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Title:
BALLISTIC STRUCTURAL INSULATED PANEL
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
One or more embodiments contained herein disclose a structural insulated panel having improved ballistics properties and methods for using the same.


Inventors:
Mason, Jeff (US)
Redfern, Patrick (US)
Doherty, Robert (US)
Application Number:
13/075131
Publication Date:
10/06/2011
Filing Date:
03/29/2011
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
89/904, 89/906, 89/908, 89/910, 89/917, 89/903
International Classes:
F41H5/04
View Patent Images:
Related US Applications:
Claims:
What is claimed is:

1. A ballistic panel comprising: a strike face; a first spall section; a structural insulated panel; a second spall section; and at least one decorative skin disposed on the strike face or the second spall section; wherein the first spall section is disposed on a first side of the structural insulated panel and the second spall section is disposed on a second side of the structural insulated panel.

2. The ballistic panel of claim 1, wherein the strike face comprises a metal or a ceramic.

3. The ballistic panel of claim 2, wherein the strike face comprises one of aluminum or steel.

4. The ballistic panel of claim 2, wherein the strike face comprises one of alumina, silicon carbide, or boron carbide.

5. The ballistic panel of claim 1, wherein the first spall section comprises at least one of: E-glass, R-glass, S-glass, Aramid, UHMWPE, or polypropylene fiber and a polymer resin.

6. The ballistic panel of claim 1, wherein the second spall section comprises at least one of: E-glass, R-glass, S-glass, Aramid, UHMWPE, or polypropylene fiber and a polymer resin.

7. The ballistic panel of claim 1, wherein the structural insulated panel comprises a first skin, a core, and a second skin.

8. The ballistic panel of claim 7, wherein the core comprises a rigid polymer.

9. The ballistic panel of claim 8, wherein the rigid polymer comprises polystyrene or polyurethane.

10. The ballistic panel of claim 7, wherein the first skin comprises one or more of steel, aluminum, cement, plastic, or fiber reinforced plastic.

11. The ballistic panel of claim 7, wherein the second skin comprises one or more of steel, aluminum, cement, plastic, or fiber reinforced plastic.

12. The ballistic panel of claim 7, wherein the core is disposed between the first skin and the second skin.

13. The ballistic panel of claim 1, wherein the ballistic panel comprises a V50 of at least 3300 fps.

14. A method of slowing a projectile comprising: providing a ballistic panel comprising a strike face configured to engage a spall section, a first spall section configured to engage a structural insulated panel, a structural insulated panel, a second spall section, and at least one decorative skin disposed on the strike face and or the second spall section; absorbing an initial impact of the projectile; tumbling the projectile in the structural insulated panel; and slowing the projectile in the second spall section.

15. The method of claim 14, further comprising ceasing motion of the projectile in the second spall section.

16. A ballistic panel comprising: a strike face; a first spall section; a structural insulated panel; a second spall section; and wherein the first spall section is disposed on a first side of the structural insulated panel and the second spall section is disposed on a second side of the structural insulated panel.

Description:

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION

This application claims the benefit under 35 U.S.C. §119(e) of U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/318,749 filed on Mar. 29, 2010, titled “COMPOSITE PANELS WITH BALLISTIC PROPERTIES,” the entirety of which is hereby incorporated by reference and made part of this specification.

BACKGROUND

1. Field

The disclosure relates to composite panels, structural insulated panels and similar materials having ballistic and blast-proof properties.

2. Related Art

It can be advantageous to install materials having ballistic and blast-proof properties on or in the walls (ceilings, floors, etc.) of structures that may be subject to projectiles, ballistic or blast conditions. Composite ballistic panels can be used to provide strength and improved safety and protection in these circumstances.

SUMMARY

Example embodiments described herein have several features, no single one of which is solely responsible for their desirable attributes. Without limiting the scope of the inventions expressed by the claims, some of the advantageous features will now be summarized.

In one embodiment, a ballistic panel is disclosed, the ballistic panel comprises: a strike face, a first spall section, a structural insulated panel, a second spall section, and at least one decorative skin disposed on the strike face or the second spall section, wherein the first spall section is disposed on a first side of the structural insulated panel and the second spall section is disposed on a second side of the structural insulated panel.

In another embodiment, a method of slowing a projectile is disclosed, the method comprising: providing a ballistic panel comprising a strike face configured to engage a spall section, a first spall section configured to engage a structural insulated panel, a structural insulated panel, a second spall section, and at least one decorative skin disposed on the strike face or the second spall section, absorbing an initial impact of the projectile, tumbling the projectile in the structural insulated panel, and slowing the projectile in the second spall section.

In accordance to one embodiment, a ballistic panel is disclosed, the ballistic panel comprises: a strike face, a first spall section, a structural insulated panel, a second spall section, wherein the first spall section is disposed on a first side of the structural insulated panel and the second spall section is disposed on a second side of the structural insulated panel.

In describing various embodiments of the present application, reference will be made herein to FIGS. 1-8 of the drawings, in which like numbers refer to like features unless indicated otherwise.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The following drawings and the associated descriptions are provided to illustrate embodiments of the present disclosure and do not limit the scope of the claims.

FIG. 1 depicts a schematic view of an example of a ballistic panel system.

FIG. 2 depicts an exploded view of an example composite ballistic structural insulated panel.

FIG. 3 illustrates an exploded view of another example composite ballistic structural insulated panel or “BSIP” incorporating a combined strike face and first spall section.

FIG. 4 shows an exploded view of yet another example composite ballistic structural insulated panel incorporating a hybrid spall layer.

FIG. 5 illustrates an exploded view of yet another example composite ballistic structural insulated panel incorporating a hybrid spall layer.

FIG. 6 depicts an exploded view of yet another example composite ballistic structural insulated panel.

FIG. 7 depicts an illustration of an example of a method of manufacturing a ballistic structural insulated panel.

FIG. 8 depicts a chart demonstrating three example layups of ballistic structural insulated panels and three comparative example layups of ballistic panels.

FIG. 9 shows a table illustrating and comparing V50 testing data of the examples and comparative examples of FIG. 8.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

Although certain preferred embodiments and examples are disclosed below, inventive subject matter extends beyond the specifically disclosed embodiments to other alternative embodiments and/or uses of the invention, and to modifications and equivalents thereof. Thus, the scope of the inventions herein disclosed is not limited by any of the particular embodiments described below. For example, in any method or process disclosed herein, the acts or operations of the method or process may be performed in any suitable sequence and are not necessarily limited to any particular disclosed sequence. For purposes of contrasting various embodiments with the prior art, certain aspects and advantages of these embodiments are described. Not necessarily all such aspects or advantages are achieved by any particular embodiment. Thus, for example, various embodiments may be carried out in a manner that achieves or optimizes one advantage or group of advantages as taught herein without necessarily achieving other aspects or advantages as may also be taught or suggested herein. The devices, systems and methods discussed herein can be used anywhere, including, for example, in military, police, civilian, or medical structures.

Composite ballistic panels can comprise ballistic materials that include high strength fibers, steel and ceramic.

Structural insulated panels or “SIPs” are a composite building material. Generally they consist of an insulating layer of foam sandwiched between two layers of structural material. SIPs provide insulation and protection to a structure with a tighter building envelope. SIPs may be used as floor, wall, or roof of a structure. SIPs may be used in the construction of living units such as permanent or temporary housing, mobile units such as cars, or aerospace vehicles such as planes or helicopters.

In designing ballistic layups, it is important to understand the relationship between weight, performance, and cost. Generally speaking, as stronger, more effective materials are used to reduce the weight of a particular solution, the cost increases. In designing ballistic solutions, with the benefit of new fiber, weave technologies, or resin matrices, it is possible to combine or hybridize different materials in order to use a less expensive material on the front of a panel as a “strike-face.” The purpose of the strike-face is to flatten the projectile and slow it down, thereby allowing the stronger fibers at the back of panel to absorb and disperse the energy. In an effective hybrid, a slight overall gain in weight is balanced by a significant reduction in cost by being able to reduce the amount of the more expensive material used.

A. Introduction

The terms “structural insulated panel” or “structurally insulated panel” or “SIP” are broadly interpreted herein and comprise, without limitation, their customary and ordinary meaning as well as any and all panels that consist of an insulating layer sandwiched between at least two layers of structural material. SIPs may be used for a variety of applications, but are generally used as a composite building material. As a building material, SIPs may be used as exterior wall, roof, floors, and foundation systems. However, SIPs may also be used in other applications such as aerospace, armored vehicles, military, police, civilian, medical, and applications where improved safety and protection are desired. SIPs generally comprise an inner insulating layer that may include any suitable material such as polymer foam. For example, the core of a SIP may be expanded polystyrene, extruded polystyrene or rigid polyurethane. The core of a SIP may comprise a non-polymer foam insulation such as sand, metal, ceramic, solid polymer resin, or air. One or more outer layers of an SIP may include steel, aluminum, cement board, fiber-reinforced plastic, or magnesium oxide. Outer layers of a SIP may also comprise a material such as metal, plywood, cement or oriented strand board. Generally speaking, a SIP is incorporated as part of a building or structure as it is constructed, and supports the building. However, in other embodiments, a SIP may be installed into an existing structure.

As used herein, the term “strike face” is a broad term and is to be given its ordinary and customary meaning to a person of ordinary skill in the art (i.e., it is not to be limited to a special or customized meaning) and includes, without limitation, the entire thickness of the outermost layer of a ballistic panel. The strike face may be covered with a decorative layer. A strike face may be flat, planar, convex, concave, multi-faceted, undulating, distressed, smooth—or it may have a different geometry. A strike face may be formed of any suitable material. Useful example materials include those that are hardened; for example, they can be harder than the rest of the composite layers. For example, a strike face may be made of various hardened metals such as aluminum or steel. A strike face may also be formed of a ceramic material such as alumina, silicon carbide, boron carbide, and the like or a combination of materials. A strike face may also be formed of a high resin content composite. Hybrids or combinations of any of these and similar materials are also useful. The general purpose of the strike face in a ballistic panel may be to flatten and slow down an incoming projectile, thereby allowing other materials in the panel to assist in absorbing and dispersing the energy from the projectile. A strike face may consist of several plies (e.g., layers) of materials or a strike face may only consist of one ply (e.g., layer) of material. In some embodiments, a strike face may comprise a hybrid panel comprising more than one different type of material.

As used in this application, the term “spall section” or “spall layer” is a broad term and is to be given its ordinary and customary meaning to a person of ordinary skill in the art (i.e., it is not to be limited to a special or customized meaning) and includes, without limitation, one or more layers in which a projectile and/or projectile debris may distribute. When a projectile contacts a target, the projectile may generally maintain its shape or pieces of the projectile may be broken off as a result of impact. A spall section may absorb energy provided by a projectile or spall and it may redistribute the spall upon its entry into the spall section. A spall section may function as a net for incoming projectile or debris. Materials useful for “spall layers” include those that have the following properties and/or combinations of properties: fibrous, high tensile strength, some resilience, etc. A spall section may be formed of any suitable material including, but not limited to: woven or uni-directional fibers including E-glass, R-glass, S-glass, fiberglass, aramid, ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (“UHMWPE”) or a polypropylene fiber utilizing thermoplastic or thermoset resin systems. Common fiberglass types include E-glass (alumino-borosilicate glass with less than 1 wt % alkali oxides, mainly used for glass-reinforced plastics), R-glass (alumino silicate glass without MgO and CaO with high mechanical requirements), and S-glass (alumino silicate glass without CaO but with high MgO content with high tensile strength). Aramid fibers are a class of heat-resistant and strong synthetic fibers in which the fiber-forming substance is a long-chain synthetic polyamide in which at least 85% of the amide linkages, (—CO—NH—) are attached directly to two aromatic rings. Aramid fibers are often used in aerospace and military applications, such as for ballistic rated body armor fabric, vehicle armor composites, and ballistic shields. Well-known aramid fibers are sold under the trademarks KEVLAR, TWARON and K-FLEX. Similarly, UHMWPE fibers are known for their strength and abrasion resistance, and are commonly used in ballistic protection and defense applications. These various fiber materials are impregnated with resin, which can be any of the following: petroleum-free phenolic resin, standard phenolic resin, polyvinyl butyral (PVB) phenolic resin, polyethylene thermoplastic resin, polypropylene thermoplastic resin, polyester thermoset resin, and epoxy thermoset resin. A spall layer or section may comprise one or more layers. A spall layer or section may also comprise a hybrid layer consisting of at least two different types of materials selected that may absorb energy provided by a projectile or spall and it may redistribute the spall upon entry into the spall section. A spall layer or section may consist of several plies of materials or a spall layer or section may only consist of one ply of material.

As used herein “decorative ballistic skin” or “decorative outer skin” is defined broadly to mean a decorative layer comprised of a material such as PAPERSTONE® that gives an aesthetically pleasing appearance, but still maintains favorable ballistic properties when subjected to ballistics testing. PAPERSTONE® is a composite material that is made from 100% post-consumer recycled paper manufactured by PanelTech Products, Inc. (Hoquiam, Wash.). It consists of a petroleum-free phenolic resin (or “green resin”) impregnated paper product that when laminated under heat and pressure, becomes a hard consolidated laminate. It is non-porous and comes in a variety of colors. A decorative phenolic ballistic skin may be disposed on the portion of a ballistic structural insulated panel facing the potential direction of the ballistic or blast threat. According to some embodiments, a decorative skin may not provide significant ballistic properties and may perform a more decorative function.

As used herein, the term “decorative interior skin” may be broadly defined to mean a material that gives an aesthetically pleasing appearance and may include phenolic PAPERSTONE® material, a thermoplastic, a thin textured material, or wood. A decorative phenolic ballistic skin may be disposed on the portion of a ballistic structural insulated panel facing the interior of an enclosure and provide a decorative finish to the interior of the structure, improved fire resistance characteristics, or anti-viral wall protection. A decorative skin may not provide significant ballistic properties and may perform a more decorative function; nevertheless, some layers and/or materials can include both decorative and protective (e.g., ballistic) properties.

The term “skin” is broadly interpreted herein and comprise, without limitation, any generally thin layer of material that engages at least one other layer of material within. A skin may serve to protect the layer or layers it engages from damage or debris, and a skin may supply an aesthetically pleasing effect. While it may be implied that a skin is a thinner layer, according to some embodiments, a skin may have a greater thickness than a layer not labeled as a skin.

As used herein, the term “projectile” is used broadly to mean any type of material propelled towards the ballistic panel: the objects or items propelled through the environment—often at great speed—from which protection may be sought. For example, projectiles may include bullets, ordnance, shrapnel, knives, glass shards, materials that may be fragmented and violently displaced by an explosion, portions of exploding armaments, metal slugs, and the like. A projectile may also include debris from explosion caused by vandalism, civil unrest, pranks, fireworks, bombs, pipe-bombs, or other means of entering any structure. A projectile may stay in one piece as it enters the BSIP, or it may break into fragments (e.g., as it enters the ballistic structural insulated panel.

Referring to FIG. 1, a ballistic panel is illustrated that can have multiple layers (e.g., a first face layer 10, a function layer 20, and a second face layer 30). This generalized example demonstrates some aspects of the inventions herein described, although often the functions described here can be combined (for example, a functional layer can also be aesthetic or provide other characteristics desirable in a face layer). A projectile can enter the BSIP through first face layer 10, only to be slowed, stopped, redirected, deformed, fragmented, dispersed, deflected, (or some combination thereof), etc. by a function layer 20. A function layer can include dynamic materials that harden or otherwise change in a useful manner when they are stressed or otherwise subject to force or pressure. Within function layer 20, two general steps may be performed. Within the function layer 20, the projectile and any projectile debris may be dispersed. The function layer 20 may also slow and/or rotate the projectile and any projectile debris. These two steps may be performed in the above mentioned order. They may also be performed simultaneously within the function layer 20. The steps may be performed in the reverse order as disclosed above.

FIG. 2 illustrates a ballistic structural insulated panel (“BSIP”) 100. The BSIP comprises a first ballistic zone 110, a second ballistic zone 120, and a third ballistic zone 130. The first ballistic zone 110 faces outer threat area X. The second ballistic zone 120 engages the first ballistic zone 110. The third ballistic zone 130 engages the second ballistic zone 120. The third ballistic zone 130 faces an interior I, which can be decorative. Of course, the layers and zones described here (and throughout this application) are not always present in all advantageous embodiments. For example, a BSIP can still be effective although it may not always have a separate decorative interior skin. For example, the functional layers may themselves be so aesthetically pleasing that no additional interior layer is deemed desirable.

As illustrated in FIG. 2, the first ballistic zone 110 can comprise three layers. Decorative outer ballistic skin 111 engages outer threat area X. Strike face 112 engages outer ballistic skin 111. First spall section 113 engages strike face 112.

The second ballistic zone 120 comprises SIP 121. SIP 121 engages first spall section 113. SIP 121 comprises three layers, first SIP skin layer 122, core layer 123, and second SIP skin layer 124 as shown. First SIP skin layer 122 engages core layer 123. Second SIP skin layer 124 engages core layer 123.

Third ballistic zone 130 comprises at least two layers and engages second ballistic zone 120 at second SIP skin layer 124. Third ballistic zone 130 comprises second spall layer 131. Second spall layer 131 engages decorative interior skin 140. According to other embodiments, the third ballistic zone 130 may comprise one or more layers, and these layers may comprise one or more spall layers. Decorative interior skin 140 engages interior I. Decorative interior skin 140 may exhibit some favorable ballistics properties or it may serve a more decorative function.

According to some embodiments, an additional layer of adhesive (not illustrated) adheres the aforementioned layers to one another within the BSIP. According to other embodiments, adhesive is only incorporated between selected layers. For example, adhesive may be inserted to improve adherence between two layers that lack interfacial compatibility. The same type of adhesive may be used to all layer incorporating adhesive. According to some other embodiments, no adhesive may be used at all. Adhesives utilized may include thermoplastic films, methyl methacrylate, epoxy resin, or other suitable adhesive systems.

Although the BSIP 100 is shown as having a flat, planar surface, other embodiments are contemplated in which BSIP 100 may have concave and/or convex contours and/or sides that may coincide with specific wall, door etc. conformations to which the BSIP 100 may be applied.

First ballistic zone 110 may be designed to absorb the initial impact of a projectile and to flatten it as it enters the BSIP. By flattening the projectile, the projectile affects a broader cross sectional area of the BSIP that can distribute the energy over a greater surface area. Most of the energy absorption in first ballistic zone 110 may occur upon impact of the projectile with strike face 112 and through utilizing the strength of the material used in first spall section 113. According to some embodiments, the first spall section 113 comprises a sacrificial layer such as, for example, one or more plies of woven E-Glass. By incorporating a less expensive sacrificial layer, cost of a BSIP panel may be reduced since the layer may be sacrificial and serve, in part, to absorb energy from the projectile and/or projectile debris upon entering the spall section 113.

Second ballistic zone 120 may be designed to cause the projectile to tumble if it enters into this section including SIP 121. Tumbling is broadly defined as the free movement and/or rotation of a projectile, fragment, or other high velocity product of the ballistic event. Because the core 123 of the SIP 121 has less tensile strength than the first spall layer 123, the projectile will undergo the tumbling effect. The second ballistic zone 120 may utilize the air space, void, and/or less dense space contained within the SIP to allow the projectile to tumble and yaw, and thus create a larger profile to the second spall section 131. The tumble effect also allows a greater cross section of the projectile to enter into the third ballistic zone 130.

The third ballistic zone 130 may be designed to stop the forward movement of the projectile by utilizing the tensile strength of the fibers in the material used in this zone during the stretching of the fiber to absorb the last of the energy of the projectile. In some embodiments, a higher performing material such as aramid fibers or oriented polyethylene fibers in thermoplastic or thermoset polymer resin may be utilized for the high tensile strength of the fibers in the resin matrix. The third ballistic zone 130 may prevent backside deformation of the BSIP by absorbing the energy of the projectile and debris and ceasing their movement through the BSIP before it would start to exit the panel.

Outer threat area X generally refers to the area outside of a space being protected by the BSIP. Outer threat area X may be outdoors (for example, the exterior surface of a police station in a volatile inner-city or a military's forward operating base), or outer threat area X may be indoors (for example, the interior surface of a shooting gallery or explosives laboratory). Interior I refers to another side of the BSIP distinct from outer threat area X. In general, in an embodiment it may be assumed that a projectile will enter into the BSIP from outer threat area X, directly first contacting decorative outer ballistic skin 111 as shown by arrow P. A person or object to be protected by the BSIP panel may be positioned on interior I instead of outer threat area X. In many embodiments, a projectile following the path P will be slowed or stopped in a more satisfactory fashion than a projectile following the opposite path, entering the BSIP through interior I (not illustrated). In other embodiments, the ability of the BSIP to slow or stop a projectile is equivalent, whether the projectile enters the B SIP from outer threat area X or interior I.

Decorative outer ballistic skin 111 may comprise any suitable material and may comprise a material that gives an aesthetically pleasing appearance, but still maintains favorable ballistic properties when subjected to ballistics testing. One example of a useful material that can meet this description is PAPERSTONE®. PAPERSTONE® is a composite material that is made from 100% post-consumer recycled paper manufactured by PanelTech Products, Inc. (Hoquiam, Wash.). It consists of a petroleum-free phenolic resin (or “green resin”) impregnated paper product that when laminated under heat and pressure, becomes a hard consolidated laminate. Other suitable materials for decorative outer ballistic skin 111 may include various thermoplastics and thermoset polymers, reinforced polymers, gypsum, stone, wood, brick, ceramic, or metal. The type of decorative coating may be selected based on the application in which the panel is used. Thus a material may be selected that fits the desired appearance of the exterior using the BSIP 100. In some embodiments, the decorative outer ballistic skin 111 also incorporates favorable ballistic properties. In other embodiments, the outer ballistic skin 111 employs little to no ballistic properties.

Strike face 112 may comprise any suitable material that may assist in absorbing the energy of an incoming projectile. The strike face 112 may also affect the trajectory of an incoming projectile or fragments of projectile. A strike face may be made of such materials including, but not limited to: metals such as aluminum or steel, ceramic such as alumina, silicon carbide, boron carbide, or other such suitable materials, etc.

First spall section 113 may also comprise any suitable material that may further assist in flattening and slowing a projectile. Suitable materials for the first spall section 113 include, without limitation: woven or uni-directional E-glass, R-glass, S-glass, Aramid (such as K-Flex® H provided by TechFiber), UHMWPE (such as Dyneema® provided by DSM) or a polypropylene fiber (such as Innegra™ S or I-Flex provided by Tech Fiber) utilizing thermoplastic or thermoset resin systems. In some embodiments, first spall section 113 may be a hybrid of two or more of the spall materials. The first spall section may be considered a sacrificial layer since it functions to absorb much of the initial energy of a projectile and debris entering the BSIP. Hence, in some embodiments, the first spall section may comprise a less expensive material such as woven E-glass.

According to some embodiments, a strike face may be omitted, and the first spall section 113 may act alone as the strike face. In other embodiments where the strike face is omitted, the first spall section 113 may act as a strike face in combination with the outer decorative skin 111. One embodiment illustrating such configuration is shown in FIG. 2.

SIP 121 may be comprised of at least two SIP outer skins 122,124 and core 123. Outer SIP skins 122, 124 may be comprised by any such suitable material as steel, aluminum, cement board, fiber-reinforced plastic, or magnesium oxide. SIP skins 122, 124 may be rigid. In some embodiments the outer SIP skins 122, 124 are made of the same material. In other embodiments, the outer SIP skins 122, 124 are made of different materials. The core 123 may comprise polymer foam such as expanded polystyrene, extruded polystyrene, or rigid polyurethane. In some embodiments (not illustrated) the SIP 121 may only have one outer SIP skin and engage one spall layer, or it may have no outer SIP skins and directly engage both spall layers on either side of the SIP. An example of a SIP may be a Greenix™ panel from SIP Supply.

Second spall section 131 may also comprise any suitable material that may further assist in flattening and slowing the projectile. Suitable materials for the second spall section 131 include, without limitation: woven or uni-directional E-glass, R-glass, S-glass, Aramid, ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (“UHMWPE”) (such as Dyneema® provided by DSM), or a polypropylene fiber (such as Innegra™ S or I-Flex provided by Tech Fiber) utilizing thermoplastic or thermoset resin systems. One or more material comprising second spall section 131 may include fibers and include a high tensile strength material. In some embodiments, second spall section may be a hybrid of two or more of the spall materials. In some embodiments, a higher performing material such as aramid fibers or oriented polyethylene fibers in thermoplastic or thermoset polymer resin may be utilized for the high tensile strength of the fibers in the resin matrix. Second spall section 131 may prevent backside deformation of the BSIP by absorbing the energy of the projectile and debris and ceasing their movement through the BSIP before it would start to exit the panel or contact a decorative interior skin (if provided).

Decorative interior skin 140 may comprise any suitable material such as phenolic PAPERSTONE® material, a thermoplastic, gypsum, stone, a thin textured material, or wood. In some embodiments, the inner decorative layer faces an indoors area I, such as the inside of a house or the inside of a plane. Thus a material may be selected that fits the desired appearance of the room using the BSIP100. In some embodiments, the inner decorative layer 140 also incorporates favorable ballistic properties. In other embodiments, the decorative interior skin 140 employs little to no ballistic properties.

An exterior decorative skin, if provided, may have a suitable thickness of 0.008-0.080 inches. In another embodiment, an exterior decorative skin may have a thickness of 0.016-0.072 inches, 0.016-0.064 inches, 0.024-0.064 inches 0.040-0.064 inches, or any other suitable thickness.

The strike face may comprise a total thickness of 0.10-1.50 inches. According to other embodiments, the strike face may measure a suitable thickness such as 0.150-1.25 inches, 0.150-1.0 inches, 0.150-0.75 inches, 0.150-0.50 inches, 0.150-0.25 inches, or any other suitable thickness.

In some embodiments, a first spall section may have a total thickness of 0.035-1.0 inches. According to other embodiments, the first spall section may be a suitable thickness such as 0.040-0.750 inches, 0.040-0.670 inches, 0.035-0.060 inches, 0.190-0.240 inches, 0.640-0.690 inches, or any other suitable thickness.

A SIP may comprise a total thickness of 2.0-6.0 inches. According to some embodiments, the SIP may comprise a total thickness of 2.0-5.0 inches, 2.0-4.6 inches, 2.5-4.6 inches, or any other suitable thickness.

A second spall section may have a total thickness of 0.260-1.0 inches. According to some embodiments, the second spall section may measure a suitable thickness such as 0.040-0.750 inches, 0.040-0.670 inches, 0.240-0.310 inches, 0.280-0.320 inches, 0.630-0.690 inches, or any other suitable thickness.

A decorative interior skin if provided, may have a suitable thickness of 0.008-0.080 inches. In another embodiment, an inner decorative layer may have a thickness of 0.016-0.072 inches, 0.016-0.064 inches, 0.024-0.064 inches 0.040-0.064 inches, or any other suitable thickness.

The total thickness of a BSIP may comprise 2.5-8.0 inches in thickness. According to some embodiments, the thickness of a BSIP may comprise 2.0-7.5 inches, 2.0-7.0 inches, 2.0-6.0 inches, 2.0-5.0 inches, 2.0-4.0 inches, or any other suitable thickness. The dimensions of a BSIP may be uniform for ease of installation, and may be manufactured with a length by width dimension of 22 inches by 96 inches to 48 inches by 96 inches or any other suitable dimensions.

Although the BSIP 100 is shown as a flat, planar surface, other embodiments are contemplated in which BSIP 100 may have geometries that may better protect a given target. For example, in some embodiments (not illustrated), one or more spall section may be disposed at an angle to better slow a projectile entering the BSIP.

According to another embodiment, one or more plies of material comprising any of the layers may be disposed at a 0/90 orientation. According to some embodiments, the adjacent layers or adjacent sections are disposed at a 0/90 orientation.

B. Detailed Descriptions of Non-Limiting Embodiments

Methods and systems for use with manufacturing, assembling, and using composite ballistic structural insulated panels will now be described with reference to the accompanying drawings.

Referring now to FIG. 3, an embodiment of a composite multilayer ballistic structural insulated panel 200 is illustrated. The BSIP comprises a first ballistic zone 210, a second ballistic zone 220, and a third ballistic zone 230. The first ballistic zone 210 faces outer threat X. The second ballistic zone 220 engages the first ballistic zone 210. The third ballistic zone 230 engages the second ballistic zone 220. The third ballistic zone 230 faces an interior I.

FIG. 3 illustrates an embodiment with a first ballistic zone 210 that comprises only two layers. Decorative outer skin 211 engages outer threat side X. First spall section 212 engages decorative outer skin 211. Decorative outer skin 211 may exhibit some favorable ballistics properties or it may serve a more decorative function.

Second ballistic zone 220 comprises SIP 221. SIP 221 engages first spall section 213. SIP 221 comprises three layers, first SIP skin layer 222, core layer 223, and second SIP skin layer 224 as shown. First SIP skin layer 222 engages core layer 223. Second SIP skin layer 224 engages core layer 223.

Third ballistic zone 230 comprises two layers and engages second ballistic zone 220 at second SIP skin layer 224. Third ballistic zone 230 comprises second spall layer 231. Second spall layer 231 engages decorative interior skin 240. Decorative interior skin 240 may exhibit some favorable ballistics properties or it may serve a more decorative function.

Referring now to FIG. 4, another embodiment of a composite multilayer ballistic structural insulated panel 300 is illustrated. The BSIP comprises a first ballistic zone 310, a second ballistic zone 320, and a third ballistic zone 330. The first ballistic zone 310 faces outer threat X. The second ballistic zone 320 engages the first ballistic zone 310. The third ballistic zone 330 engages the second ballistic zone 320. The third ballistic zone 330 faces an interior I.

As illustrated in FIG. 4, according to another embodiment, first ballistic zone 310 comprises four layers. Decorative outer skin 311 engages outer threat side X. Strike face 312 engages decorative outer ballistic skin 311. As shown in FIG. 4, the first spall section may comprise at least two first hybrid layers 313a and 313b. First spall hybrid layer 313a engages strike face 312. Second spall hybrid layer 313b engages first spall hybrid layer 313a. Decorative outer skin 311 may exhibit some favorable ballistics properties or it may serve a more decorative function.

First spall hybrid layer 313a and second spall hybrid layer 313b may comprise one spall layer material each, or they may comprise multiple different layers. An appropriate material may be selected to achieve desired cost of the BSIP materials, weight, and blast performance.

Second ballistic zone 320 comprises SIP 321. SIP 321 engages second spall hybrid layer 313b. SIP 321 comprises three layers, first SIP skin layer 322, core layer 323, and second SIP skin layer 324 as shown. First SIP skin layer 322 engages core layer 323. Second SIP skin layer 324 engages core layer 323.

As illustrated, third ballistic zone 330 comprises two layers and engages second ballistic zone 320 at second SIP skin layer 324. Third ballistic zone 330 comprises second spall layer 331. Second spall layer 331 engages decorative interior skin 340. Second spall layer 331 engages decorative interior skin 340. According to other embodiments, the third ballistic zone 330 may comprise one or more layers, and these layers may comprise one or more spall layers. Decorative interior skin 340 engages interior I. Decorative interior skin 340 may exhibit some favorable ballistics properties or it may serve a more decorative function.

FIG. 5 illustrates an embodiment of a composite multilayer ballistic structural insulated panel 400. The BSIP comprises a first ballistic zone 410, a second ballistic zone 420, and a third ballistic zone 430. The first ballistic zone 410 faces outer threat X. The second ballistic zone 420 engages the first ballistic zone 410. The third ballistic zone 430 engages the second ballistic zone 420. The third ballistic zone 430 faces an interior I.

As illustrated in FIG. 5 first ballistic zone 410 comprises three layers. Decorative outer ballistic skin 411 engages outer threat side X. Strike face 412 engages decorative outer ballistic skin 411. First spall layer 413 engages strike face 412. Decorative outer skin 411 may exhibit some favorable ballistics properties or it may serve a more decorative function.

Second ballistic zone 420 comprises SIP 421. SIP 421 engages first spall layer 413. SIP 421 comprises three layers, first SIP skin layer 422, core layer 423, and second SIP skin layer 424 as shown. First SIP skin layer 422 engages core layer 423. Second SIP skin layer 424 engages core layer 423.

As illustrated, third ballistic zone 430 comprises three layers and engages second ballistic zone 420 at second SIP skin layer 424. Third ballistic zone 430 comprises second spall section comprising second spall hybrid layers 431a, 431b and decorative interior skin 440. According to the illustrated embodiment, the second spall section may comprise at least two first hybrid layers 431a and 431b. First spall hybrid layer 431a engages second SIP skin layer 424. Second spall hybrid layer 431b engages first spall hybrid layer 431a. Second spall hybrid layer 431b engages decorative interior skin 440. Decorative interior skin 440 engages interior I. Decorative interior skin 440 may exhibit some favorable ballistics properties or it may serve a more decorative function.

FIG. 6 illustrates an embodiment of a composite multilayer ballistic structural insulated panel 500. The BSIP comprises a first ballistic zone 510, a second ballistic zone 520, and a third ballistic zone 530. The first ballistic zone 510 faces outer threat X. The second ballistic zone 520 engages the first ballistic zone 510. The third ballistic zone 530 engages the second ballistic zone 520.

As illustrated in FIG. 6, according to another embodiment, first ballistic zone 510 comprises only two layers. Strike face 512 engages outer threat side X. First spall section 513 engages strike face 512.

Second ballistic zone 520 comprises SIP 521. SIP 521 engages first spall section 513. SIP 521 comprises three layers, first SIP skin layer 522, core layer 523, and second SIP skin layer 524 as shown. First SIP skin layer 522 engages core layer 523. Second SIP skin layer 524 engages core layer 523.

Third ballistic zone 530 comprises one layer and engages second ballistic zone 520 at second SIP skin layer 524. Third ballistic zone 530 comprises second spall layer 531. Second spall layer 531 engages second SIP skin layer 524.

Other orientations of decorative layers, spall layers, and SIP layers are contemplated by this disclosure.

Method of Manufacturing

A nonlimiting method for manufacturing a B SIP is described herewith. The manufacturing of the B SIP occurs in several steps. A SIP panel is manufactured by a SIP manufacturer and purchased as commercial item as is. One example of such SIP is the Greenix™ Polyurethane Panel provided by SIP Supply.

A BSIP as illustrated, for example, in FIG. 2 may be manufactured in one to three lamination steps depending on the embodiment and referred to as the Exterior Panel. Panels may be laminated using heat and pressure in a either a hydraulic lamination process or autoclave consolidation process to adhere the layers comprising the first ballistic zone and the second ballistic zone together. Individual layers of a BSIP may be adhered to each other using the resin system inherent as the resin matrix in the material, or with a separate adhesive system. The adhesive system may comprise a suitable adhesive such as thermoplastic films, methyl methacrylate, epoxy resin, or other suitable adhesive systems such as Nolax thermoplastic films, methyl methacrylate by Devcon, and epoxy adhesives resins by Daubert or others.

The second interior panel portion of a BSIP comprising the third ballistic zone are laminated in one to three steps depending on the embodiment and referred to as the Interior Panel. Panels are laminated used heat and pressure in a either a hydraulic lamination process or autoclave consolidation process. Individual portions of the panel may be adhered to each other using the resin system inherent as the resin matrix in the material or as a separate adhesive system.

Once the Interior and Exterior panels are laminated and cut to size, they are adhered to the SIP using a variety of adhesives depending on the SIP Skin material. The adhesive system may comprise a suitable adhesive such as thermoplastic films, methyl methacrylate, epoxy resin, or other suitable adhesive systems. In some embodiments, the Interior and Exterior panels are adhered to the SIP simultaneously. In other embodiments, the Interior and Exterior panels are adhered to the SIP one at a time.

According to some embodiments, and as illustrated in FIG. 7, the Interior and Exterior panels are adhered to the SIP by a cleating system 600. In a cleating system 600, a first set of cleats 601a, 601b is attached to both the Exterior 615 and Interior (not illustrated) faces of the SIP panel 610. A second cleat or cleats is attached to an Interior panel (not illustrated). A third cleat or cleats 602a, 602b is attached to an Exterior panel 620. The cleats are then interlocked to one another, thus attaching the Interior and Exterior panels to the SIP and forming the BSIP.

According to some embodiments, the BSIP is formed by mechanical means such as screws, fasteners, braces, plastic skins, and the like. The Interior and Exterior panels, once formed individually, may be mechanically attached by mechanical means.

The above mentioned methods of manufacturing BSIP panels may be performed alone, or any combination of the steps above may be performed to form a BSIP panel. For example, an Interior panel may be mounted on an interior-facing face of a SIP by a cleating system, while the Exterior panel may be mounted on the exterior-facing face of a SIP by an adhesive system.

Method of Protecting a Structure

Once BSIPs are produced, they may be installed into various applications to provide ballistic protection. According to an embodiment, the BSIP may be held together within a structure by a suitable adhesive system or a cleating system or a mechanical method using suitable fasteners and the like.

BSIP panels may be incorporated into permanent, semi-permanent, or temporary structures. In some embodiments, BSIP panels may be utilized for a rapidly deployable solution for a temporary structure and/or a solution for a temporary structure that may be rapidly taken down that also incorporate ballistic properties. A structure built with a BSIP panel such as those described in this application may be deployed via helicopter or DROPS vehicle and assembled with one simple hand tool.

C. Examples 1-3

Ballistics Testing

Various embodiments of the BSIP and other comparable ballistic panels were provided and underwent ballistics testing so as to determine the performance of various panels. The BSIP parameters and performance measurements are described in Examples 1-3 below. In Examples 1-3, BSIPs comprising multiple layers as described in various figures and disclosures of this application were used.

Performance Evaluation Methods

The National Institute of Justice provides standards that specify acceptable ballistic performance criteria for materials designed to stop ballistic threats in different calibers. The standard lists the velocity of each projectile at which the material must be able to stop 5 consecutive rounds. Level IIIA references the criteria for .44 caliber and 9 mm projectiles. Level III references the criteria for 7.62 caliber projectiles.

The V50 Ballistic Test for Armor is a common method for determining the relative performance of a given material. In the test, an initial shot is fired and the velocity of the projectile is recorded in compliance with factors of the specification such as distance of muzzle to target and muzzle to velocity measuring device. If the shot penetrates the material, a second shot is taken after adjusting the amount of powder in the casing to produce a slightly lower velocity. If the shot is stopped by the material, powder is increased for the second shot to produce a slightly higher velocity. This procedure is repeated until a tight range of velocities are recorded, some with penetration, some without. An average velocity is calculated using an equal number of penetrations and captures and reported as the V50 velocity (an indication of a velocity at which 50% of the projectiles fired at this speed would penetrate and 50% would be stopped). By using this method, a performance indication of the material can be determined against a specification or against another material.

All testing was done using a V50 ballistic test in accordance with MIL-STD-662F-V50 BALLISTIC TEST FOR ARMOR by a certified testing lab (Chesapeake Testing, 121 Bata Boulevard, Belcamp, Va. 21017). All panels were tested with a 7.62 mm×51 M80 ball in accordance with MIL-STD-662F relating to V50 ballistic testing.

Examples 1-3 and Comparative Examples 1-3 are described below and descriptions and properties of the Examples and Comparative Examples are illustrated in FIG. 8.

Example 1

Example 1 (LC-1103) utilized the configuration disclosed by FIG. 5 and incorporated 8 plies of a decorative material, a 4 mm thick ceramic strike face, and 2 plies of E-Glass spall layer on the front exterior face of a SIP panel. Adhered to the back side of the SIP panel was a hybrid spall layer of 13 plies of 0/90 oriented polypropylene fibers (Innegra™ S from Tech Fiber) and 28 plies of 0/90 aramid fibers (TechFiber) in polyethylene resin matrices. Two plies of a decorative material formed the interior decorative layer of the BSIP.

Example 1 exhibited an areal density of 5.5 pounds per square foot (“psf”). Surprisingly, Example 1 demonstrated a V50 of 3310 feet per second (“fps”).

Comparative Example 1

Comparative Example 1 (LC-1330) utilized the configuration disclosed by Example 1, but without the SIP panel. LC-1330 incorporated 8 plies of a decorative material, a 4 mm thick ceramic strike face, 2 plies of E-Glass spall layers, a hybrid spall liner of 13 plies of 0/90 oriented polypropylene fibers (Innegra™ S from Tech Fiber) and 28 plies of 0/90 aramid fibers (TechFiber) in polyethylene resin matrices. Two plies of a decorative material formed the interior decorative layer of the panel.

Comparative Example 1 exhibited an areal density of 5.5 psf. Comparative Example 1 demonstrated a V50 of 2183 fps.

Example 2

Example 2 (LC-1104) utilized the configuration disclosed by FIG. 2 and incorporated 8 plies of a decorative material, a 4 mm thick ceramic strike face, and 10 plies of woven roving E-glass in a phenolic resin matrix as a spall layer on the exterior face of a SIP panel. Adhered to the back side of the SIP panel was a second spall layer of 15 plies of woven roving E-glass in a phenolic resin matrix. Two plies of a decorative material formed the interior decorative layer of the BSIP.

Example 2 exhibited an areal density of 9.3 psf. Surprisingly, Example 2 demonstrated a V50 of 3666 fps.

Comparative Example 2

Comparative Example 2 (LC-1328) utilized the configuration disclosed by Example 2, but without the SIP panel. Comparative Example 2 incorporated 8 plies of a decorative material, a 4 mm thick ceramic strike face, and 25 plies of woven roving E-glass in a phenolic resin matrix as a spall layer. Two plies of a decorative material formed the interior decorative layer of the panel.

Comparative Example 2 exhibited an areal density of 9.3 psf. Comparative Example 2 demonstrated a V50 of 2420 fps.

Example 3

Example 3 (LC-1105) utilized the configuration disclosed by FIG. 3 and incorporated 8 plies of a decorative material and 33 plies of woven roving E-glass in a phenolic resin matrix as a combined strike face and spall layer on the exterior face of a SIP panel. Adhered to the back side of the SIP panel was a second spall layer of 32 plies of woven roving E-glass in a phenolic resin matrix. Two plies of a decorative material formed the interior decorative layer of the B SIP. The incorporation of several plies of E-glass may beneficially reduce the cost of the BSIP system by 40-50%.

Example 3 exhibited an areal density of 14.7 psf. Surprisingly, Example 3 demonstrated a V50 of 3643 fps.

Comparative Example 3

Comparative Example 3 (LC-1329) utilized the configuration disclosed by Example 3, but without the SIP panel. Comparative Example 3 incorporated 8 plies of a decorative material and 65 plies of woven roving E-glass in a phenolic resin matrix as a spall layer. Two plies of a decorative material formed the interior decorative layer of the panel.

Comparative Example 3 exhibited an areal density of 14.7 psf. Comparative Example 3 demonstrated a V50 of 2983 fps.

Testing Results

The results of the comparative testing are illustrated in FIG. 9.

The results of the testing performed, indicates a performance increase of from 22% to 54%. This performance increase equated to an increase in V50 performance of 660 fps (feet per second) to 1246 fps.

As apparent from the above description, the features and attributes of the specific figures, examples, and/or embodiments disclosed herein may be combined in different ways to form additional examples or embodiments, all of which fall within the scope of the present disclosure. For example, all of these features and embodiments may be implemented based on the systems, methods and devices described herein.

Conditional language used herein, such as, among others, “can,” “could,” “might,” “may,” “e.g.,” and the like, unless specifically stated otherwise, or otherwise understood within the context as used, is generally intended to convey that certain embodiments include, while other embodiments do not include, certain features, elements and/or states. Thus, such conditional language is not generally intended to imply that features, elements and/or states are in any way required for one or more embodiments.

A number of applications, publications, and external documents may be incorporated by reference herein. Any conflict or contradiction between a statement in the body text of this specification and a statement in any of the incorporated documents is to be resolved in favor of the statement in the body text.

Reference throughout this specification to “some embodiments” or “an embodiment” means that a particular feature, structure or characteristic described in connection with the embodiment is included in at least some embodiments. Thus, appearances of the phrases “in some embodiments” or “in an embodiment” in various places throughout this specification are not necessarily all referring to the same embodiment. Furthermore, the particular features, structures or characteristics may be combined in any suitable manner, as would be apparent to one of ordinary skill in the art from this disclosure, in one or more embodiments.

Similarly, it should be appreciated that in the above description of embodiments, various features of the inventions are sometimes grouped together in a single embodiment, figure, or description thereof for the purpose of streamlining the disclosure and aiding in the understanding of one or more of the various inventive aspects. This method of disclosure, however, is not to be interpreted as reflecting an intention that any claim require more features than are expressly recited in that claim. Rather, inventive aspects lie in a combination of fewer than all features of any single foregoing disclosed embodiment.

Although the invention(s) presented herein have been disclosed in the context of certain preferred embodiments and examples, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that the invention(s) extend beyond the specifically disclosed embodiments to other alternative embodiments and/or uses of the invention(s) and obvious modifications and equivalents thereof. Thus, it is intended that the scope of the invention(s) herein disclosed should not be limited by the particular embodiments described above.

Indeed, many variations and modifications may be made to the described embodiments, the elements of which are to be understood as being among other useful and relevant examples. All such modifications and variations are intended to be included herein within the scope of this disclosure.