Title:
HEAT-GENERATING MIXTURE AND DEVICE AND METHOD FOR HEAT GENERATION
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
A heat-generating mixture includes 40 to 55 wt % of metal silicide, 40 to 60 wt. % of iron (III) oxide, and 0 to 10 wt. % of silicon. On burning, the heat-generating mixture forms a non-melting, porous slag. In a method of heat generation, to generate heat, an igniter capable of being actuated mechanically or electrically, ignites a booster charge, which in turn ignites the heat-generating mixture. A device for heat generation incudes an igniter capable of being actuated mechanically or electrically, a booster charge and the heat-generating mixture fixed and/or contained in and/or on a casing.



Inventors:
Lechner, Peter Simon (Oberasbach, DE)
Bley, Ulrich (Furth, DE)
Hagel, Rainer (Erlangen, DE)
Hoschenko, Aleksei (Furth, DE)
Application Number:
13/100325
Publication Date:
08/25/2011
Filing Date:
05/04/2011
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
252/67, 432/120
International Classes:
F24V30/00; F27D1/00; A47J36/28; C09K5/06; C09K5/18
View Patent Images:



Foreign References:
GB572573A1945-10-15
JPH04284819A1992-10-09
Primary Examiner:
FELTON, AILEEN BAKER
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
FITCH, EVEN, TABIN & FLANNERY, LLP (120 South LaSalle Street, Suite 2100, Chicago, IL, 60603-3406, US)
Claims:
1. Heat-generating mixture, comprising 40 to 55 wt % of metal silicide, 40 to 60 wt. % of iron (III) oxide, and 0 to 10 wt. % of silicon, characterized in that it, on burning, it forms a non-melting, porous slag.

2. Heat-generating mixture according to claim 1, characterized in that, on burning, it does not form a molten ball.

3. Method of heat generation, characterized in that, to generate heat, an igniter capable of being actuated mechanically or electrically, ignites a booster charge, which in turn ignites a heat-generating mixture according to claim 1.

4. Method of heat generation according to claim 3, characterized in that the igniter is actuated mechanically.

5. Device for heat generation, characterized in that an igniter capable of being actuated mechanically or electrically,a booster charge and heat-generating mixture according to claim 1 are fixed and/or contained in and/or on a casing.

6. Device for heat generation according to claim 5, characterized in that the igniter is an anvil-shaped ignition cap capable of being actuated mechanically.

7. A method for heating foodstuffs comprising actuating the device according to claim 5, and heating foodstuff with the actuated device.

8. A method for heating foodstuffs comprising igniting the heat-generating mixture according to claim 1, and heating foodstuff with the ignited heat-generating mixture.

9. Heat-generating mixture according to claim 1, further comprising silicon dioxide and/or water glass.

10. Heat-generating mixture according to claim 1, characterized in that it contains 45-50 wt. % of metal silicide, 45-55 wt. % of iron (III) oxide, and 0 to 5 wt. % of silicon.

11. Method of heat generation according to claim 3, characterized in that the ignition is capable of being actuated piezolectrically.

12. Device for heating generation according to claim 5, characterized in that the ignition is capable of being actuated piezolectrically.

13. Heat-generating mixture according to claim 9, characterized in that silicon dioxide is contained in an amount up 5 wt. %.

14. Heat-generating mixture according to claim 13, characterized in that water glass is contained in an amount of up to 20 wt. %.

15. Heat-generating mixture according to claim 9, characterized in that water glass is contained in an amount of up to 20 wt. %.

16. Heat-generating mixture according to claim 1, characterized in that the metal silicide is calcium silicide and/or iron silicide.

17. Heat-generating mixture according to claim 1, characterized in that the metal silicide is calcium silicide.

18. Heat-generating mixture, comprising 40 to 55 wt % of iron silicide, 40 to 60 wt. % of iron (III) oxide, and 0 to 10 wt. % of silicon.

Description:

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION

This application is a continuation application of U.S. application Ser. No. 10/548,601, filed Sep. 13, 2005, the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The invention relates to a heat-generating mixture and to a method and a device for heat generation, especially for heating foodstuffs such as water, coffee, instant meals, etc.

Heat generation by the thermite process is known per se in traditional welding technology. However, thermite cannot be used in heat generation for foodstuffs because it forms a molten ball that can lead to mechanical instability to the point of melting through the casing of the device for heat generation.

U.S. Pat. No. 6,267,110 B1 discloses a disposable heating unit for a food container. As the heat-generating mixture, the device disclosed in this document also contains components that react together spontaneously at room temperature when they are brought into contact with one another, at least one of these components being in liquid form.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

The object of the present invention was therefore to provide heat-generating mixtures that overcome the disadvantages of the state of the art.

The solution according to the invention provides a heat-generating mixture containing one or more of the constituents metal silicide, iron oxide and silicon, optionally together with additives and processing aids such as silicon dioxide or water glass. The heat-generating mixture according to the invention is accommodated in a device which contains, in and/or on a casing, inter alia in addition to the substance to be heated, a booster charge and an igniter capable of being actuated mechanically or electrically, preferably piezoelectrically. The casing can be made of metal and/or plastic. If necessary, in the heat generation according to the invention, the booster charge is ignited by the igniter and in turn reliably and uniformly ignites the heat-generating mixture according to the invention. In a suitable mechanical casing, the slow and smoke-free combustion of the heat-generating mixture heats e.g. water. The thermomechanical stresses on the casing are markedly reduced because, on burning, a desirable non-melting, porous slag is formed in which the beads of iron cannot combine to form a molten ball. The temperature and the time taken to reach the maximum temperature can be controlled by way of the formulation, the amount of mixture used, the amount of water and/or the type of mechanical casing. Thus, for example, 25 g of the mixture according to the invention heat 125 ml of water from 20° C. to 98° C. within 60 seconds in a suitable apparatus.

Only solids that do not react with one another at room temperature are used in the heat-generating mixture according to the invention, in the associated booster charge and in the igniting mixture. The heat-generating mixture used according to the invention is e.g. a mixture containing 40 to 55 wt. % of metal silicide, preferably calcium silicide and/or iron silicide, 40 to 60 wt. % of iron(III) oxide, 0 to 10 wt. % of silicon, and additives and processing aids such as silicon dioxide or water glass. The booster charge for the heat-generating mixture can consist e.g. of mixtures containing light metals such as titanium, magnesium and/or aluminium, and metal silicides such as calcium silicide and/or iron silicide, iron oxide, silicon and additives, or other mixtures known from the state of the art. The igniters used for the booster charge are preferably anvil-shaped igniter caps that are capable of being actuated mechanically and are based on igniting mixtures free of lead and heavy metals. These are known from the state of the art and contain e.g. potassium dinitrobenzo-furoxanate or diazodinitrophenol, tetrazene, zinc peroxide, nitrocellulose, and additives such as powdered glass and titanium. The heat-generating mixtures according to the invention are prepared by methods known per se: the components are mixed in the indicated amounts and optionally compressed. The same applies to the igniting mixture and the booster charge.

The batch formulations are illustrated by the Examples below without thereby limiting the invention:

TABLE 1
Heat-generating mixture:
Example 1.1Example 1.2Content [wt. %]
Calcium silicideIron silicide40-55
Iron(III) oxideIron(III) oxide40-60
SiliconSilicon 0-10
Silicon dioxideSilicon dioxide0-5
Water glassWater glass 0-20

TABLE 2
Booster charge:
Example 2.1Example 2.2Content [wt. %]
MagnesiumTitanium10-30 
Calcium silicideCalcium silicide25-35 
SiliconSilicon0-10
Iron(III) oxideIron(III) oxide40-55 
Additives:Additives:
BinderBinder0-10
Silicon dioxideSilicon dioxide0-10
GraphiteGraphite0-10
Boron nitrideBoron nitride0-10

TABLE 3
Igniting mixture:
Example 3.1Example 3.2Content [wt. %]
Potassium dinitro-Diazodinitrophenol20-40 
benzofuroxanate
Zinc peroxideZinc peroxide20-40 
TetrazeneTetrazene0-10
TitaniumTitanium0-20
NitrocelluloseNitrocellulose0-40
Powdered glassPowdered glass0-20

The following compositions may be mentioned as preferred embodiments without thereby excluding other possible formulations:

Heat-generating mixture:iron silicide:48 wt. %
iron(III) oxide:50 wt. %
silicon: 2 wt. %
Booster charge:magnesium:20 wt. %
calcium silicide:30 wt. %
silicon: 3 wt. %
iron(III) oxide:47 wt. %
Igniting mixture:potassium dinitro-30 wt. %
benzofuroxanate:
zinc peroxide:25 wt. %
tetrazene: 5 wt. %
titanium: 5 wt. %
nitrocellulose:35 wt. %

The heat-generating mixture according to the invention can be used e.g. to prepare for consumption foodstuffs such as water, coffee, instant meals, etc., in a suitable device.