Title:
BEVERAGE CONTAINER END CLOSURE WITH EASY OPENING FEATURES FOR A PULL TAB
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
An end closure for food and beverage containers is provided. The end closure comprises a central panel portion having a recessed fingerwell for facilitating access to and manipulation of a pull tab. The fingerwell may further comprise features such as rounded edges for reducing risks of laceration and increasing accessibility.



Inventors:
Frank, Dennis Keith (Lafayette, CO, US)
Application Number:
13/588843
Publication Date:
02/21/2013
Filing Date:
08/17/2012
Assignee:
BALL CORPORATION (Broomfield, CO, US)
Primary Class:
International Classes:
B65D17/34
View Patent Images:
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Primary Examiner:
POON, ROBERT
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Sheridan Ross PC (1560 Broadway Suite 1200 Denver CO 80202)
Claims:
What is claimed is:

1. A container end closure with a peripheral curl adapted for interconnection to a neck of a container, comprising: a chuck wall interconnected to said peripheral curl and extending downwardly therefrom; a countersink interconnected to a lower end of said chuck wall; an inner panel wall interconnected to said countersink and extending upwardly therefrom; a central panel interconnected to an upper end of said inner panel wall, wherein said central panel comprises a rivet for securing a pull tab, said pull tab comprising a forward end and a pull ring; and said central panel comprising a fingerwell portion extending downwardly below a substantially horizontal plane defined by said central panel, wherein said fingerwell defines an area and at least a portion of said pull ring of said pull tab extends over at least a portion of said area to facilitate insertion of a user's finger and lifting of said pull tab.

2. The container end closure of claim 1, wherein the fingerwell portion extends below a portion of the generally horizontal plane between approximately 0.035 inches and approximately 0.060 inches.

3. The container end closure of claim 1, wherein the fingerwell portion comprises a substantially ovoid depression.

4. The container end closure of claim 1, wherein the fingerwell portion extends downwardly below the generally horizontal plane at more than one angle on opposing sides.

5. The container end closure of claim 4, wherein a first downwardly extending angle comprises an angle oriented from a substantially horizontal plane between about 20-25 degrees and a second downwardly extending angle comprises an angle oriented from a substantially horizontal between approximately 28 and 33 degrees.

6. The container end closure of claim 4, wherein a first downwardly extending angle comprises an angle from a substantially horizontal plane of approximately 23.0 degrees and a second downwardly extending angle comprises an angle from a substantially horizontal plane of approximately 30.5 degrees, and wherein said first downwardly extending angle is in opposing relationship to said second downwardly extending angle.

7. The container end closure of claim 1, wherein a lowermost portion of said countersink extends below said central panel by an amount greater than said fingerwell extends below said central panel.

8. A metallic end closure with a peripheral curl adapted for interconnection to a neck of a container, comprising: a chuck wall interconnected to a lower end of said peripheral curl and generally extending inwardly therefrom; a countersink interconnected to a lower end of said chuck wall; an inner panel wall interconnected to said countersink; a central panel interconnected to an upper end of said inner panel wall; said central panel comprising a debossed area positioned below said central panel, said debossed area further comprising a rivet for securing a pull tab, said pull tab comprising a forward end and a tail end; and said debossed area comprising a fingerwell portion extending downwardly below a substantially horizontal plane defined by said debossed area, wherein said fingerwell defines a recessed area and at least a portion of said tail end of said pull tab extends over at least a portion of said recessed area to facilitate lifting of said pull tab with a user's fingers.

9. The container end closure of claim 8, wherein said generally horizontal plane defined by said debossed area is positioned approximately 0.035 inches above a lowermost portion of said fingerwell and a generally horizontal plane of said central panel is disposed approximately 0.059 inches above said lowermost portion of said fingerwell.

10. The container end closure of claim 8, wherein a lowermost portion of the fingerwell is separated from said debossed area by a first transition portion and separated from said central panel by a second transition portion, said first transition portion comprising an angle of between approximately 15 and 30 degrees, and said second transition portion comprising an angle of between approximately 25 and 35 degrees.

11. The container end closure of claim 10, wherein said first transition portion comprises an angle of approximately 23.0 degrees, and said second transition portion comprises an angle of approximately 30.50 degrees.

12. A metallic container end closure adapted for interconnection to a neck of a metal beverage container, the end closure comprising: a peripheral curl adapted for interconnection to the neck of the container; a chuck wall interconnected to the peripheral curl and extending downwardly therefrom; a countersink interconnected to a lower end of said chuck wall; an inner panel wall interconnected to said countersink; a central panel interconnected to an upper end of said inner panel wall; said central panel comprising a debossed area with a substantially tear drop shape, said debossed area disposed at a lower height than the central panel and wherein said debossed area comprises a rivet for securing a pull tab with a forward end and a tail end, said forward end positioned over selective opening area defined by a score line; and; said debossed area comprising a fingerwell portion extending below a substantially horizontal plane defined by said debossed area, wherein said fingerwell comprises a substantially planar lower portion and opposing side walls, said first opposing sidewall extending downwardly from said central panel and said second opposing sidewall extending downwardly from a portion of the debossed area, wherein said fingerwell portion has a perimeter edge with a substantially oval shape.

13. The metallic end closure of claim 12, wherein the first opposing sidewall portion extends downwardly from the debossed portion at an angle between approximately 25 degrees and 45 degrees with respect to a horizontal plane and the second opposing sidewall extends downwardly from the central panel at an angle of between about 25 and 35 degrees with respect to a substantially horizontal plane.

14. The metallic end closure of claim 12, wherein said beverage container holds a pressurized carbonated beverage.

15. The metallic end closure of claim 12, wherein said forward end of said pull tab is positioned over an opening area defined by a score line.

Description:

The present application claims priority to pending U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61/525,574, filed Aug. 19, 2011, the entire disclosure of which is hereby incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates generally to beverage container end closures. More specifically, the present invention relates to beverage container end closures with pull tabs and easy opening features including a deep fingerwell positioned proximate to the pull tab.

BACKGROUND

Food and beverage containers with pull tabs or stay-on-tabs (“SOTs”) are generally known. Various SOTs and related features are disclosed in, by way of example, U.S. Pat. No. 7,926,675 to Rieck et al., the entire disclosure of which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety. Known devices, however, generally position a distal or “tail” end of a pull tab in close proximity to the panel of the end closure to allow stacking of the end closures prior to and after filling of the beverage container. Such an arrangement, particularly where can contents are placed under pressure, pose various complications and challenges with operating the tab and opening a portion of the panel. Such complications include, but are not limited to difficulty in engaging or grasping the tab and risks of damage or injury to a user's finger(s) or fingernail(s).

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Accordingly, the present invention contemplates a novel system, device, and methods for providing a food and beverage container end closure with easy opening features for a pull tab disposed on the end closure, and more specifically a deep fingerwell to permit the access of a user's finger below the lift ring of a pull tab.

Features of the present disclosure may be employed in wide range of food and beverage containers, including pressurized beverage containers with SOTs secured by a rivet, food containers with tear away lids and full panel easy-open end tabs, to name a few.

Many users of conventional devices, such as SOTs for pressurized containers, have difficulty performing various opening functions. Opening of containers may be frustrated by, for example, difficulty in accessing the underside of a tab, pressure being applied to sensitive areas of one's fingertip, and breakage of fingernails. A significant cause of such frustrations lies in the fact that many known end closures comprise a tab which rests flush against the end panel, particularly when container contents are under pressure. The present invention provides for a plethora of improvements over known devices. End closures of the present disclosure provide, for example, the structural features and benefits, stacking abilities, and ease of manufacture of various known devices, and further provide a deep fingerwell recess allowing for ease of access to the operative (i.e. bottom) side of tab, thereby increasing user-friendliness of the device.

The Summary of the Invention is neither intended nor should it be construed as being representative of the full extent and scope of the present disclosure. The present disclosure is set forth in various levels of detail in the Summary of the Invention as well as in the attached drawings and the Detailed Description of the Invention and no limitation as to the scope of the present disclosure is intended by either the inclusion or non-inclusion of elements, components, etc. in this Summary of the Invention. Additional aspects of the present disclosure will become more readily apparent from the Detailed Description, particularly when taken together with the drawings.

For purposes of further disclosure, the following references generally related to end panels and SOTs are hereby incorporated by reference in their entireties: Japanese Patent Publication Number JP2002145263 to Yoshihiko and Japanese Patent Publication Number JP2000159229 to Yoshihiko.

In various embodiments, an end closure is provided with a SOT and a dimple shaped fingerwell in the panel. The fingerwell is preferably disposed generally proximal to a distal or user end of the tab. In one embodiment, the fingerwell is disposed such that at least a portion of the tab extends over at least a portion of an area defined by the fingerwell and facilitates user-access to an underside of the tab for lifting.

In one embodiment, an end closure with a fingerwell is provided, the fingerwell having a generally rounded shape when viewed from a top plan view. In various embodiments, a fingerwell is provided having a depth of between approximately 0.010″ and approximately 0.060″ as measured from the panel. In a preferred embodiment, a fingerwell is provided having a depth of between approximately 0.020″ and approximately 0.050″ as measured from the panel. In a more preferred embodiment, a fingerwell is provided having a depth of between approximately 0.025″ and approximately 0.040″ as measured from the panel.

In various embodiments, an end closure with a deep fingerwell and improved geometry is provided to allow access to a pull tab and provide for increased normal force to be imparted upon the pull tab. For example, the present invention contemplates the provision of a fingerwell preferably sized to allow for user access to a pull tab and allow for greater normal force to be applied to the pull tab when compared with known devices. It is known, for example, that existing pull tabs are not only difficult to access but further result in a significant amount of the force being applied to the pull tab in a direction or vector parallel with an opening area. Such a force places stress upon a rivet and provides reduced ability to score or open an opening area. Fingerwells of various embodiments of the present invention allow for a user to provide an initial force upon the tab with an increased degree of normal force, further facilitating opening operations.

Furthermore, based on the distinct geometry of the end closure and associated deep fingerwell, improved strength and buckle resistance are obtained. Furthermore, the improved end closure allows the stacking of multiple end closures and filled food or beverage containers.

In one embodiment, a metallic container end closure adapted for interconnection to a neck of a metal beverage container is provided. The end closure comprises: a peripheral curl adapted for interconnection to the neck of the container; a chuck wall interconnected to the peripheral curl and extending downwardly therefrom; a countersink interconnected to a lower end of the chuck wall; an inner panel wall interconnected to the countersink; a central panel interconnected to an upper end of the inner panel wall; the central panel comprising a debossed area with a substantially tear drop shape, the debossed area disposed at a lower height than the central panel and wherein the debossed area comprises a rivet for securing a pull tab with a forward end and a tail end, the forward end positioned over selective opening area defined by a score line; and the debossed area comprising a fingerwell portion extending below a substantially horizontal plane defined by the debossed area, wherein the fingerwell comprises a substantially planar lower portion and opposing side walls, the first opposing sidewall extending downwardly from the central panel and the second opposing sidewall extending downwardly from a portion of the debossed area, wherein the fingerwell portion has a perimeter edge with a substantially oval shape.

These and other advantages will be apparent from the disclosure of the invention(s) contained herein. The above-described embodiments, objectives, and configurations are neither complete nor exhaustive. As will be appreciated, other embodiments of the invention are possible using, alone or in combination, one or more of the features set forth above or described in detail below. Further, the summary of the invention is neither intended nor should it be construed as being representative of the full extent and scope of the present invention. The present invention is set forth in various levels of detail in the summary of the invention, as well as, in the attached drawings and the detailed description of the invention and no limitation as to the scope of the present invention is intended to either the inclusion or non-inclusion of elements, components, etc. in this summary of the invention. Additional aspects of the present invention will become more readily apparent from the detailed description, particularly when taken together with the drawings.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

Those of skill in the art will recognize that the following description is merely illustrative of the principles of the disclosure, which may be applied in various ways to provide many different alternative embodiments. This description is made for illustrating the general principles of the teachings of this disclosure invention and is not meant to limit the inventive concepts disclosed herein.

The accompanying drawings, which are incorporated in and constitute a part of the specification, illustrate embodiments of the disclosure and together with the general description of the disclosure given above and the detailed description of the drawings given below, serve to explain the principles of the disclosures.

It should be understood that the drawings are not necessarily to scale. In certain instances, details that are not necessary for an understanding of the disclosure or that render other details difficult to perceive may have been omitted. It should be understood, of course, that the disclosure is not necessarily limited to the particular embodiments illustrated herein.

FIG. 1 is a cross-sectional side elevation view of a portion of an end closure according to one embodiment of the present disclosure;

FIG. 2 is a top plan view of a portion of an end closure according to one embodiment of the present disclosure;

FIG. 3 is a top view of a fingerwell feature according to one embodiment of the present disclosure;

FIG. 4 is a front cross-sectional view of a portion of an end closure according to one embodiment of the present disclosure;

FIG. 5 is a side cross-sectional view of a portion of an end closure according to one embodiment of the present disclosure;

FIG. 6 is a perspective view of a forming tool according to one embodiment of the present disclosure;

FIG. 7 is a perspective view of a forming tool according to one embodiment of the present disclosure;

FIG. 8 is a top plan view of an end closure according to one embodiment of the present disclosure; and

FIG. 9 is a side cross-sectional view of an end closure according to one embodiment of the present disclosure.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

The present invention has significant benefits across a broad spectrum of endeavors. It is the applicant's intent that this specification and the claims appended hereto be accorded a breadth in keeping with the scope and spirit of the invention being disclosed despite what might appear to be limiting language imposed by the requirements of referring to the specific examples disclosed. To acquaint persons skilled in the pertinent arts most closely related to the present invention, a preferred embodiment of the method that illustrates the best mode now contemplated for putting the invention into practice is described herein by, and with reference to, the annexed drawings that form a part of the specification. The exemplary method is described in detail without attempting to describe all of the various forms and modifications in which the invention might be embodied. As such, the embodiments described herein are illustrative, and as will become apparent to those skilled in the art and which can be modified in numerous ways within the scope and spirit of the invention.

Although the following text sets forth a detailed description of numerous different embodiments, it should be understood that the legal scope of the description is defined by the words of the claims set forth at the end of this disclosure. The detailed description is to be construed as exemplary only and does not describe every possible embodiment since describing every possible embodiment would be impractical, if not impossible. Numerous alternative embodiments could be implemented, using either current technology or technology developed after the filing date of this patent, which would still fall within the scope of the claims.

To the extent that any term recited in the claims at the end of this patent is referred to in this patent in a manner consistent with a single meaning, that is done for sake of clarity only so as to not confuse the reader, and it is not intended that such claim term by limited, by implication or otherwise, to that single meaning Finally, unless a claim element is defined by reciting the word “means” and a function without the recital of any structure, it is not intended that the scope of any claim element be interpreted based on the application of 35 U.S.C. §112, sixth paragraph.

Referring now to FIGS. 1-9, a beverage container end closure and methods and devices for forming the same according to various embodiments of the present invention are shown. It should be understood that the drawings are not necessarily to scale. In certain instances, details that are not necessary for an understanding of the invention or that render other details difficult to perceive may have been omitted from these drawings. It should be understood, of course, that the invention is not limited to the particular embodiments illustrated in the drawings.

FIG. 1 depicts a portion of an end closure 2 for a food or beverage container in cross-sectional side view. A tab 4 is provided for selectively opening an opening area which is defined by a score line (not shown). The tab 4 may be secured to the end closure 2 through a variety of known devices and means including, for example, a rivet. As shown in FIG. 1, at least a portion of the tab pull ring 4 extends over a fingerwell 10, the fingerwell 10 comprising a defined area which is recessed below a central panel 18. The panel 18 extends into a countersink 12, corresponding chuck wall 15, and peripheral curl 14 for attaching the end closure to a container (not shown). In a preferred embodiment, the fingerwell 10 is sized and positioned such that a portion of the tab 4 extends over a portion of the area defined by the fingerwell 10. As shown, a portion of the area defined by the fingerwell 10 remains unobstructed to allow a user's finger, for example, to access the distal end of the tab 4 and lift the tab. In various embodiments, a fingerwell 10 of the present invention comprises generally rounded or contoured features, such rounded edges or contours on the upper or public side of the end closure so as to reduce the risk of laceration to a user or other items, as well facilitate access to an underside of a tab. In certain embodiments, the fingerwell 10 has a geometry adapted to receive a specific type of tool such as a church key, bottle opener, coin, etc.

FIG. 2 depicts a portion of an end closure 2 for a food or beverage container in top plan view. As shown, the end closure comprises a fingerwell 10, the fingerwell 10 comprising a substantially ovoid recession in the panel. It will be expressly recognized, however, that fingerwells of the present invention may comprise any number of shapes. In one embodiment, a fingerwell 10 is provided that generally comprises the cross-sectional shape of a human finger (i.e. a “D” shape).

In various embodiments, the end closure comprises a debossed central portion 16 containing the tab 4 and opening area of the closure. The central portion 18 of the panel terminates in a countersink 12, which is further connected to an outside or peripheral curl 14 by a chuck wall 15.

Various methods of forming an end closure with a fingerwell are provided. In one embodiment, a method is provided comprising the steps of: providing a blank end panel, forming a rivet at a substantially central location on the end panel, coining the panel, providing one or more scores for an opening area, providing in a single step: a debossed panel and a fingerwell portion; and securing a pull tab.

FIG. 3 is a top plan view of a fingerwell feature 10 of the present disclosure. As shown, the fingerwell 10 comprises a substantially ovoid shape comprising more than one radius of curvature. The fingerwell 10 comprises a lowermost portion 10a and a transition portion 10b. The transition portion 10b is angled or sloped at one or more angles and interconnects the lowermost portion 10a to the panel 18. In the depicted embodiment, transition portion 10b comprises a first portion 6 and second portion 8, first 6 and second 8 portion comprising different slopes or angles adjoining the lowermost portion 10a to the panel, as will be described in additional detail herein. As shown in FIG. 3, various radii of curvature are provided. In various embodiments, a first radius of curvature R1 comprises a radius of between approximately 0.25 and 0.50 inches. More preferably, R1 comprises a radius of between approximately 0.30 and 0.35 inches. In a preferred embodiment, R1 comprises a radius of 0.3421 inches. In various embodiments, a second radius of curvature R2 comprises a radius of between approximately 0.50 and 0.60 inches. More preferably, R2 comprises a radius of between approximately 0.55 and 0.59 inches. In a preferred embodiment, R2 comprises a radius of 0.5825 inches. In various embodiments, a third radius of curvature R3 comprises a radius of between approximately 0.030 and 0.050 inches. More preferably, R3 comprises a radius of between approximately 0.035 and 0.045 inches. In a preferred embodiment, R3 comprises a radius of 0.0400 inches. In various embodiments, a fourth radius of curvature R4 comprises a radius of between approximately 0.09 and 0.12 inches. More preferably, R4 comprises a radius of between approximately 0.10 and 0.115 inches. In a preferred embodiment, R4 comprises a radius of 0.1125 inches.

R1 of FIG. 3 designates a radius of curvature of a debossed portion provided on the panel (see FIG. 2). As shown, the debossed portion of the panel extends slightly beyond the fingerwell portion 10 at one portion of the fingerwell in the depicted embodiment. The central panel (not shown in FIG. 3) comprises a greater radius.

FIG. 4 is a front cross-sectional view of a portion of an end closure of the present invention. Specifically, a cross-sectional view through the widest portion of a fingerwell 10 is provided. As shown, the fingerwell comprises a depth of approximately 0.0579 inches from the panel. The fingerwell extends upwardly from the centerline in a generally symmetric fashion.

FIG. 5 is a cross-sectional side view of a portion of an end closure of the present disclosure. As shown, one embodiment is provided wherein a fingerwell 10 comprises a first depth below a corresponding panel portion for securing a tab (not shown) of approximately 0.03576 inches and a second depth below an additional portion of the panel adjacent a countersink of approximately 0.05924 inches. As shown, a particular embodiment is provided wherein the fingerwell portion comprises a first surface 6 extending from the panel at an angle of approximately 23 degrees and a second surface 8 extending from the panel at an angle of approximately 30.5 degrees. In alternative embodiments the first surface may be oriented at an angle between about 15-30 degrees, while the second surface may be oriented at an angle between about 25-35 degrees. Accordingly, it will be recognized that fingerwells of the present invention may, but need not be, symmetrical features. Embodiments of the present disclosure contemplate various depths of fingerwells, both with respect to a debossed portion and a central panel portion. For example, embodiments of the present disclosure contemplate a fingerwell having a depth (i.e. a vertical distance between a lowermost portion of the fingerwell and a debossed portion) of between approximately 0.025 inches and approximately 0.050 inches. Preferred embodiments of the present disclosure contemplate a fingerwell having a depth of between approximately 0.030 inches and approximately 0.045 inches. One preferred embodiments of the present disclosure provides a fingerwell features with a depth of approximately 0.03576 inches.

FIG. 6 is a perspective view of a tool 30 for forming an end closure with a deep fingerwell in accordance with the present disclosure. Devices for forming an end closure comprising, for example, a debossed central panel and a recessed fingerwell with easy-opening and/or safety as discussed herein are provided. FIG. 6 depicts an insert or tool 30 for contacting and forming an upper or public side of a panel with a fingerwell feature. Protrusion 32 is provided for forming a fingerwell, the resulting fingerwell generally comprising the inverse shape as protrusion 32. Additional features and voids are provided corresponding to additional panel features including, for example, a tab rotation element 34, a rivet or rivet area 36 and an opening area 38. Devices and methods of the present disclosure contemplate forming a fingerwell portion on an end panel at various stages of panel formation. For example, a fingerwell portion may be formed on an end panel before, during, or after formation of features such as debossed features, rivets, score lines, opening areas, etc. In one embodiment, a forming tool 30 is provided to form a fingerwell with a protrusion 32, while recessed portions 34, 36, 38 of the tool 30 accommodate various preformed features of the panel.

FIG. 7 is a perspective view of a panel support tool 40 for forming a panel in accordance with the present disclosure. In various embodiments, tool 40 is provided in combination with additional forming tool 30. For example, forming tool 30 is provided above a panel to be formed or modified and support tool 40 is provided below the panel to be formed or modified. Support tool 40 comprises receiving area 42 for receiving a portion of the panel and forming a fingerwell in combination with corresponding protrusion 32 (see FIG. 6). Additional features or voids are provided for accommodating additional panel features, such as a rivet void 46, a tab rotation element void 44 and an opening area void 48.

FIG. 8 is a top view of one embodiment of an end closure 2 comprising a fingerwell 10, a lift tab 4, a peripheral curl 14, a central panel 18, and a debossed area 16. FIG. 8 depicts a preferred embodiment of the arrangement of these various features with respect to one another. It will be expressly recognized, however, that variations of the embodiment shown in FIG. 8, particularly with respect to dimensions and proportions, are expressly contemplated as within the scope and spirit of the present disclosure.

FIG. 9 is a side cross-sectional view of one embodiment of an end closure 2 comprising a fingerwell 10, a peripheral curl 14, a central panel 18, a debossed area 16, a first 6 portion and a second 8 portion. In various embodiments, the fingerwell portion comprises a surface of a first 6 portion extending from the fingerwell at an angle of between approximately 10 degrees and 60 degrees. More preferably, the fingerwell portion comprises a surface of a first 6 portion extending from the fingerwell at an angle of between approximately 25 degrees and 45 degrees. Furthermore, as shown, a particular embodiment is provided wherein the depth of fingerwell 10, with respect to debossed area 16, is between approximately 0.015 inches and approximately 0.060 inches. More preferably, the depth of fingerwell 10, with respect to debossed area 16, is between approximately 0.030 inches and approximately 0.045 inches.

An opening operation of an end closure 2 is provided by the present disclosure. A pull tab 4 is initially provided in a closed state wherein the fingerwell 10 allows access to at least a portion of the tab 4 such that a greater lifting or normal force may be applied to the pull ring of the tab 4. Accordingly, opening operations are facilitated by creating a greater corresponding downward normal force at the nose of the tab 4 to sever a score line and/or force open an opening area. In this manner, embodiments of the present disclosure provide distinct advantages over known devices which require or result in a substantial amount of an initial force applied to a pull tab to be directed parallel to the panel. Whereas known devices do not maximize or achieve a normal force upon the pull tab and/or opening until a portion of opening operations are completed, the present invention provides for a greater application of perpendicular force to a pull tab when an opening area is in a completely closed state, as well as throughout opening operations.

While various embodiments of the present invention have been described in detail, it is apparent that modifications and alterations of those embodiments will occur to those skilled in the art. However, it is to be expressly understood that such modifications and alterations are within the scope and spirit of the present invention, as set forth in the following claims. Further, the invention(s) described herein are capable of other embodiments and of being practiced or of being carried out in various ways. In addition, it is to be understood that the phraseology and terminology used herein is for the purposes of description and should not be regarded as limiting. The use of “including,” “comprising,” or “adding” and variations thereof herein are meant to encompass the items listed thereafter and equivalents thereof, as well as, additional items.





 
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