Title:
Safe energy-and water-independent building
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
A tall building provides thousands inhabitants with normal life and business conditions including autonomous sources of energy and water; shelters in the occurrence of natural or manmade disasters; and swift direct escape into the shelter from each office or apartment. The building consists of three coaxial towers, an external residence/business tower, a middle safety tower and a central energy tower. Two giant water basins are installed on top and under the building and the primary energy source is solar. There is a water and energy reserve in the form of basins with hydroelectric turbines in the central tower. The radial apartments and offices have external windows admitting daylight with internal armed doors. A spacious community shelter surrounds the internal and middle towers. The building is most effective at a height of about >200 m.



Inventors:
Dorfman, Benjamin F. (San Francisco, CA, US)
Application Number:
11/266314
Publication Date:
12/31/2009
Filing Date:
11/04/2005
Primary Class:
International Classes:
E04H14/00
View Patent Images:
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Primary Examiner:
HIJAZ, OMAR F
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Benjamin F. Dorfman (229, 19th Avenue, Apt, #9, San Francisco, CA, 94121, US)
Claims:
We claim:

1. 1-6. (canceled)

7. A large multi-story Building providing hundreds or thousands of inhabitants with a business office and/or apartments; said building comprising a safety shelter for escape in the occurrence of natural or manmade disasters whereby escape into said safety shelter from said office or apartment may be as quick as of about 3 seconds to about 3 minutes from the time of said disaster to the time the inhabitant reaches said safety shelter; said building further comprising autonomous sources of energy and water and said offices and/or apartments have windows admitting direct daylight access, said quick escape being accessible to the inhabitants on all floors of the building; said building comprising three coaxial towers including an external residences/businesses tower, a middle safety tower and a central energy tower, each of said three towers is at least 50 m in height above the ground, said external residences/businesses tower has the external wall with said windows admitting daylight to said offices and/or apartments, said external residences/businesses tower and said middle safety tower being divided by a wall built from concrete and having a thickness at least 500 mm; said quick escape for each inhabitant provided directly from each said office and/or apartment into said middle safety tower through armed doors in said wall dividing said residences/businesses tower and said middle safety tower; said autonomous sources of water provided by two large water basins installed one on the top and one on the bottom of said building, each of said water basins being at least 15 m in depth, said top water basin being supported by said wall between said external residences/businesses tower and said middle safety tower and by said central energy tower; said autonomous sources of energy including a primary energy supply and the second energy supply, said primary energy supply being solar photovoltaic batteries installed on the top of said building and optionally on the portion of walls of said building, said secondary energy supply provided with hydroelectric turbines installed inside of said energy tower.

8. The Building of claim 7, wherein each of said three towers is at least 200 m in height or higher above the ground.

9. The Building of claim 7, wherein said wall is built from concrete having a thickness of about 1000 mm or greater.

10. The Building of claim 7, wherein said water basins being at least about 50 m in depth and 100 m in diameter or greater.

11. The Building of claim 7, wherein each apartment or office in said building has separate individual extensions into the safety tower.

12. The Building of claims 11, wherein said individual extensions occupy from about ⅓ to ½ of the radial distance between the wall dividing said middle safety tower with said external residences/businesses tower and the wall of said central energy tower; wherein the remaining space of said middle safety tower is used as a sheltered community area for all the occupants of said building, said individual extensions have doors opening into the said community area.

13. The Building of claim 7, wherein said business offices include stores, said stores including food stores, department stores, medical services whereby the food, medicine and other reserves are stored in the respective safe extensions of said stores and services, said stores being accessible from said sheltered community area.

Description:

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to static structures, in particularly residence and/or business buildings incorporating energy system which integrates two or more physical principles of energy generation and storage wherein the primary energy source is the solar irradiation, especially solar photovoltaic cells. This invention particularly relates to such structures which are capable to provide a long term autonomous energy supply when solar energy is not available or is deficient. Equally, this invention relates to buildings which are capable for long term autonomous water supply for their inhabitants. Still equally, this invention relates to safe buildings providing their inhabitants with instant escape and safety in the occurrence of natural or manmade disasters.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The contemporary life conditions in both urban and rural areas experience persistently growing pressure over the world and particularly in this country. These complicating conditions include energy crisis causing skyrocketing fuel prices, terrorist attacks of catastrophic scale, and steady growing over the past 12 years giant ocean-atmospheric disturbances causing the most frequent in the recorded history hurricanes up to 4-5 categories with ruinous wind phenomena, including multiple tornados, and floods. None of these and other negative global tendencies may be considered as accidental events, but rather they reflect certain long-term dynamic trends in natural and social global environments. Government, society, and industries endeavor tremendous efforts and develop numerous approaches in response to those tendencies. However, the insulated solutions of every specific problem are proved to be not sufficiently effective, and the gap between new demands and state of art is continuously grows. This is particularly true with respect to urban life conditions, especially life conditions in large cities which were recently most protected but presently become most vulnerable to the various threatening occurrences.

These efforts for the most part were extensive mainly in autonomous energy systems. There are two major goals of these efforts: long-term energy storage and increasing of the energy conversion efficiency.

The two sources of energy combined, as well as optical concentration of the solar radiation used extensively to increase efficiency in various combinations: Smith (U.S. Pat. No. 4,391,100) and Arthur (U.S. Pat. No. 4,010,614) disclose systems for converting solar radiation into electricity that include a concentrator and a boiler for producing steam. Charlton (U.S. Pat. No. 4,326,012) discloses a building block, to be used in static structures such as walls and for converting solar radiation into electricity that include a concentrator and photovoltaic cells. Johnson (U.S. Pat. No. 6,080,927), Newman (U.S. Pat. No. 5,518,554), Stark (U.S. Pat. No. 4,249,516), Kelly (U.S. Pat. No. 4,191,164) and Bell (U.S. Pat. No. 4,002,031) disclose systems for converting solar radiation into electricity that include a concentrator and photovoltaic cells. Doe (U.S. Pat. No. 6,062,029) and Thompson (U.S. Pat. No. 4,401,103) disclose systems for concentrating solar radiation, and using the produced heat to evaporate a moving fluid. This fluid is then used to drive a steam-powered turbine coupled to an electric generator. Vanzo (U.S. Pat. No. 4,910,963) and Lindmayer (U.S. Pat. No. 4,149,903) disclose systems for directly converting solar radiation into electric current by means of photovoltaic cells. In a second phase, thermal energy is converted into electric energy by means of a steam-powered turbine coupled to an electric generator. Charlton (U.S. Pat. No. 6,434,942) discloses an integrated system for producing electricity in a static structure using electromagnetic radiation and the earth's gravitational field; this multi-stage system for energy generation comprises several elements connected together to form a loop within the self-supporting structure. Each of the foregoing U.S. patents is incorporated herein in its entirety by reference.

In spite of an impressive success in improving efficiency, the problem of accumulation and long-term storage of solar energy remains basically unresolved. One of the most advanced solution well known from the prior art represent the tall building structures with electrical power supply from photovoltaic solar batteries installed on the roof while accumulation of extra energy during the sunlight time provided with chemical batteries typically installed in basement of the building. The chemical batteries, however, cause various technical and economical problems which are also known from the prior art and are extensively discussed in professional literature.

The safety problem of regular urban buildings vs. natural and manmade impacts was not in the scope of major efforts in the past, and related patents are scarce. In his book The Wings of Creative Fantasy (1st Book Library, Bloomington, Ind., 1999) the inventor of the present patent suggested a few solutions for small buildings or towns protected against tornado, flood and avalanches; those solutions were suggested as projects for educational purposes, and he did not patent them intentionally. More recently, some alike architectural designs had been developed in the south-eastern states of the country subjected to Atlantic hurricanes. However, these technical innovations here incorporated by the references do not even approach the major static structures of contemporary cities.

For the reason stated above, there is significant need in a complex improvement in static urban structures, in particularly in design of large residence and business buildings addressing the growing vulnerability of the urban life to numerous and diversified threats.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

Further objects, features and advantages of the present invention will become apparent from a consideration of the following detailed description of the invention when read in conjunction with the following drawings:

FIG. 1 illustrates the well known from the prior art tall building here shown by the reference with electrical power supply from solar photovoltaic batteries installed on the roof while accumulation of extra energy during the sunlight time provided with chemical batteries typically installed in basement of the building. The chemical batteries, however, cause various technical and economical problems also known from the prior art and extensively described in professional literature.

FIG. 2 schematically shows the complimentary waterpower system replacing the chemical batteries accordingly to the simplest embodiment of the present invention. In this embodiment, the waterpower system provides energy accumulation on 24-hours basis only and installed nearby the building. The waterpower system comprises the water storage basins, one installed on the tall support, and the second basin on the level of ground or under the ground. The accumulation of extra energy during the sunlight time provided by pumping the water from the low basin to the high basin, and this energy released back upon the needs hydroelectrically by releasing the respective portion of accumulated water back to the low basin through the waterfall with hydro-electrical turbines installed in said waterfall. Although useful for certain industrial and some non-urban residencies applications, this simplest embodiment should not be recommended for cities due to its inherent limitation in energy accumulation and inconvenient architectural solution.

FIG. 3 schematically shows the complimentary waterpower system replacing the chemical batteries accordingly to more effective embodiment of the present invention. In this embodiment, the waterpower system provides energy accumulation for a prolonged period of time and separately installed nearby the building as shown on FIG. 2, but this waterpower system comprises very large water storage basins. This system may be employed predominantly for various industrial applications and certain non-urban residencies, but it cannot be recommended for cities due to the size of separate energy building and unavoidable distortion in the architectural landscape of the city.

FIG. 4 schematically shows the complimentary waterpower system replacing the chemical batteries accordingly to still more effective embodiment of the present invention. In this embodiment, the high capacity waterpower system integrated in the tall resident building. This embodiment allows effective architectural solutions feasible to virtually any city; however, the extra large size of the top basin represents structural challenge for the entire building, while the power system comprising waterfall and turbines necessitates an effective solution to satisfy the general conditions required for a residence environment. Preferred embodiments of the present invention effectively solving these challenging demands illustrated on the following figures.

FIG. 5 illustrates the complimentary waterpower system replacing the chemical batteries accordingly to still more effective embodiment of the present invention. In this embodiment, the high capacity waterpower system integrated in the tall resident building being constructed as an incorporated tower coaxial with the major building.

FIG. 6 illustrates the complimentary waterpower system replacing the chemical batteries accordingly to still more effective embodiment of the present invention. In this embodiment, the high capacity water storage system integrated in the tall resident building being constructed as an incorporated tower coaxial with the major building tower while supporting the top basin independently on the major building structure, and the waterfall-turbine hydroelectric system incorporated as the third tower coaxial with the major building tower and with tower supporting the top basin. Therefore, the residence area is completely insulated from the energy system. The space between the external residential area and the internal energy tower is free for public and business development, the entire building provided with an extraordinary strength, and its outer residential structure is not restrained in its architectural design. The following figures illustrate these and other advantages of such Triple Tower design of building accordingly to the present invention.

FIG. 7 shows the major dimensions for specific example of Triple Tower.

  • 1-Main tower—residences and businesses
  • 2-Safety tower
  • 3-Energy tower
  • 4-Top water basin—energy and water reserve
  • 5-Bottom water basin—receiver
  • 6-Main Solar PV battery system
  • 7-Recreation and art area—park, restaurants, scenic views, galleries and the artists' shops
  • 8-Atmospheric water collector

FIG. 8 shows the major dimensions for another specific example of Triple Tower differentiated in the shape and capacity of the top basin.

The numbers on FIG. 8 should be understood similarly to FIG. 7.

FIG. 9 illustrates the floor plan of Triple Tower.

The details are shown on FIG. 9.

FIG. 10 illustrates an example of underground construction of the disclosed Triple Tower structure with life supporting facilities and super-safe escape for residents in the case of natural or manmade disaster of extraordinary force.

FIG. 11 illustrates another example of underground construction of Triple Tower differentiated by the extra large underground water storage.

FIG. 12 illustrates an example of structural design of the top of the building. The glazed circle walls (three cut cylinders) supporting solar photovoltaic batteries system are rotating following the sun position in the sky and providing the maximum angle of the incident light with respect to the plane of solar batteries.

FIG. 13 illustrates an example of roof structure and support of the cap over the top basin.

FIG. 14 illustrates a general structure of Triple Tower building accordingly to the present invention. The details are shown on FIG. 14.

FIG. 15 illustrates the cross-sectional plan of safe building wherein the bottom portion of the building insulated from the rest of the entire insulated interior and used as storage space for the atmospheric exhaust:

  • 1-Business floors, Section A, 2-Section of the safety tower designated for air exhaust collection in the case of a prolonged self-insulation of the building 3-Business floors, Section B, 4-Residence floors, 5-Business floors, Section C 6-Business floors, Section D (the only indirect escape is available in the case of sudden alarming occurrence in this section)

FIG. 16 shows the luminescent blinds providing additional illumination to the interior of the building and thus saving the energy. The luminescent blinds turned with their luminescent side outward during the light time of the day, and they are automatically turning their luminescent side inward, i.e. into the interior of the building when the sunlight or other major source of illumination decreases below pre-determined level.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

As it shown on FIGS. 6 to 14, the invented edifice consists of three tall coaxial structures, said structures in the most preferable embodiments are cylindrical towers:

    • 1-The external, or main tower-residences and businesses
    • 2-The safety tower. The wall of safety tower built of very thick (in specifically described example in this invention—1000-mm thick) cast armed concrete and additionally reinforced with stiffening ribs.
    • 3-The central energy tower
    • Besides of these main vertical structures, the edifice includes
    • 4-Top water basin—energy and water reserve
    • 5-Bottom water basin—receiver
    • 6-Main Solar electric systems (also called photovoltaic or PV systems) on the top and optionally on the portion of south walls.
    • In addition to these major components, the structure may include:
    • 7-Community general area and recreation and art area—park, restaurants, scenic views, galleries and the artists' shops in the safety tower and on the top of building
    • 8-Atmospheric water collector.

The sizes of the structure shown on FIGS. 7, 8 correspond to the scale providing highly safe, convenient and economically sound solution to achieve the above marked goal. Increasing the structure sizes would even improve final economic factors and especially the energy reserve per capita while not sacrificing the safety; however, the required initial investments will increase progressively.

Decreasing the structure sizes would increase the cost per capita and decrease the energy reserve per capita.

In concept, if the linear sizes of structure are changing proportionally on factor “k”, the useful space would change in proportion to k3, while the stored energy would change in proportion to k4.

While economically sound solutions predominantly correspond to the building height of about or higher than ˜100 m, and the most economic solution correspond to the building height of about or higher than ˜200 m, it is reasonably to suggest that the utmost minimum practical height of the building is about 20 m, although careful technical and economic consideration of specific cases may essentially increase or decrease this value for specific climate zones and environment (landscape, availability of water and external energy supply, urbane or rural location, etc.).

On the other hand, variation in design of the same scale is possible. Two versions shown on FIG. 7 and FIG. 8 are different in shape of the respective top reservoirs: cylindrical vs. truncated cone. The bowl-like truncated cone stores up to 29% more water and almost in same proportion more energy (more precise, 30% more energy; this matching of gains in water volume and stored energy is due to specific designs shown on FIG. 1 and FIG. 2). Practically, the difference between two shown designs is the safety condition for the top 50-m tall portion of the building: in cylindrical case, the instant escape is not provided for this portion, while in conical case it is partially provided with the price of some portion of available living/business/recreational space.

Specifically described design shown on the FIGS. 7-14 designated for maximum safety. Indeed, the safety tower with a thinner wall may be built. For instance, the 500-mm thick wall design would safe less than 10% of additional cost, and it will be sufficient for most emergency circumstances; but it will strongly sacrifice the safety in catastrophic emergency cases.

In any case, every residence apartment and every business of the main 200-m tall portion of the building as shown on FIGS. 7-14 has its own independent entry into the safety tower through 1-m long passage possessing double armed emergency doors from both sides: from apartment/business interior and from the safety tower interior.

NOTE: The emergency doors are normally open.

Every residence apartment and every business of the main 200-m tall portion of the building has also its own extension inside of the safety tower. In normal situations, the occupants of both apartments and businesses are entering through their respective extensions with a regular outside door and through normally open passages in the wall of safety tower separated extension from main apartment.

In emergency situations, the occupants of both apartments and businesses escape to their respective extensions and close the emergency doors in the wall of safety tower, or these doors are automatically closed when the main (external) part of apartment or office is evacuated. From this moment the habitants are safe, their extensions provide them living space and conditions during the entire duration of emergency, while the community area of safety tower continues its normal social functions.

The Additional Cost for Construction Steel Supporting the Water Basin

The estimate of additional cost for construction steel supporting the water basin is provided below. Although this estimate may be considered as a rough preliminary approximation only, it is conducted with careful consideration of all the major components of an extra cost of the structure and taking into account the possibility of extra material consuming, as well as the world trends in the prices for respective materials.

Consider 300% safety margin for steel, e.g. ⅓σ0.2. Low-alloyed construction steel typically employed for industrial buildings characterized with σ0.2=˜600-750 MPa (This is tensile strength. Compressive strength is usually higher) [Construction Materials, Moscow, 1990, in Russian-here incorporated by references]. Thus, this invention suggests 200 MPa for maximum compressive load of steel frame that is equal to 50 mm2 cross-section of steel frame per 1.0 m3 of stored water. Hence, the 100-m wide (in diameter) and 50-m high cylindrical water basin storing up to 392,500 m3 water maximum requires 19.6 m2 of combined cross-section of steel columns.

Assuming the given height of columns 200 m above the ground and doubling the steel volume taking into consideration the entire frame structure (cross-column beams, supporting frame under basin, part of the columns continuing through the basin height and under ground, etc.), one would find the volume of the required steel 7,840 m3, e.g. of about 60,000 tones. The cost of steel: recently, the prices for steel had been raised up to 66% due to dramatic jump of China consumption and for other reasons. The prices for steel products for construction purposes in the moment of this invention description, end of October, 2004, were about $420/metric tone. There are, however, and stabilizing factors as show the world economic reports. Considering price $500/t, one would estimate the additional cost of steel for the invented building of about $30,000,000.

Indeed, this additional price is should be divided in some proportion taking into consideration that the central tower will carry essential load for the major building and will essentially reinforce the entire building structure (comprising residence apartments' and business' floors as well as the central tower).

The Additional Cost of Concrete

Compressive strength of concrete may be varied from 42.5 MPa in the case of poor technology up to 100 MPa or possibly higher in the case of the proper technology. Conservatively assuming the real compressive strength of concrete of about 60 MPa and effective compressive strength of the concrete wall with ability standing alone to withstand the water basin with 500% safety margin (taking into account the low fracture toughness of concrete and its relatively low uniformity), one would find the cross section of about 327 m2 of concrete wall in cylindrical tower. Considering the tower with 100-m outside diameter, one would find the wall thickness of about 1 m and the total volume of the vertical wall extending up to the apex of the top basin and down to the bottom of the low basin, e.g. 300 m, about 32,700 m3, e.g. of about 76,500 tones, and the required cement amount ˜11,400 tones (typical construction concrete contains 350 kg cement/m3 and has density 2.34 t/m3; we neglect the cost of water and aggregate). Assuming further the volume of concrete in vertical walls of about 60% of total amount of concrete in central tower (the rest—for energy tower, floors of the basins, etc.), one would find the total amount of cement ˜19,000 metric tones. The price for concrete was $78.14 per tone as for Oct. 29, 2004, and additional cost of concrete for central towers and basin would be $14,900,000.

The thickness of the vertical cast concrete wall would be about 100 cm being additionally reinforced with stiffening ribs. The cast armed and reinforced concrete wall of this thickness is able to withstand relatively strong attack with conventional weapon or direct impact of a large airplane.

The Living Space

200-m tall building with 50% of the height designated for apartments would have 25 floors of residences with average occupancy 40 apartments per floor, and about 25 floors of businesses.

The floor plans shown as an example on FIG. 9, suggests the 30-m wide ring with internal diameter of about 100 m (we neglect the wall thickness in this estimate) and external diameter of about 160 m, e.g. ˜12,250 m2 per floor, and assuming 80% of the floor area is the living space (apartments), the average area of apartment would be estimated as 245 m2 to (˜2600 sq ft)+extension area of about 100 m2 to (˜1070 sq. ft).

Escape

The interior of the central tower has the same floors' levels as the main building, and every apartment and every business has individual emergency door into the tower.

Besides of water and energy reserved in tower, the food stores and department stores located in the building have the storages space in the tower.

The tower is also equipped with community convenience (toilets, washing facilities, etc).

This will provide all the necessary means for life during relatively long period of time in the case of catastrophic natural or manmade disaster.

Energy

Considering the average height of the water center mass in cylindrical basin shown on FIG. 7 of about 25 m and the low level turbines location 25-m deep underground (the cascade turbines may be considered for maximum efficiency), e.g. 250 m effective height of water fall, one would estimate the maximum stored energy 9.8·1011 J.

Consider further the □t=80% efficiency of stored energy-to-electricity conversion, including efficiency of use of falling water, efficiency of turbines, etc. As a general guideline, one can expect a one family home-sized system generating direct AC power to operate at about 60%-70% “water-to-wire” efficiency (measured between turbine input and generator output). Larger utility systems offer much better efficiencies. (See for example, Canyon Hydro official website here incorporated by reference), one would find the active maximum of accumulated energy of about ˜0.8 TJ or ˜2.2-105 kWh.

Assuming further that the night consumers are predominantly residents, restaurants, medical services and only small portions of business, and the residents consume in average of about 1.0 kW per family over 16 hours of mainly passive PV battery time, the total number of apartments is 1000, and the combined resident consumption in that time is about 80% of total energy consumption during this time, one would find that the required energy consumption during not active PV battery time is about 20,000 kWh daily, e.g. the regularly used night reserve of energy is about 9% of the active maximum of accumulated energy in edifice providing apartments for 1,000 families as well as a few hundred businesses working in sunlight time and certain number of not industrial businesses working at night time, predominantly stores, services and entertainments.

On the other hand, assuming energy efficiency of pumping of about ηp=90%, one would find the required amount of energy is 20,000 kWh/(ηt·ηp)=˜2.78 104 kWh for daily refill (or 10,8·1011 J=˜3 105 kWh for complete refill of basin after catastrophic occurrence). Assuming further that the combined hourly power consumption during sunlight time is equal to ˜60% of the night consumption, one would find that total required power supply during the sunlight time is ˜3.6·104 kWh.

Assuming the average available factor “provided energy/installed solar PV battery power” is 1800 kWh/kW per year or 4.93 kWh/kW per day (California; See official Government booklet Solar electric systems, which are also called photovoltaic or PV systems, also available on the WEB; here incorporated by reference), one would find the required installed power as ˜7.3 MW.

Currently, 16% efficiency PV battery commercially available (See official Government booklet Solar electric systems, which are also called photovoltaic or PV systems, also available on the WEB; here incorporated by reference). However, efficiency of the solar PV battery increased in order of magnitude over the years, 30% efficient PV battery had been already experimentally demonstrated, about 50% efficiency is estimated maximum for single-junction/single crystal silicon batteries, and essentially higher for multi-junction batteries (See for example here incorporated by References: 1. G. S. Kinsey, R. R. King, K. M. Edmondson, et al., “Ultra Triple-Junction High-Efficiency Solar Cells,” IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine, March 2003, Vol 18, No. 3, 8-10. 2. M. A. Stan, D. J. Aiken, P. R. Sharps, et al, “27.5% Efficiency InGaP/InGaAs/Ge Advanced Triple Junction (ATJ) Space Solar Cells for High Volume Manufacturing,” Proc. of the 29th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, May 2002, New Orleans. 3. R. R. King, C. M. Fetzer, P. C. Colter, et al., “High-Efficiency Space and Terrestrial Multijunction Solar Cells Through Bandgap Control in Cell Structures,” Proc. of the 29th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, May 2002, New Orleans). Assuming realistically and conservatively 20% batteries' efficiency for prospective building, e.g. 5.95 m2/kW PV battery, one would find ˜43,435 sq m of installed solar system required.

The shown roof area (including the central tower and residence/business part of the building) is ˜20,000 m2, and the maximum energy output of horizontally installed 20%-efficient solar PV battery would be about 3.4 MW. At 45° inclination (slope) 28 400 sq m, and its maximum energy output of installed 20%-efficient solar PV battery would be about 4.8 MW. A reasonable 7-meter wide extension of the roof round the building would provide of about 740 sq m. increasing the total energy output up to 4.92 MW. Additional batteries for the rest required 2.42 MW should be installed on the external south walls and windows of the building. This would require about 15,000 m2 or less than 37% of available area of 120° south-oriented sector of the external wall.

Currently, the cost of large PV battery system and its installation is about or less than $6/W, e.g. 7.3 MW solar PV battery system would cost $43,800,000 or less. This price, however, is decreasing progressively over the years. Thus, the total additional cost of solar PV battery, steel and cement will be up to about $30,000,000+$14,900,000+$43,800,000=˜$90,000,000. Assuming further that the total construction cost of safety and energy towers, and top and bottom basins will be triple as high as the cost of the major construction materials, one would find the total additional cost of about ˜$180,000,000. It should be pointed, however, that the internal towers provide simultaneously the main construction support for the entire building structure, and the actual additional cost will be essentially lower. The progress in solar PV battery technology will eventually decrease this amount.

Assuming that the residents will pay off 30% of additional cost, and the businesses the balance 70% and using the most careful estimate of additional cost (in considered case $180,000,000), one would find additional cost for solar batteries and construction materials of about $50,000 per luxury apartment with average main living area over 2500 sq ft+extension area over 1000 sq ft with the current average market value above $500,000 to over $1.000,000, depending on geographic area, e.g. additional cost not exceeding 10% of market value. Similar estimate would be correct for business space. In addition and accordance to another embodiment of the present invention, the walls supporting solar photovoltaic system and said photovoltaic system itself are rotating following the sun position in the sky thus providing the maximum angle of the incident light with respect to the plane of solar photovoltaic system. As it is schematically illustrated on FIG. 12, the glazed circle walls (three cut cylinders) surrounding the top interior of the tower and supporting solar batteries system are rotating following the sun position in the sky.

Emergency State

Emergency state of non-catastrophic nature (the solar batteries function is reparably interrupted while the long energy blackout occurred in city due to earthquake up to about 7 balls by Richter or other not catastrophic occurrence) with the emergency state expectation not exceeding one week. There is no need for dramatic change of the normal life condition, but it is recommended to reduce energy consumption up to 30% of normal level during entire period of emergency circumstance and during about a half of this period of time after that. For instance, during one week of the emergency state 21% of the water resource will be consumed, and this amount will refilled during the following three days.

Emergency state of catastrophic nature with hardly predictable emergency state duration and strong damage of the solar PV battery system. Energy consumption decreased to 200 W/family. Luminescence light should be used preferably, as well as the emergency 50 W refrigerators. Businesses are working during the daylight time only (except of medical emergency services and business which do not require power supply except of regular light). Hence, the energy consumption will be about 5,000 kWh daily for all residences and up to about 7,000 kWh daily total. In concept, it allows surviving up to 2.2·105 kWh/7·103 kWh=31 day, e.g. the internal energy reserve is sufficient for one month of insulation during the catastrophic disaster with prolonged sequences. In the case of truncated conical basin design, water and energy resources are of about 30% higher.

“Bad Weather” Conditions

In concept, the tower-town system is able to provide energy for its habitants over one week (in the truncated conical basin case about 10 days) without refilling the energy/water reservoir. However, emptying the reservoir below 50% of its maximum capacity would sacrifice the safety. There is no need for any regulatory measure in energy consumption if the bad weather forecast does not exceeds three days in row. In a longer bad meteorological forecast cases, the regulatory measure limiting energy consumption correspondingly to sunlight conditions during the bad weather period and up to the same period (but not exceeding this period) of time afterwards may be required.

It is worth to be mentioned that bad weather, especially long bad weather usually corresponds to intensive precipitations and this would provide some additional source of energy. For instance, normal yearly precipitation over the 30-years period of time is 22″ for San Francisco and 46″(±3.5″, depending on specific area) for New York city area. [Am. Meteorological Soc. Global Report, D. H. Levinson and A. M. Waple, Eds., June 2004, here incorporated by references]. The collecting area (roof area of the building) is equal to about 2.6 basin areas, and these values corresponds respectively ˜145 cm of water height in shown sample basin in SF area and ˜300 cm in NY city area. In spite these values of precipitation are relatively small (with respect to 500 cm of water height daily used), it should be pointed that precipitation is not distributed evenly over the years but rather concentrated in the days with the worst conditions for solar PV battery, and during the time of energy saving economy those precipitation values are equal to a few days of energy consumption yearly.

Life in Safety Tower During Prolonged Critical Emergency

The invented safety structure is able to provide to its habitants long escape even during catastrophic disaster when outside environment became extremely hostile, as after massive biological, and or chemical, and or radiological attacks.

Air

In the provided example, the entire volume of air in the safety tower (including energy tower) is about 1,500,000 m3. Assuming that the actual number of people residing in the building in any moment typically does not exceed 5,000, it is equal to about 63 m3 of pure oxygen per person. Assuming that people are relatively comfortable at the oxygen depletion up to about 0.8 of its normal content in air, one would find that the value of really available oxygen is about 12.6 m3 of pure oxygen per person. Assuming next the standard recommended 2000. Cal diet and standard value 4.86 Cal per liter of consumed oxygen, one would find the required amount of about ˜411 liter/24 hours of pure oxygen per individual. Alternatively, assuming typical inspiration of ˜5 liter of air per minute, and typical content of oxygen ˜16% in expired air (vs. 20.93% in normal air), one would find this estimate of about 360 liter/24 hours of pure oxygen per individual. Assuming the larger value for the further estimate, one would find this volume of available oxygen would be sufficient to support acceptable life conditions over 31 days period (accidentally, this number exactly corresponds to the above made energy estimate). In less comfortable conditions of prolonged catastrophic situation this period may be extended at least on 50%.

Hence, in completely insulated situation and without any special air regeneration system, the tower may provide acceptable air amount during period up to one month in relatively comfortable conditions and up to 6 weeks in the conditions of surviving for 5,000 habitants.

Cleaning and Refreshing the Air

The air regeneration problem in a closed space is understood in this patent disclosure as a complex technical task consisting of the following four components: cleaning of the air from solid particles, organic molecules and microorganisms separation of the waste gases (mainly carbon dioxide) exhaust (i.e. removing the waste gases, especially carbon dioxide) supply of fresh oxygen.

Although various conservative supplemental technical means may be considered (ventilation through long underground pipes, emergency oxygen tanks stored in tower, and even electrolysis of water), due to different reasons each of them may be problematic for large population during long time. However, even in the conditions of extreme energy economy, the air should be cleaned from bacteria and smell. The innate ventilation and cleaning system in the invented structure is realized by the energy tower during energy generation: water fall is a natural air pump, air cleaner and air cooler simultaneously. Water disinfection and air drying should not provide essential problems. However, the clean water may absorb only small portion of carbon dioxide emitting by 10,000 people. But in extremely emergency situation chemical additives to the water fall may be acceptable. Thus, in the normal life conditions the energy tower serves as “the heart and blood” of the tower-town, in extreme conditions it became also its “lungs’.

In this paragraph below, certain data known from the prior art are incorporated by reference solely for illustration of certain technical means which may be used for realization of certain below disclosed specific additional features and additional embodiment of the present invention. None of these reference data has any relation to the essence of the present invention or contains any information with regard to the essence of below described embodiment of the present invention.

Effective realization of two first of the above listed four technical components of the air regeneration problem may be conducted based on nano-structured materials well known over a half of century, i.e. so called “molecular sieves” or zeolites. Although the artificially and natural zeolites are under so long continuous development, it is only recent development brought to the market highly effective, productive and low-energy consuming air separation and oxygen generation zeolite-based systems. Accordingly to official data by Oxygen Generating Systems, Intl. here incorporated by references, there are such highly effective oxygen generators available on market as a line of Multi-Ton Oxygen Generators with outputs from 1250 to 5000 SCFH (32 to 131 Nm3/hour) which can supply oxygen for as little as 3 KW/100 SCF while virtually not requiring the maintenance. Still, even the most effective gas purification/separation system taking itself is not able to solve the above marked components 3 and 4 of the air regeneration problem.

The active air regeneration described below is able to dramatically improve the atmospheric environment in conditions of a forced self-insulation of the disclosed building; it also capable to extend the maximum available duration of safe insulated escape in the invented building during disaster of extraordinary scale.

Accordingly to another embodiment of the present invention schematically illustrated on FIG. 15, the portion of building, preferably the bottom portion encompassing from 5% to 33% of volume of the entire interior insulated from the external tower and open-air environment in the case of prolonged disastrous circumstances, may be insulted inside of said insulated interior from the rest of said insulated interior, said internally insulated portion of said insulated interior made vacant from the occupants, the habitants of said building occupy solely the rest portion of said entire insulated interior, the gas cleaning and separation system directs the exhaust, primarily the carbon dioxide and other waste components of the atmosphere into said internally insulated portion of said entire insulated interior, said internally insulated portion of said entire insulated interior used as storage space for the atmospheric exhaust.

Water

With reasonably limited water consumption for general use but without any limitation for drinking water and food preparation, water supply during this period of time should not present any problems and will not demand essential sacrifice for energy generation.

Light

Besides common energy saving measures, such as electrical luminescent light, reflection pipes widely used today in common dwellings, etc., some advanced technology may be considered for prospective buildings. Also fiber optics combined with the images on screens may provide the virtual windows in the outside world during a forced insulation of the inhabitants in the time of catastrophic disaster.

In this paragraph below, certain data known from prior art are incorporated by reference solely for illustration of certain technical means which may be used for realization of certain below disclosed specific additional features and additional embodiment of the present invention. None of these reference data has any relation to the essence of the present invention or contains any information with regard to the essence of below described embodiment of the present invention. The phosphoro-luminescence is widely found in nature (plankton and numerous animals in ocean, as well as on the land). Technology makes eventual progress in developing effective artificial “phosphores”. Although specific brightness on square area of phosphoro-luminescence is relatively weak yet, the effective integral brightness emitting by large surface may be significant. Commercially available phosphoro-luminophores painted on the walls would provide sufficient light during the hours after irradiation by normal light. [Currently, strontium aluminate photoluminescent paint is widely available, durable, UV-resistant, and is able to emit relatively bright yellow-green light (immediately after irradiation 340 mcd/sq m) during up to 8 hours after even 30 minutes of irradiation by sunlight. Specific data for most recent development and commercially available photoluminescent products may be found in recent publications, such as 1. Afterglow Phosphorescence from Long Duration Phosphor. Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters-September 2002-Volume 5, Issue 9, pp. H17-H19, and the companies website, such as 2. Visionglow Global limited, here incorporated by references].

Accordingly to another embodiment of the present invention, the phosphoro-luminescent paint applied to the movable fixtures, said fixtures oriented ‘outwards’, i.e. to the major light source, such as daylight, when it is actively available, and reoriented “inward” to the interior when said major light source, such as daylight, becomes not sufficient for the interior illumination, in particular, luminescent blinds installed on the window of said external tower, said blinds turned with their luminescent side outward during the light time of the day, said blinds turned with their luminescent side inward, i.e. into the interior of the building when the sunlight decreases below pre-determined level.

Also accordingly to this disclosure, the phosphoro-luminescent paint applied to the various fixtures automatically acquiring a proper orientation ‘outwards’, i.e. to the major light source, when it is actively available, and reorienting this orientation “inward” to the interior would essentially reduce energy consumption in the disclosed building. One possible solution is shown on FIG. 16. About 10 square meters of painted surface is sufficient for comfortable and uniform general illumination of a spacey room. From the point of economical consideration, it is important to note that although the price is still relatively high, it is decreasing and apparently will be decreased even stronger in response to the mass standard orders. Food. Food reserves are normally stored in in-tower extensions of food shops and restaurants.

Preferable General Plan of the Edifice

There are essential arguments suggesting preferable locations of residences and various enterprises on specifically and respectably selected levels of edifice: The air environment during complete insulation in safety tower in extreme emergency circumstances: the overheated exhaust will naturally lift up and then pump into the energy tower where it will be cleaned and return to the residential lower levels of edifice. However, location on the lowest levels would not be recommended due to possible concentration of extra carbon oxide in the catastrophic insulation period (the ratio of densities of carbon dioxide to air is about 3:2) and above described embodiment disclosing the use of internally insulated portion of the entire insulated interior as storage space for the atmospheric exhaust. Due to the same consideration, life supporting businesses, such as restaurants, medical offices, food stores, etc. should be located above certain predetermined level of the building.

The other points of consideration for general planning suggesting that most of life supporting businesses, as well as some other particularly important businesses offices should be located on the top floors of the building: Psychological environment: people would feel safer on the lower levels in extreme emergency circumstances. To safe energy in extreme emergency circumstances, better to use water on the lower levels Convenience of internal communications when access to elevators is strongly limited. When the state of extreme emergency finished, evacuation will be simpler and faster.