at least one user equipment, a base station, and a radio network controller. The base station includes a receiver having multi-user detection capabilities, an intra-cell interference measuring device, and an inter-cell interference measuring device. The radio network controller includes a radio resource management device configured to calculate a noise rise value that is indicative of interference in the CDMA system, monitor the noise rise value to detect congestion, and implement congestion relieving measures on a condition that congestion is detected, whereby the radio resource management device controls congestion.

A system for controlling uplink congestion in a CDMA system with multi-user detection capabilities includes a base station, at least one user equipment, and a radio network controller. The base station includes a receiver having multi-user detection capabilities and an inter-cell interference measuring device. Each user equipment includes a receiver having multi-user detection capabilities, an intra-cell interference measuring device, and an intra-cell interference signaling device configured to send a signal that is indicative of intra-cell interference to the base station. The radio network controller includes a radio resource management device configured to control congestion based on the intra-cell interference signal from the at least one user equipment and the inter-cell interference measured by the base station.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a flow diagram showing a method for monitoring congestion in the UL based on UE measurements for CDMA systems having MUD capabilities in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.

FIG. 2 is a flow diagram showing a method for monitoring congestion in the UL based on RAN measurements for CDMA systems having MUD capabilities in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.

FIG. 3 is a flow diagram showing a method for relieving congestion in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.

FIG. 4 is a system for monitoring and controlling congestion in the UL based on UE measurements in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.

FIG. 5 is a system for monitoring and controlling congestion in the UL based on RAN measurements in accordance with the invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

For uplink (UL) congestion detection based on UE measurements, the pole capacity of regular CDMA systems, i.e., CDMA systems not having MUD capabilities, may be determined by measuring the noise rise, which is the ratio of the total perceived interference to noise floor:

Noise_rise=total_perceived_interferencenoise_floor=11-ηULEquation(1)

where the total perceived interference is all non-cancelled interference (both intra-cell and inter-cell) at the receiver, the noise floor is all noise that is unrelated to the system such as the thermal noise, and ηUL, is the UL load factor. In CDMA systems having MUD capabilities, however, the MUD reduces intra-cell interference (Ior) and amplifies inter-cell interference (Ioc). Therefore, to accurately measure noise rise in CDMA systems having MUD capabilities, the ηUL should account for the affect the MUD has on interference.

To specifically account for the effect of the MUD, two parameters (one to account for the decrease in Ior and one to account for the increase in Ioc) are defined and incorporated into ηUL. The first parameter, αUL represents the average ratio of the cancelled Ior to the total Ior and is used to account for the decrease in Ior. The second parameter, βUL, represents the average ratio of received extra Ioc to the total Ioc and is used to account for the increase in Ioc. The parameters αUL and βUL may be measured, calculated or assumed, as desired. Using Ior, Ioc, αUL and βUL, the total perceived interference as affected by the MUD is (1− αUL)Ior+(1+ βUL)Ioc.

In a first embodiment of the invention, congestion detection is based on UE measurements. UE measurements, however, with respect to interference generated by the system, are limited to Ior. Therefore, to also account for Ior, ηUL is obtained according to:

ηUL=(1+i)i=1N11+WρiRiviEquation(2)

where i is a predetermined value representing a ratio of Ioc to Ior and the sum represents Ior. In the sum, N is the number of users in the cell; W is the carrier bandwidth; and ρj, Rj and vj are the signal-to-noise ratio (Eb/N0) bit rate, and activity factor of the jth user, respectively. Multiplying Ior by (1+i) gives [Ior+Ior(i)] where Ior(i)=Ioc thereby allowing both intra-cell and inter-cell interference to be accounted for in ηUL. As may be seen from Equation 1, when ηUL tends to one, noise rise tends to infinity.

Once ηUL is calculated, noise rise is obtained according to:

Noise_risedB=-10·log[1-(1-αUL_+i+iβUL_)j=1N11+WρjRjvj]Equation(3)

In FIG. 1, steps for monitoring congestion in the UL based on UE measurements in a CDMA system having MUD capabilities are shown and indicated generally with reference number 10.

The method begins with step 12 by calculating the UL load factor (ηUL) preferably using equation 2, as explained above. In step 14, Equation 3 is preferably used to calculate the noise rise, as also explained above. The value of noise rise is proportional to congestion and is therefore evaluated in step 16 to determine whether congestion relieving measures should be implemented. If the value of noise rise is above a predetermined value, congestion relieving measures are implemented (step 18). The predetermined value of noise rise that is selected for triggering the congestion relieving measures may be any value. By way of example, in one embodiment, the predetermined value is between about 6dB and about 10dB.

If, in contrast, the value of noise rise is below the predetermined value, the method may start over at step 12. The method may start over at step 12 at a predetermined time interval. The predetermined time interval may be any amount of time, as desired. By way of example, in one embodiment, the time interval is between about 3 seconds to about 5 seconds.

In another embodiment of the invention, UL congestion detection may be based on RAN measurements. In this embodiment, both Ioc and Ior and both αUL and βUL may be defined by reading measurements available at the base station (BS). Therefore, in contrast to the first embodiment, ηUL and noise rise may be calculated without using a predetermined value to obtain Ioc.

More specifically, ηUL is obtained according to:

ηUL=1-noise_floortotal_perceived_interferenceEquation(4)

where the noise floor is again all noise that is not related to the system and the total perceived interference comprises all non-cancelled interference at the receiver. Since the elements needed to calculate total perceived power are known, the total perceived power may be calculated according to (1− αUL)Ior+(1+ βUL)Ioc thereby allowing ηUL to be calculated according to:

ηUL=1-noise_floor(1+βUL_)Ioc+(1-αUL_)IorEquation(5)

Once ηUL is obtained, the effective noise rise is obtained according to:

Noise_risedB=10·log[(1+βUL_)Ioc+(1-αUL_)Iornoise_floor]Equation(6)

In FIG. 2, steps for measuring and avoiding congestion in the UL based on RAN measurements in a CDMA system having MUD capabilities are shown and indicated generally with reference number 50.

The first step 52, is to measure the noise floor. Then, in step 54, to calculate ηUL preferably according to Equation 5, as explained above, where Ioc, Ior, αUL and βUL are defined by reading measurements available at the BS. In an alternate embodiment, however, the ratio αUL may be calculated according to:

α_ULi=1M[1-(Rx_code_poweri_·SFi)/SIR_i-Ioci_(total_perceived_interference_-Ioci_)-Rx_code_poweri_]M.Equation(7)

In that embodiment, βUL is considered negligible thereby eliminating the need for it to be read from the BS receiver. The additional parameters shown in Equation 7 are identified and defined from measurements taken at the BS receiver. By way of explanation, the additional parameters included in Equation 7 are Received Code Power for User i (Rx_Code_Poweri), Spreading Factor for User i (SFi), and Number of Active Codes in the Timeslot (M).

Once ηUL is obtained, noise rise is calculated according to Equation 6 in step 56. As with the embodiment shown in FIG. 1, the value of noise rise is proportional to congestion. Therefore, the value of noise rise is evaluated in step 58 to determine whether congestion relieving measures should be implemented. If the value of noise rise is above a predetermined value, congestion relieving measures are implemented (step 60). Alternatively, if the value of noise rise is below the predetermined value, the method may start over at step 52 at a predetermined time interval. As with the embodiment described in conjunction with FIG. 1, the predetermined values of noise rise and time interval may be any values, as desired.

The implementation of congestion relieving measures may be accomplished in a variety of ways. For example, the signal-to-noise ratio (Eb/N0) target of certain users may be reduced thereby forcing those users to reduce their transmission power. A drawback of this approach, however, is that those users will experience errors in the information transmitted and the quality of the link is greatly reduced.

A preferred method for relieving congestion is to reduce the data transmission rate of a particular user or users. Users determine their transmission power depending on the data transmission rate, spreading factor gain and maximum transmission power and path loss. Therefore, reducing the data transmission rate of a particular user, which implicitly reduces power, allows the same signal-to-noise ratio to be achieved with the same spreading gain, but with less power. Furthermore, in WCDMA TDD systems, reducing the data transmission rate implies that a certain user is not transmitting at all in a timeslot thereby providing the additional benefit of relieving congestion for that timeslot.

The preferred method for relieving congestion limits data transmission rate at the source; therefore no retransmissions are required. The selection of the user or users to whom the rates will be reduced is made by considering the transmitted power, received power and class of service. Those factors are considered for each user and may be considered individually, collectively or as a particular combination thereof, as desired. The user or users that contribute the most to the interference and have the lowest service class priority are preferably chosen as candidates for data rate reduction.

The preferred method for relieving congestion is shown in FIG. 3 and indicated generally with reference numeral 100. To begin, transmission power, received power and class of service are determined for each user in steps 102, 104 and 106, respectively. Then, in step 108, each user's contribution to noise rise is calculated. As explained, noise rise may be calculated according to Equation 3 or Equation 6, as desired.

In step 110, the user that collectively contributes the most to the noise rise and has the lowest service priority is selected. To determine the selected user, a predetermined weighting factor may be used for each parameter. It is important to note that any value may be used for the weighting factor so that the influence of priority and noise contribution in selecting a user may be adjusted as desired. Furthermore it may be desirable to use only one of those parameters or, alternatively, it may be desirable to use additional parameters which, like noise contribution and priority, may be weighted as desired. The criteria for selecting a user is completely flexible and may be any criteria which accurately identifies users having data transmission rates that may be reduced so as to reduce congestion. Therefore, the selected user may, for example, be determined according to:


User_selected=W1(priority)+W2(noise contribution) Equation 8

In step 112, the data transmission rate of the selected user is reduced. In step 113, the amount of congestion is evaluated to determine whether congestion has been relieved. If the corresponding reduction in the noise rise is sufficient to reduce the value of noise rise below the predetermined value at which congestion is detected, the method ends and congestion monitoring, as described in conjunction with FIGS. 1 and 2, may continue (step 114). Alternatively, if the congestion has not been relieved so that the value of noise rise is below the predetermined value, congestion still exists and the method 100 returns to step 110 or 102, as desired, and continues until the congestion is relieved.

Referring now to FIG. 4, a system 200 is shown for controlling congestion in the UL based on UE measurements. In system 200, congestion in the UL is monitored and controlled using UE measurements. The system 200 comprises at least one UE 202, a BS or node-B 214 and a radio network controller 210.

The UE comprises a receiver 203 having MUD capabilities, an Ior measuring device 204 and an Ior signaling device 206. The Ior measuring device 204 utilizes information available at the UE 202 to measure the amount of interference generated by the system within the cell in which the UE 202 is currently located. As previously explained, that type of interference is referred to as intra-cell interference (Ior).

The BS or node-B 214 includes a receiver 205 having a MUD and an Ior signal receiver 208. The Ior measured by measuring device 204 is transmitted from the Ior signaling device 206 of the UE 202 to the Ior signal receiver 208 of the BS or node-B 214. The BS or node-B 214 communicates the Ior to a radio network controller (RNC) 210 comprising a radio resource management (RRM) device 212. The RRM 212, in conjunction with the BS or node-B 214, if needed, processes Ior so that the total interference, as affected by the MUD(s) 203, 205, may be obtained. As explained above, the total interference may be obtained using Ior, αUL, βUL and i.

Once the total interference is obtained, ηUL and noise rise is also obtained. If the noise rise is above a predetermined value, each users' contribution to the noise rise is measured. Preferably, each users' transmission power, received power and class of service are also measured. The data transmission rate of the user currently having the highest contribution to noise rise and the lowest class of service is reduced as needed until the overall noise rise falls below the predetermined value. In other words, if reducing the data transmission rate of what was the highest contributor to noise rise is not sufficient to reduce noise rise to below the predetermined value, the method continues by recalculating each users' noise rise contribution and reducing the data transmission rate of the highest contributor. Alternatively, the method may continue by using the current user calculations and simply reduce the rate of the next highest contributor.

In FIG. 5, another embodiment of a system for controlling congestion in the UL is shown and indicated generally with reference numeral 300. In system 300, congestion in the UL is monitored and controlled using RAN measurements. The system 300 comprises at least one UE 301, a BS or node-B 306 and a RNC 308.

The UE 301 comprises a receiver 303 having MUD capabilities. The BS or node-B 306 includes a receiver 305 having MUD capabilities, an Ior measuring device 302 and an Ioc measuring device 304. The BS or node-B 306 communicates the Ior and Ioc to a radio network controller (RNC) 308 comprising a radio resource management (RRM) device 310. The RRM 310, in conjunction with the BS or node-B 306, if needed, processes Ior and Ioc so that the total interference, as affected by the MUD(s) 303, 305, may be obtained. As explained above, the total interference may be obtained using Ior, Ioc, αUL, and βUL.

Once the total interference is obtained, ηUL and noise rise is also obtained. If the noise rise is above a predetermined value, each users' contribution to the noise rise is measured. Preferably, each users' transmission power, received power and class of service is also measured. The data transmission rate of the user currently having the highest contribution to noise rise and the lowest class of service is reduced as needed until the overall noise rise falls below the predetermined value, as explained in connection with FIG. 4.

Although the present invention has been described in detail, it is to be understood that the invention is not limited thereto, and that various changes may be made therein without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention, which is defined by the attached claims.