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Title:
Pyridine Carboxamide orexin Receptor Antagonists
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
The present invention is directed to pyridyl carboxamide compounds which are antagonists of orexin receptors, and which are useful in the treatment or prevention of neurological and psychiatric disorders and diseases in which orexin receptors are involved. The invention is also directed to pharmaceutical compositions comprising these compounds and the use of these compounds and compositions in the prevention or treatment of such diseases in which orexin receptors are involved.


Inventors:
Bergman, Jeffrey M. (Sellersville, PA, US)
Coleman, Paul J. (Harleysville, PA, US)
Fraley, Mark E. (North Wales, PA, US)
Mercer, Swati P. (Philadelphia, PA, US)
Reger, Thomas S. (Lansdale, PA, US)
Roecker, Anthony J. (North Wales, PA, US)
Steen, Justin T. (Lansdale, PA, US)
Application Number:
13/197800
Publication Date:
12/08/2011
Filing Date:
08/04/2011
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
514/227.8, 514/235.5, 514/249, 514/255.05, 514/333, 514/334, 514/339, 514/343, 544/58.6, 544/131, 544/353, 544/405, 546/256, 546/257, 546/276.4, 546/277.4
International Classes:
A61K31/541; A61K31/4439; A61K31/444; A61K31/497; A61K31/498; A61K31/5377; A61P3/04; A61P25/20; C07D401/04; C07D401/14; C07D413/14; C07D417/04
View Patent Images:
Claims:
1. A compound of the formula I: embedded image wherein: A1 is selected from the group consisting of phenyl, naphthyl and heteroaryl; A2 is selected from the group consisting of phenyl, naphthyl and heteroaryl; A3 is selected from the group consisting of phenyl, naphthyl, C3-6cycloalkyl, and heterocycle, with the provisio that if A1 is heteroaryl and A2 is heteroaryl, then A3 is other then phenyl or napthyl; R1a, R1b and R1c may be absent if the valency of A1 does not permit such substitution and are independently selected from the group consisting of: (1) hydrogen, (2) halogen, (3) hydroxyl, (4) —(C═O)mOn—C1-6alkyl, where m is 0 or 1, n is 0 or 1 (wherein if m is 0 or n is 0, a bond is present) and where the alkyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from R13, (5) —(C═O)m—On—C3-6cycloalkyl, where the cycloalkyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from R13, (6) —(C═O)m—C2-4alkenyl, where the alkenyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from R13, (7) —(C═O)m—C2-4alkynyl, where the alkynyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from R13, (8) —(C═O)m—On-phenyl or —(C═O)m—On-napthyl, where the phenyl or naphthyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from R13, (9) —(C═O)m—On-heterocycle, where the heterocycle is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from R13, (10) —(C═O)m—NR10R11, wherein R10 and R11 are independently selected from the group consisting of: (a) hydrogen, (b) C1-6alkyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with R13, (c) C3-6alkenyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with R13, (d) C3-6alkynyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with R13, (e) C3-6cycloalkyl which is unsubstituted or substituted with R13, (f) phenyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with R13, and (g) heterocycle, which is unsubstituted or substituted with R13, (11) —S(O)2—NR10R11, (12) —S(O)q—R12, where q is 0, 1 or 2 and where R12 is selected from the definitions of R10 and R11, (13) —CO2H, (14) —CN, and (15) —NO2; R2a, R2b and R2c may be absent if the valency of A2 does not permit such substitution and are independently selected from the group consisting of: (1) hydrogen, (2) halogen, (3) hydroxyl, (4) —(C═O)m—On—C1-6alkyl, where the alkyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from R13, (5) —(C═O)m—On—C3-6cycloalkyl, where the cycloalkyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from R13, (6) —(C═O)m—C2-4alkenyl, where the alkenyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from R13, (7) —(C═O)m—C2-4alkynyl, where the alkynyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from R13, (8) —(C═O)m—On-phenyl or —(C═O)m—On-napthyl, where the phenyl or naphthyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from R13, (9) —(C═O)m—On-heterocycle, where the heterocycle is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from R13, (10) —(C═O)m—NR10R11, (11) —S(O)2—NR10R11, (12) —S(O)q—R12, (13) —CO2H, (14) —CN, and (15) —NO2; R3a, R3b and R3c may be absent if the valency of A3 does not permit such substitution and are independently selected from the group consisting of: (1) hydrogen, (2) halogen, (3) hydroxyl, (4) —(C═O)m—On—C1-6alkyl, where the alkyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from R13, (5) —(C═O)m—On—C3-6cycloalkyl, where the cycloalkyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from R13, (6) —(C═O)m—C2-4alkenyl, where the alkenyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from R13, (7) —(C═O)m—C2-4alkynyl, where the alkynyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from R13, (8) —(C═O)m—On-phenyl or —(C═O)m—On-napthyl, where the phenyl or naphthyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from R13, (9) —(C═O)m—On-heterocycle, where the heterocycle is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from R13, (10) —(C═O)m—NR10R11, (11) —S(O)2—NR10R11, (12) —S(O)q—R12, (13) —CO2H, (14) —CN, and (15) —NO2; with the proviso that if A3 is pyridyl, at least one of R3a, R3b and R3c is other than hydrogen; R4 and R5 are independently selected from hydrogen and C1-6alkyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from R13, or R4 and R5 may be joined together to form a C3-6cycloalkyl with the carbon atom to which they are attached, where the cycloalkyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from R13; R6 is hydrogen, C1-6alkyl or C3-6cycloalkyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from R13; R13 is selected from the group consisting of: (1) halogen, (2) hydroxyl, (3) —(C═O)m—On—C1-6alkyl, where the alkyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from R14, (4) —On—(C1-3)perfluoroalkyl, (5) —(C═O)m—On—C3-6cycloalkyl, where the cycloalkyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from R14, (6) —(C═O)m—C2-4alkenyl, where the alkenyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from R14, (7) —(C═O)m—C2-4alkynyl, where the alkynyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from R14, (8) —(C═O)m—On-phenyl or —(C═O)m—On-napthyl, where the phenyl or naphthyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from R14, (9) —(C═O)m—On-heterocycle, where the heterocycle is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from R14, (10) —(C═O)m—NR10R11, (11) —S(O)2—NR10R11, (12) —S(O)q—R12, (13) —CO2H, (14) —CN, and (15) —NO2; R14 is selected from the group consisting of: (1) hydroxyl, (2) halogen, (3) C1-6alkyl, (4) —C3-6cycloalkyl, (5) —O—C1-6alkyl, (6) —O(C═O)—C1-6alkyl, (7) —NH—C1-6alkyl, (8) phenyl, (9) heterocycle, (10) —CO2H, and (11) —CN; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

2. The compound of claim 1 wherein A1 is phenyl.

3. The compound of claim 1 wherein A1 is pyridyl.

4. The compound of claim 1 wherein A2 is phenyl.

5. The compound of claim 1 wherein A2 is heteroaryl.

6. The compound of claim 1 wherein A3 is phenyl.

7. The compound of claim 1 wherein R1a, R1b and R1c are independently selected from the group consisting of: (1) hydrogen, (2) halogen, (3) hydroxyl, (4) C1-6alkyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with halogen, hydroxyl, phenyl or napthyl, (5) —O—C1-6alkyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with halogen, hydroxyl or phenyl, (6) heteroaryl, wherein heteroaryl is selected from pyrrolyl, imidazolyl, indolyl, pyridyl, and pyrimidinyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with halogen, hydroxyl, C1-6alkyl, —O—C1-6alkyl or —NO2, (7) phenyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with halogen, hydroxyl, C1-6alkyl, —O—C1-6alkyl or —NO2, (8) —O-phenyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with halogen, hydroxyl, C1-6alkyl, —O—C1-6alkyl or —NO2, and (9) —NH—C1-6alkyl, or —N(C1-6alkyl)(C1-6alkyl), which is unsubstituted or substituted with halogen, hydroxyl, C1-6alkyl, —O—C1-6alkyl or —NO2.

8. The compound of claim 7 wherein R1a, R1b and R1c are independently selected from the group consisting of: (1) hydrogen, (2) halogen, (3) hydroxyl, (4) C1-6alkyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with halogen, hydroxyl or phenyl or napthyl, and (5) —O—C1-6alkyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with halogen, hydroxyl or phenyl.

9. The compound of claim 8 wherein R1a, R1b and R1c are independently selected from the group consisting of: (1) hydrogen, (2) chloro, (3) fluroro, and (4) methyl.

10. The compound of claim 1 wherein R2a, R2b and R2c are independently selected from the group consisting of: (1) hydrogen, (2) halogen, (3) hydroxyl, (4) C1-6alkyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with halogen, hydroxyl or phenyl or napthyl, (5) —O—C1-6alkyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with halogen, hydroxyl or phenyl, (6) heteroaryl, wherein heteroaryl is selected from pyrrolyl, imidazolyl, indolyl, pyridyl, and pyrimidinyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with halogen, hydroxyl, C1-6alkyl, —O—C1-6alkyl or —NO2, (7) phenyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with halogen, hydroxyl, C1-6alkyl, —O—C1-6alkyl or —NO2, (8) —O-phenyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with halogen, hydroxyl, C1-6alkyl, —O—C1-6alkyl or —NO2, and (9) —NH—C1-6alkyl, or —N(C1-6alkyl)(C1-6alkyl), which is unsubstituted or substituted with halogen, hydroxyl, C1-6alkyl, —O—C1-6alkyl or —NO2.

11. The compound of claim 10 wherein R2a, R2b and R2c are independently selected from the group consisting of: (1) hydrogen, (2) chloro, (3) fluoro, (4) bromo, (5) methoxy, (6) t-butoxy, (7) difluoromethyl, and (8) trifluoromethyl, (9) —N(CH3).

12. The compound of claim 1 wherein R3a, R3b and R3c are independently selected from the group consisting of: (1) hydrogen, (2) halogen, (3) hydroxyl, (4) C1-6alkyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with halogen, hydroxyl, phenyl or napthyl, (5) —O—C1-6alkyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with halogen, hydroxyl or phenyl, (6) heteroaryl, wherein heteroaryl is selected from pyrrolyl, imidazolyl, indolyl, pyridyl, and pyrimidinyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with halogen, hydroxyl, C1-6alkyl, —O—C1-6alkyl or —NO2, (7) phenyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with halogen, hydroxyl, C1-6 alkyl, —O—C1-6alkyl or —NO2, (8) —O-phenyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with halogen, hydroxyl, C1-6alkyl, —O—C1-6alkyl or —NO2, and (9) —NH—C1-6alkyl, or —N(C1-6alkyl)(C1-6alkyl), which is unsubstituted or substituted with halogen, hydroxyl, C1-6alkyl, —O—C1-6alkyl or —NO2; with the proviso that if A3 is pyridyl, at least one of R3a, R3b and R3c is other than hydrogen.

13. The compound of claim 12 wherein R3a, R3b and R3c are independently selected from the group consisting of: (1) hydrogen, (2) halogen, and (3) C1-6alkyl; with the proviso that if A3 is pyridyl, at least one of R3a, R3b and R3c is other than hydrogen.

14. A compound which is selected from the group consisting of: N-(3,4-Dimethoxybenzyl)-5-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)-2-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)nicotinamide; N-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-5-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)-6′-fluoro-2,3′-bipyridine-3-carboxamide; N-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-5-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)-2-quinolin-3-ylnicotinamide; N-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-5-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)-2-(3-hydroxyphenyl)nicotinamide; N-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-5-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)-2-{3-[(methylamino)carbonyl]phenyl}-nicotinamide; N-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2-{3-[(dimethylamino)methyl]phenyl}-5-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)nicotinamide; N-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-5-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)-2-(1H-indol-5-yl)nicotinamide; 5-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)-N-[(1R)-1-(3-methoxyphenyl)ethyl]-2-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)nicotinamide; 5-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)-2-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-N-(quinolin-2-ylmethyl)nicotinamide; N-[(5,6-dimethoxypyridin-3-yl)methyl]-5-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)-2-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)nicotinamide; 5-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-N-[(2,3-dimethyl-1H-indol-6-yl)methyl]-2-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)nicotinamide; 5-(3-fluoro-5-methylphenyl)-2-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-N-[(1R)-1-(2-naphthyl)ethyl]nicotinamide; 5-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)-2-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-N-(2-naphthylmethyl)nicotinamide; 5-(3-fluoro-5-methylphenyl)-2-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-N-(2-naphthylmethyl)nicotinamide; 5-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)-2-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-N-(quinolin-3-ylmethyl)nicotinamide; 5-(3-Chloro-5-methylphenyl)-N-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)nicotinamide; 5-(3,5-fluoromethylphenyl)-N-[1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl]-2-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)nicotinamide; 5-(3,5-fluoromethylphenyl)-N-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)nicotinamide; 5-(3,5-chloromethylphenyl)-N-[(2,3-dimethyl-1-H-indol-5-yl)methyl]-2-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)nicotinamide; 5-(3,5-chloromethylphenyl)-N-(2-naphthylmethyl)-2-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)nicotinamide; 5-(3,5-fluoromethylphenyl)-N-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2-pyridazin-3-yl-nicotinamide; 5-(3,5-chloromethylphenyl)-N-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)-2-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)nicotinamide; 5-(3,5-fluoromethylphenyl)-N-[1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl]-6′-fluoro-2,3′-bipyridine-3-carboxamide; 5-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-N-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-5′-chloro-2,3′-bipyridine-3-carboxamide; 5-(3,5-chloromethylphenyl)-N-[(1-methyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)methyl]-2-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)nicotinamide; 5-(3,5-chloromethylphenyl)-N-[(1-methyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-indol-5-yl)methyl]-2-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)nicotinamide; 5-(3,5-chloromethylphenyl)-N-[(1,4-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoxalin-6-yl)methyl]-2-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)nicotinamide; 5-(3,5-chloromethylphenyl)-N-[(1,4,5-trimethyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)methyl]-2-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)nicotinamide; 5-(3,5-fluoromethylphenyl)-N-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)nicotinamide; 5-(3,5-chloromethylphenyl)-N-(3,4-dihydroxybenzyl)-2-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)nicotinamide; 5-(3,5-chloromethylphenyl)-N-[(1-methyl-1H-indol-2-yl)methyl]-2-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)nicotinamide; 5-(3-chloro-5-methylphenyl)-N-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2-(morpholin-4-yl)nicotinamide; 5-(3-chloro-5-methylphenyl)-N-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2-piperidin-1-ylnicotinamide; 5-(3-chloro-5-methylphenyl)-N-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2-pyrrolidin-1-ylnicotinamide; 2-azetidin-1-yl-5-(3-chloro-5-methylphenyl)-N-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-nicotinamide; 5-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-N-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2-(3-methoxyazetidin-1-yl)nicotinamide; 5-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-N-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2-(3-fluoroazetidin-1-yl)nicotinamide; 5-(3-chloro-5-methylphenyl)-N-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2-[(3R)-3-fluoropyrrolidin-1-yl]nicotinamide; 5-(3-chloro-5-methylphenyl)-N-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2-thiomorpholin-4-ylnicotinamide; 5-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-N-[(5,6-dimethoxypyridin-2-yl)methyl]-2-morpholin-4-ylnicotinamide; 5′-chloro-N-[(5,6-dimethoxypyridin-2-yl)methyl]-6-morpholin-4-yl-3,3′-bipyridine-5-carboxamide; N-[(5,6-dimethoxypyridin-2-yl)methyl]-5′-methyl-6-morpholin-4-yl-3,3′-bipyridine-5-carboxamide; 5-(3-chloro-5-methylphenyl)-N-[(5,6-dimethoxypyrazin-2-yl)methyl]-2-morpholin-4-ylnicotinamide; N-[4-methoxy-3-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl]-5′-methyl-6-pyrrolidin-1-yl-3,3′-bipyridine-5-carboxamide; N-(3-chloro-4-methoxybenzyl)-5′-methyl-6-pyrrolidin-1-yl-3,3′-bipyridine-5-carboxamide; 5′-methyl-6-(3-methyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-N-[(1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolin-6-yl)methyl]-3,3′-bipyridine-5-carboxamide; N-[(5,6-dimethoxypyridin-2-yl)methyl]-5-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)-2-(4-methyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)nicotinamide; 5-(3-chloro-5-fluorophenyl)-N-[(5,6-dimethoxypyridin-2-yl)methyl]-2-(4-methyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)nicotinamide; N-(3-cyclopropyl-4-methoxybenzyl)-5′-methyl-6-(3-methyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-3,3′-bipyridine-5-carboxamide; N-(3-chloro-4-methoxybenzyl)-5-(3-fluoro-5-methoxyphenyl)-2-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)nicotinamide; N-(3-chloro-4-methoxybenzyl)-5′-methyl-6-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-3,3′-bipyridine-5-carboxamide; N-[(5,6-dimethoxypyridin-2-yl)methyl]-5′-methyl-6-(3-methyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-3,3′-bipyridine-5-carboxamide; N-(3-ethyl-4-methoxybenzyl)-5′-methyl-6-(3-methyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-3,3′-bipyridine-5-carboxamide; N-(3-chloro-4-methoxybenzyl)-5′-methyl-6-(3-methyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-3,3′-bipyridine-5-carboxamide; 5-(3-chloro-5-methylphenyl)-N-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2-(4-methyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)nicotinamide; 6-cyclopentyl-N-[(5,6-dimethoxypyridin-2-yl)methyl]-5′-methyl-3,3′-bipyridine-5-carboxamide; 6-cyclopentyl-N-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-5′-methyl-3,3′-bipyridine-5-carboxamide; N-(3-chloro-4-methoxybenzyl)-6-cyclopentyl-5′-methyl-3,3′-bipyridine-5-carboxamide; 6-cyclopentyl-N-[4-methoxy-3-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl]-5′-methyl-3,3′-bipyridine-5-carboxamide; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

15. A pharmaceutical composition which comprises an inert carrier and a compound of claim 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

16. (canceled)

17. (canceled)

18. A method for enhancing the quality of sleep in a mammalian patient in need thereof which comprises administering to the patient a therapeutically effective amount of the compound of claim 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

19. A method for treating insomnia in a mammalian patient in need thereof which comprises administering to the patient a therapeutically effective amount of the compound of claim 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

20. A method for treating or controlling obesity in a mammalian patient in need thereof which comprises administering to the patient a therapeutically effective amount of the compound of claim 1 or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

Description:

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The orexins (hypocretins) comprise two neuropeptides produced in the hypothalamus: the orexin A (OX-A) (a 33 amino acid peptide) and the orexin B (OX-B) (a 28 amino acid peptide) (Sakurai T. et al., Cell, 1998, 92, 573-585). Orexins are found to stimulate food consumption in rats suggesting a physiological role for these peptides as mediators in the central feedback mechanism that regulates feeding behaviour (Sakurai T. et al., Cell, 1998, 92, 573-585). Orexins regulate states of sleep and wakefulness opening potentially novel therapeutic approaches for narcoleptic or insomniac patients (Chemelli R. M. et al., Cell, 1999, 98, 437-451). Orexins have also been indicated as playing a role in arousal, reward, learning and memory (Harris, et al., Trends Neurosci., 2006, 29 (10), 571-577). Two orexin receptors have been cloned and characterized in mammals. They belong to the super family of G-protein coupled receptors (Sakurai T. et al., Cell, 1998, 92, 573-585): the orexin-1 receptor (OX or OX1R) is selective for OX-A and the orexin-2 receptor (OX2 or OX2R) is capable to bind OX-A as well as OX-B. The physiological actions in which orexins are presumed to participate are thought to be expressed via one or both of OX 1 receptor and OX 2 receptor as the two subtypes of orexin receptors.

Orexin receptors are found in the mammalian brain and may have numerous implications in pathologies such as depression; anxiety; addictions; obsessive compulsive disorder; affective neurosis; depressive neurosis; anxiety neurosis; dysthymic disorder; behaviour disorder; mood disorder; sexual dysfunction; psychosexual dysfunction; sex disorder; schizophrenia; manic depression; delirium; dementia; severe mental retardation and dyskinesias such as Huntington's disease and Tourette syndrome; eating disorders such as anorexia, bulimia, cachexia, dysregulated appetite control; obesity; addictive feeding behaviors; binge/purge feeding behaviors; cardiovascular diseases; diabetes; appetite, taste, eating or drinking disorders; emesis, vomiting, nausea; asthma; cancer; Parkinson's disease; Cushing's syndrome/disease; basophile adenoma; prolactinoma; hyperprolactinemia; hypophysis tumour/adenoma; hypothalamic diseases; inflammatory bowel disease; gastric diskinesia; gastric ulcers; Froehlich's syndrome; adrenohypophysis disease; hypophysis disease; adrenohypophysis hypofunction; adrenohypophysis hyperfunction; hypothalamic hypogonadism; Kallman's syndrome (anosmia, hyposmia); functional or psychogenic amenorrhea; hypopituitarism; hypothalamic hypothyroidism; hypothalamic-adrenal dysfunction; idiopathic hyperprolactinemia; hypothalamic disorders of growth hormone deficiency; idiopathic growth deficiency; dwarfism; gigantism; acromegaly; disturbed biological and circadian rhythms; sleep disturbances associated with diseases such as neurological disorders, neuropathic pain and restless leg syndrome; heart and lung diseases, acute and congestive heart failure; hypotension; hypertension; urinary retention; osteoporosis; angina pectoris; myocardinal infarction; ischemic or haemorrhagic stroke; subarachnoid haemorrhage; ulcers; allergies; benign prostatic hypertrophy; chronic renal failure; renal disease; impaired glucose tolerance; migraine; hyperalgesia; pain; enhanced or exaggerated sensitivity to pain such as hyperalgesia, causalgia, and allodynia; acute pain; burn pain; atypical facial pain; neuropathic pain; back pain; complex regional pain syndrome I and II; arthritic pain; sports injury pain; pain related to infection e.g. HIV, post-chemotherapy pain; post-stroke pain; post-operative pain; neuralgia; conditions associated with visceral pain such as irritable bowel syndrome, and angina; urinary bladder incontinence e.g. urge incontinence; tolerance to narcotics or withdrawal from narcotics; sleep disorders; sleep apnea; narcolepsy; insomnia; parasomnia; jet lag syndrome; and neurodegenerative disorders including nosological entities such as disinhibition-dementia-parkinsonism-amyotrophy complex; pallido-ponto-nigral degeneration; epilepsy; seizure disorders and other diseases related to general orexin system dysfunction.

Certain orexin receptor antagonists are disclosed in PCT patent publications WO 99/09024, WO 99/58533, WO 00/47576, WO 00/47577, WO 00/47580, WO 01/68609, WO 01/85693, WO 01/96302, WO 2002/044172, WO 2002/051232, WO 2002/051838, WO 2002/089800, WO 2002/090355, WO 2003/002559, WO 2003/002561, WO 2003/032991, WO 2003/037847, WO 2003/041711, WO 2003/051368, WO 2003/051872, WO 2003/051873, WO 2004/004733, WO 2004/026866, WO 2004/033418, WO 2004/041807, WO 2004/041816, WO 2004/052876, WO 2004/083218, WO 2004/085403, WO 2004/096780, WO 2005/060959, WO 2005/075458, WO2005/118548, WO 2006/067224, WO 2006/110626, WO 2006/127550, WO 2007/019234, WO 2007/025069, WO 2007/061763, WO 2007/116374, WO 2007/122591, WO 2007/126934, WO 2007/126935, WO 2008/008517, WO 2008/008518, WO 2008/008551, WO 2008/020405, WO 2008/026149, WO 2008/038251.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention is directed to pyridyl carboxamide compounds which are antagonists of orexin receptors, and which are useful in the treatment or prevention of neurological and psychiatric disorders and diseases in which orexin receptors are involved. The invention is also directed to pharmaceutical compositions comprising these compounds and the use of these compounds and compositions in the prevention or treatment of such diseases in which orexin receptors are involved.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

The present invention is directed to compounds of the formula I:

embedded image

wherein:
A1 is selected from the group consisting of phenyl, naphthyl and heteroaryl;
A2 is selected from the group consisting of phenyl, naphthyl and heteroaryl;
A3 is selected from the group consisting of phenyl, naphthyl, C3-6cycloalkyl, and heterocycle;
R1a, R1b and R1c may be absent if the valency of A1 does not permit such substitution and are independently selected from the group consisting of:

    • (1) hydrogen,
    • (2) halogen,
    • (3) hydroxyl,
    • (4) —(C═O)m—On—C1-6alkyl, where m is 0 or 1, n is 0 or 1 (wherein if m is 0 or n is 0, a bond is present) and where the alkyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from R13,
    • (5) —(C═O)m—On—C3-6cycloalkyl, where the cycloalkyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from R13,
    • (6) —(C═O)m—C2-4alkenyl, where the alkenyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from R13,
    • (7) —(C═O)m—C2-4alkynyl, where the alkynyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from R13,
    • (8) —(C═O)m—On-phenyl or —(C═O)m—On-napthyl, where the phenyl or naphthyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from R13,
    • (9) —(C═O)m—On-heterocycle, where the heterocycle is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from R13,
    • (10) —(C═O)m—NR10R11, wherein R10 and R11 are independently selected from the group consisting of:
      • (a) hydrogen,
      • (b) C1-6alkyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with R13,
      • (c) C3-6alkenyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with R13,
      • (d) C3-6alkynyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with R13,
      • (e) C3-6cycloalkyl which is unsubstituted or substituted with R13,
      • (f) phenyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with R13, and
      • (g) heterocycle, which is unsubstituted or substituted with R13,
    • (11) —S(O)2—NR10R11,
    • (12) —S(O)q—R12, where q is 0, 1 or 2 and where R12 is selected from the definitions of R10 and R11,
    • (13) —CO2H,
    • (14) —CN, and
    • (15) —NO2;
      R2a, R2b and R2c may be absent if the valency of A2 does not permit such substitution and are independently selected from the group consisting of:
    • (1) hydrogen,
    • (2) halogen,
    • (3) hydroxyl,
    • (4) —(C═O)m—On—C1-6alkyl, where the alkyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from R13,
    • (5) —(C═O)m—On—C3-6cycloalkyl, where the cycloalkyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from R13,
    • (6) —(C═O)m—C2-4alkenyl, where the alkenyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from R13,
    • (7) —(C═O)m—C2-4alkynyl, where the alkynyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from R13,
    • (8) —(C═O)m—On-phenyl or —(C═O)m—On-napthyl, where the phenyl or naphthyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from R13,
    • (9) —(C═O)m—On-heterocycle, where the heterocycle is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from R13,
    • (10) —(C═O)m—NR10R11,
    • (11) —S(O)2—NR10R11,
    • (12) —S(O)q—R12,
    • (13) —CO2H,
    • (14) —CN, and
    • (15) —NO2;
      R3a, R3b and R3c may be absent if the valency of A3 does not permit such substitution and are independently selected from the group consisting of:
    • (1) hydrogen,
    • (2) halogen,
    • (3) hydroxyl,
    • (4) —(C═O)m—On—C1-6alkyl, where the alkyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from R13,
    • (5) —(C═O)m—On—C3-6cycloalkyl, where the cycloalkyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from R13,
    • (6) —(C═O)m—C2-4alkenyl, where the alkenyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from R13,
    • (7) —(C═O)m—C2-4alkynyl, where the alkynyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from R13,
    • (8) —(C═O)m—On-phenyl or —(C═O)m—On-napthyl, where the phenyl or naphthyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from R13,
    • (9) —(C═O)m—On-heterocycle, where the heterocycle is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from R13,
    • (10) —(C═O)m—NR10R11,
    • (11) —S(O)2—NR10R11,
    • (12) —S(O)q—R12,
    • (13) —CO2H,
    • (14) —CN, and
    • (15) —NO2;
      with the proviso that if A3 is pyridyl, at least one of R3a, R3b and R3c is other than hydrogen;
      R4 and R5 are independently selected from hydrogen and C1-6alkyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from R13, or R4 and R5 may be joined together to form a C3-6cycloalkyl with the carbon atom to which they are attached, where the cycloalkyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from R13;
      R6 is hydrogen, C1-6alkyl or C3-6cycloalkyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from R13;
      R13 is selected from the group consisting of:
    • (1) halogen,
    • (2) hydroxyl,
    • (3) —(C═O)m—On—C1-6alkyl, where the alkyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from R14,
    • (4) —On—(C1-3)perfluoroalkyl,
    • (5) —(C═O)m—On—C3-6cycloalkyl, where the cycloalkyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from R14,
    • (6) —(C═O)m—C2-4alkenyl, where the alkenyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from R14,
    • (7) —(C═O)m—C2-4alkynyl, where the alkynyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from R14,
    • (8) —(C═O)m—On-phenyl or —(C═O)m—On-napthyl, where the phenyl or naphthyl is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from R14,
    • (9) —(C═O)m—On-heterocycle, where the heterocycle is unsubstituted or substituted with one or more substituents selected from R14,
    • (10) —(C═O)m—NR10R11,
    • (11) —S(O)2—NR10R11,
    • (12) —S(O)q—R12,
    • (13) —CO2H,
    • (14) —CN, and
    • (15) —NO2;
      R14 is selected from the group consisting of:
    • (1) hydroxyl,
    • (2) halogen,
    • (3) C1-6alkyl,
    • (4) —C3-6cycloalkyl,
    • (5) —O—C1-6alkyl,
    • (6) —O(C═O)—C1-6alkyl,
    • (7) —NH—C1-6alkyl,
    • (8) phenyl,
    • (9) heterocycle,
    • (10) —CO2H, and
    • (11) —CN;
      or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds of the formula Ia:

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wherein A1, A2, A3, R1a, R1b, R1c, R2a, R2b, R2c, R3a, R3b, R3c and R4 are defined herein;
or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds of the formula Ib:

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wherein A1, A2, A3, R1a, R1b, R1c, R2a, R2b, R2c, R3a, R3b and R3c are defined herein; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds of the formula Ic:

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wherein A2, A3, R1a, R1b, R1c, R2a, R2b, R2c, R3a, R3b and R3c are defined herein; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds of the formula Ic′:

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wherein A2, A3, R1a, R1b, R2a, R2b, R2c, R3a, R3b and R3c are defined herein; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds of the formula Id:

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wherein A2, A3, R1a, R1b, R1c, R2a, R2b, R2c, R3a, R3b and R3c are defined herein; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds of the formula Id′:

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wherein A2, A3, R1a, R1b, R1c, R2a, R2b, R2c, R3a, R3b and R3c are defined herein; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds of the formula Ie:

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wherein A3, R1a, R1b, R1c, R2a, R2b, R2c, R3a, R3b and R3c are defined herein; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds of the formula If:

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wherein A3, R1a, R1b, R1c, R2a, R2b, R2c, R3a, R3b and R3c are defined herein; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds of the formula Ig:

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wherein A2, R1a, R1b, R1c, R2a, R2b, R2c, R3a, R3b and R3c are defined herein; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds of the formula Ih:

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wherein A1, A2, R1a, R1b, R1c, R2a, R2b, R2c, R3a, R3b and R3c are defined herein; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds of the formula Ii:

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wherein A1, A2, R1a, R1b, R1c, R2a, R2b, R2c, R3a, R3b and R3c are defined herein; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds of the formula Ij:

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wherein A1, A2, R1a, R1b, R1c, R2a, R2b, R2c, R3a and R3b are defined herein; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds of the formula Ik:

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wherein A1, A2, R1a, R1b, R1c, R2a, R2b, R2c, R3a and R3b are defined herein; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds of the formula Il:

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wherein A1, A2, R1a, R1b, R1c, R2a, R2b and R2c are defined herein; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds of the formula Im:

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wherein A1, A2, R1a, R1b, R1c, R2a, R2b and R2c are defined herein; or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein A1 is phenyl. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein A1 is naphthyl. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein A1 is heteroaryl. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein A1 is pyridyl.

An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein A2 is phenyl. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein A2 is naphthyl. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein A2 is heteroaryl. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein A2 is quinoxalinyl. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein A2 is pyridyl. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein A2 is pyrazinyl. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein A2 is quinolinyl. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein A2 is indolyl. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein A2 is dihydroindolyl. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein A2 is benzimidazolyl.

An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein A3 is pyrazolyl. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein A3 is pyrazolyl which is substituted with methyl. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein A3 is pyridyl, which is substituted with at least one substituent other than hydrogen. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein A3 is pyridyl, which is substituted with fluroro or chloro. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein A3 is phenyl. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein A3 is phenyl, which is substituted with at least one substituent other than hydrogen. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein A3 is phenyl, which is substituted with hydroxyl, methylaminocarbonyl or dimethylaminomethyl. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein A3 is cyclopentyl. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein A3 is morpholinyl. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein A3 is pyrrolidinyl. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein A3 is azetidinyl.

An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein R1a, R1b and R1c are independently selected from the group consisting of:

    • (1) hydrogen,
    • (2) halogen,
    • (3) hydroxyl,
    • (4) C1-6alkyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with halogen, hydroxyl, phenyl or napthyl,
    • (5) —O—C1-6alkyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with halogen, hydroxyl or phenyl,
    • (6) heteroaryl, wherein heteroaryl is selected from pyrrolyl, imidazolyl, indolyl, pyridyl, and pyrimidinyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with halogen, hydroxyl, C1-6alkyl, —O—C1-6alkyl or —NO2,
    • (7) phenyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with halogen, hydroxyl, C1-6alkyl, —O—C1-6alkyl or —NO2,
    • (8) —O-phenyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with halogen, hydroxyl, C1-6alkyl, —O—C1-6alkyl or —NO2, and
    • (9) —NH—C1-6alkyl, or —N(C1-6alkyl)(C1-6alkyl), which is unsubstituted or substituted with halogen, hydroxyl, C1-6alkyl, —O—C1-6alkyl or —NO2.

An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein R1a, R1b and R1c are independently selected from the group consisting of:

    • (1) hydrogen,
    • (2) halogen,
    • (3) hydroxyl,
    • (4) C1-6alkyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with halogen, hydroxyl or phenyl or napthyl, and
    • (5) —O—C1-6alkyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with halogen, hydroxyl or phenyl.

An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein R1a, R1b and R1c are independently selected from the group consisting of:

    • (1) hydrogen,
    • (2) halogen, and
    • (3) C1-6alkyl.

An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein R1a, R1b and R1c are independently selected from the group consisting of:

    • (1) hydrogen,
    • (2) chloro,
    • (3) fluroro, and
    • (4) methyl.

An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein A1 is phenyl and R1a, R1b and R1c are independently selected from the group consisting of:

    • (1) hydrogen,
    • (2) chloro,
    • (3) fluroro, and
    • (4) methyl.

An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein R2a, R2b and R2c are independently selected from the group consisting of:

    • (1) hydrogen,
    • (2) halogen,
    • (3) hydroxyl,
    • (4) C1-6alkyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with halogen, hydroxyl or phenyl or napthyl,
    • (5) —O—C1-6alkyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with halogen, hydroxyl or phenyl,
    • (6) heteroaryl, wherein heteroaryl is selected from pyrrolyl, imidazolyl, indolyl, pyridyl, and pyrimidinyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with halogen, hydroxyl, C1-6alkyl, —O—C1-6alkyl or —NO2,
    • (7) phenyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with halogen, hydroxyl, C1-6alkyl, —O—C1-6alkyl or —NO2,
    • (8) —O-phenyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with halogen, hydroxyl, C1-6alkyl, —O—C1-6alkyl or —NO2, and
    • (9) —NH—C1-6alkyl, or —N(C1-6alkyl)(C1-6alkyl), which is unsubstituted or substituted with halogen, hydroxyl, C1-6alkyl, —O—C1-6alkyl or —NO2.

An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein R2a, R2b and R2c are independently selected from the group consisting of:

    • (1) hydrogen,
    • (2) halogen,
    • (3) hydroxyl,
    • (4) C1-6alkyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with halogen, hydroxyl or phenyl,
    • (5) —O—C1-6alkyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with halogen, hydroxyl or phenyl, and
    • (6) —NH—C1-6alkyl, or —N(C1-6alkyl)(C1-6alkyl), which is unsubstituted or substituted with halogen.

An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein R2a, R2b and R2c are independently selected from the group consisting of:

    • (1) hydrogen,
    • (2) halogen,
    • (3) C1-6alkyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with halogen,
    • (4) —O—C1-6alkyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with halogen, and
    • (5) —NH—C1-6alkyl, or —N(C1-6alkyl)(C1-6alkyl), which is unsubstituted or substituted with halogen.

An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein R2a, R2b and R2c are independently selected from the group consisting of:

    • (1) hydrogen,
    • (2) chloro,
    • (3) fluoro,
    • (4) bromo,
    • (5) methoxy,
    • (6) t-butoxy,
    • (7) difluoromethyl, and
    • (8) trifluoromethyl,
    • (9) —N(CH3).

An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein A2 is phenyl and R2a, R2b and R2c are independently selected from the group consisting of:

    • (1) hydrogen,
    • (2) chloro,
    • (3) fluoro,
    • (4) bromo,
    • (5) methoxy,
    • (6) t-butoxy,
    • (7) difluoromethyl, and
    • (8) trifluoromethyl,
    • (9) —N(CH3).

An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein R3a, R3b and R3c are independently selected from the group consisting of:

    • (1) hydrogen,
    • (2) halogen,
    • (3) hydroxyl,
    • (4) C1-6alkyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with halogen, hydroxyl, phenyl or napthyl,
    • (5) —O—C1-6alkyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with halogen, hydroxyl or phenyl,
    • (6) heteroaryl, wherein heteroaryl is selected from pyrrolyl, imidazolyl, indolyl, pyridyl, and pyrimidinyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with halogen, hydroxyl, C1-6alkyl, —O—C1-6alkyl or —NO2,
    • (7) phenyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with halogen, hydroxyl, C1-6alkyl, —O—C1-6alkyl or —NO2,
    • (8) —O-phenyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with halogen, hydroxyl, C1-6alkyl, —O—C1-6alkyl or —NO2, and
    • (9) —NH—C1-6alkyl, or —N(C1-6alkyl)(C1-6alkyl), which is unsubstituted or substituted with halogen, hydroxyl, C1-6alkyl, —O—C1-6alkyl or —NO2;
      with the proviso that if A3 is pyridyl, at least one of R3a, R3b and R3c is other than hydrogen.

An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein R3a, R3b and R3c are independently selected from the group consisting of:

    • (1) hydrogen,
    • (2) halogen,
    • (3) hydroxyl,
    • (4) C1-6alkyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with halogen, hydroxyl or phenyl or napthyl, and
    • (5) —O—C1-6alkyl, which is unsubstituted or substituted with halogen, hydroxyl or phenyl;
      with the proviso that if A3 is pyridyl, at least one of R3a, R3b and R3c is other than hydrogen.

An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein R3a, R3b and R3c are independently selected from the group consisting of:

    • (1) hydrogen,
    • (2) halogen, and
    • (3) C1-6alkyl;
      with the proviso that if A3 is pyridyl, at least one of R3a, R3b and R3c is other than hydrogen.

An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein R3a, R3b and R3c are independently selected from the group consisting of:

    • (1) hydrogen,
    • (2) chloro,
    • (3) fluroro, and
    • (4) methyl;
      with the proviso that if A3 is pyridyl, at least one of R3a, R3b and R3c is other than hydrogen.

An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein A3 is pyridyl and wherein R3a is halogen, R3b is hydrogen and R3c is hydrogen. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein A3 is pyridyl and wherein R3a is chloro or fluoro, R3b is hydrogen and R3c is hydrogen.

An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein A3 is pyrazolyl and wherein R3a is C1-6alkyl, R3b is hydrogen and R3c is hydrogen. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein A3 is pyrazolyl and wherein R3a is methyl, R3b is hydrogen and R3c is hydrogen.

An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein R4 is hydrogen or C1-6alkyl. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein R4 is hydrogen or methyl. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein R4 is hydrogen. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein R5 is hydrogen or C1-6alkyl. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein R5 is hydrogen or methyl. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein R5 is hydrogen.

An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein R6 is hydrogen, C1-6alkyl or C3-6cycloalkyl. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein R6 is C1-6alkyl. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein R6 is C3-6cycloalkyl. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein R6 is hydrogen, methyl or ethyl. An embodiment of the present invention includes compounds wherein R6 is hydrogen.

Specific embodiments of the present invention include a compound which is selected from the group consisting of the subject compounds of the Examples herein or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

The compounds of the present invention may contain one or more asymmetric centers and can thus occur as racemates and racemic mixtures, single enantiomers, diastereomeric mixtures and individual diastereomers. Additional asymmetric centers may be present depending upon the nature of the various substituents on the molecule. Each such asymmetric center will independently produce two optical isomers and it is intended that all of the possible optical isomers and diastereomers in mixtures and as pure or partially purified compounds are included within the ambit of this invention. The present invention is meant to comprehend all such isomeric forms of these compounds. Formula I shows the structure of the class of compounds without specific stereochemistry.

The independent syntheses of these diastereomers or their chromatographic separations may be achieved as known in the art by appropriate modification of the methodology disclosed herein. Their absolute stereochemistry may be determined by the x-ray crystallography of crystalline products or crystalline intermediates which are derivatized, if necessary, with a reagent containing an asymmetric center of known absolute configuration. If desired, racemic mixtures of the compounds may be separated so that the individual enantiomers are isolated. The separation can be carried out by methods well known in the art, such as the coupling of a racemic mixture of compounds to an enantiomerically pure compound to form a diastereomeric mixture, followed by separation of the individual diastereomers by standard methods, such as fractional crystallization or chromatography. The coupling reaction is often the formation of salts using an enantiomerically pure acid or base. The diasteromeric derivatives may then be converted to the pure enantiomers by cleavage of the added chiral residue. The racemic mixture of the compounds can also be separated directly by chromatographic methods utilizing chiral stationary phases, which methods are well known in the art. Alternatively, any enantiomer of a compound may be obtained by stereoselective synthesis using optically pure starting materials or reagents of known configuration by methods well known in the art.

As appreciated by those of skill in the art, halogen or halo as used herein are intended to include fluoro, chloro, bromo and iodo. Similarly, C1-6, as in C1-6alkyl is defined to identify the group as having 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 carbons in a linear or branched arrangement, such that C1-8alkyl specifically includes methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, iso-propyl, n-butyl, iso-butyl, tert-butyl, pentyl, and hexyl. A group which is designated as being independently substituted with substituents may be independently substituted with multiple numbers of such substituents. The term “heterocycle” as used herein includes both unsaturated and saturated heterocyclic moieties, wherein the unsaturated heterocyclic moieties (i.e. “heteroaryl”) include benzoimidazolyl, benzimidazolonyl, benzofuranyl, benzofurazanyl, benzopyrazolyl, benzothiazolyl, benzotriazolyl, benzothiophenyl, benzoxazepin, benzoxazolyl, carbazolyl, carbolinyl, cinnolinyl, furanyl, imidazolyl, indolinyl, indolyl, dihydroindolyl, indolazinyl, indazolyl, isobenzofuranyl, isoindolyl, isoquinolyl, isothiazolyl, isoxazolyl, naphthpyridinyl, oxadiazolyl, oxazolyl, oxazoline, isoxazoline, oxetanyl, pyrazinyl, pyrazolyl, pyridazinyl, pyridopyridinyl, pyridazinyl, pyridyl, pyrimidyl, pyrrolyl, quinazolinyl, quinolyl, quinoxalinyl, tetrahydroquinoxalinyl, tetrazolyl, tetrazolopyridyl, thiadiazolyl, thiazolyl, thienyl, triazolyl, and N-oxides thereof, and wherein the saturated heterocyclic moieties include azetidinyl, 1,4-dioxanyl, hexahydroazepinyl, piperazinyl, piperidinyl, pyridin-2-onyl, pyrrolidinyl, morpholinyl, tetrahydrofuranyl, thiomorpholinyl, and tetrahydrothienyl, and N-oxides thereof.

The term “pharmaceutically acceptable salts” refers to salts prepared from pharmaceutically acceptable non-toxic bases or acids including inorganic or organic bases and inorganic or organic acids. Salts derived from inorganic bases include aluminum, ammonium, calcium, copper, ferric, ferrous, lithium, magnesium, manganic salts, manganous, potassium, sodium, zinc, and the like. Particular embodiments include the ammonium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts. Salts in the solid form may exist in more than one crystal structure, and may also be in the form of hydrates. Salts derived from pharmaceutically acceptable organic non-toxic bases include salts of primary, secondary, and tertiary amines, substituted amines including naturally occurring substituted amines, cyclic amines, and basic ion exchange resins, such as arginine, betaine, caffeine, choline, N,N′-dibenzylethylene-diamine, diethylamine, 2-diethylaminoethanol, 2-dimethylaminoethanol, ethanolamine, ethylenediamine, N-ethyl-morpholine, N-ethylpiperidine, glucamine, glucosamine, histidine, hydrabamine, isopropylamine, lysine, methylglucamine, morpholine, piperazine, piperidine, polyamine resins, procaine, purines, theobromine, triethylamine, trimethylamine, tripropylamine, tromethamine, and the like.

When the compound of the present invention is basic, salts may be prepared from pharmaceutically acceptable non-toxic acids, including inorganic and organic acids. Such acids include acetic, benzenesulfonic, benzoic, camphorsulfonic, citric, ethanesulfonic, fumaric, gluconic, glutamic, hydrobromic, hydrochloric, isethionic, lactic, maleic, malic, mandelic, methanesulfonic, mucic, nitric, pamoic, pantothenic, phosphoric, succinic, sulfuric, tartaric, p-toluenesulfonic acid, and the like. Particular embodiments include the citric, hydrobromic, hydrochloric, maleic, phosphoric, sulfuric, fumaric, and tartaric acids. It will be understood that, as used herein, references to the compounds of Formula I are meant to also include the pharmaceutically acceptable salts.

Exemplifying the invention is the use of the compounds disclosed in the Examples and herein. Specific compounds within the present invention include a compound which selected from the group consisting of the compounds disclosed in the following Examples and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof and individual enantiomers or diastereomers thereof.

The subject compounds are useful in a method of antagonizing orexin receptor activity in a patient such as a mammal in need of such inhibition comprising the administration of an effective amount of the compound. The present invention is directed to the use of the compounds disclosed herein as antagonists of orexin receptor activity. In addition to primates, especially humans, a variety of other mammals can be treated according to the method of the present invention. The present invention is directed to a compound of the present invention or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof for use in medicine. The present invention is further directed to a use of a compound of the present invention or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof for the manufacture of a medicament for antagonizing orexin receptor activity or treating the disorders and diseases noted herein in humans and animals.

The subject treated in the present methods is generally a mammal, such as a human being, male or female. The term “therapeutically effective amount” means the amount of the subject compound that will elicit the biological or medical response of a tissue, system, animal or human that is being sought by the researcher, veterinarian, medical doctor or other clinician. It is recognized that one skilled in the art may affect the neurological and psychiatric disorders by treating a patient presently afflicted with the disorders or by prophylactically treating a patient afflicted with the disorders with an effective amount of the compound of the present invention. As used herein, the terms “treatment” and “treating” refer to all processes wherein there may be a slowing, interrupting, arresting, controlling, or stopping of the progression of the neurological and psychiatric disorders described herein, but does not necessarily indicate a total elimination of all disorder symptoms, as well as the prophylactic therapy of the mentioned conditions, particularly in a patient who is predisposed to such disease or disorder. The terms “administration of” and or “administering a” compound should be understood to mean providing a compound of the invention or a prodrug of a compound of the invention to the individual in need thereof.

The term “composition” as used herein is intended to encompass a product comprising the specified ingredients in the specified amounts, as well as any product which results, directly or indirectly, from combination of the specified ingredients in the specified amounts. Such term in relation to pharmaceutical composition, is intended to encompass a product comprising the active ingredient(s), and the inert ingredient(s) that make up the carrier, as well as any product which results, directly or indirectly, from combination, complexation or aggregation of any two or more of the ingredients, or from dissociation of one or more of the ingredients, or from other types of reactions or interactions of one or more of the ingredients. Accordingly, the pharmaceutical compositions of the present invention encompass any composition made by admixing a compound of the present invention and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. By “pharmaceutically acceptable” it is meant the carrier, diluent or excipient must be compatible with the other ingredients of the formulation and not deleterious to the recipient thereof.

The utility of the compounds in accordance with the present invention as orexin receptor OX1R and/or OX2R antagonists may be readily determined without undue experimentation by methodology well known in the art, including the “FLIPR Ca2+Flux Assay” (Okumura et al., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 280:976-981, 2001). In a typical experiment the OX1 and OX2 receptor antagonistic activity of the compounds of the present invention was determined in accordance with the following experimental method. For intracellular calcium measurements, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing the rat orexin-1 receptor or the human orexin-2 receptor, are grown in Iscove's modified DMEM containing 2 mM L-glutamine, 0.5 g/ml G418, 1% hypoxanthine-thymidine supplement, 100 U/ml penicillin, 100 ug/ml streptomycin and 10% heat-inactivated fetal calf serum (FCS). The cells are seeded at 20,000 cells/well into Becton-Dickinson black 384-well clear bottom sterile plates coated with poly-D-lysine. All reagents were from GIBCO-Invitrogen Corp. The seeded plates are incubated overnight at 37° C. and 5% CO2. Ala-6,12 human orexin-A as the agonist is prepared as a 1 mM stock solution in 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA) and diluted in assay buffer (HBSS containing 20 mM HEPES, 0.1% BSA and 2.5 mM probenecid, pH7.4) for use in the assay at a final concentration of 70 pM. Test compounds are prepared as 10 mM stock solution in DMSO, then diluted in 384-well plates, first in DMSO, then assay buffer. On the day of the assay, cells are washed 3 times with 100 ul assay buffer and then incubated for 60 min (37° C., 5% CO2) in 60 ul assay buffer containing 1 uM Fluo-4AM ester, 0.02% pluronic acid, and 1% BSA. The dye loading solution is then aspirated and cells are washed 3 times with 100 ul assay buffer. 30 ul of that same buffer is left in each well. Within the Fluorescent Imaging Plate Reader (FLIPR, Molecular Devices), test compounds are added to the plate in a volume of 25 ul, incubated for 5 min and finally 25 ul of agonist is added. Fluorescence is measured for each well at 1 second intervals for 5 minutes and the height of each fluorescence peak is compared to the height of the fluorescence peak induced by 70 pM Ala-6,12 orexin-A with buffer in place of antagonist. For each antagonist, IC50 value (the concentration of compound needed to inhibit 50% of the agonist response) is determined. Alternatively, compound potency can be assessed by a radioligand binding assay (described in Bergman et. al. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2008, 18, 1425-1430) in which the inhibition constant (Ki) is determined in membranes prepared from CHO cells expressing either the OX1 or OX2 receptor. The intrinsic orexin receptor antagonist activity of a compound which may be used in the present invention may be determined by these assays.

In particular, the compounds of the following examples had activity in antagonizing the rat orexin-1 receptor and/or the human orexin-2 receptor in the aforementioned assays, generally with an IC50 of less than about 50 μM. Many of compounds within the present invention had activity in antagonizing the rat orexin-1 receptor and/or the human orexin-2 receptor in the aforementioned assays with an IC50 of less than about 100 nM. Compounds of the present invention also have activity in the radioligand binding assay, generally with a Ki <100 nM against the orexin-1 and/or the orexin-2 receptor. Additional data is provided in the following Examples. Such a result is indicative of the intrinsic activity of the compounds in use as antagonists of orexin-1 receptor and/or the orexin-2 receptor. The present invention also includes compounds within the generic scope of the invention which possess activity as agonists of the orexin-1 receptor and/or the orexin-2 receptor. With respect to other pyridyl compounds, the present compounds exhibit unexpected properties, such as with respect to increased oral bioavailability, metabolic stability, decreased inhibition of metabolic enzymes (such as decreased cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) inhibition), decreased inhibition of transporters (such as decreased p-glycoprotein/PGP inhibition) and/or selectivity with respect to other receptors, including the human orexin-2 receptor.

The orexin receptors have been implicated in a wide range of biological functions. This has suggested a potential role for these receptors in a variety of disease processes in humans or other species. The compounds of the present invention have utility in treating, preventing, ameliorating, controlling or reducing the risk of a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders associated with orexin receptors, including one or more of the following conditions or diseases: sleep disorders, sleep disturbances, including enhancing sleep quality, improving sleep quality, increasing sleep efficiency, augmenting sleep maintenance; increasing the value which is calculated from the time that a subject sleeps divided by the time that a subject is attempting to sleep; improving sleep initiation; decreasing sleep latency or onset (the time it takes to fall asleep); decreasing difficulties in falling asleep; increasing sleep continuity; decreasing the number of awakenings during sleep; decreasing intermittent wakings during sleep; decreasing nocturnal arousals; decreasing the time spent awake following the initial onset of sleep; increasing the total amount of sleep; reducing the fragmentation of sleep; altering the timing, frequency or duration of REM sleep bouts; altering the timing, frequency or duration of slow wave (i.e. stages 3 or 4) sleep bouts; increasing the amount and percentage of stage 2 sleep; promoting slow wave sleep; enhancing EEG-delta activity during sleep; decreasing nocturnal arousals, especially early morning awakenings; increasing daytime alertness; reducing daytime drowsiness; treating or reducing excessive daytime sleepiness; increasing satisfaction with the intensity of sleep; increasing sleep maintenance; idiopathic insomnia; sleep problems; insomnia, hypersomnia, idiopathic hypersomnia, repeatability hypersomnia, intrinsic hypersomnia, narcolepsy, interrupted sleep, sleep apnea, wakefulness, nocturnal myoclonus, REM sleep interruptions, jet-lag, shift workers' sleep disturbances, dyssomnias, night terror, insomnias associated with depression, emotional/mood disorders, Alzheimer's disease or cognitive impairment, as well as sleep walking and enuresis, and sleep disorders which accompany aging; Alzheimer's sundowning; conditions associated with circadian rhythmicity as well as mental and physical disorders associated with travel across time zones and with rotating shift-work schedules, conditions due to drugs which cause reductions in REM sleep as a side effect; fibromyalgia; syndromes which are manifested by non-restorative sleep and muscle pain or sleep apnea which is associated with respiratory disturbances during sleep; conditions which result from a diminished quality of sleep; increasing learning; augmenting memory; increasing retention of memory; eating disorders associated with excessive food intake and complications associated therewith, compulsive eating disorders, obesity (due to any cause, whether genetic or environmental), obesity-related disorders including overeating and bulimia nervosa, hypertension, diabetes, elevated plasma insulin concentrations and insulin resistance, dyslipidemias, hyperlipidemia, endometrial, breast, prostate and colon cancer, osteoarthritis, obstructive sleep apnea, cholelithiasis, gallstones, heart disease, abnormal heart rhythms and arrythmias, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, coronary heart disease, sudden death, stroke, polycystic ovary disease, craniopharyngioma, the Prader-Willi Syndrome, Frohlich's syndrome, GH-deficient subjects, normal variant short stature, Turner's syndrome, and other pathological conditions showing reduced metabolic activity or a decrease in resting energy expenditure as a percentage of total fat-free mass, e.g, children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, metabolic syndrome, also known as syndrome X, insulin resistance syndrome, reproductive hormone abnormalities, sexual and reproductive dysfunction, such as impaired fertility, infertility, hypogonadism in males and hirsutism in females, fetal defects associated with maternal obesity, gastrointestinal motility disorders, intestinal motility dyskinesias, obesity-related gastro-esophageal reflux, hypothalmic diseases, hypophysis diseases, respiratory disorders, such as obesity-hypoventilation syndrome (Pickwickian syndrome), breathlessness, cardiovascular disorders, inflammation, such as systemic inflammation of the vasculature, arteriosclerosis, hypercholesterolemia, hyperuricaemia, lower back pain, gallbladder disease, gout, kidney cancer, increased anesthetic risk, reducing the risk of secondary outcomes of obesity, such as reducing the risk of left ventricular hypertrophy; diseases or disorders where abnormal oscillatory activity occurs in the brain, including depression, migraine, neuropathic pain, Parkinson's disease, psychosis and schizophrenia, as well as diseases or disorders where there is abnormal coupling of activity, particularly through the thalamus; enhancing cognitive function, including cognitive dysfunctions that comprise deficits in all types of attention, learning and memory functions occurring transiently or chronically in the normal, healthy, young, adult or aging population, and also occurring transiently or chronically in psychiatric, neurologic, cardiovascular and immune disorders; enhancing memory; increasing memory retention; increasing immune response; increasing immune function; hot flashes; night sweats; extending life span; schizophrenia; muscle-related disorders that are controlled by the excitation/relaxation rhythms imposed by the neural system such as cardiac rhythm and other disorders of the cardiovascular system; conditions related to proliferation of cells such as vasodilation or vasorestriction and blood pressure; cancer; cardiac arrhythmia; hypertension; congestive heart failure; conditions of the genital/urinary system; disorders of sexual function and fertility; adequacy of renal function; responsivity to anesthetics; mood disorders, such as depression or more particularly depressive disorders, for example, single episodic or recurrent major depressive disorders and dysthymic disorders, or bipolar disorders, for example, bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder and cyclothymic disorder, mood disorders due to a general medical condition, and substance-induced mood disorders; anxiety disorders including acute stress disorder, agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic attack, panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, separation anxiety disorder, social phobia, specific phobia, substance-induced anxiety disorder and anxiety due to a general medical condition; acute neurological and psychiatric disorders such as cerebral deficits subsequent to cardiac bypass surgery and grafting, stroke, ischemic stroke, cerebral ischemia, spinal cord trauma, head trauma, perinatal hypoxia, cardiac arrest, hypoglycemic neuronal damage; Huntington's Chorea; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; multiple sclerosis; ocular damage; retinopathy; cognitive disorders; idiopathic and drug-induced Parkinson's disease; muscular spasms and disorders associated with muscular spasticity including tremors, epilepsy, convulsions, seizure disorders, absence seisures, complex partial and generalized seizures; Lennox-Gastaut syndrome; cognitive disorders including dementia (associated with Alzheimer's disease, ischemia, trauma, vascular problems or stroke, HIV disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Pick's disease, Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease, perinatal hypoxia, other general medical conditions or substance abuse); delirium, amnestic disorders or age related cognitive decline; schizophrenia or psychosis including schizophrenia (paranoid, disorganized, catatonic or undifferentiated), schizophreniform disorder, schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorder, brief psychotic disorder, shared psychotic disorder, psychotic disorder due to a general medical condition and substance-induced psychotic disorder; dissociateive disorders including multiple personality syndromes and psychogenic amnesias; substance-related disorders, substance use, substance abuse, substance seeking, substance reinstatement, all types of psychological and physical addictions and addictive behaviors, reward-related behaviors (including substance-induced delirium, persisting dementia, persisting amnestic disorder, psychotic disorder or anxiety disorder; tolerance, addictive feeding, dependence, withdrawal or relapse from substances including alcohol, amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine, hallucinogens, inhalants, morphine, nicotine, opioids, phencyclidine, sedatives, hypnotics or anxiolytics); movement disorders, including akinesias and akinetic-rigid syndromes (including Parkinson's disease, drug-induced parkinsonism, postencephalitic parkinsonism, progressive supranuclear palsy, multiple system atrophy, corticobasal degeneration, parkinsonism-ALS dementia complex and basal ganglia calcification), chronic fatigue syndrome, fatigue, including Parkinson's fatigue, multiple sclerosis fatigue, fatigue caused by a sleep disorder or a circadian rhythm disorder, medication-induced parkinsonism (such as neuroleptic-induced parkinsonism, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, neuroleptic-induced acute dystonia, neuroleptic-induced acute akathisia, neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesia and medication-induced postural tremor), Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome, epilepsy, and dyskinesias [including tremor (such as rest tremor, essential tremor, postural tremor and intention tremor), chorea (such as Sydenham's chorea, Huntington's disease, benign hereditary chorea, neuroacanthocytosis, symptomatic chorea, drug-induced chorea and hemiballism), myoclonus (including generalised myoclonus and focal myoclonus), tics (including simple tics, complex tics and symptomatic tics), restless leg syndrome and dystonia (including generalised dystonia such as iodiopathic dystonia, drug-induced dystonia, symptomatic dystonia and paroxymal dystonia, and focal dystonia such as blepharospasm, oromandibular dystonia, spasmodic dysphonia, spasmodic torticollis, axial dystonia, dystonic writer's cramp and hemiplegic dystonia); attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); conduct disorder; migraine (including migraine headache); headache; hyperalgesia; pain; enhanced or exaggerated sensitivity to pain such as hyperalgesia, causalgia, and allodynia; acute pain; burn pain; atypical facial pain; neuropathic pain; back pain; complex regional pain syndrome I and II; arthritic pain; sports injury pain; pain related to infection e.g. HIV, post-chemotherapy pain; post-stroke pain; post-operative pain; neuralgia; emesis, nausea, vomiting; gastric dyskinesia; gastric ulcers; Kallman's syndrome (anosmia); conditions associated with visceral pain such as irritable bowel syndrome, and angina; eating disorders; urinary incontinence; substance tolerance, substance withdrawal (including, substances such as opiates, nicotine, tobacco products, alcohol, benzodiazepines, cocaine, sedatives, hypnotics, etc.); psychosis; schizophrenia; anxiety (including generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and obsessive compulsive disorder); mood disorders (including depression, mania, bipolar disorders); trigeminal neuralgia; hearing loss; tinnitus; neuronal damage including ocular damage; retinopathy; macular degeneration of the eye; emesis; brain edema; pain, including acute and chronic pain states, severe pain, intractable pain, inflammatory pain, neuropathic pain, post-traumatic pain, bone and joint pain (osteoarthritis), repetitive motion pain, dental pain, cancer pain, myofascial pain (muscular injury, fibromyalgia), perioperative pain (general surgery, gynecological), chronic pain, neuropathic pain, post-traumatic pain, trigeminal neuralgia, migraine and migraine headache.

Thus, in specific embodiments the present invention provides methods for: enhancing the quality of sleep; augmenting sleep maintenance; increasing REM sleep; increasing stage 2 sleep; decreasing fragmentation of sleep patterns; treating insomnia and all types of sleep disorders; treating or controlling sleep disturbances associated with diseases such as neurological disorders including neuropathic pain and restless leg syndrome; treating or controlling addiction disorders; treating or controlling psychoactive substance use and abuse; enhancing cognition; increasing memory retention; treating or controlling obesity; treating or controlling diabetes and appetite, taste, eating, or drinking disorders; treating or controlling hypothalamic diseases; treating or controlling depression; treating, controlling, ameliorating or reducing the risk of epilepsy, including absence epilepsy; treating or controlling pain, including neuropathic pain; treating or controlling Parkinson's disease; treating or controlling psychosis; treating or controlling dysthymic, mood, psychotic and anxiety disorders; treating or controlling depression, including major depression and major depression disorder; treating or controlling bipolar disorder; or treating, controlling, ameliorating or reducing the risk of schizophrenia, in a mammalian patient in need thereof which comprises administering to the patient a therapeutically effective amount of a compound of the present invention.

The subject compounds are further useful in a method for the prevention, treatment, control, amelioration, or reduction of risk of the diseases, disorders and conditions noted herein. The dosage of active ingredient in the compositions of this invention may be varied, however, it is necessary that the amount of the active ingredient be such that a suitable dosage form is obtained. The active ingredient may be administered to patients (animals and human) in need of such treatment in dosages that will provide optimal pharmaceutical efficacy. The selected dosage depends upon the desired therapeutic effect, on the route of administration, and on the duration of the treatment. The dose will vary from patient to patient depending upon the nature and severity of disease, the patient's weight, special diets then being followed by a patient, concurrent medication, and other factors which those skilled in the art will recognize. Generally, dosage levels of between 0.0001 to 10 mg/kg. of body weight daily are administered to the patient, e.g., humans and elderly humans, to obtain effective antagonism of orexin receptors. The dosage range will generally be about 0.5 mg to 1.0 g. per patient per day which may be administered in single or multiple doses. In one embodiment, the dosage range will be about 0.5 mg to 500 mg per patient per day; in another embodiment about 0.5 mg to 200 mg per patient per day; and in yet another embodiment about 5 mg to 50 mg per patient per day. Pharmaceutical compositions of the present invention may be provided in a solid dosage formulation such as comprising about 0.5 mg to 500 mg active ingredient, or comprising about 1 mg to 250 mg active ingredient. The pharmaceutical composition may be provided in a solid dosage formulation comprising about 1 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg, 25 mg, 30 mg, 50 mg, 80 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg or 250 mg active ingredient. For oral administration, the compositions may be provided in the form of tablets containing 1.0 to 1000 milligrams of the active ingredient, such as 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 400, 500, 600, 750, 800, 900, and 1000 milligrams of the active ingredient for the symptomatic adjustment of the dosage to the patient to be treated. The compounds may be administered on a regimen of 1 to 4 times per day, such as once or twice per day. The compounds may be administered before bedtime. For example, the compounds may be administered about 1 Hour prior to bedtime, about 30 minutes prior to bedtime or immediately before bedtime.

The compounds of the present invention may be used in combination with one or more other drugs in the treatment, prevention, control, amelioration, or reduction of risk of diseases or conditions for which compounds of the present invention or the other drugs may have utility, where the combination of the drugs together are safer or more effective than either drug alone. Such other drug(s) may be administered, by a route and in an amount commonly used therefor, contemporaneously or sequentially with a compound of the present invention. When a compound of the present invention is used contemporaneously with one or more other drugs, a pharmaceutical composition in unit dosage form containing such other drugs and the compound of the present invention is contemplated. However, the combination therapy may also includes therapies in which the compound of the present invention and one or more other drugs are administered on different overlapping schedules. It is also contemplated that when used in combination with one or more other active ingredients, the compounds of the present invention and the other active ingredients may be used in lower doses than when each is used singly. Accordingly, the pharmaceutical compositions of the present invention include those that contain one or more other active ingredients, in addition to a compound of the present invention. The above combinations include combinations of a compound of the present invention not only with one other active compound, but also with two or more other active compounds.

Likewise, compounds of the present invention may be used in combination with other drugs that are used in the prevention, treatment, control, amelioration, or reduction of risk of the diseases or conditions for which compounds of the present invention are useful. Such other drugs may be administered, by a route and in an amount commonly used therefor, contemporaneously or sequentially with a compound of the present invention. When a compound of the present invention is used contemporaneously with one or more other drugs, a pharmaceutical composition containing such other drugs in addition to the compound of the present invention is contemplated. Accordingly, the pharmaceutical compositions of the present invention include those that also contain one or more other active ingredients, in addition to a compound of the present invention.

The weight ratio of the compound of the compound of the present invention to the second active ingredient may be varied and will depend upon the effective dose of each ingredient. Generally, an effective dose of each will be used. Thus, for example, when a compound of the present invention is combined with another agent, the weight ratio of the compound of the present invention to the other agent will generally range from about 1000:1 to about 1:1000, such as about 200:1 to about 1:200. Combinations of a compound of the present invention and other active ingredients will generally also be within the aforementioned range, but in each case, an effective dose of each active ingredient should be used. In such combinations the compound of the present invention and other active agents may be administered separately or in conjunction. In addition, the administration of one element may be prior to, concurrent to, or subsequent to the administration of other agent(s).

The compounds of the present invention may be administered in combination with other compounds which are known in the art to be useful for enhancing sleep quality and preventing and treating sleep disorders and sleep disturbances, including e.g., sedatives, hypnotics, anxiolytics, antipsychotics, antianxiety agents, antihistamines, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, cyclopyrrolones, GABA agonists, 5HT-2 antagonists including 5HT-2A antagonists and 5HT-2A/2C antagonists, histamine antagonists including histamine H3 antagonists, histamine H3 inverse agonists, imidazopyridines, minor tranquilizers, melatonin agonists and antagonists, melatonergic agents, other orexin antagonists, orexin agonists, prokineticin agonists and antagonists, pyrazolopyrimidines, T-type calcium channel antagonists, triazolopyridines, and the like, such as: adinazolam, allobarbital, alonimid, alprazolam, amitriptyline, amobarbital, amoxapine, armodafinil, APD-125, bentazepam, benzoctamine, brotizolam, bupropion, busprione, butabarbital, butalbital, capromorelin, capuride, carbocloral, chloral betaine, chloral hydrate, chlordiazepoxide, clomipramine, clonazepam, cloperidone, clorazepate, clorethate, clozapine, conazepam, cyprazepam, desipramine, dexclamol, diazepam, dichloralphenazone, divalproex, diphenhydramine, doxepin, EMD-281014, eplivanserin, estazolam, eszopiclone, ethchlorynol, etomidate, fenobam, flunitrazepam, flurazepam, fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, fosazepam, gaboxadol, glutethimide, halazepam, hydroxyzine, ibutamoren, imipramine, indiplon, lithium, lorazepam, lormetazepam, LY-156735, maprotiline, MDL-100907, mecloqualone, melatonin, mephobarbital, meprobamate, methaqualone, methyprylon, midaflur, midazolam, modafinil, nefazodone, NGD-2-73, nisobamate, nitrazepam, nortriptyline, ornortriptyline, oxazepam, paraldehyde, paroxetine, pentobarbital, perlapine, perphenazine, phenelzine, phenobarbital, prazepam, promethazine, propofol, protriptyline, quazepam, ramelteon, reclazepam, roletamide, secobarbital, sertraline, suproclone, TAK-375, temazepam, thioridazine, tiagabine, tracazolate, tranylcypromaine, trazodone, triazolam, trepipam, tricetamide, triclofos, trifluoperazine, trimetozine, trimipramine, uldazepam, venlafaxine, zaleplon, zolazepam, zopiclone, zolpidem, and salts thereof, and combinations thereof, and the like, or the compound of the present invention may be administered in conjunction with the use of physical methods such as with light therapy or electrical stimulation.

In another embodiment, the subject compound may be employed in combination with other compounds which are known in the art, either administered separately or in the same pharmaceutical compositions, include, but are not limited to: insulin sensitizers including (i) PPARγ antagonists such as glitazones (e.g. ciglitazone; darglitazone; englitazone; isaglitazone (MCC-555); pioglitazone; rosiglitazone; troglitazone; tularik; BRL49653; CLX-0921; 5-BTZD), GW-0207, LG-100641, and LY-300512, and the like); (iii) biguanides such as metformin and phenformin; (b) insulin or insulin mimetics, such as biota, LP-100, novarapid, insulin detemir, insulin lispro, insulin glargine, insulin zinc suspension (lente and ultralente); Lys-Pro insulin, GLP-1 (73-7) (insulintropin); and GLP-1 (7-36)-NH2); (c) sulfonylureas, such as acetohexamide; chlorpropamide; diabinese; glibenclamide; glipizide; glyburide; glimepiride; gliclazide; glipentide; gliquidone; glisolamide; tolazamide; and tolbutamide; (d) α-glucosidase inhibitors, such as acarbose, adiposine; camiglibose; emiglitate; miglitol; voglibose; pradimicin-Q; salbostatin; CKD-711; MDL-25,637; MDL-73,945; and MOR 14, and the like; (e) cholesterol lowering agents such as (i) HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (atorvastatin, itavastatin, fluvastatin, lovastatin, pravastatin, rivastatin, rosuvastatin, simvastatin, and other statins), (ii) bile acid absorbers/sequestrants, such as cholestyramine, colestipol, dialkylaminoalkyl derivatives of a cross-linked dextran; Colestid®; LoCholest®, and the like, (ii) nicotinyl alcohol, nicotinic acid or a salt thereof, (iii) proliferator-activater receptor α agonists such as fenofibric acid derivatives (gemfibrozil, clofibrate, fenofibrate and benzafibrate), (iv) inhibitors of cholesterol absorption such as stanol esters, beta-sitosterol, sterol glycosides such as tiqueside; and azetidinones such as ezetimibe, and the like, and (acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT)) inhibitors such as avasimibe, and melinamide, (v) anti-oxidants, such as probucol, (vi) vitamin E, and (vii) thyromimetics; (f) PPARα agonists such as beclofibrate, benzafibrate, ciprofibrate, clofibrate, etofibrate, fenofibrate, and gemfibrozil; and other fibric acid derivatives, such as Atromid®, Lopid® and Tricor®, and the like, and PPARα agonists as described in WO 97/36579; (g) PPARδ agonists, such as those disclosed in WO97/28149; (h) PPAR α/δ agonists, such as muraglitazar, and the compounds disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,414,002; (i) anti-obesity agents, such as (1) growth hormone secretagogues, growth hormone secretagogue receptor agonists/antagonists, such as NN703, hexarelin, MK-0677, SM-130686, CP-424,391, L-692,429, and L-163,255, and such as those disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,536,716, and 6,358,951, U.S. Patent Application Nos. 2002/049196 and 2002/022637, and PCT Application Nos. WO 01/56592 and WO 02/32888; (2) protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP-1B) inhibitors; (3) cannabinoid receptor ligands, such as cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists or inverse agonists, such as rimonabant, taranabant, AMT-251, and SR-14778 and SR 141716A (Sanofi Synthelabo), SLV-319 (Solvay), BAY 65-2520 (Bayer) and those disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,532,237, 4,973,587, 5,013,837, 5,081,122, 5,112,820, 5,292,736, 5,624,941, 6,028,084, PCT Application Nos. WO 96/33159, WO 98/33765, WO98/43636, WO98/43635, WO 01/09120, WO98/31227, WO98/41519, WO98/37061, WO00/10967, WO00/10968, WO97/29079, WO99/02499, WO 01/58869, WO 01/64632, WO 01/64633, WO 01/64634, WO02/076949, WO 03/007887, WO 04/048317, and WO 05/000809; (4) anti-obesity serotonergic agents, such as fenfluramine, dexfenfluramine, phentermine, and sibutramine; (5) β3-adrenoreceptor agonists, such as AD9677/TAK677 (Dainippon/Takeda), CL-316,243, SB 418790, BRL-37344, L-796568, BMS-196085, BRL-35135A, CGP12177A, BTA-243, Trecadrine, Zeneca D7114, SR 59119A; (6) pancreatic lipase inhibitors, such as orlistat (Xenical®), Triton WR1339, RHC80267, lipstatin, tetrahydrolipstatin, teasaponin, diethylumbelliferyl phosphate, and those disclosed in PCT Application No. WO 01/77094; (7) neuropeptide Y1 antagonists, such as BIBP3226, J-115814, BIBO 3304, LY-357897, CP-671906, GI-264879A, and those disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,001,836, and PCT Patent Publication Nos. WO 96/14307, WO 01/23387, WO 99/51600, WO 01/85690, WO 01/85098, WO 01/85173, and WO 01/89528; (8) neuropeptide Y5 antagonists, such as GW-569180A, GW-594884A, GW-587081X, GW-548118X, FR226928, FR 240662, FR252384, 1229U91, GI-264879A, CGP71683A, LY-377897, PD-160170, SR-120562A, SR-120819A and JCF-104, and those disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,057,335; 6,043,246; 6,140,354; 6,166,038; 6,180,653; 6,191,160; 6,313,298; 6,335,345; 6,337,332; 6,326,375; 6,329,395; 6,340,683; 6,388,077; 6,462,053; 6,649,624; and 6,723,847, European Patent Nos. EP-01010691, and EP-01044970; and PCT International Patent Publication Nos. WO 97/19682, WO 97/20820, WO 97/20821, WO 97/20822, WO 97/20823, WO 98/24768; WO 98/25907; WO 98/25908; WO 98/27063, WO 98/47505; WO 98/40356; WO 99/15516; WO 99/27965; WO 00/64880, WO 00/68197, WO 00/69849, WO 01/09120, WO 01/14376; WO 01/85714, WO 01/85730, WO 01/07409, WO 01/02379, WO 01/02379, WO 01/23388, WO 01/23389, WO 01/44201, WO 01/62737, WO 01/62738, WO 01/09120, WO 02/22592, WO 0248152, and WO 02/49648; WO 02/094825; WO 03/014083; WO 03/10191; WO 03/092889; WO 04/002986; and WO 04/031175; (9) melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) receptor antagonists, such as those disclosed in WO 01/21577 and WO 01/21169; (10) melanin-concentrating hormone 1 receptor (MCH1R) antagonists, such as T-226296 (Takeda), and those disclosed in PCT Patent Application Nos. WO 01/82925, WO 01/87834, WO 02/051809, WO 02/06245, WO 02/076929, WO 02/076947, WO 02/04433, WO 02/51809, WO 02/083134, WO 02/094799, WO 03/004027; (11) melanin-concentrating hormone 2 receptor (MCH2R) agonist/antagonists; (12) orexin receptor antagonists, such as SB-334867-A, and those disclosed in patent publications herein; (13) serotonin reuptake inhibitors such as fluoxetine, paroxetine, and sertraline; (14) melanocortin agonists, such as Melanotan II; (15) Mc4r (melanocortin 4 receptor) agonists, such as CHIR86036 (Chiron), ME-10142, and ME-10145 (Melacure), CHIR86036 (Chiron); PT-141, and PT-14 (Palatin); (16) 5HT-2 agonists; (17) 5HT2C (serotonin receptor 2C) agonists, such as BVT933, DPCA37215, WAY161503, R-1065, and those disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,914,250, and PCT Application Nos. WO 02/36596, WO 02/48124, WO 02/10169, WO 01/66548, WO 02/44152, WO 02/51844, WO 02/40456, and WO 02/40457; (18) galanin antagonists; (19) CCK agonists; (20) CCK-A (cholecystokinin-A) agonists, such as AR-R 15849, GI 181771, JMV-180, A-71378, A-71623 and SR14613, and those described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,739,106; (21) GLP-1 agonists; (22) corticotropin-releasing hormone agonists; (23) histamine receptor-3 (H3) modulators; (24) histamine receptor-3 (H3) antagonists/inverse agonists, such as hioperamide, 3-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)propyl N-(4-pentenyl)carbamate, clobenpropit, iodophenpropit, imoproxifan, GT2394 (Gliatech), and O-[3-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)propanol]-carbamates; (25) β-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase-1 inhibitors ((3-HSD-1); (26) PDE (phosphodiesterase) inhibitors, such as theophylline, pentoxifylline, zaprinast, sildenafil, amrinone, milrinone, cilostamide, rolipram, and cilomilast; (27) phosphodiesterase-3B (PDE3B) inhibitors; (28) NE (norepinephrine) transport inhibitors, such as GW 320659, despiramine, talsupram, and nomifensine; (29) ghrelin receptor antagonists, such as those disclosed in PCT Application Nos. WO 01/87335, and WO 02/08250; (30) leptin, including recombinant human leptin (PEG-OB, Hoffman La Roche) and recombinant methionyl human leptin (Amgen); (31) leptin derivatives; (32) BRS3 (bombesin receptor subtype 3) agonists such as [D-Phe6,beta-Ala11,Phe13,Nle14]Bn(6-14) and [D-Phe6,Phe13]Bn(6-13)propylamide, and those compounds disclosed in Pept. Sci. 2002 August; 8(8): 461-75); (33) CNTF (Ciliary neurotrophic factors), such as GI-181771 (Glaxo-SmithKline), SR146131 (Sanofi Synthelabo), butabindide, PD170,292, and PD 149164 (Pfizer); (34) CNTF derivatives, such as axokine (Regeneron); (35) monoamine reuptake inhibitors, such as sibutramine; (36) UCP-1 (uncoupling protein-1), 2, or 3 activators, such as phytanic acid, 4-[(E)-2-(5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-2-napthalenyl)-1-propenyl]benzoic acid (TTNPB), retinoic acid; (37) thyroid hormone custom-character agonists, such as KB-2611 (KaroBioBMS); (38) FAS (fatty acid synthase) inhibitors, such as Cerulenin and C75; (39) DGAT1 (diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1) inhibitors; (40) DGAT2 (diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2) inhibitors; (41) ACC2 (acetyl-CoA carboxylase-2) inhibitors; (42) glucocorticoid antagonists; (43) acyl-estrogens, such as oleoyl-estrone, disclosed in del Mar-Grasa, M. et al., Obesity Research, 9:202-9 (2001); (44) dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DP-IV) inhibitors, such as isoleucine thiazolidide, valine pyrrolidide, NVP-DPP728, LAF237, P93/01, TSL 225, TMC-2A/2B/2C, FE 999011, P9310/K364, VIP 0177, SDZ 274-444, sitagliptin; and the compounds disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,699,871, WO 03/004498; WO 03/004496; EP 1 258 476; WO 02/083128; WO 02/062764; WO 03/000250; WO 03/002530; WO 03/002531; WO 03/002553; WO 03/002593; WO 03/000180; and WO 03/000181; (46) dicarboxylate transporter inhibitors; (47) glucose transporter inhibitors; (48) phosphate transporter inhibitors; (49) Metformin (Glucophage®); (50) Topiramate (Topimax®); (50) peptide YY, PYY 3-36, peptide YY analogs, derivatives, and fragments such as BIM-43073D, BIM-43004C (Olitvak, D. A. et al., Dig. Dis. Sci. 44(3):643-48 (1999)); (51) Neuropeptide Y2 (NPY2) receptor agonists such NPY3-36, N acetyl [Leu(28,31)] NPY 24-36, TASP-V, and cyclo-(28/32)-Ac-[Lys28-Glu32]-(25-36)-pNPY; (52) Neuropeptide Y4 (NPY4) agonists such as pancreatic peptide (PP), and other Y4 agonists such as 1229U91; (54) cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors such as etoricoxib, celecoxib, valdecoxib, parecoxib, lumiracoxib, BMS347070, tiracoxib or JTE522, ABT963, CS502 and GW406381; (55) Neuropeptide Y1 (NPY1) antagonists such as BIBP3226, J-115814, BIBO 3304, LY-357897, CP-671906, GI-264879A; (56) Opioid antagonists such as nalmefene (Revex®), 3-methoxynaltrexone, naloxone, naltrexone; (57) 11β HSD-1 (11-beta hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase type 1) inhibitors such as BVT 3498, BVT 2733, and those disclosed in WO 01/90091, WO 01/90090, WO 01/90092, U.S. Pat. No. 6,730,690 and US 2004-0133011; (58) aminorex; (59) amphechloral; (60) amphetamine; (61) benzphetamine; (62) chlorphentermine; (63) clobenzorex; (64) cloforex; (65) clominorex; (66) clortermine; (67) cyclexedrine; (68) dextroamphetamine; (69) diphemethoxidine, (70) N-ethylamphetamine; (71) fenbutrazate; (72) fenisorex; (73) fenproporex; (74) fludorex; (75) fluminorex; (76) furfurylmethylamphetamine; (77) levamfetamine; (78) levophacetoperane; (79) mefenorex; (80) metamfepramone; (81) methamphetamine; (82) norpseudoephedrine; (83) pentorex; (84) phendimetrazine; (85) phenmetrazine; (86) picilorex; (87) phytopharm 57; and (88) zonisamide, (89) neuromedin U and analogs or derivatives thereof, (90) oxyntomodulin and analogs or derivatives thereof, and (91) Neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists (NK-1 antagonists) such as the compounds disclosed in: U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,162,339, 5,232,929, 5,242,930, 5,373,003, 5,387,595, 5,459,270, 5,494,926, 5,496,833, and 5,637,699.

In another embodiment, the subject compound may be employed in combination with an anti-depressant or anti-anxiety agent, including norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (including tertiary amine tricyclics and secondary amine tricyclics), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase (RIMAs), serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) antagonists, α-adrenoreceptor antagonists, neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists, atypical anti-depressants, benzodiazepines, 5-HT1A agonists or antagonists, especially 5-HT1A partial agonists, and corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) antagonists. Specific agents include: amitriptyline, clomipramine, doxepin, imipramine and trimipramine; amoxapine, desipramine, maprotiline, nortriptyline and protriptyline; citalopram, duloxetine, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine and sertraline; isocarboxazid, phenelzine, tranylcypromine and selegiline; moclobemide: venlafaxine; aprepitant; bupropion, lithium, nefazodone, trazodone and viloxazine; alprazolam, chlordiazepoxide, clonazepam, chlorazepate, diazepam, halazepam, lorazepam, oxazepam and prazepam; buspirone, flesinoxan, gepirone and ipsapirone, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof.

In another embodiment, the subject compound may be employed in combination with anti-Alzheimer's agents; beta-secretase inhibitors; gamma-secretase inhibitors; growth hormone secretagogues; recombinant growth hormone; HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors; NSAID's including ibuprofen; vitamin E; anti-amyloid antibodies; CB-1 receptor antagonists or CB-1 receptor inverse agonists; antibiotics such as doxycycline and rifampin; N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists, such as memantine; cholinesterase inhibitors such as galantamine, rivastigmine, donepezil, and tacrine; growth hormone secretagogues such as ibutamoren, ibutamoren mesylate, and capromorelin; histamine H3 antagonists; AMPA agonists; PDE IV inhibitors; GABAA inverse agonists; or neuronal nicotinic agonists.

In another embodiment, the subject compound may be employed in combination with sedatives, hypnotics, anxiolytics, antipsychotics, antianxiety agents, cyclopyrrolones, imidazopyridines, pyrazolopyrimidines, minor tranquilizers, melatonin agonists and antagonists, melatonergic agents, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, 5HT-2 antagonists, and the like, such as: adinazolam, allobarbital, alonimid, alprazolam, amitriptyline, amobarbital, amoxapine, bentazepam, benzoctamine, brotizolam, bupropion, busprione, butabarbital, butalbital, capuride, carbocloral, chloral betaine, chloral hydrate, chlordiazepoxide, clomipramine, clonazepam, cloperidone, clorazepate, clorethate, clozapine, cyprazepam, desipramine, dexclamol, diazepam, dichloralphenazone, divalproex, diphenhydramine, doxepin, estazolam, ethchlorvynol, etomidate, fenobam, flunitrazepam, flurazepam, fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, fosazepam, glutethimide, halazepam, hydroxyzine, imipramine, lithium, lorazepam, lormetazepam, maprotiline, mecloqualone, melatonin, mephobarbital, meprobamate, methaqualone, midaflur, midazolam, nefazodone, nisobamate, nitrazepam, nortriptyline, oxazepam, paraldehyde, paroxetine, pentobarbital, perlapine, perphenazine, phenelzine, phenobarbital, prazepam, promethazine, propofol, protriptyline, quazepam, reclazepam, roletamide, secobarbital, sertraline, suproclone, temazepam, thioridazine, tracazolate, tranylcypromaine, trazodone, triazolam, trepipam, tricetamide, triclofos, trifluoperazine, trimetozine, trimipramine, uldazepam, venlafaxine, zaleplon, zolazepam, zolpidem, and salts thereof, and combinations thereof, and the like, or the subject compound may be administered in conjunction with the use of physical methods such as with light therapy or electrical stimulation.

In another embodiment, the subject compound may be employed in combination with levodopa (with or without a selective extracerebral decarboxylase inhibitor such as carbidopa or benserazide), anticholinergics such as biperiden (optionally as its hydrochloride or lactate salt) and trihexyphenidyl (benzhexol)hydrochloride, COMT inhibitors such as entacapone, MOA-B inhibitors, antioxidants, A2a adenosine receptor antagonists, cholinergic agonists, NMDA receptor antagonists, serotonin receptor antagonists and dopamine receptor agonists such as alentemol, bromocriptine, fenoldopam, lisuride, naxagolide, pergolide and pramipexole.

In another embodiment, the subject compound may be employed in combination with acetophenazine, alentemol, benzhexol, bromocriptine, biperiden, chlorpromazine, chlorprothixene, clozapine, diazepam, fenoldopam, fluphenazine, haloperidol, levodopa, levodopa with benserazide, levodopa with carbidopa, lisuride, loxapine, mesoridazine, molindolone, naxagolide, olanzapine, pergolide, perphenazine, pimozide, pramipexole, risperidone, sulpiride, tetrabenazine, trihexyphenidyl, thioridazine, thiothixene or trifluoperazine.

In another embodiment, the subject compound may be employed in combination with a compound from the phenothiazine, thioxanthene, heterocyclic dibenzazepine, butyrophenone, diphenylbutylpiperidine and indolone classes of neuroleptic agent. Suitable examples of phenothiazines include chlorpromazine, mesoridazine, thioridazine, acetophenazine, fluphenazine, perphenazine and trifluoperazine. Suitable examples of thioxanthenes include chlorprothixene and thiothixene. An example of a dibenzazepine is clozapine. An example of a butyrophenone is haloperidol. An example of a diphenylbutylpiperidine is pimozide. An example of an indolone is molindolone. Other neuroleptic agents include loxapine, sulpiride and risperidone.

In another embodiment, the subject compound may be employed in combination with a nicotine agonist or a nicotine receptor partial agonist such as varenicline, opioid antagonists (e.g., naltrexone (including naltrexone depot), antabuse, and nalmefene), dopaminergic agents (e.g., apomorphine), ADD/ADHD agents (e.g., methylphenidate hydrochloride (e.g., Ritalin® and Concerta®), atomoxetine (e.g., Strattera®), a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI), amphetamines (e.g., Adderall®)) and anti-obesity agents, such as apo-B/MTP inhibitors, 11Beta-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase-1 (11Beta-HSD type 1) inhibitors, peptide YY3-36 or analogs thereof, MCR-4 agonists, CCK-A agonists, monoamine reuptake inhibitors, sympathomimetic agents, β3 adrenergic receptor agonists, dopamine receptor agonists, melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor analogs, 5-HT2c receptor agonists, melanin concentrating hormone receptor antagonists, leptin, leptin analogs, leptin receptor agonists, galanin receptor antagonists, lipase inhibitors, bombesin receptor agonists, neuropeptide-Y receptor antagonists (e.g., NPY Y5 receptor antagonists), thyromimetic agents, dehydroepiandrosterone or analogs thereof, glucocorticoid receptor antagonists, other orexin receptor antagonists, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, ciliary neurotrophic factors, human agouti-related protein antagonists, ghrelin receptor antagonists, histamine 3 receptor antagonists or inverse agonists, and neuromedin U receptor agonists, and pharmaceutically acceptble salts thereof.

In another embodiment, the subject compound may be employed in combination with an anoretic agent such as aminorex, amphechloral, amphetamine, benzphetamine, chlorphentermine, clobenzorex, cloforex, clominorex, clortermine, cyclexedrine, dexfenfluramine, dextroamphetamine, diethylpropion, diphemethoxidine, N-ethylamphetamine, fenbutrazate, fenfluramine, fenisorex, fenproporex, fludorex, fluminorex, furfurylmethylamphetamine, levamfetamine, levophacetoperane, mazindol, mefenorex, metamfepramone, methamphetamine, norpseudoephedrine, pentorex, phendimetrazine, phenmetrazine, phentermine, phenylpropanolamine, picilorex and sibutramine; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI); halogenated amphetamine derivatives, including chlorphentermine, cloforex, clortermine, dexfenfluramine, fenfluramine, picilorex and sibutramine; and pharmaceutically acceptble salts thereof.

In another embodiment, the subject compound may be employed in combination with an opiate agonist, a lipoxygenase inhibitor, such as an inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, such as a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, an interleukin inhibitor, such as an interleukin-1 inhibitor, an NMDA antagonist, an inhibitor of nitric oxide or an inhibitor of the synthesis of nitric oxide, a non-steroidal antiinflammatory agent, or a cytokine-suppressing antiinflammatory agent, for example with a compound such as acetaminophen, asprin, codiene, fentanyl, ibuprofen, indomethacin, ketorolac, morphine, naproxen, phenacetin, piroxicam, a steroidal analgesic, sufentanyl, sunlindac, tenidap, and the like. Similarly, the subject compound may be administered with a pain reliever; a potentiator such as caffeine, an H2-antagonist, simethicone, aluminum or magnesium hydroxide; a decongestant such as phenylephrine, phenylpropanolamine, pseudophedrine, oxymetazoline, ephinephrine, naphazoline, xylometazoline, propylhexedrine, or levo-desoxy-ephedrine; an antiitussive such as codeine, hydrocodone, caramiphen, carbetapentane, or dextramethorphan; a diuretic; and a sedating or non-sedating antihistamine.

The compounds of the present invention may be administered by oral, parenteral (e.g., intramuscular, intraperitoneal, intravenous, ICV, intracisternal injection or infusion, subcutaneous injection, or implant), by inhalation spray, nasal, vaginal, rectal, sublingual, or topical routes of administration and may be formulated, alone or together, in suitable dosage unit formulations containing conventional non-toxic pharmaceutically acceptable carriers, adjuvants and vehicles appropriate for each route of administration. In addition to the treatment of warm-blooded animals such as mice, rats, horses, cattle, sheep, dogs, cats, monkeys, etc., the compounds of the invention are effective for use in humans.

The pharmaceutical compositions for the administration of the compounds of this invention may conveniently be presented in dosage unit form and may be prepared by any of the methods well known in the art of pharmacy. All methods include the step of bringing the active ingredient into association with the carrier which constitutes one or more accessory ingredients. In general, the pharmaceutical compositions are prepared by uniformly and intimately bringing the active ingredient into association with a liquid carrier or a finely divided solid carrier or both, and then, if necessary, shaping the product into the desired formulation. In the pharmaceutical composition the active object compound is included in an amount sufficient to produce the desired effect upon the process or condition of diseases. As used herein, the term “composition” is intended to encompass a product comprising the specified ingredients in the specified amounts, as well as any product which results, directly or indirectly, from combination of the specified ingredients in the specified amounts.

Pharmaceutical compositions intended for oral use may be prepared according to any method known to the art for the manufacture of pharmaceutical compositions and such compositions may contain one or more agents selected from the group consisting of sweetening agents, flavoring agents, coloring agents and preserving agents in order to provide pharmaceutically elegant and palatable preparations. Tablets contain the active ingredient in admixture with non-toxic pharmaceutically acceptable excipients which are suitable for the manufacture of tablets. These excipients may be for example, inert diluents, such as calcium carbonate, sodium carbonate, lactose, calcium phosphate or sodium phosphate; granulating and disintegrating agents, for example, corn starch, or alginic acid; binding agents, for example starch, gelatin or acacia, and lubricating agents, for example magnesium stearate, stearic acid or talc. The tablets may be uncoated or they may be coated by known techniques to delay disintegration and absorption in the gastrointestinal tract and thereby provide a sustained action over a longer period. Compositions for oral use may also be presented as hard gelatin capsules wherein the active ingredient is mixed with an inert solid diluent, for example, calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate or kaolin, or as soft gelatin capsules wherein the active ingredient is mixed with water or an oil medium, for example peanut oil, liquid paraffin, or olive oil. Aqueous suspensions contain the active materials in admixture with excipients suitable for the manufacture of aqueous suspensions. Oily suspensions may be formulated by suspending the active ingredient in a suitable oil. Oil-in-water emulsions may also be employed. Dispersible powders and granules suitable for preparation of an aqueous suspension by the addition of water provide the active ingredient in admixture with a dispersing or wetting agent, suspending agent and one or more preservatives. Pharmaceutical compositions of the present compounds may be in the form of a sterile injectable aqueous or oleagenous suspension. The compounds of the present invention may also be administered in the form of suppositories for rectal administration. For topical use, creams, ointments, jellies, solutions or suspensions, etc., containing the compounds of the present invention may be employed. The compounds of the present invention may also be formulated for administered by inhalation. The compounds of the present invention may also be administered by a transdermal patch by methods known in the art.

Several methods for preparing the compounds of this invention are illustrated in the following Schemes and Examples. Starting materials are made according to procedures known in the art or as illustrated herein. The following abbreviations are used herein: Me: methyl; Et: ethyl; t-Bu: tert-butyl; Ar: aryl; Ph: phenyl; Bn: benzyl; Ac: acetyl; ACN: acetonitrile; THF: tetrahydrofuran; DEAD: diethylazodicarboxylate; DIPEA: N,N-diisopropylethylamine; NMM: N-methylmorpholine; DMSO: dimethylsulfoxide; EDC: N-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl)-N′-ethylcarbodiimide; HOBT: hydroxybenzotriazole hydrate; Boc: tert-butyloxy carbonyl; Et3N: triethylamine; DCM: dichloromethane; DCE: dichloroethane; BSA: bovine serum albumin; TFA: trifluoracetic acid; DMF: N,N-dimethylformamide; MTBE: methyl tert-butyl ether; SOCl2: thionyl chloride; CDI: carbonyl diimidazole; PyClu: 1-(chloro-1-pyrrolidinylmethylene)-pyrrolidinium hexafluorophosphate; T3P: 1-propylphosphonic acid cyclic anhydride; rt: room temperature; HPLC: high performance liquid chromatography. The compounds of the present invention can be prepared in a variety of fashions.

In some cases the final product may be further modified, for example, by manipulation of substituents. These manipulations may include, but are not limited to, reduction, oxidation, alkylation, acylation, and hydrolysis reactions which are commonly known to those skilled in the art. In some cases the order of carrying out the foregoing reaction schemes may be varied to facilitate the reaction or to avoid unwanted reaction products. The following examples are provided so that the invention might be more fully understood. These examples are illustrative only and should not be construed as limiting the invention in any way.

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5-Aryl-2-chloronicotinic acids (A-2) are synthesized via Suzuki coupling reactions on A-1 with aryl boronic under standard conditions followed by hydrolysis. A-2 are coupled to amines using PyClu to give A-3. Coupling of A-3 with boronic acids using standard Suzuki coupling conditions under microwave heating affords A-4.

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2,5-Disubstituted nicotinic acids (B-2) can be synthesized via B-1 by selective Suzuki coupling on the 5-position followed by another Suzuki coupling on the 2-position and in situ hydrolysis. Compounds such as B-2 can be advanced to final compounds through amide coupling to afford B-3.

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2,5-Disubstituted nicotinic acids (C-2) can be synthesized via C-1 by selective Suzuki coupling on the 5-position followed by another Suzuki coupling on the 2-position followed by basic hydrolysis. Compounds such as C-2 can be advanced to final compounds through amide coupling to afford C-3.

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2,5-Disubstituted nicotinic acids (D-2) can be synthesized via D-1 by selective Suzuki coupling on the 5-position followed by nucleophilic substitution on the 2-position and hydrolysis of the ester. Compounds such as D-2 can be advanced to final compounds through amide coupling to afford D-3.

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2,5-Disubstituted nicotinic acids (E-2) can be synthesized via E-1 by selective Suzuki coupling on the 5-position followed by nucleophilic substitution with N—H containing heterocycles on the 2-position. Hydrolysis of the ester affords E-2. Compounds such as E-2 can be advanced to final compounds through amide coupling to afford E-3.

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2,5-Disubstituted nicotinic acids (F-2) can be synthesized via F-1 by selective Suzuki coupling on the 5-position followed by Negishi coupling on the 2-position. Hydrolysis of the ester affords F-2. Compounds such as F-2 can be advanced to final compounds through amide coupling to afford F-3.

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2,5-Disubstituted nicotinic esters (G-2) can be synthesized via G-1 by selective Stille coupling on the 5-position followed by another Stille coupling on the 2-position. Compounds such as G-2 can be advanced to final compounds through transamination mediated by trimethylaluminum to afford G-3.

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2,5-Disubstituted nicotinic acids (H-2) can be synthesized via F-1 by selective Suzuki coupling on the 5-position followed by Stille coupling on the 2-position. Hydrolysis of the ester affords H-2. Compounds such as H-2 can be advanced to final compounds through amide coupling to afford H-3.

Example 1

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2-Chloro-5-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)nicotinic acid (1-2)

To a deoxygenated solution of methyl 2-chloro-5-iodonicotinate (1-1, 2.01 g, 6.72 mmol, 1 equiv) and 3,5-dimethylphenylboronic acid (1.01 g, 6.72 mmol. 1.00 equiv) in dioxane (250 mL) was added tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0) (155 mg, 0.134 mmol) and 2 N aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution (16.8 mL, 33.6 mmol, 5.00 equiv) and the reaction mixture was heated at 90° C. for 48 hours. The reaction mixture was allowed to cool to 23° C., then partitioned between ethyl acetate (500 mL) and saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution (500 mL). The aqueous layer was filtered and acidified to pH 2 with concentrated hydrochloric acid. The resulting precipitate was collected by filtration washed with water (2×100 mL) and air dried to afford 2-chloro-5-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)nicotinic acid (1-2) as an off white solid. LRMS m/z (M+H) 262.3 found, 262.1 required.

2-Chloro-N-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-5-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)nicotinamide (1-3)

To a solution of 2-chloro-5-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)nicotinic acid (1-2, 0.200 g, 0.764 mmol, 1 equiv) and 3,4-dimethoxybenzylamine (0.319 g, 1.91 mmol, 2.50 equiv) in DMF (5 mL) was added 1-(chloro-1-pyrrolidinylmethylene)-pyrrolidinium hexafluorophosphate (PyClu, 0.383 mg, 1.15 mmol, 1.51 equiv), and diisopropylethylamine (0.667 mL, 3.82 mmol, 5.00 equiv). The resulting mixture was stirred at 23° C. for 20 hours. The reaction mixture was filtered and purified via reverse phase liquid chromatography (H2O/CH3CN gradient w/0.1% TFA present). The desired fractions were partitioned between saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution and ethyl acetate (2×50 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine then dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated to give 2-chloro-N-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-5-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)nicotinamide (1-3) as a white powder. LRMS m/z (M+H) 262.3 found, 262.1 required.

N-(3,4-Dimethoxybenzyl)-5-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)-2-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)nicotinamide (1-4)

To a solution of 2-chloro-N-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-5-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)nicotinamide (1-3, 50.0 mg, 0.122 mmol)) and 1-methyl-4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole (25.3 mg, 0.122 mmol) in dioxanes (3 mL) was added tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0) (7.03 mg, 6.08 μmol) and 2 N aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution (0.304 mL, 0.608 mmol). Under microwave heating the deoxygenated mixture was held at 160° C. for 1 h. The reaction mixture was filtered and concentrated to dryness. A solid residue was triturated with ethyl acetate (4 mL), collected by filtration, washed with water (10 mL) and air dried to afford N-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-5-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)-2-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)nicotinamide (1-4). 1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO) δ 9.09 (t, 1H, J=5.8 Hz), 8.87 (d, 1H, J=1.8 Hz), 7.92 (d, 1H, J=1.8 Hz), 7.82 (d, 1H, J=9.8 Hz), 7.39 (s, 2H), 7.06 (s, 1H), 6.92 (m, 3H), 4.29 (d, 2H, J=5.3 Hz), 3.74 (m, 6H), 3.32 (s, 3H), 2.35 (s, 3H). HRMS m/z (M+H) 457.2242 found, 457.2234 required.

TABLE 1
The following compounds were prepared using the foregoing methodology, but substituting
the appropriately substituted reagent, as described in the foregoing Reaction Schemes and
Examples. The requisite starting materials were commercially available, described in the literature
or readily synthesized by one skilled in the art of organic synthesis without undue experimentation.
CmpStructureNameHRMS m/z (M + H)
1-5 embedded image N-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-5- (3,5-dimethylphenyl)-6′- fluoro-2,3′-bipyridine-3- carboxamide472.2025 found, 472.2031 required.
1-6 embedded image N-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-5- (3,5-dimethylphenyl)-2- quinolin-3-ylnicotinamide504.2286 found, 504.2282 required.
1-7 embedded image N-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-5- (3,5-dimethylphenyl)-2-(3- hydroxyphenyl)nicotinamide469.2119 found, 469.2122 required.
1-8 embedded image N-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-5- (3,5-dimethylphenyl)-2-{3- [(methylamino)carbonyl] phenyl}nicotinamide510.2406 found, 510.2388 required.
1-9 embedded image N-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2- {3-[(dimethylamino)methyl] phenyl}-5-(3,5- dimethylphenyl) nicotinamide510.2748 found, 510.2753 required.
1-10embedded image N-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-5- (3,5-dimethylphenyl)-2-(1H- indol-5-yl)nicotinamide492.2289 found, 492.2282 required.
1-11embedded image 5-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)-N- [(1R)-1-(3- methoxyphenyl)ethyl)-2-(1- methyl-1H-pyrazol-4- yl)nicotinamide441.2298 found, 441.2285 required.
1-12embedded image 5-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)-2-(1- methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-N- (quinolin-2-ylmethyl) nicotinamide448.2138 found, 448.2132 required.
1-13embedded image N-[(5,6-dimethoxypyridin-3- yl)methyl]-5-(3,5- dimethylphenyl)-2-(1-methyl- 1H-pyrazol-4-yl)nicotinamide458.2195 found, 458.2187 required.
1-14embedded image 5-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-N- [(2,3-dimethyl-1H-indol-6- yl)methyl]-2-(1-methyl-1H- pyrazol-4-yl)nicotinamide504.1366 found, 504.1353 required.
1-15embedded image 5-(3-fluoro-5-methylphenyl)- 2-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)- N-[(1R)-1-(2- naphthyl)ethyl]nicotinamide465.2098 found, 465.2085 required.
1-16embedded image 5-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)-2-(1- methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-N- (2-naphthylmethyl) nicotinamide447.2190 found, 447.2180 required.
1-17embedded image 5-(3-fluoro-5-methylphenyl)- 2-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)- N-(2-naphthylmethyl) nicotinamide451.1944 found, 451.1929 required.
1-18embedded image 5-(3,5-dimethylphenyl)-2-(1- methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-N- (quinolin-3- ylmethyl)nicotinamide448.2134 found, 448.2132 required.

Example 2

embedded image

5-(3-Chloro-5-methylphenyl)-2-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)nicotinic acid (2-2)

To a solution of methyl 2-chloro-5-iodonicotonate (2-1, 1.00 g, 3.36 mmol) in dimethylformamide (15 mL) at 25° C. was added 3-chloro-5-methylboronic acid (0.573 g, 3.36 mmol; synthesized via procedures found in Org. Lett. 2007, 9, 757-760), PdCl2dppf (0.246 g, 0.336 mmol) followed by 1M aqueous cesium carbonate (13.5 mL, 13.5 mmol) and the system was stirred for 4 h at 25° C. The system was partitioned between water and EtOAc, and dried over magnesium sulfate. Filtration and concentration yielded a brown solid which upon tritiration with ether afforded a tan solid. To this tan solid (0.05 g, 0.169 mmol) in dimethylformamide (0.8 mL) at 25° C. was added 1-methyl-4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)-1H pyrazole (0.038 g, 0.186 mmol), PdCl2dppf (0.012 g, 0.017 mmol) followed by 4M aqueous cesium carbonate (0.67 mL, 0.675 mmol) and the system was stirred for 15 minutes at 135° C. in the microwave. The system was partitioned between water and EtOAc. The aqueous layer was then acidified using 25% citric acid to a pH of 3, extracted with EtOAc and the organic layer was dried over magnesium sulfate. Filtration and concentration afforded the title compound (2-2) as a cream solid. ESI+MS [M+H]+C17H14ClN3O2=328.0.

5-(3-Chloro-5-methylphenyl)-N-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)nicotinamide (2-3)

To a solution of 5-(3-chloro-5-methylphenyl)-2-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)nicotinic acid (2-2, 0.050 g, 0.153 mmol) and 3,4-dimethoxybenzylamine (0.099 g, 0.595 mmol) in dimethylformamide (1 mL) was added EDC (0.132 g, 0.686 mmol), HOBt (0.105 g, 0.686 mmol) followed by N-methylmorpholine (0.250 mL, 2.28 mmol) and the system was stirred at 25° C. overnight. The reaction mixture was partitioned between ethyl acetate and water, washed with saturated sodium carbonate and dried over magnesium sulfate. The reaction mixture was filtered and purified via normal phase chromatography (0→5% MeOH in DCM) to afford the title compound (2-3) as a bone-colored powder. 1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) δ 8.81 (d, J=2.5 Hz, 1H), 7.99 (s, 1H), 7.92 (d, J=2.5 Hz, 1H), 7.78 (s, 1H), 7.38 (s, 1H), 7.28 (m, 2H), 7.23 (s, 1H), 6.84 (s, 2H), 6.06 (m, 1H), 4.55 (d, J=6 Hz, 2H), 3.88 (s, 3H), 3.87 (s, 3H), 3.86 (s, 3H), 2.42 (s, 3H). HRMS [M+H] C26H25ClN4O3 calc'd 477.1688. Found 477.1682.

TABLE 2
The following compounds were prepared using the foregoing methodology, but substituting the
appropriately substituted reagent, as described in the foregoing Reaction Schemes and Examples.
The requisite starting materials were commercially available, described in the literature or
readily synthesized by one skilled in the art of organic synthesis without undue experimentation.
CmpStructureNameHRMS m/z (M + H)
2-4 embedded image 5-(3,5-fluoromethylphenyl)-N- [1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl) ethyl]-2-(1-methyl-1H- pyrazol-4-yl)nicotinamide475.2128 found, 475.2140 required.
2-5 embedded image 5-(3,5-fluoromethylphenyl)-N- (3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2-(1- methyl-1H-pyrazol-4- yl)nicotinamide461.1962 found, 461.1984 required.
2-6 embedded image 5-(3,5-chloromethylphenyl)- N-[(2,3-dimethyl-1-H-indol-5- yl)methyl]-2-(1-methyl-1H- pyrazol-4-yl)nicotinamide484.1880 found, 484.1899 required.
2-7 embedded image 5-(3,5-chloromethylphenyl)- N-(2-naphthylmethyl)-2-(1- methyl-1H-pyrazol-4- yl)nicotinamideHRMS m/z (M + H) 467.1643 found, 467.1633 required.
2-8 embedded image 5-(3,5-fluoromethylphenyl)-N- (3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2- pyridazin-3yl-nicotinamide459.1859 found, 459.1827 required.
2-9 embedded image 5-(3,5-chloromethylphenyl)- N-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)-2-(1- methyl-1H-pyrazol-4- yl)nicotinamide485.0706 found, 485.0697 required.
2-10embedded image 5-(3,5-fluoromethylphenyl)-N- [1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl) ethyl]-6′-fluoro-2,3′- bipyridine-3-carboxamide490.1916 found, 490.1937 required.
2-11embedded image 5-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-N- (3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-5′- chloro-2,3′-bipyridine-3- carboxamide528.0620 found, 528.0643 required.
2-12embedded image 5-(3,5-chloromethylphenyl)- N-[(1-methyl-1H- benzimidazol-2-yl) methyl]-2- (1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4- yl)nicotinamide471.1711 found, 471.1695 required.
2-13embedded image 5-(3,5-chloromethylphenyl)- N-[(1-methyl-2,3-dihydro-1H- indol-5-yl) methyl]-2-(1- methyl-1H-pyrazol-4- yl)nicotinamide472.1915 found, 472.1899 required.
2-14embedded image 5-(3,5-chloromethylphenyl)- N-[(1,4-dimethyl-1,2,3,4- tetrahydroquinoxalin-6-yl) methyl]-2-(1-methyl-1H- pyrazol-4-yl)nicotinamide480.1687 found, 480.1694 required.
2-15embedded image 5-(3,5-chloromethylphenyl)- N-[(1,4,5-trimethyl-1H- imidazol-2-yl)methyl]-2-(1- methyl-1H-pyrazol-4- yl)nicotinamide449.1850 found, 449.1851 required.
2-16embedded image 5-(3,5-fluoromethylphenyl)-N- (3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2-(1- methyl-1H-pyrazol-5- yl)nicotinamide461.1995 found, 461.1984 required.
2-17embedded image 5-(3,5-chloromethylphenyl)- N-(3,4-dihydroxybenzyl)-2-(1- methyl-1H-pyrazol-4- yl)nicotinamide483.1695 found, 483.1695 required.
2-18embedded image 5-(3,5-chloromethylphenyl)- N-[(1-methyl-1H-indol-2- yl)methyl]-2-(1-methyl-1H- pyrazol-4-yl)nicotinamide470.1731 found, 470.1742 required.

Example 3

embedded image

Methyl 6-chloro-5′-methyl-3,3′-bipyridine-5-carboxylate (3-2)

To a solution of methyl 2-chloro-5-iodonicotonate (3-1, 22 g, 74.0 mmol) in dimethylformamide (296 mL) at 0° C. (ice bath) was added 3-methyl-5-pyridylboronic acid (10.13 g, 74.0 mmol), PdCl2dppf (5.41 g, 7.40 mmol) followed by cesium carbonate (84 g, 259 mmol) and water (13.32 mL, 740 mmol) and the system was stirred overnight as the ice bath warmed to room temperature. The system was partitioned between water and EtOAc, extracted 3× with EtOAc, combined organics were washed with brine and dried over magnesium sulfate. Filtration and concentration yielded a brown oil which upon purification via normal phase chromatography (0→100% EtOAc in Hx) afforded the title compound (3-2) as an off-white solid. ESI+MS [M+H]+C13H11ClN2O2=262.9.

Methyl 6-(2-fluorophenyl)-5′-methyl-3,3′-bipyridine-5-carboxylate (3-3)

To a solution of methyl 6-chloro-5′-methyl-3,3′-bipyridine-5-carboxylate (3-2, 4.25 g, 16.16 mmol) in degassed dimethylformamide (81 mL) at 25° C. was added 2-fluorophenylboronic acid (2.94 g, 21.01 mmol), PdCl2dppf (1.18 g, 1.62 mmol) and 4M aqueous cesium carbonate (10.1 mL, 40.4 mmol). The reaction flask was purged with nitrogen, sealed and stirred for 4 hours at 40° C. The crude reaction mixture was partitioned between water and EtOAc, separating layers and washing the organic layer with saturated sodium bicarbonate solution and brine. The solvent was removed by rotary evaporation and the crude product was taken up in DCM (40 mL). Quadrapure TU (6 g) was added and the mixture was stirred overnight at room temperature. Filtration and concentration afforded the title compound (3-3) as a solid. ESI+MS [M+H]+C19H15FN2O2=323.1.

6-(2-fluorophenyl)-5′-methyl-3,3′-bipyridine-5-carboxylic acid hydrochloride (3-4)

To a solution of methyl 6-(2-fluorophenyl)-5′-methyl-3,3′-bipyridine-5-carboxylate (3-3, 5.57 g, 17.28 mmol) in THF/water (84 mL; 5:1) was added 10M sodium hydroxide solution (3.46 mL, 34.6 mmol) and the reaction was stirred at 60° C. overnight. The reaction mixture was diluted with water, filtered and concentrated. The crude product was taken up in DMF/DMSO/CH3CN/water (72 mL; 2:2:1:0.5), filtered and purified by reverse phase preparative chromatography (5-40% acetonitrile in water with 0.1% TFA buffer). The clean fractions were pooled and evaporated to give the TFA salt as a white solid. This material was taken up in a minimal amount of THF/acetonitrile and ethyl ether saturated with HCl was added, forming a white precipitate. The solvent was decanted away after centrifugation of the suspension. This was repeated 2 more times, once with HCl/ether and then with diethyl ether. After the final decant, the solids were dried under high vacuum to afford the title compound (3-4) as the HCl salt. ESI+MS [M+H]+C18H13FN2O2.HCl=309.1.

N-[(5,6-dimethoxypyridin-2-yl)methyl]-6-(2-fluorophenyl)-5′-methyl-3,3′-bipyridine-5-carboxamide (3-5)

To a solution of 6-(2-fluorophenyl)-5′-methyl-3,3′-bipyridine-5-carboxylic acid hydrochloride (3-4, 3.0 g, 8.70 mmol) in dimethylformamide (43 mL) cooled to 0° C., was added EDC (2.67 g, 13.92 mmol) and HOBt (2.13 g, 13.92 mmol) followed by 1-(5,6-dimethoxypyridin-2-yl)methanamine (11-6, 1.90 g, 11.31 mmol) and N-methylmorpholine (5.74 mL, 52.2 mmol). The reaction was allowed to warm to room temperature and stir overnight. The reaction mixture was partitioned between ethyl acetate and saturated sodium bicarbonate. The organics were washed with water and brine, then stripped to dryness. The crude product was taken up in DMF/DMSO (30 mL, 1:1), filtered and purified via reverse phase chromatography (5→65% acetonitrile in water with 0.1% TFA buffer). The clean fractions were pooled, partitioned between ethyl acetate and 2M sodium carbonate. The organic layer was washed with water and brine, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated to afford the title compound (3-5) as a white solid. 1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) δ 8.99 (d, J=2.5 Hz, 1H), 8.74 (d, J=2 Hz, 1H) 8.53 (s, 1H), 8.34 (d, J=2.5 Hz, 1H), 7.77 (s, 1H), 7.66 (m, 1H), 7.31 (m, 1H), 7.21 (t, J=14.6 Hz, 1H), 6.98 (d, J=7.8 Hz, 1H), 6.92 (t, J=18.3 Hz, 1H), 6.73 (d, J=7.8 Hz, 1H), 6.46 (m, 1H), 4.44 (d, J=5 Hz, 2H), 3.87 (s, 3H), 3.81 (s, 3H), 2.45 (s, 3H). HRMS [M+H] C26H23FN4O3 calc'd 459.1827. Found 459.1830.

Example 3A

embedded image

N-[(5,6-dimethoxypyridin-2-yl)methyl]-6-(3-fluorophenyl)-5′-methyl-3,3′-bipyridine-5-carboxamide (3-7)

To a solution of 6-(3-fluorophenyl)-5′-methyl-3,3′-bipyridine-5-carboxylic acid hydrochloride (3-6, prepared by the method described above for the preparation of 3-4, 2.5 g, 7.25 mmol) in dimethylformamide (36 mL) cooled to 0° C., was added EDC (1.95 g, 10.2 mmol) and HOBt (1.67 g, 10.9 mmol) followed by 1-(5,6-dimethoxypyridin-2-yl)methanamine (11-6, 1.46 g, 8.7 mmol) and N-methylmorpholine (4.78 mL, 43.5 mmol). The reaction stirred for 15 minutes and then was allowed to warm to room temperature. After 3.5 hours the reaction mixture was partitioned between ethyl acetate and saturated sodium bicarbonate. The organics were washed with water and brine, dried over Na2SO4/MgSO4, filtered and stripped to dryness. The crude product was recrystallized from chloroform/ethyl ether to afford the title compound (3-7) as a white solid. 1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) δ 8.96 (d, J=2.2 Hz, 1H), 8.72 (d, J=1.7 Hz, 1H), 8.56 (s, 1H), 8.23 (d, J=2.2 Hz, 1H), 7.76 (s, 1H), 7.44 (d, J=7.8 Hz, 1H), 7.40 (d, J=9.5 Hz, 1H), 7.24 (m, 1H), 6.99 (m, 2H), 6.74 (d, J=7.8 Hz, 1H), 6.33 (m, 1H), 4.44 (d, J=5.4 Hz, 2H), 3.88 (s, 3H), 3.76 (s, 3H), 2.45 (s, 3H). HRMS [M+H] C26H23FN4O3 calc'd 459.1827. Found 459.1832.

TABLE 3
The following compounds were prepared using the foregoing methodology, but substituting the
appropriately substituted reagent, as described in the foregoing Reaction Schemes and Examples.
The requisite starting materials were commercially available, described in the literature or
readily synthesized by one skilled in the art of organic synthesis without undue experimentation.
CmpStructureNameHRMS m/z (M + H)
3-8 embedded image 6-(3-chlorophenyl)-N-[(5,6- dimethoxypyridin-2- yl)methyl]-5′-methyl-3,3′- bipyridine-5-carboxamide475.1527 found, 475.1531 required.
3-9 embedded image 6-(3-chlorophenyl)-N-[(5,6- dimethoxypyridin-3- yl)methyl]-5′-methyl-3,3′- bipyridine-5-carboxamide475.1537 found, 475.1531 required.
3-10embedded image N-[(5,6-dimethoxypyridin-2- yl)methyl]-5′-methyl-6- phenyl-3,3′-bipyridine-5- carboxamide441.1904 found, 441.1921 required.
3-11embedded image N-(3-chloro-4- methoxybenzyl)-5′-methyl-6- phenyl-3,3′-bipyridine-5- carboxamide444.1486 found, 444.1473 required.
3-12embedded image N-[(5,6-dimethoxypyrazin-2- yl)methyl]-6-(2-fluorophenyl)- 5′-methyl-3,3′-bipyridine-5- carboxamide460.1792 found, 460.1779 required.
3-13embedded image N-(3-chloro-4- methoxybenzyl)-5′-methyl-6- (3-methylphenyl)-3,3′- bipyridine-5-carboxamide458.1634 found, 458.1630 required.
3-14embedded image 6-(2,3-difluorophenyl)-N- [(5,6-dimethoxypyridin-2- yl)methyl]-5′-methyl-3,3′- bipyridine-5-carboxamide477.1726 found, 477.1733 required.
3-15embedded image 5′-chloro-N-[(5,6- dimethoxypyridin-2- yl)methyl]-6-phenyl-3,3′- bipyridine-5-carboxamide461.1373 found, 461.1375 required.
3-16embedded image N-[(6-cyclopropyl-5- methoxypyridin-2-yl)methyl]- 6-(3-fluorophenyl)-5′-methyl- 3,3′-bipyridine-5-carboxamide469.2021 found, 469.2034 required.
3-17embedded image 6-(3,5-difluorophenyl)-N- [(5,6-dimethoxypyridin-2- yl)methyl]-5′-methyl-3,3′- bipyridine-5-carboxamide477.1747 found, 477.1733 required.
3-18embedded image 6-(3(5-difluorophenyl)-N- [(5,6-dimethoxypyrazin-2- yl)methyl]-5′-methyl-3,3′- bipyridine-5-carboxamide478.1700 found, 478.1685 required.
3-19embedded image 6-(3-chloro-5-fluorophenyl)- N-[(5,6-dimethoxypyridin-2- yl)methyl]-5′-methyl-3,3′- bipyridine-5-carboxamide493.1451 found, 493.1437 required.
3-20embedded image 6-(3-cyanophenyl)-N-[(5,6- dimethoxypyridin-2- yl)methyl]-5′-methyl-3,3′- bipyridine-5-carboxamide466.1875 found, 466.1874 required.

Example 4

embedded image

5-(3-chloro-5-methylphenyl)-2-morpholin-4-ylnicotinic acid (4-2)

To a solution of methyl 2-chloro-5-iodonicotonate (4-1, 9.34 g, 31.5 mmol) in dimethylformamide (157 mL) at 25° C. was added 3-chloro-5-methylboronic acid (5.35 g, 31.4 mmol), PdCl2dppf (2.3 g, 3.14 mmol) followed by cesium carbonate (41.0 g, 126 mmol) and water (10.0 mL, 565 mmol) and the system was stirred for 4 h at 25° C. The system was partitioned between water and EtOAc, and dried over magnesium sulfate. Filtration and concentration yielded a brown solid which upon purification via normal phase chromatography (0→15% EtOAc in Hx) afforded a white solid. To this white solid (4.0 g, 13.5 mmol) in dioxane (67.5 mL) at 25° C. was added morpholine (5.88 g, 67.5 mmol) and the system was heated to 90° C. for 3 h. The solvent was removed in vacuo and the resulting residue was partitioned between water and EtOAc followed by purification via normal phase chromatography (5→15% EtOAc in Hx) to yield a white foam. To this white foam (4.2 g, 12.11 mmol) in THF (30 mL) and MeOH (30 mL) was added KOH (5.19 mL, 36.3 mmol) and stirred at ambient temperature overnight. The system was then acidified using 6 N HCl to a pH of 2.0 and the solvents were azeotroped off with toluene to afford the title compound (4-2) as a yellow powder. HRMS [M+H] C17H12ClN2O3 calc'd 333.1002. Found 333.1000.

5-(3-chloro-5-methylphenyl)-N-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2-(morpholin-4-yl)nicotinamide (4-3)

To a solution of 5-(3-chloro-5-methylphenyl)-2-morpholin-4-ylnicotinic acid (4-2, 2.8 g, 8.41 mmol) and 3,4-dimethoxybenzylamine (6.30 mL, 42.1 mmol) in DCM (42 mL) was added EDC (4.84 g, 25.2 mmol), HOBt (3.87 g, 25.2 mmol) followed by N-methylmorpholine (9.25 mL, 84 mmol) and the system was stirred at 25° C. overnight. The reaction mixture was partitioned between ethyl acetate and water, washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate and dried over magnesium sulfate. The reaction mixture was filtered, concentrated and triturated with diethylether to afford the title compound (4-3) as a bone powder. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 8.82 (m, 1H), 8.53 (d, J=2.4 Hz, 1H), 8.49 (d, J=2.4 Hz, 1H), 7.35 (s, 1H), 7.16 (s, 1H), 6.90 (m, 2H), 6.84 (m, 1H), 4.56 (d, J=5.6 Hz, 2H), 3.86 (s, 3H), 3.85 (s, 3H), 3.55 (m, 4H), 3.12 (m, 4H), 2.37 (s, 3H). HRMS [M+H] C26H28ClN3O4 calc'd 482.1841. Found 482.1847.

TABLE 4
The following compounds were prepared using the foregoing methodology, but substituting the
appropriately substituted reagent, as described in the foregoing Reaction Schemes and Examples.
The requisite starting materials were commercially available, described in the literature or
readily synthesized by one skilled in the art of organic synthesis without undue experimentation.
CmpStructureNameHRMS m/z (M + H)
4-4 embedded image 5-(3-chloro-5-methylphenyl)- N-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2- piperidin-1-ylnicotinamide480.2068 found, 480.2048 required.
4-5 embedded image 5-(3-chloro-5-methylphenyl)- N-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2- pyrrolidin-1-ylnicotinamide466.1896 found, 466.1892 required.
4-6 embedded image 2-azetidin-1-yl-5-(3-chloro-5- methylphenyl)-N-(3,4- dimethoxybenzyl)- nicotinamide452.1726 found, 452.1735 required.
4-7 embedded image 5-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-N- (3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2-(3- methoxyazetidin-1- yl)nicotinamide502.1300 found, 502.1295 required.
4-8 embedded image 5-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-N- (3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2-(3- fluoroazetidin-1- yl)nicotinamide490.1103 found, 490.1095 required.
4-9 embedded image 5-(3-chloro-5-methylphenyl)- N-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2- [(3R)-3-fluoropyrrolidin-1- yl]nicotinamide484.1805 found, 484.1798 required.
4-10embedded image 5-(3-chloro-5-methylphenyl)- N-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2- thiomorpholin-4- ylnicotinamide498.1622 found, 498.1613 required.
4-11embedded image 5-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-N- [(5,6-dimethoxypyridin-2- yl)methyl]-2-morpholin-4- ylnicotinamide503.1248 found, 503.1247 required.
4-12embedded image 5′-chloro-N-[(5,6- dimethoxypyridin-2- yl)methyl]-6-morpholin-4-yl- 3,3′-bipyridine-5-carboxamide470.1608 found, 470.1590 required.
4-13embedded image N-[(5,6-dimethoxypyridin-2- yl)methyl]-5′-methyl-6- morpholin-4-yl-3,3′- bipyridine-5-carboxamide450.2150 found, 450.2136 required.
4-14embedded image 5-(3-chloro-5-methylphenyl)- N-[(5,6-dimethoxypyrazin-2- yl)methyl]-2-morpholin-4- ylnicotinamide484.1765 found, 484.1746 required.
4-15embedded image N-[4-methoxy-3- (trifluoromethyl)benzyl]-5′- methyl-6-pyrrolidin-1-yl-3,3′- bipyridine-5-carboxamide471.2014 found, 471.2002 required.
4-16embedded image N-(3-chloro-4- methoxybenzyl)-5′-methyl-6- pyrrolidin-1-yl-3,3′- bipyridine-5-carboxamide437.1746 found, 437.1739 required.

Example 5

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5′-methyl-6-(3-methyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-3,3′-bipyridine-5-carboxylic acid (5-2)

To a solution of methyl 2-chloro-5-iodonicotonate (5-1, 10.85 g, 36.5 mmol) in dimethylformamide (150 mL) at 25° C. was added 3-methyl-5-pyridylboronic acid (5.0 g, 36.5 mmol), PdCl2dppf (2.67 g, 3.65 mmol) followed by cesium carbonate (41.6 g, 128 mmol) and water (6.57 mL, 365 mmol) and the system was stirred for 4 h at 25° C. The system was partitioned between water and EtOAc, and dried over magnesium sulfate. Filtration and concentration yielded a brown oil which upon purification via normal phase chromatography (0→100% EtOAc in Hx) afforded a brown semi-solid which was then tritirated with MeOH and diethylether to yield a dark tan powder. To this tan powder (0.5 g, 1.9 mmol) in dioxane (13 mL) was added 3-methylpyrazole (0.47 g, 5.7 mmol) and NaHMDS (1.9 mL, 3.81 mmol) and the system was heated to 125° C. for 20 minutes in the microwave reactor. The reaction contents were partitioned between water and EtOAc followed by purification via normal phase chromatography (20→100% EtOAc in Hx) to yield a clear oil. To this clear oil (0.31 g, 1.0 mmol) in THF (2.5 mL) and MeOH (2.5 mL) was added KOH (2.0 mL, 2.0 mmol) and stirred at 135° C. for 10 minutes in a microwave reactor. The system was then acidified using 6 N HCl to a pH of 2.0 and the solvents were azeotroped off with toluene to afford the title compound (5-2) as a bone powder. ESI+MS [M+H]+C16H14N4O2=295.1.

5′-methyl-6-(3-methyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-N-[(1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolin-6-yl)methyl]-3,3′-bipyridine-5-carboxamide (5-3)

To a solution of 5′-methyl-6-(3-methyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-3,3′-bipyridine-5-carboxylic acid (5-2, 0.025 g, 0.085 mmol) and 1-(1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolin-6-yl)methanamine (0.015 g, 0.085 mmol) in ACN (0.85 mL) was added 1-propylphosphonic acid cyclic anhydride (T3P, 0.15 mL, 0.255 mmol) followed by Hunig's base (0.089 mL, 0.51 mmol) and the system was stirred at 40° C. for 1 h in an oil bath. The reaction mixture was cooled and partitioned between EtOAc and water, washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate and dried over magnesium sulfate. The reaction mixture was filtered, concentrated and purified via normal phase chromatography (0→10% MeOH in EtOAc) to afford the title compound (5-3) as a bone powder. 1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) δ 8.68 (m, 1H), 8.51 (m, 1H), 8.29 (m, 1H), 8.22 (m, 1H), 7.72 (m, 1H), 7.12 (m, 1H), 7.0 (m, 1H), 6.90 (m, 1H), 6.54 (m, 1H), 6.27 (m, 1H), 4.46 (m, 2H), 3.22 (m, 2H), 2.88 (s, 3H), 2.74 (m, 2H), 2.44 (s, 3H), 2.28 (s, 3H), 1.97 (m, 2H). HRMS [M+H] C27H28N6O calc'd 453.2391. Found 453.2397.

TABLE 5
The following compounds were prepared using the foregoing methodology, but substituting the
appropriately substituted reagent, as described in the foregoing Reaction Schemes and Examples.
The requisite starting materials were commercially available, described in the literature or
readily synthesized by one skilled in the art of organic synthesis without undue experimentation.
CmpStructureNameHRMS m/z (M + H)
5-4embedded image N-[(5,6-dimethoxypyridin-2- yl)methyl]-5-(3,5- dimethylphenyl)-2-(4-methyl- 1H-pyrazol-1-yl)nicotinamide458.2208 found, 458.2187 required.
5-5embedded image 5-(3-chloro-5-fluorophenyl)- N-[(5,6-dimethoxypyridin-2- yl)methyl]-2-(4-methyl-1H- pyrazol-1-yl)nicotinamide482.1407 found, 482.1390 required.
5-6embedded image N-(3-cyclopropyl-4- methoxybenzyl)-5′-methyl-6- (3-methyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)- 3,3′-bipyridine-5-carboxamide454.2232 found, 454.2238 required.
5-7embedded image N-(3-chloro-4- methoxybenzyl)-5-(3-fluoro- 5-methoxyphenyl)-2-(1H- pyrazol-1-yl)nicotinamide467.1278 found, 467.1281 required.
5-8embedded image N-(3-chloro-4- methoxybenzyl)-5′-methyl-6- (1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-3,3′- bipyridine-5-carboxamide434.1382 found, 434.1378 required.
5-9embedded image N-[(5,6-dimethoxypyridin-2- yl)methyl]-5′-methyl-6-(3- methyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-3,3′- bipyridine-5-carboxamide445.1977 found, 445.1983 required.
 5-10embedded image N-(3-ethyl-4-methoxybenzyl)- 5′-methyl-6-(3-methyl-1H- pyrazol-1-yl)-3,3′-bipyridine- 5-carboxamide442.2233 found, 442.2238 required.
 5-11embedded image N-(3-chloro-4- methoxybenzyl)-5′-methyl-6- (3-methyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)- 3,3′-bipyridine-5-carboxamide448.1544 found, 448.1535 required.
 5-12embedded image 5-(3-chloro-5-methylphenyl)- N-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-2- (4-methyl-1H-pyrazol-1- yl)nicotinamide477.1710 found, 477.1688 required.

Example 6

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Methyl 6-cyclopentyl-5′-methyl-3,3′-bipyridine-5-carboxylate (6-2)

To a solution of methyl 6-chloro-5′-methyl-3,3′-bipyridine-5-carboxylate (6-1, 0.15 g, 0.57 mmol, 1.0 equiv, prepared in an analogous fashion to Examples 2 and 8) in dioxane (2.9 mL) at 25° C. was added cyclopentylzinc bromide (3.43 mL, 1.71 mmol, 3.0 equiv, 0.5 M in THF) and tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0) (0.099 g, 0.086 mmol, 0.15 equiv). The reaction mixture was heated for 3 h at 90° C. The reaction mixture was cooled partitioned between water (10 mL) and EtOAc (30 mL), washed with water (3×30 mL) and brine (1×30 mL), and the organic phase was dried over magnesium sulfate. The residue was purified via normal phase chromatography (5 to 100% EtOAc in hexanes, silica) to afford the desired product (6-2) as an oil after concentration. ESI+MS [M+H]+ C18H20N2O2 calc'd 297.2. Found 297.1.

Sodium 6-cyclopentyl-5′-methyl-3,3′-bipyridine-5-carboxylate (6-3)

To a solution of methyl 6-cyclopentyl-5′-methyl-3,3′-bipyridine-5-carboxylate (6-2, 0.060 g, 0.020 mmol, 1.0 equiv) in THF/methanol (1.7 mL/0.3 mL) was added 10 N sodium hydroxide (0.10 mL, 1.0 mmol, 5.0 equiv) and the system was stirred for 18 h at ambient temperature. The reaction mixture was concentrated and azeotroped with ethyl acetate (2×10 mL) and toluene (3×10 mL) to afford the desired product (6-3) as a white solid. ESI+MS [M+H]+C17H18N2O2 calc'd 283.1. Found 283.0.

6-cyclopentyl-N-[(5,6-dimethoxypyridin-2-yl)methyl]-5′-methyl-3,3′-bipyridine-5-carboxamide (6-4)

To a suspension of sodium 6-cyclopentyl-5′-methyl-3,3′-bipyridine-5-carboxylate (6-3, 0.022 g, 0.078 mmol, 1.0 equiv) in acetonitrile (0.8 mL) was added 1-(5,6-dimethoxypyridin-2-yl)methanamine (11-6, 0.039 g, 0.234 mmol, 3.0 equiv), 1-propylphosphonic acid cyclic anhydride (0.149 g, 0.234 mmol, 3.0 equiv, 50 weight percent in EtOAc), and diisopropylethylamine (0.060 g, 0.47 mmol, 6.0 equiv) and the system was heated to 40° C. for 24 h. The reaction mixture was cooled and diluted with ethyl acetate (30 mL). The reaction mixture was washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate (2×10 mL), water (2×10 mL) and brine (1×10 mL), dried over magnesium sulfate and concentrated. The residue was purified via normal phase chromatography (0 to 40% methanol in EtOAc, silica) followed by reverse phase chromatography (5 to 65% acetonitrile in water, 0.1% TFA buffer) to afford the desired product (6-4) as a white solid after free-basing and concentration. 1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) δ 8.83 (d, J=2.5 Hz, 1H), 8.62 (d, J=2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.47 (s, 1H), 7.84 (d, J=2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.65 (s, 1H), 7.05 (d, J=8.0 Hz, 1H), 6.90 (d, J=7.5 Hz, 1H), 6.72 (bs, 1H), 4.64 (d, J=5.0 Hz, 2H), 3.97 (s, 3H), 3.88 (s, 3H), 3.52-3.48 (m, 1H), 2.42 (s, 3H), 2.04-1.80 (m, 6H), 1.70-1.60 (m, 2H). HRMS [M+H] C25H28N4O3 calc'd 433.2234. Found 433.2226.

TABLE 6
The following compounds were prepared using the foregoing methodology, but substituting the
appropriately substituted reagent, as described in the foregoing Reaction Schemes and Examples.
The requisite starting materials were commercially available, described in the literature or
readily synthesized by one skilled in the art of organic synthesis without undue experimentation.
CmpStructureNameHRMS m/z (M +H)
6-5embedded image 6-cyclopentyl-N-(3,4- dimethoxybenzyl)-5′-methyl- 3,3′-bipyridine-5-carboxamide432.2287 found, 432.2282 required.
6-6embedded image N-(3-chloro-4- methoxybenzyl)-6- cyclopentyl-5′-methyl-3,3′- bipyridine-5-carboxamide436.1794 found, 436.1786 required.
6-7embedded image 6-cyclopentyl-N-[4-methoxy- 3-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl]-5′- methyl-3,3′-bipyridine-5- carboxamide470.2044 found, 470.2050 required.

Example 7

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5-bromo-2,3-dimethoxypyridine (7-2)

To a solution of 2,3-dimethoxypyridine (7-1, 2.5 g, 18.0 mmol, 1.0 equiv) in dichloromethane:saturated NaHCO3 (80 mL: 40 mL) at 0° C. was added bromine (0.93 mL, 18.0 mmol, 1.0 equiv) and the reaction mixture was stirred for 2 h at 25° C. The reaction mixture was quenched with solid Na2SO3 (˜10 g) and the aqueous phase was extracted with dichloromethane (3×100 mL). The organic phase was dried over magnesium sulfate and concentrated. The residue was purified via normal phase chromatography (0 to 20% EtOAc in hexanes, silica) to afford the desired product (7-2) as an oil after concentration. ESI+MS [M+H]+C7H8NO2 calc'd 218.0. Found 218.0.

5,6-dimethoxynicotinonitrile (7-3)

To a solution of 5-bromo-2,3-dimethoxypyridine (7-2, 0.300 g, 1.38 mmol, 1.0 equiv) in dimethylformamide (3.9 mL) was added copper (I) cyanide (0.15 g, 1.65 mmol, 1.2 equiv) and the reaction mixture was heated for 40 minutes at 180° C. in a microwave reactor. The reaction mixture was cooled and partitioned between EtOAc (50 mL) and water (50 mL). The organic phase was washed with water (2×30 mL) and brine (1×30 mL), dried over magnesium sulfate and concentrated. The residue was purified via normal phase chromatography (0 to 40% EtOAc in hexanes, silica) to afford the desired product (7-3) as white solid after concentration. ESI+MS [M+H]+C8H8N2O2 calc'd 165.1. Found 165.1.

1-(5,6-dimethoxypyridin-3-yl)methanamine (7-4)

To a solution of 5,6-dimethoxynicotinonitrile (7-3, 0.600 g, 3.65 mmol, 1.0 equiv) in methanol (20 mL) under a nitrogen atmosphere was added Pearlman's catalyst (0.205 g, 0.292 mmol, 0.08 equiv, 20 weight percent) and concentrated HCl (2.44 mL), and the reaction was place under an atmosphere of hydrogen. After 2 h, the reaction was placed under an atmosphere of nitrogen and filtered through celite to remove the catalyst. The reaction mixture was dissolved in EtOAc, dried over MgSO4 and concentrated to an oily solid (7-4) of high purity. ESI+MS [M+H]+ C8H12N2O2 calc'd 169.1. Found 169.1.

Example 8

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3-cyclopropyl-4-methoxybenzonitrile (8-2)

A mixture of 3-bromo-4-methoxybenzonitrile (8-1, 5.0 g, 23.6 mmol, 1.0 eq), aqueous potassium phosphate tribasic (65.0 ml, 1.27 M, 3.5 eq), cyclopropylboronic acid (10.1 g, 118 mmol, 5.0 eq), Pd(OAc)2 (0.539 g, 2.36 mmol, 0.1 eq) and tricyclohexylphosphine (0.661 g, 2.36 mmol, 0.1 eq) was stirred in degassed toluene (103 ml) and heated to 80° C. for three hours. An additional amount of cyclopropylboronic acid (1.0 g, 1.16 mmol, 0.5 eq) was added and the solution was further heated for 16 hours at 80° C. to complete the reaction. The reaction mixture was cooled and partitioned between brine and EtOAc. The organic phase was dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated to give an orange oil. The oil was purified by normal phase column chromatography (0 to 10% EtOAc in hexanes) to afford the product (8-2) as a yellow oil. 1H NMR (CDCl3) δ 7.44 (dd, 1H, J=8.4, 2.0 Hz), 7.09 (d, 1H, J=2.0 Hz), 6.86 (d, 1H, J=8.4 Hz), 3.92 (s, 3H), 2.13 (m, 1H), 0.97 (m, 2H), 0.65 (m, 2H).

1-(3-cyclopropyl-4-methoxyphenyl)methanamine (8-3)

Lithium aluminum hydride in diethyl ether (17.3 ml, 1.0 M, 17.3 mmol, 3.0 eq) was carefully added over twenty minutes to a solution of 3-cyclopropyl-4-methoxybenzonitrile (8-2, 1.0 g, 5.77 mmol, 1.0 eq) in tetrahydrofuran (28.9 ml) at 0° C. under nitrogen atmosphere. The resulting dark orange mixture was allowed to stir at 0° C. for 30 min, then carefully quenched in the following order: water (1.0 ml), 15% NaOH aqueous (1.0 ml) and water (3.0 ml). The resulting emulsion was stirred at room temperature for 30 min. Several spatula amounts of magnesium sulfate was added to the mixture to remove any water. The entire mixture was filtered through a pad of sodium sulfate, washing with ethyl acetate. The collected filtrate was concentrated to give the product (8-3) as a yellow oil. ESI+MS [M−16]+C11H15NO: 161.1 found, 161.2 required.

Example 9

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6-Bromo-5-methoxypyridine-2-carbonitrile (9-2)

To a solution of 2-bromo-6-iodo-3-methoxypyridine (9-1 or 11-3, 2.1 g, 6.69 mmol, 1.0 equiv) in dichloromethane (17 mL) was added isopropylmagnesium chloride (2.0 M, 4.35 mL, 8.70 mmol, 1.3 equiv) slowly at 0° C. and the reaction mixture was stirred for 45 minutes. The reaction mixture was then cooled to −78° C. and a solution of toluenesulfonyl cyanide (1.8 g, 10.03 mmol, 1.5 equiv) in dichloromethane (5 mL) was added slowly. The reaction mixture was allowed to warm to ambient temperature over 4 hours. To quench, 2 N HCl was added until neutral pH was obtained. The reaction mixture was partitioned between water and dichloromethane and the aqueous phase was extracted with dichloromethane (3×50 mL). The combined organic layer was dried over MgSO4, concentrated and the residue was purified by normal phase column chromatography (10-50% EtOAc in hexanes) to afford the product (9-2) as a tan solid. ESI+MS [M+H]+C7H6BrN2O: 212.9 found, 213.0 required.

5-Methoxy-6-vinylpyridine-2-carbonitrile (9-3)

In a microwave vial, 6-bromo-5-methoxypyridine-2-carbonitrile (9-2, 200 mg, 0.94 mmol, 1.0 equiv), potassium trifluoro(vinyl)borate (314 mg, 2.35 mmol, 2.5 equiv), tricyclohexylphosphine (52.7 mg, 0.19 mmol, 0.2 equiv), palladium(II) acetate (21.1 mg, 0.09 mmol, 0.1 equiv), and tripotassium phosphate (697 mg, 3.29 mmol, 3.5 equiv) were suspended in toluene (10 mL) and water (0.5 mL). The reaction mixture was heated in a microwave reactor for 20 minutes at 130° C. and then filtered, rinsing with EtOAc. The filtrate was concentrated and the residue purified by normal phase column chromatography (10-35% EtOAc in hexanes) to afford the product (9-3). ESI+MS [M+H]+C9H9N2O: 161.0 found, 161.1 required.

1-(6-Ethyl-5-methoxypyridin-2-yl)methanamine dihydrochloride (9-4)

To a suspension of 5-methoxy-6-vinylpyridine-2-carbonitrile (9-3, 88 mg, 0.55 mmol, 1 equiv) in methanol (3 mL) was added palladium hydroxide on carbon (19.29 mg, 0.03 mmol, 0.05 equiv) and concentrated HCl (360 uL, 4.40 mmol, 8 equiv) and the reaction mixture stirred under an atmosphere of hydrogen overnight. The reaction mixture was filtered over celite, rinsing with methanol, and concentrated to give desired product (9-4) as the dihydrochloride salt. ESI+MS [M+H]+C9H15N2O: 167.0 found, 167.2 required.

6-Cyclopropyl-5-methoxypyridine-2-carbonitrile (9-5)

In a microwave vial, 6-bromo-5-methoxypyridine-2-carbonitrile (9-2, 300 mg, 1.41 mmol, 1.0 equiv), potassium cyclopropyl(trifluoro)borate (521 mg, 3.52 mmol, 2.5 equiv), tricyclohexylphosphine (158 mg, 0.56 mmol, 0.4 equiv), palladium(II) acetate (63.2 mg, 0.28 mmol, 0.2 equiv) and tripotassium phosphate (1046 mg, 4.93 mmol, 3.5 equiv) were suspended in toluene (15 mL) and water (0.75 mL). The reaction mixture was heated in a microwave reactor for 60 minutes at 130° C. and then filtered, rinsing with EtOAc. The filtrate was concentrated and the residue purified by normal phase column chromatography (10-35% EtOAc in hexanes) to afford the product (9-5). ESI+MS [M+H]+C10H11N2O: 175.1 found, 175.2 required.

1-(6-cyclopropyl-5-methoxypyridin-2-yl)methanamine (9-6)

To a solution of 6-cyclopropyl-5-methoxypyridine-2-carbonitrile (9-5, 115 mg, 0.66 mmol, 1 equiv) in THF (2.6 mL) at 0° C. was added LAH (1 M, 1.98 mL, 1.98 mmol, 3 equiv) slowly. The reaction mixture was stirred and allowed to warm to ambient temperature over 3 hours. The reaction mixture was then diluted with EtOAc (2 mL), and water (50 uL), NaOH (aq., 20 wt. %, 50 uL) and water (100 uL) were added sequentially. The reaction mixture was then dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated to afford the product (9-6). ESI+MS [M+H]+C10H15N2O: 179.1 found, 179.2 required.

Example 10

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3,4-Bis(difluoromethoxy)benzaldehyde (10-2)

In a sealed tube 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (10-1, 750 mg, 5.43 mmol, 1.0 equiv), sodium chlorodifluoroacetate (3310 mg, 21.7 mmol, 4 equiv), and potassium carbonate (1800 mg, 13.03 mmol, 2.4 equiv) were suspended in DMF (24.4 mL) and water (2.7 mL). The reaction mixture was stirred at 100° C. for 4 hours and was cooled to ambient temperature. HCl (6 N, 10 mL) and water (30 mL) were added and the reaction stirred for an additional 2 hours. NaOH (5 N, aq.) was added until a pH of 10 was obtained. The mixture was extracted with MTBE (3×, 50 mL), dried over MgSO4 and concentrated to afford the desired product (10-2). 1H NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz) δ 9.97 (s, 1H), 7.76-7.79 (m, 2H), 7.43 (d, J=8.1 Hz, 1H), 6.64 (t, J=73.8 Hz, 1H), 6.60 (t, J=73.8 Hz, 1H).

1-[3,4-Bis(difluoromethoxy)phenyl]methanamine hydrochloride (10-3)

To a solution of 3,4-bis(difluoromethoxy)benzaldehyde (10-2, 100 mg, 0.42 mmol, 1 equiv) in THF (840 uL) was added 2-methylpropane-2-sulfinamide (56 mg, 0.46 mmol, 1.1 equiv) and titanium ethoxide (440 uL, 2.10 mmol, 5.0 equiv), and the reaction mixture stirred at ambient temperature for 4.5 hours. The reaction mixture was then cooled to 0° C. and sodium borohydride (31.8 mg, 0.84 mmol, 2.0 equiv) was added portionwise and the reaction was stirred for an additional hour. Methanol (2 mL) was added slowly and the reaction mixture was partitioned between EtOAc (20 mL) and brine (20 mL) and filtered. The organic phase was dried over MgSO4 and concentrated to afford crude N-[3,4-bis(difluoromethoxy)benzyl]-2-methylpropane-2-sulfinamide, which was dissolved in methanol (2.2 mL). To the solution was added HCl (2 M in ether, 655 uL, 3 equiv), and the reaction mixture stirred for 30 minutes. It was then concentrated to afford the desired product (10-3) as a white solid. ESI+MS [M−NH2]+ C9H7F4O2: 223.0 found, 223.0 required.

Example 11

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2-bromo-3-hydroxy-6-iodopyridine (11-2)

To a solution of 2-bromo-3-hydroxypyridine (11-1, 28 g, 161 mmol) in water (360 mL) was added K2CO3 (22.24 g, 161 mmol) and I2 (20.42 g, 80 mmol). The system was stirred for 1.5 h at ambient temperature, cooled to 0° C. and then treated with concentrated HCl until solids precipitated from solution (pH˜6.0). The solids were isolated by filtration and dried to give the title compound (11-2) as a brown solid. ESI+MS C5H3BrINO: 299.8 found, 299.9 required.

2-bromo-3-methoxy-6-iodopyridine (11-3)

To a solution of 2-bromo-3-hydroxy-6-iodopyridine (11-2, 40 g, 133 mmol) in DMF (80 ml) was added K2CO3 (16.77 g, 121 mmol) and methyl iodide (66.3 g, 467 mmol). The system was stirred for 45 minutes at 100° C., cooled to room temperature and then treated with water (650 mL) and stirred for 0.5 h. The resulting solids that precipitated from solution were isolated by filtration and dried to give the title compound (11-3) as a pale brown solid. ESI+MS C6H5BrINO: 313.8 found, 313.9 required.

2,3-dimethoxy-6-iodopyridine (11-4)

To a solution of 2-bromo-3-methoxy-6-iodopyridine (11-3, 34 g, 162 mmol) in DMF (65 mL) was added sodium methoxide (37 mL, 162 mmol) and heated to 100° C. The mixture was stirred for 10 minutes and partitioned between saturated NaHCO3 and DCM. The organic phase was washed with brine, dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated. The crude material was purified by gradient elution on silica (0 to 20% EtOAc in hexanes) to afford the title compound (11-4) as a white powder. ESI+MS [M+H]+C7H8INO2: 265.8 found, 266.0 required.

2,3-dimethoxy-6-cyanopyridine (11-5)

To a solution of 2,3-dimethoxy-6-iodopyridine (11-4, 24.0 g, 91 mmol) in DMF (181 mL) was added copper cyanide (9.73 g, 109 mmol) and heated to 150° C. for 20 minutes in a microwave reactor. The mixture was partitioned between water and EtOAc. The organic phase was washed with brine, dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated. The crude material was purified by gradient elution on silica gel (0 to 40% EtOAc in hexanes) to yield the desired product (11-5) as an off-white crystalline powder. ESI+MS [M+H]+C8H8N2O2: 165.0 found, 165.1 required.

2,3-dimethoxy-6-aminomethylpyridine (11-6)

To a solution of 2,3-dimethoxy-6-cyanopyridine (11-5, 5.1 g, 31.1 mmol) in MeOH (260 mL) was added Pearlman's catalyst (2.18 g, 3.11 mmol) and concentrated HCl (20.0 mL, 249 mmol). The system was then stirred under an atmosphere of hydrogen via a balloon for 1.5 h. The reaction contents were filtered through a pad of celite and methanol was removed in vacuo. The crude mixture was then basified using saturated Na2CO3 and then extracted using 4:1 Chloroform:Ethanol. The organic phase was washed with brine, dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated to yield the desired product (11-6) as a bone semi-solid. ESI+MS [M+H]+ C8H12N2O2: M−16 (—NH2), 152.06 found, 152.2 required.

Example 12

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3-ethyl-4-methoxybenzonitrile (12-2)

To a solution of 3-bromo-4-methoxybenzonitrile (12-1, 0.3 g, 1.42 mmol) in DMF (14 mL) was added tetraethyltin (0.56 mL, 2.83 mmol), bis(tri-t-butylphosphine) palladium(0) (0.072 g, 0.141 mmol), and lithium chloride (0.18 g, 4.24 mmol) and the system was heated to 135° C. for 30 minutes in a microwave reactor. The mixture was partitioned between saturated NaHCO3 and EtOAc. The organic phase was washed with brine, dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated. The crude material was purified by gradient elution on silica gel (0 to 10% EtOAc in hexanes) to yield the desired product (12-2) as a clear oil. ESI+MS [M+H]+C10H11NO: 162.1 found, 162.2 required.

3-ethyl-4-methoxybenzylamine (12-3)

To a solution of 3-ethyl-4-methoxybenzonitrile (12-2, 0.12 g, 0.71 mmol) in MeOH (3.5 mL) was added Pearlman's catalyst (0.020 g, 0.036 mmol) and concentrated HCl (0.47 mL, 5.71 mmol). The system was then stirred under an atmosphere of hydrogen via a balloon overnight. The reaction contents were filtered through a pad of celite and solvents were removed in vacuo to yield the desired product (12-3) as a salmon colored crystalline solid in the form of a mono HCl salt. ESI+MS [M+H]+C8H12N2O2: M−16 (—NH2), 149.07 found, 149.2 required.

Example 13

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3-methoxy-4-ethyl-benzonitrile (13-2)

To a solution of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzonitrile (13-1, 2.0 g, 13.4 mmol) in DCM (67 mL) at −78° C. was added diisopropylethylamine (3.0 mL, 17.4 mmol) followed by triflic anhydride (2.7 mL, 16.0 mmol) and stirred at −78° C. for 1 h. The mixture was poured into a separatory funnel containing a few pieces of ice and then partitioned between ice water and ether. The organic phase was washed with 1N HCl and then 10% Na2CO3, dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated to yield a pale yellow oil. To a solution of this oil (2.7 g, 9.60 mmol) in DMF (96.0 mL) was added tetraethyl tin (3.80 mL, 19.2 mmol), bis(tri-t-butylphosphine) palladium(0) (0.491 g, 0.960 mmol) and LiCl (1.22 g, 28.8 mmol) and the system was heated to 80° C. for 1 h in an oil bath. The mixture was partitioned between saturated NaHCO3 and EtOAc. The organic phase was washed with water, brine, dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated. The crude material was purified by gradient elution on silica gel (0 to 20% EtOAc in hexanes) to afford the desired compound (13-2) as a pale yellow crystalline solid. ESI+MS [M+H]+C10H11NO: 162.1 found, 162.2 required.

3-methoxy-4-ethylbenzylamine (13-3)

To a solution of 3-methoxy-4-ethyl-benzonitrile (13-2, 1.5 g, 9.31 mmol) in THF (45 mL) at 0° C. was added LAH (40 mL, 40.0 mmol) and stirred at 0° C. for 0.5 h. Quenched carefully over a period of 0.5 h with EtOAc at 0° C. and stirred for 15 minutes. Following this, water (1.5 mL) was added to this mixture and stirred for 15 minutes followed by 15% NaOH (1.5 mL) and again stirred for 15 minutes. Lastly, water (4.5 mL) was added and stirred for 15 more minutes. The mixture was dried over Mg2SO4, filtered and concentrated to yield a clear semi-solid. This semi-solid was treated with 2.0M HCl in ether (4.65 mL, 9.3 mmol) and the reaction contents were concentrated to afford the desired product as a white powder (13-3) in the form of a mono HCl salt. ESI+MS [M+H]+C8H12N2O2: M−16 (—NH2), 149.1 found, 149.2 required.

Example 14

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2,3-dimethoxy-5-aminomethylpyrazine (14-2)

To a solution of 2,3-dichloropyrazine (14-1, 3.5 g, 23.5 mmol) in MeOH (115 mL) was added NaOMe (15.0 mL, 70.5 mmol) and the system was stirred overnight. The reaction contents were then filtered through a fritted funnel of medium porosity, concentrated, and partitioned between EtOAc and water. The organic phase was washed with brine, dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated to afford a clear oil. To this clear oil (2.5 g, 17.8 mmol) in DMF (17 ml) at 0° C. was added NBS (3.5 g, 19.6 mmol) the system was stirred overnight. The system was quenched with Na2SO3 and then poured into ice water. The resulting solids that precipitated from solution were isolated by filtration and dried to afford a white solid. To this white solid (1 g, 4.5 mmol) in DMF (9 mL) was added copper cyanide (0.45 g, 5.0 mmol) and heated to 185° C. for 20 minutes in the microwave reactor. The mixture was cooled and partitioned between EtOAc and water. The organic phase was washed with brine, dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated. The crude material was purified by gradient elution on silica (0 to 65% EtOAc in hexanes) to afford a white powder. To this white powder (0.740 g, 4.5 mmol) in MeOH (40 mL) was added Pearlman's catalyst (0.315 g, 0.45 mmol) and concentrated HCl (3.0 mL, 36 mmol). The system was then stirred under an atmosphere of hydrogen via a balloon for 1.5 h. The reaction contents were filtered through a pad of celite followed by removal of methanol in vacuo. The crude mixture was then dissolved in DCM, basified using saturated Na2CO3 and then extracted several times with DCM. The organic phase was washed with brine, dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated to yield the desired product (14-2) as a bone solid. ESI+MS [M+H]+C7H11N3O2: M−16 (—NH2), 152.8 found, 152.2 required.

Example 15

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6-Isopropenyl-5-methoxypyridine-2-carbonitrile (15-2)

In a microwave vial, 6-bromo-5-methoxypyridine-2-carbonitrile (15-1 or 9-2, 200 mg, 0.94 mmol, 1.0 equiv), potassium trifluoro(isopropenyl)borate (Molander, Gary A., J. Am. Chem. Soc. Commun. 2003, 125, 11148-11149.) (347 mg, 2.35 mmol, 2.5 equiv), tricyclohexylphosphine (52.7 mg, 0.19 mmol, 0.2 equiv), palladium(II) acetate (21.1 mg, 0.09 mmol, 0.1 equiv), and tripotassium phosphate (697 mg, 3.29 mmol, 3.5 equiv) were suspended in toluene (10 mL) and water (0.5 mL). The reaction mixture was heated in a microwave reactor for 20 minutes at 130° C. and then filtered, rinsing with EtOAc. The filtrate was concentrated and the residue purified by normal phase column chromatography (15-40% EtOAc in hexanes) to afford the title compound (15-2). ESI+MS [M+H]+C10H11N2O: 175.1 found, 175.2 required.

1-(6-Isopropyl-5-methoxypyridin-2-yl)methanamine dihydrochloride (15-3)

To a suspension of 6-isopropenyl-5-methoxypyridine-2-carbonitrile (15-2, 132 mg, 0.76 mmol, 1 equiv) in methanol (4 mL) was added palladium hydroxide on carbon (26.6 mg, 0.04 mmol, 0.05 equiv) and concentrated HCl (500 uL, 6.06 mmol, 8 equiv) and the reaction mixture stirred under an atmosphere of hydrogen for three hours. The reaction mixture was filtered over celite, rinsing with methanol, and concentrated to give the title compound (15-3) as the dihydrochloride salt. ESI+MS [M+H]+C10H17N2O: 181.1 found, 181.3 required.

Example 16

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2-Ethoxy-6-iodo-3-methoxypyridine (16-2)

In a microwave vial, 2-bromo-6-iodo-3-methoxypyridine (16-1 or 131-3, 150 mg, 0.48 mmol, 1 equiv) was dissolved in DMF (300 uL). Sodium ethoxide (268 uL, 21 wt % in EtOH, 0.72 mmol, 1.5 equiv) was added to the solution, and the reaction was heated in the microwave for 5 minutes at 100° C. The reaction mixture was partitioned between saturated NaHCO3 and DCM. The organic phase was washed once with brine, dried over Mg2SO4 and concentrated. The residue was purified by normal phase column chromatography (0-20% EtOAc in hexanes) to give the title compound (16-2). ESI+MS [M+H]+C8H11INO2: 280.0 found, 280.1 required.

6-Ethoxy-5-methoxypyridine-2-carbonitrile (16-3)

To a solution of 2-ethoxy-6-iodo-3-methoxypyridine (16-2, 100 mg, 0.36 mmol, 1 equiv) in DMF (675 uL) was added copper cyanide (39 mg, 0.43, mmol, 1.2 equiv). The reaction mixture was heated in a microwave reactor at 150° C. for 20 minutes, and then was partitioned between DCM (50 mL) and water (50 mL). The aqueous layer was extracted with DCM (3×25 mL), and the organic phase was dried over Mg2SO4, concentrated and purified by normal phase column chromatography (20-50% EtOAc in hexanes) to yield the title compound (16-3) as a white solid. ESI+MS [M+H]+C9H11N2O2: 179.1 found, 179.2 required.

1-(6-Ethoxy-5-methoxypyridin-2-yl)methanamine dihydrochloride (16-4)

To a solution of 6-ethoxy-5-methoxypyridine-2-carbonitrile (16-3, 48 mg, 0.27 mmol, 1 equiv) in methanol (1.5 mL) was added 20 weight percent palladium hydroxide on carbon (9.5 mg, 0.01 mmol, 0.05 equiv) and concentrated HCl (177 uL, 2.16 mmol, 8 equiv) and the reaction mixture stirred under an atmosphere of hydrogen overnight. The reaction mixture was filtered over celite, rinsing with methanol, and concentrated to give the title compound (16-4) as the dihydrochloride salt. ESI+MS [M+H]+C9H15N2O2: 183.1 found, 183.2 required.

TABLE
The following table shows representative data for the compounds of the Examples
as orexin receptor antagonists as determined by the foregoing assays.
CmpdStructureOX2R Ki (nM)
1-13embedded image 4.8 
1-14embedded image 0.07
2-14embedded image 0.15
3-5 embedded image 0.74
3-7 embedded image 0.32
3-15embedded image 0.45
4-5 embedded image 0.45
4-13embedded image 1.1 
5-11embedded image 0.95
6-5 embedded image 2.3 

While the invention has been described and illustrated with reference to certain particular embodiments thereof, those skilled in the art will appreciate that various adaptations, changes, modifications, substitutions, deletions, or additions of procedures and protocols may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.