Title:
HEAT EXCHANGER WITH VARIABLE HEAT TRANSFER PROPERTIES
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
A heat exchanger is designed with variable heat transfer properties. The apparatus may include provisions for altering or varying the heat exchange characteristics of a heat exchanger by using one or more movable members that are connected to the inner surface of a heat exchange conduit to impede flow. The movable members may be positioned in a number of desired positions depending on the heat transfer rate needed.



Inventors:
Martin, James Scott (Columbus, OH, US)
Application Number:
12/043997
Publication Date:
09/10/2009
Filing Date:
03/07/2008
Primary Class:
International Classes:
F28F5/00
View Patent Images:
Related US Applications:
20070240866FOLDING BAKING RACKOctober, 2007Von Feldt et al.
20080111100USE OF LOW GWP REFRIGERANTS COMPRISING CF3I WITH STABLE LUBRICANTSMay, 2008Thomas et al.
20080011466MICRO-CYCLE ENERGY TRANSFER SYSTEMS AND METHODSJanuary, 2008Albers et al.
20040250983Leakage monitoring of air conditioning systemsDecember, 2004Arndt et al.
20090064411OPERATIONAL CONTROL SCHEMES FOR VENTILATED SEAT OR BED ASSEMBLIESMarch, 2009Marquette et al.
20080210410HEAT EXCHANGER, IN PARTICULAR OIL COOLERSeptember, 2008Kalbacher et al.
20070163756Closed-loop latent heat cooling method and capillary force or non-nozzle module thereofJuly, 2007Wang et al.
20080254732Actuating Device and Heating or Air Conditioning UnitOctober, 2008Voigt et al.
20080314550Periodic Regenerative Heat ExchangerDecember, 2008Greco
20090087707Preheating heat exchanger for a fuel cellApril, 2009Indersie et al.
20080251234REGENERATOR WHEEL APPARATUSOctober, 2008Wilson et al.



Foreign References:
JPS6086389A1985-05-15
JPH07243738A1995-09-19
JPH0367997A1991-03-22
WO2000014408A12000-03-16
DE4036587A11992-05-21
JPH0448194A1992-02-18
JP2000349482A2000-12-15
SU964415A11982-10-07
JP2002141164A2002-05-17
JP2001057493A2001-02-27
JPH08330488A1996-12-13
JP2005026473A2005-01-27
JPH08330886A1996-12-13
Primary Examiner:
FORD, JOHN K
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
PLUMSEA LAW GROUP, LLC (6710A Rockledge Drive SUITE 400, BETHESDA, MD, 20817, US)
Claims:
What is claimed is:

1. A heat exchanger comprising: a conduit defining an interior surface and an exterior surface; said interior surface configured to contain a first fluid; said exterior surface adapted to be in contact with a second fluid; a movable member attached to said interior surface of said conduit for acting on the first fluid; and a control system operably coupled to said movable member and altering a heat transfer characteristic of said heat exchanger by moving said movable member.

2. The heat exchanger according to claim 1, wherein said control system comprises: an electronic control unit exterior to said conduit to determine a desired heat transfer rate and to move said movable member.

3. The heat exchanger according to claim 2, wherein said control system further comprises: an electromagnet exterior to said conduit and adjacent to said movable member; said electronic control unit operably connected to said electromagnet; and said electromagnet responding to the desired heat transfer rate and in magnetic communication with said movable member through said conduit to move said movable member.

4. The heat exchanger according to claim 3, wherein said movable member comprises: a permanent magnet moving in response to a magnetic field created by said electromagnet.

5. A heat exchanger comprising: a conduit defining an interior surface and an exterior surface; said interior surface configured to contain a first fluid; said exterior surface adapted to be in contact with a second fluid; multiple movable members attached to said interior surface of said conduit for acting on the first fluid; and an electromagnetic control system operably coupled to said movable members and altering a desired heat transfer rate between said interior surface of said conduit and said exterior surface of said conduit by moving said multiple movable members.

6. The heat exchanger of claim 5, comprising: said multiple movable members organized into multiple units; each of said multiple units comprised of at least one movable member.

7. The heat exchanger of claim 6, wherein said electromagnetic control unit independently moves said each of said multiple units to achieve the desired heat transfer rate between said interior of said conduit and said exterior of said conduit.

8. A heat exchanger comprising: a conduit defining an interior surface and an exterior surface; said interior surface configured to contain a first fluid; said exterior surface adapted to be in contact with a second fluid; a stationary member connected to said interior surface of said conduit and angled in a downstream direction to impede flow of the first fluid through said conduit. a movable member attached to said interior surface of said conduit for acting on the first fluid; and an electromagnetic control system operably coupled to said movable member and controlling a flow characteristic of the first fluid.

9. The heat exchanger according to claim 8, wherein said movable member is movable from a retracted position, in which said movable member is proximal to said interior surface of said conduit, to a distal position, in which a portion of said movable member is distal from said interior surface of said conduit.

10. The heat exchanger according to claim 9, wherein said movable member is movable to a desired position between the retracted position and the distal position.

11. A heat exchange system comprising: a heat exchanger; a device that heats fluid as a byproduct of use; a first conduit fluidly connecting an outlet of said device to an inlet of said heat exchanger; a second conduit fluidly connecting an outlet of said heat exchanger to an inlet of said device; and wherein said heat exchanger comprises: a third conduit defining an interior surface and an exterior surface; said interior surface configured to contain a first fluid; said exterior surface adapted to be in contact with a second fluid; a movable member attached to said interior surface of said third conduit for acting on the first fluid; and a control system operably coupled to said movable member and altering a heat transfer characteristic of said heat exchanger by moving said movable member.

12. The heat exchange system according to claim 11, wherein said control system comprises: a sensor in communication with said device to detect a thermodynamic property of one of said first fluid or said device.

13. The heat exchange system according to claim 12, wherein said control system further comprises: an electronic control unit exterior to said conduit; and said electronic control unit in communication with said sensor and responding to said thermodynamic property by determining a desired heat transfer rate.

14. The heat exchange system according to claim 13, wherein said control system further comprises: an electromagnet exterior to said conduit and adjacent to said movable member; said electronic control unit operably connected to said electromagnet to move said movable member; and said electromagnet responding to the desired heat transfer rate and in magnetic communication with said movable member through said conduit to move said movable member.

15. The heat exchange system according to claim 14, wherein said movable member comprises: a permanent magnet moving in response to a magnetic field created by said electromagnet.

16. The heat exchange system according to claim 15, wherein said thermodynamic property is temperature.

17. The heat exchanger according to claim 1, further comprising at least one stationary member connected to said interior surface of said conduit.

18. The heat exchanger according to claim 17, wherein said at least one stationary member is angled in a downstream direction to impede flow of the first fluid through said conduit.

19. The heat exchanger according to claim 1, wherein said movable member is attached to said interior surface of said conduit through a hinge.

20. The heat exchanger according to claim 1, further comprising a stop to limit movement of said movable member.

21. The heat exchanger according to claim 9, wherein said movable member is located within a recess within said conduit when said movable member is in the retracted position.

22. The heat exchanger according to claim 10, wherein said movable member is connected to an interior surface of said recess and moves from the retracted position to a desired position.

Description:

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

1. Field of the Invention

The present invention relates generally to a heat exchanger, and more specifically to a heat exchanger with variable heat transfer properties.

2. Description of Related Art

Various kinds of heat exchangers have been proposed. One example is U.S. patent publication 20070039721 to Murray. The Murray patent describes a heat exchanger that electromagnetically actuates and controls heat transfer by using electromagnets. One of the heat exchange fluids is a slurry consisting of tiny, highly conductive particles made of metal or metal oxides. When a signal is transmitted to an electromagnet by an amplifier, a magnetic field is created near the conduit wall. The particles in the fluid are attracted to the conduit wall resulting in increased heat transfer from the conduit wall to the particles and ultimately to the fluid.

Some heat exchangers include features that assist in the heat transfer process. One example is U.S. Pat. No. 6,241,467 to Zelesky et al. that teaches a cooled stator vane in a gas turbine engine. The vane is cooled by flowing cooling air through a passage inside the vane. Part of the passage is provided with stationary chevron shaped trip strips that angle in the direction of flow. The trip strips are used to increase convective heat transfer by creating vortices in the flow. In another example, U.S. Pat. No. 2,930,405 to Welsh teaches stationary fin members that extend longitudinally within a heat exchanger tube. The fin members improve heat transfer by increasing the surface area for heat transfer within the tube.

Therefore, there exists a need in the art for a heat exchanger with variable heat transfer properties that can be varied on demand, is easily controlled, and can reduce the number of components intruding into the fluid stream.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

A heat exchanger with variable heat transfer properties is disclosed.

In one aspect, the apparatus may include provisions for altering or varying the heat exchange characteristics of a heat exchanger by using one or more movable members that are connected to the inner surface of a heat exchange conduit.

In another aspect, the apparatus may include one or more stationary members to impede flow within the heat exchange conduit.

In another aspect, the stationary member free ends may be positioned downstream of the stationary member secured ends.

In another aspect, the movable members may be positioned in a number of desired positions depending on the heat transfer rate needed.

In another aspect, the desired position may include an extended position where the movable members may protrude into the flow path and impede flow inside the heat exchange conduit.

In another aspect, the desired position may be a distal position defined as the maximum extended position.

In another aspect, the desired position may include a retracted position, where the movable members minimally impede flow and are proximal to the portion of the heat exchange conduit inner surface that may be associated with the movable members.

In another aspect, the apparatus may include provisions for attaching and adjusting the movable members.

In another aspect, the apparatus may include provisions for impeding the range of motion of the movable members.

In another aspect, the apparatus may include a heat exchange system that includes a heat exchanger and a device that heats fluid as a byproduct of use.

In another aspect, the apparatus may include provisions for altering or varying the heat exchange characteristics of a heat exchanger at different sections of a heat exchange conduit.

In another aspect, the heat exchanger may include a casing conduit for directing the flow of a second fluid.

In another aspect, the heat exchanger may include a retracted movable member that resides within a recess in a heat exchanger conduit.

In another aspect, the heat exchanger may include movable members that translate or extend when moving from a retracted position to an extended position.

Other systems, methods, features and advantages of the invention will be, or will become, apparent to one of ordinary skill in the art upon examination of the following figures and detailed description. It is intended that all such additional systems, methods, features and advantages be included within this description and this summary, be within the scope of the invention, and be protected by the following claims.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The invention can be better understood with reference to the following drawings and description. The components in the figures are not necessarily to scale, emphasis instead being placed upon illustrating the principles of the invention. Moreover, in the figures, like reference numerals designate corresponding parts throughout the different views.

FIG. 1 is a schematic cut away diagram of a preferred embodiment of a heat exchanger;

FIG. 2 is a schematic cross-sectional view of a preferred embodiment of a heat exchanger with movable members in a retracted position;

FIG. 3 is a schematic cross-sectional view of a preferred embodiment of a heat exchanger with movable members in an extended position;

FIG. 4 is a preferred embodiment as shown in FIG. 2 including a diagram of a possible flow field;

FIG. 5 is a preferred embodiment as shown in FIG. 3 including a diagram of a possible flow field;

FIG. 6 is an enlarged schematic diagram of a preferred embodiment of a movable member;

FIG. 7 is a schematic diagram of a preferred embodiment of a heat exchange system including a heat exchanger and a device that heats fluid as a byproduct of use;

FIG. 8 is a schematic diagram of a preferred embodiment of a heat exchanger with variable heat transfer capabilities at different sections of the heat exchange conduit;

FIG. 9 is a schematic cut away diagram of a preferred embodiment of a heat exchanger including a casing conduit; and

FIG. 10 is a schematic end view of a preferred embodiment of a heat exchanger including a casing conduit.

FIG. 11 is a schematic cross sectional view of a preferred embodiment including a retracted movable member within a recess or protrusion of a heat exchange conduit.

FIG. 12 is a schematic cross sectional view of a preferred embodiment including an extended movable member and a protrusion on a heat exchange conduit.

FIG. 13 is a schematic cross sectional view of a preferred embodiment including retracted movable members slidably received within a recess of a heat exchange conduit.

FIG. 14 is a schematic cross sectional view of a preferred embodiment including extended movable members slidably received within a recess of a heat exchange conduit.

FIG. 15 is a schematic cross sectional view of another embodiment including retracted movable members slidably received within a recess of a heat exchange conduit.

FIG. 16 is a schematic cross sectional view of another embodiment including extended movable members slidably received within a recess of a heat exchange conduit

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

Embodiments of the present invention include a heat exchanger with variable heat transfer properties. In some embodiments, heat transfer properties may be varied by altering the flow of a first fluid through the heat exchanger.

FIG. 1 is a schematic cut away diagram of a preferred embodiment of a heat exchanger 101. Referring to FIG. 1, a heat exchanger 101 may include inlet conduit 106 that carries a first fluid 105 to heat exchange conduit 104 through heat exchange conduit inlet 108. Generally, first fluid 105 flows through heat exchange conduit interior 111. Heat exchange conduit interior 111 may be defined or bounded by heat exchange conduit inner surface 109. After passing through heat exchange conduit 104, first fluid 105 may leave heat exchange conduit 104 and enter outlet conduit 112 through heat exchange conduit outlet 110.

Heat exchange conduit 104 may facilitate heat transfer between first fluid 105 and a second fluid 107. As depicted in FIG. 1, second fluid 107 may flow past one or more exterior surfaces of heat exchanger 101. First fluid 105 may contact heat exchange conduit inner surface 109, and second fluid 107 may contact one more exterior surfaces of heat exchanger 101, including heat exchange conduit exterior surface 113. This arrangement helps to transfer heat between first fluid 105 and second fluid 107.

In some embodiments, the temperature of first fluid 105 may be higher than the temperature of second fluid 107. In these cases, first fluid 105 may heat the heat exchange conduit 104 from heat exchange conduit inner surface 109 to heat exchange conduit exterior surface 113. Second fluid 107 may cool heat exchange conduit 104 from heat exchange conduit exterior surface 113 to heat exchange conduit inner surface 109. In this manner, heat may be transferred from first fluid 105 to second fluid 107. In other embodiments, the temperature of second fluid 107 may be higher than the temperature of first fluid 105. In these cases, second fluid 107 may heat the heat exchange conduit 104 from heat exchange conduit exterior surface 113 to heat exchange conduit inner surface 109. First fluid 105 may cool heat exchange conduit 104 from heat exchange conduit inner surface 109 to heat exchange conduit exterior surface 113. In this manner, heat may be transferred from second fluid 107 to first fluid 105.

Some embodiments may include provisions for increasing or decreasing the rate of heat transfer of heat exchanger 101. In some cases, the heat transfer rate may be controlled by controlling the fluid flow characteristics of one or more of the working fluids associated with heat exchanger 101. Some embodiments may include provisions for altering or controlling the fluid flow properties within heat exchange conduit 104. Preferably, these provisions include one or more mechanisms disposed within heat exchange conduit 104.

In some embodiments heat exchanger 101 may be utilized as a different kind of device. For example, the apparatus may be used as a device to control fluid flow characteristics within a system. In other words, heat exchanger 101 may be used as a throttling device to control flow exiting heat exchange conduit 104.

Referring to FIG. 2, heat exchange conduit 104 may encase stationary member 124. By using stationary member 124 to impede flow through heat exchange conduit 104, the flow rate of first fluid 105 may be controlled. Stationary member secured end 127 may be connected to heat exchange conduit inner surface 109. Stationary member free end 125 may protrude into the flow path of heat exchange conduit 104.

In different embodiments, the shape, size, orientation, and spacing of a stationary member 124 may vary. The shape of stationary member 124 may be any shape that impedes flow. Preferably, stationary member 124 is a rectangular flat plate. However, in other embodiments, stationary member 124 may be another shape. In one embodiment, stationary member 124 may protrude any distance into heat exchange conduit 104. Preferably, stationary member free end 125 may protrude no more than half the height of heat exchange conduit 104. In one embodiment, stationary member 124 may be designed so that stationary member free end 125 can range from any position upstream of stationary member secured end 127 to any position downstream of stationary member secured end 127. In other words, stationary member 124 may be angled in an upstream direction, in a vertical position, or angled in a downstream direction. In an exemplary embodiment shown in FIG. 2, stationary member free end 125 may be positioned downstream of stationary member secured end 127 or rather, angled in a downstream direction. In other embodiments, the spacing of stationary member 124 from heat exchange conduit inlet 108 may vary. Stationary member 124 may be positioned within heat exchange conduit 104 any distance from heat exchange conduit inlet 108. Preferably, the distance between stationary member 124 and heat exchange conduit inlet 108 may be no more than one-half the length of heat exchange conduit 104.

Some embodiments may include more than one stationary member. In an exemplary embodiment shown in the figures, heat exchange conduit 104 may include a group of stationary members 131. Similar to stationary member 124, the group of stationary members 131 may be connected to and protrude into heat exchange conduit 104. Also similar to stationary member 124, the shape, size, orientation, and spacing of the group of stationary members 131 may vary. In addition, the spacing between individual members of the group of stationary members 131 may vary from one embodiment to another. Preferably, the distance between the individual members within a group of stationary members 131 may be approximately equal to the length of an individual stationary member within the group of stationary members 131.

Typically, impeding flow in a conduit causes turbulence within the conduit and increased mixing. Increased mixing typically increases heat transfer. Therefore, the heat transfer rate between first fluid 105 and second fluid 107 may be increased. In addition, heat transfer between first fluid 105 and second fluid 107 may increase further as the impedance on first fluid 105 increases. Generally, the greater the number of stationary members 131 and the greater the extension of stationary members 131 into heat exchange conduit 104, the greater the possibility of increasing heat transfer.

Generally, the flow field within a heat exchange conduit varies based on a number of factors including the size and position of heat exchange conduit inlet 108, fluid speed, path obstructions, and smoothness of heat exchange conduit inner surface 109. In a heat exchange conduit where the flow of a fluid is unobstructed and the walls are relatively smooth, the flow field is generally laminar. In an embodiment where there may be one stationary member 124 positioned within a heat exchange conduit 104, first fluid 105 may impinge on stationary member 124 typically creating one or more eddies behind stationary member 124. The faster the speed of the fluid the more likely one or more eddies will also be created in front of stationary member 124. Generally, the further away portions of first fluid 105 are from stationary member 124 the less turbulent and more laminar the flow field becomes.

In an embodiment where there maybe two stationary members 124, 129 the flow field may look similar to the flow field where there may be only one stationary member 124. Stationary members 124, 129 will typically cause eddies to form between stationary members 124, 129 and behind second stationary member 129.

In another embodiment including a group of stationary members 131, the flow field may look similar to the previously mentioned examples. However, the group of stationary members 131 will typically cause eddies to form between individual members of the group of stationary members 131 and behind the most downstream member of the group of stationary members 131.

In addition to or instead of one or more stationary members, a movable member 122 may be used to impede flow through heat exchange conduit 104, and thereby alter the flow characteristics and heat exchange characteristics of heat exchanger 101. However, unlike the stationary members, movable member 122 may be adjusted during the operation of heat exchanger 101 to increase or decrease the flow rate and heat transfer rate. Movable member 122 may be positioned in a number of desired positions depending on the heat transfer rate needed. Desired positions may include retracted positions or extended positions.

FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view of the preferred embodiment in a retracted position. FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view of the preferred embodiment in an extended position. Referring to FIGS. 2 and 3, heat exchange conduit 104 may encase movable member 122. By using movable member 122 to impede flow through heat exchange conduit 104, the flow rate of first fluid 105 may be controlled. Movable member secured end 123 may be connected to heat exchange conduit inner surface 109. Movable member free end 121 may protrude into the flow path of heat exchange conduit 104.

As illustrated in FIG. 2, movable member 122 may be positioned in a retracted position. In a retracted position, the entire body of movable member 122 may be positioned close to the portion of heat exchange conduit inner surface 109 associated with movable member 122. Therefore, when movable member 122 may be in a retracted position, it may minimally interfere with or impede the flow of first fluid 105. For example, in some cases, a portion of movable member 122 may touch the portion of heat exchange conduit inner surface 109 associated with movable member 122. In another example, movable member 122 may be parallel to the portion of heat exchange conduit inner surface 109 associated with movable member 122. In yet another example, a portion of each movable member 122 may minimally interfere with the flow of first fluid 105 by a depth less than five percent of the length of movable member 122.

As illustrated in FIG. 3, movable member 122 may be positioned in an extended position. Preferably, the extended position may be a position different than the retracted position. Moving member 122 may assume a number of different extended positions. The distal position may be defined as the maximum extended position or the extended position that may be the maximum distance from the retracted position.

In the same manner as stationary member 124, the shape, size, and spacing of movable member 122 may vary in different embodiments. The shape of movable member 122 may be any shape that impedes flow. Preferably, movable member 122 is a rectangular flat plate. However, in other embodiments, movable member 122 may be another shape. In some embodiments, movable member 122 may protrude any distance into heat exchange conduit 104. Preferably, movable member free end 121 may protrude no more than half the height of heat exchange conduit 104. However, in some embodiments, movable member free end 121 may protrude beyond half the height of heat exchange conduit 104. In other embodiments, the spacing of movable member 122 from heat exchange conduit inlet 108 may vary. Movable member 122 may be positioned within heat exchange conduit 104 any distance from heat exchange conduit inlet 108. Preferably, the distance between movable member 122 and heat exchange conduit inlet 108 may be no more than one-half the length of heat exchange conduit 104. However, in other embodiments, this distance may vary. In embodiments where a stationary member 124 and a movable member 122 may be encased in heat exchange conduit 104, it may also be preferable to size and space movable member 122 so that it does not contact stationary member 124.

Some embodiments may include more than one movable member. In an exemplary embodiment shown in the figures, heat exchange conduit 104 may include a group of movable members 137. Similar to movable member 122, the group of movable members 137 may be connected to and protrude into heat exchange conduit 104. Also similar to movable member 122, the size and spacing of the group of movable members 137 may vary. In addition, the spacing between individual members of the group of movable members 137 may vary from one embodiment to another. In an exemplary embodiment, the distance between the individual members within a group of movable members 137 may be approximately equal to the length of an individual movable member within the group of movable members 137.

However, the size and spacing of the group of movable members 137 does not necessarily need to correspond with the size and spacing of the group of stationary members 131. In other words, an individual movable member may be larger or smaller than an individual stationary member, and the spacing between individual movable members may be larger or smaller than the spacing between individual stationary members.

In other embodiments that may use a movable member 122 or more than one movable member, the flow field within heat exchange conduit 104 may vary. Additionally, the flow field may vary based on the orientation or position of movable member 122 and other movable members.

In some cases, the flow field may resemble the flow fields that include stationary members 124, 129, and 131. However, in embodiments that include a movable member 122 opposite to the location of a stationary member 124, less laminar flow may exist as movable member 122 moves from a retracted position to an extended position. In an extended position, first fluid 105 may impinge on movable member 122 typically creating one or more eddies within the flow field behind movable member 122.

In an embodiment where there may be two extended movable members 122, 133, the flow field may change. Movable members 122, 133 will typically cause eddies to form between movable members 122, 133 and behind second movable member 133.

In another embodiment shown in FIG. 3 including a group of movable members 137, the flow field may look similar to the previously mentioned examples. However, a group of movable members 137 will typically cause eddies to form between individual movable members within a group of movable members 137 and behind the most downstream movable member within a group of movable members 137.

FIG. 4 shows the preferred embodiment of FIG. 2 including a diagram of a possible flow field. FIG. 5 shows the preferred embodiment of FIG. 3 including a diagram of a possible flow field. The majority of the reference numerals were removed from FIGS. 4 and 5 so that the flow fields could be more clearly seen, but the same reference numerals used in FIGS. 2 and 3 are utilized in FIGS. 4 and 5. In FIG. 4, the flow field near the retracted movable members 137 is generally laminar and turbulence increases near the stationary members 131. Eddies can be seen before and after each stationary member. In FIG. 5, the movable members 137 and the stationary members 131 extend into the flow field and create turbulence throughout the conduit. Eddies can be seen before and after each movable and stationary member.

Preferably, heat exchanger 101 includes provisions for moving and controlling movable member 122, and thereby, adjusting the flow field. Controlling the position of the movable member 122 allows a user to change the fluid flow conditions and heat transfer rate of heat exchanger 101 on demand.

In some embodiments, the control system used to control the motion of movable member 122 operates in a manner as to avoid or eliminate the intrusion of additional parts or components that protrude into heat exchange conduit 104. In other words, some embodiments may include non-invasive control systems.

Some embodiments of heat exchanger 101 may include an electronic control system that can control the position of movable member 122. Preferably, the control system includes a control unit able to remotely control the position of movable member 122 while heat exchanger 101 operates. The control system may use either a direct communications link or a wireless communications link to communicate with movable member 122. In some embodiments, both direct and wireless communications methods may be used.

In different embodiments, ECU 132 may include a number of ports that facilitate the input and output of information and power. The term “port” means any interface or shared boundary between two conductors. In some cases, ports may facilitate the insertion and removal of conductors. Examples of these types of ports include mechanical connectors. In other cases, ports are interfaces that generally do not provide easy insertion or removal. Examples of these types of ports include soldering or electron traces on circuit boards. Some embodiments may include a given port or provision, while others may exclude it.

In a preferred embodiment as illustrated in FIGS. 2 and 3, the control system may comprise an electronic control unit (ECU) 132, an ECU line 130, electromagnet 128, and movable member magnet 126. In this embodiment, ECU 132, ECU line 130, and electromagnet 128 wirelessly communicate with movable member 122 and movable member magnet 126. However, ECU line 130 provides a direct communications link between ECU 132 and electromagnet 128.

In operation, ECU 132 first determines the degree of cooling or heating needed for first fluid 105. ECU 132 may make this determination based on any desired parameter, including the heat exchange needs of other systems. Second, the heat exchange needs may be processed, and a desired position for movable member 122 maybe determined. Third, the position information may be transmitted to electromagnet 128 through ECU line 130. ECU line 130 may provide the position information in the form of an electronic signal that may energize electromagnet 128. Fourth, the energized electromagnet 128 generally creates a magnetic field. Electromagnet 128 may be attached to heat exchange conduit exterior surface 113 in the vicinity of movable member 122. Finally, movable member magnet 126 may move or be repelled away from electromagnet 128 in response to the generated magnetic field. The characteristics of the magnetic field are typically dependant on the electronic signal transmitted through ECU line 130.

In a preferred embodiment, movable member magnet 126 may be a permanent magnet. In other embodiments, movable member 122, instead of including movable member magnet 126, may be magnetized.

As previously indicated, ECU 132 may determine the heat exchange needs of first fluid 105. For example, ECU 132 may determine that an increase in the heat transfer rate is needed. The ECU may process the heat transfer information and may determine and transmit position information electronically to electromagnet 128 using ECU line 130. The initial position of one or more movable members 122, 137 may be a retracted position or an extended position. The electronic signal causes an increase in the repulsion between electromagnet 128 and movable member magnet 126 resulting in an increase in the extension of one or more movable members 122, 137.

If ECU 132 determines that less heat transfer is needed, the ECU may send position information electronically to electromagnet 128 using ECU line 130. The altered electronic signal causes a decrease in the repulsion between electromagnet 128 and movable member magnet 126 resulting in a decrease in the extension of one or more movable members 122, 137.

If ECU 132 determines that a minimum amount of heat transfer is needed, the ECU may transmit position information electronically with a reversed polarity to electromagnet 128 using ECU line 130. Electromagnet 128 creates a magnetic field that attracts movable member 122, 137 and causes movable members 122, 137 to move from an initial position to a retracted position.

In an alternative embodiment, if the ECU determines that a minimum amount of heat transfer is needed, the ECU may cease to transmit position information electronically. Instead, the force of first fluid 105 may push movable members 122, 137 towards a retracted position. When movable member magnet 126 nears the metal core of electromagnet 128, the natural attraction between the two allows movable members 122, 137 to reach a retracted position.

Some embodiments may include additional provisions to restrict the movement or range of motion of movable member 122. These provisions assist in controlling the orientation of movable member 122 so that the flow rate and heat transfer rate can be more precisely controlled.

In order to restrict the movement of movable member 122, some embodiments may include provisions for attaching and adjusting movable member 122 with respect to heat exchange conduit 104. An embodiment may include a pivoting mechanism that allows movable member 122 to rotate into and out of the flow field within heat exchange conduit 104.

FIG. 6 is an enlarged schematic view of a preferred embodiment of movable member 122 and a mechanism that may enable movable member 122 to pivot within heat exchange conduit 104. Referring to FIG. 6, a portion of heat exchange conduit inner surface 109 may include points of attachment for movable member 122. The points of attachment may include first hinge element 134 and second hinge element 135.

First and second hinge elements 134, 135 may be configured as protrusions that extend from heat exchange conduit inner surface 109 towards the center of heat exchange conduit 104. First and second hinge element secured ends 139, 143 may be connected to heat exchange conduit inner surface 109. First and second hinge element free ends 141, 145 may be designed to extend a minimal amount into heat exchange conduit 104. The lengths of first and second hinge elements 134, 135 may be at least the thickness of movable member 122 and provide enough clearance to move movable member 122 from a retracted position to the distal position.

First and second hinge element free ends 141, 145 may include a hole. Movable member secured end 123 may also include a hole that extends through the width of movable member 122. Shaft 136 may be inserted through all three holes to allow movable member 122 to move and align with respect to a generated magnetic field. Shaft 136 may also include a mechanism to maintain the shaft within all three holes.

If ECU 132 determines an increase, decrease, or minimal heat transfer rate is needed, first and second hinge elements 134, 135 and shaft 136 allow movable member free end 123 to move to a retracted position, a distal position, or any extended position between the retracted and distal positions. As depicted in FIG. 6, movable member 122 represented with solid lines, may be a retracted position, and movable member 122 represented with broken lines, may be an extended position.

Some embodiments may also include provisions for restricting the range of motion of movable member 122. Referring to FIG. 6, a stop 138, positioned behind movable member 122, may be used to prevent movable member 122 from moving beyond the distal position. Stop 138 may be a protrusion attached to and extending into heat exchange conduit 104 in a similar manner as first and second hinge elements 134, 135. Preferably, stop 138 may be the same length as first and second hinge elements 134, 135.

In different embodiments, the spacing and orientation of stop 138 may vary based on the distal position of movable member 122. For example, stop 138 may be spaced a distance from movable member 122 so that stop 138 does not contact movable member 122 unless movable member 122 shifts to a distal position. In addition, stop 138 may be designed so that stop free end 149 can range from any position upstream of stop secured end 147 to any position downstream of stop secured end 147. In other words, stop 138 may be angled in an upstream direction, in a vertical position, or angled in a downstream direction. Therefore, the orientation of stop 138 may coincide with the orientation of the distal position.

FIGS. 7-10 show alternative embodiments of the heat exchanger. These alternative embodiments include the installation of heat exchanger 101 within a heat exchange system, control of heat exchange at multiple sections of heat exchange conduit 104, and a heat exchanger including a casing conduit.

Some embodiments may involve the installation of heat exchanger 101 within a heat exchange system. The heat exchange system includes components that allow first fluid 105 to be heated and cooled.

FIG. 7 is a schematic diagram of a preferred embodiment of a heat exchange system including a heat exchanger and a device that heats fluid as a byproduct of use. Referring to FIG. 7, first fluid 105 may be heated by device 140. First fluid 105 may then flow through device outlet 146 and into inlet conduit 106. First fluid 105 then flows through heat exchange conduit inlet 108 and into heat exchange conduit 104. After exiting heat exchange conduit 104 through heat exchange conduit outlet 110, first fluid 105 flows into outlet conduit 112. Outlet conduit 112 returns first fluid 105 to device 140 through device inlet 148.

The heat exchange rate of heat exchanger 101 may be dependant on one or more properties related to device 140. For example, sensor 142 may sense a thermodynamic property of first fluid 105 or device 140. Sensor 142 may then transmit the sensed thermodynamic property to ECU 132 through sensor line 144. Sensor line 144 may provide the sensed thermodynamic property in the form of an electronic signal. ECU 132 may have a table that includes the value of a thermodynamic property and the corresponding position information to be transmitted to electromagnet 128. ECU 132 may then transmit the corresponding position information to electromagnet 128 through ECU line 130. Heat exchanger 101 of FIG. 7 may then function similarly to the previously described embodiments.

Device 140 may be any device that mainly functions to heat a fluid as a byproduct of use. For example, in some embodiments, device 140 may be a transmission, and first fluid 105 may be transmission fluid.

Sensor 142 may be capable of sensing one or more thermodynamic properties and may be positioned in various locations within the heat exchange system. Preferably, sensor 142 may sense temperature. In some embodiments, sensor 142 may be located within or on an exterior surface of device 140. Sensor 142 may be positioned to sense the interior temperature of device 140 or the temperature of first fluid 105 inside device 140. Preferably and as shown in FIG. 7, sensor 142 may be positioned on an exterior surface of device 140.

In the preferred embodiment of FIG. 7, the communications link between sensor 142 and ECU 132 may be sensor line 144, a direct communications link. However, like the communications link between ECU 132 and electromagnet 128, the communications link between sensor 142 and ECU 132 may be a direct communications link or a wireless communications link.

Some embodiments may include provisions for altering or varying the heat exchange characteristics of a heat exchanger at different sections of the heat exchange conduit 104. These provisions allow for discrete control of the flow rate and the heat transfer rate throughout heat exchange conduit 104.

FIG. 8 is a schematic diagram of a preferred embodiment of a heat exchanger with variable heat transfer capabilities at different sections of the heat exchange conduit. The embodiment of FIG. 8 may function similarly to previously mentioned embodiments. Referring to FIG. 8, first fluid 205 may flow through conduit 204. Flow in conduit 204 may be impeded by one or more stationary members 224, 254. Flow may also be impeded by one or more movable members.

The position of two or more movable members may be individually controlled by ECU 250. For example, movable members 238, 240, and 242 may be individually controlled by ECU 250. When ECU 250 determines the heat exchange needs of first fluid 205, ECU 250 may determine that different heat transfer rates within heat exchange conduit 204 are needed. ECU 250 may make this determination based on any desired parameter, including the heat exchange needs of other systems. The heat exchange needs are processed, and desired positions for movable members 238, 240, and 242 may be determined. The position information may be transmitted to electromagnets 244, 246, and 248 through ECU lines 232, 234, and 236 respectively. ECU lines 232, 234, and 236 may provide the position information in the form of an electronic signal to energize electromagnets 244, 246, and 248. Each electromagnet 244, 246, and 248 may be attached to heat exchange conduit exterior surface 252 in the vicinity of movable members 238, 240, and 242 respectively. Generally, the energized electromagnets 244, 246, and 248 create their own magnetic fields, and each movable member 238, 240, and 242 may move or be repelled away from a respective electromagnet in response to an associated magnetic field. Therefore, the position of each movable member 238, 240, and 242 may differ within heat exchange conduit 104. As illustrated in FIG. 8, movable member 238 may be in an extended position, while movable member 240 may be in a different extended position and movable member 242 may be in a retracted position.

In some embodiments, two or more groups of movable members 226, 228, and 230 may be individually controlled by ECU 250. FIG. 8 shows an exemplary embodiment of how ECU 250 may control the position of each movable member group 226, 228, and 230 based on the position information transmitted through ECU lines 232, 234, and 236. In this embodiment, each group of movable members may be moved to a specific position. As shown in FIG. 8, the group of movable members 226 may be in an extended position, while the group of movable members 228 may be in a different extended position and the group of movable members 230 may be in a retracted position.

FIG. 8 illustrates a portion of heat exchange conduit 204 and three groups of movable members 226, 228, and 230. In addition, FIG. 8 shows three movable members within each group of movable members 226, 228, and 230. Heat exchange conduit 204 may extend in either direction to accommodate any desired number of groups of movable members and any desired number of movable members within each group of movable members.

The flow field for an embodiment that includes three groups of movable members 226, 228, and 230 and a group of stationary members 254 may look similar to the flow fields described and diagrammed for FIGS. 2-5. The flow field will vary based on the position or orientation of each member or group of members. Referring to FIG. 8, a group of stationary members 254 typically cause eddies to form before and after individual stationary members within the group of stationary members 254. A group of extended movable members 226 and 228 typically cause eddies to form before and after each individual movable member. However, the flow field between movable members 228 and stationary members 254 may be less turbulent than the flow field between movable members 226 and stationary members 254 because movable members 226 may be extended further into the flow field. A group of retracted movable members 230 may allow a generally laminar flow field to form near movable members 230, and turbulence typically increases near stationary members 254. In other words, the flow field may become less turbulent as the fluid flows from left to right through heat exchange conduit 204.

In the embodiments of FIGS. 1-8, second fluid 107 may flow freely past one or more exterior surfaces of heat exchanger 101. However, other embodiments may include provisions for channeling second fluid 107 directly to and around heat exchange conduit 104. The provisions may provide for more continuous and consistent heat transfer.

FIG. 9 is a schematic cut away diagram of a preferred embodiment of a heat exchanger including a casing conduit. FIG. 10 is a schematic end view of a preferred embodiment of a heat exchanger including a casing conduit. Referring to FIGS. 9 and 10, an encased heat exchanger 100 may include casing inlet conduit 114 that carries second fluid 107 to casing conduit 102 through casing conduit inlet 116. Generally, second fluid 107 flows through casing conduit interior 103. Casing conduit interior 103 may be defined or bounded by casing conduit inner surface 115. After passing through casing conduit 102, second fluid 107 may leave casing conduit 102 and enter casing outlet conduit 120 through casing conduit outlet 118. The flow path of first fluid 105 may be similar to the previously mentioned embodiments.

Generally, heat exchange conduit 104 resides within casing conduit interior 103. Conduits 102 and 104 may be sealed so that first fluid 105 does not leak into casing conduit interior 103 and second fluid 107 does not leak into heat exchange conduit interior 111.

Other embodiments of encased heat exchanger 100 may include provisions for altering the flow rate of second fluid 107, and therefore, increasing or decreasing the heat transfer rate of encased heat exchanger 100. These provisions may include a mechanism, such as a pump, for controlling the flow rate of second fluid 107. The provisions may also include stationary members and movable members located on heat exchange conduit exterior surface 113, casing conduit inner surface 115, and casing conduit exterior surface 117.

Some embodiments may include provisions for recessing a movable member within a heat exchange conduit when the movable member may be in the retracted position. These provisions may allow for minimal interference of the movable member with the flow of fluid when the movable member is in the retracted position.

FIG. 11 is a schematic cross sectional view of a preferred embodiment including a retracted movable member within a recess or protrusion of a heat exchange conduit. FIG. 12 is a schematic cross sectional view of a preferred embodiment including an extended movable member and a protrusion on a heat exchange conduit. Referring to FIGS. 11 and 12, heat exchange conduit 304 may include a heat exchange conduit protrusion 356 that bounds heat exchange conduit recess 357. Movable member 322 may reside entirely or partially within heat exchange conduit recess 357. Movable member secured end 323 may be connected to heat exchange conduit protrusion inner surface 359.

When movable member 322 is in a retracted position, movable member 322 may reside entirely in heat exchange conduit recess 357. In a preferred embodiment, movable member side 361 lies flush with heat exchange conduit inner surface 309 when movable member 322 is in the retracted position. When movable member 322 is in an extended position, movable member 322 may protrude into the flow path of heat exchange conduit 304.

In the same manner as movable member 122, the shape, size, and spacing of movable member 322 may vary in different embodiments. A notable difference between movable member 122 and movable member 322 may be the preferred shape. Preferably, movable member 322 may be wedge-shaped. However, in other embodiments, movable member 322 may be of any shape including a rectangular flat plate.

The shape, size, and spacing of heat exchange conduit recess 357 may vary in different embodiments. The shape and size of heat exchange conduit recess 357 may be any shape and size that allows at least a portion of movable member 322 to lie within heat exchange conduit recess 357. Preferably, heat exchange conduit recess 357 may be larger than and shaped similarly to movable member 322 and have only enough clearance to allow movable member 322 to move from a retracted position to an extended position. The spacing of heat exchange conduit recess 357 from other portions of heat exchange conduit 304 may be such that heat exchange conduit recess 357 aligns with the location and orientation of movable member 322.

The shape, size, and spacing of heat exchange conduit protrusion 356 may vary in different embodiments. Heat exchange conduit protrusion interior surface 359 bounds heat exchange conduit recess 357. Therefore, heat exchange conduit protrusion interior surface 359 has the shape and size of heat exchange conduit recess 357. The shape of heat exchange conduit protrusion exterior surface 363 may be any shape. Preferably, the shape may be similar to the shape of heat exchange conduit protrusion interior surface 359 and provide sufficient surface area for the heat exchange conduit's control system to communicate with movable member magnet 326. However, the shape of heat exchange conduit protrusion exterior surface 363 need not be shaped similarly to heat exchange conduit protrusion interior surface 359. Preferably, the size of heat exchange conduit protrusion exterior surface 363 may be any size that may be larger than the size of heat exchange conduit recess 357. The spacing of heat exchange conduit protrusion 356 from other portions of heat exchange conduit 304 may be such that heat exchange conduit protrusion 356 aligns with the location of movable member 322.

In the same manner as previous embodiments, some embodiments may include more than one movable member. In these embodiments, each movable member preferably has its own heat exchange conduit protrusion and heat exchange conduit recess. However, in other embodiments, one or more movable members may reside in one heat exchange conduit protrusion and an associated heat exchange conduit recess. Similar to movable members 137, the shape, size, orientation, and spacing of the group of movable members may vary. In addition, the spacing between individual members of a group of movable members may vary from one embodiment to another. Preferably, the distance between the individual members within a group of movable members may be approximately equal to the length of an individual movable member within the group of movable members.

Similar to previous embodiments, heat exchange conduit 304 may include first fluid 305 flowing through the heat exchange conduit interior 311. In embodiments that may use a movable member 322 or more than one movable member, the flow field within heat exchange conduit 304 may vary. Additionally, the flow field may vary based on the orientation or position of movable member 322 and other movable members. The flow field may resemble those previously described for movable members 122, 133, and 137. In addition, because movable members 322, 333, and 337 may be recessed when in a retracted position, the flow may be more laminar than in previous embodiments where the movable members may not be recessed.

Embodiments including movable member 322 may also include a control system comprising an electromagnet and other electrical components as described in previous embodiments. The electromagnet may be activated to attract or repel a movable member magnet depending on the heat transfer needed. Electromagnet 328 may be located near the heat exchange conduit protrusion exterior surface 363 and preferably in the vicinity of movable member 322 and movable member magnet 326.

Some embodiments may include additional provisions to restrict the movement or range of motion of movable member 322. These provisions assist in controlling the orientation of movable member 322 so that the flow rate and heat transfer rate can be more precisely controlled. For example, heat exchange conduit recess 357 may include a pivoting mechanism that allows movable member 322 to move from a retracted position, within heat exchange conduit recess 357, to an extended position, where movable member free end 321 moves to into heat exchange conduit 304 to impede flow. The pivoting mechanism may be attached to movable member 322 near movable member secured end 323 and to heat exchange conduit protrusion interior surface 359. The pivoting mechanism may be similar to that discussed in previous embodiments and illustrated in FIG. 6. This mechanism may include protrusions that extend toward movable member 322 from heat exchange conduit protrusion interior surface 359 and attach to movable member 322 via shaft 336.

Some embodiments may also include provisions for restricting the range of motion of movable member 322. A stop 338 may be used to prevent movable member 322 from moving beyond the distal position. Stop 338 may be an extension of heat exchange conduit 304, and it may extend into heat exchange conduit recess 357. To contact stop 338 and prevent movable member 322 from moving beyond a distal position, movable member 322 may include movable member extension 358. When movable member 322 moves from a retracted position to the distal position, movable member extension side 360 contacts stop side 362 and prevents movable member 322 from moving beyond the distal position.

In different embodiments, the shape, length, and orientation of stop 338 and movable member extension 358 may vary based on the distal position of movable member 322. Stop 338 and movable member extension 358 may be of any shape, length, or orientation. For example, stop 338 may protrude at an angle into heat exchange conduit recess 357, at an angle into heat exchange conduit interior 311, or at no angle and lie parallel to heat exchange conduit 304. Preferably, stop 338 and movable member extension 358 do not contact each other unless movable member 322 shifts to a distal position.

Embodiments of a heat exchange system including a heat exchanger and a device that heats fluid as a byproduct of use, as illustrated in FIG. 7, may incorporate one or more movable members that may be recessed within a heat exchange conduit protrusion. Heat exchanger 101 may otherwise function similarly to previously described embodiments.

Embodiments of a heat exchanger with variable heat transfer capabilities at different sections of the heat exchange conduit, as illustrated in FIG. 8, may incorporate one or more movable members that may be recessed within heat exchange conduit protrusion. The heat exchanger of FIG. 8 may otherwise function similarly to previously described embodiments.

Embodiments of a heat exchanger with a casing conduit, as illustrated in FIGS. 9-10, may incorporate one or more movable members that may be recessed within a heat exchange conduit protrusion. Heat exchanger 100 may otherwise function similarly to previously described embodiments.

Some embodiments may include provisions for translating or extending a movable member from a retracted position to an extended position. These provisions impede flow within a heat exchange conduit without the use of a pivoting mechanism.

FIG. 13 is a schematic cross sectional view of a preferred embodiment including retracted movable members within a recess of a heat exchange conduit. FIG. 14 is a schematic cross sectional view of a preferred embodiment including extended movable members within a recess of a heat exchange conduit. Referring to FIGS. 13 and 14, heat exchange conduit 404 may include a heat exchange conduit recess 457. Movable member 422 may reside entirely or partially within heat exchange conduit recess 357. Movable member secured end 423 may be connected to movable body 464 at movable body side 465.

When movable member 422 and movable body 464 may be in a retracted position, movable member 422 and movable body 464 may reside entirely within heat exchange conduit recess 457. Movable member free end 421 may have an extreme end that defines a tip surface. In a preferred embodiment, the tip surface may lie flush with or in the same plane as heat exchange conduit inner surface 409. When movable member 422 and movable body 464 are in an extended position, movable member 422 may protrude into the flow path of heat exchange conduit 404.

In the same manner as movable member 122 and 322, the shape, size, and spacing of movable member 422 may vary in different embodiments. Similar to movable member 322, movable member 422 may be of varying shapes. Preferably, movable member 422 may be wedge-shaped. However, in other embodiments, movable member 422 may be of any shape including a rectangular flat plate. FIG. 15 is a schematic cross sectional view of another embodiment including retracted movable members within a recess of a heat exchange conduit. FIG. 16 is a schematic cross sectional view of another embodiment including extended movable members within a recess of a heat exchange conduit. FIGS. 15 and 16 show a movable member 422 that has a rectangular flat plate shape.

In the same manner as heat exchange conduit recess 357, the shape, size, and spacing of heat exchange conduit recess 457 may vary in different embodiments. The shape and size of heat exchange conduit recess 457 may be any shape and size that allows at least a portion of movable member 322 and movable body 464 to lie within heat exchange conduit recess 457. Preferably, heat exchange conduit recess 457 may be larger than movable member 422 and movable body 464 and shaped similarly to movable body 464. Preferably, heat exchange conduit recess 457 may also have only enough clearance to allow movable member 422 and movable body 464 to move from a retracted position to an extended position. The spacing of heat exchange conduit recess 457 from other portions of heat exchange conduit 404 should be such that heat exchange conduit recess 457 aligns with the location and orientation of movable member 422 and movable body 464.

Some embodiments may include more than one movable member. In an exemplary embodiment shown in FIGS. 13-16, heat exchange conduit 404 may include a group of movable members 437. In an embodiment, each movable member may be connected to one movable body and reside in one heat exchange conduit recess. Preferably, a group of movable members 437 may be connected to a single movable body 464 and reside in one heat exchange conduit recess 457. Similar to movable member 422, the free ends of a group of movable members 437 may have extreme ends that defining a tip surface. In a preferred embodiment, the tip surfaces may lie flush with or in the same plane as heat exchange conduit inner surface 409. Similar to movable members 137, the shape, size, orientation and spacing of the group movable members 437 may also vary. In addition, the spacing between individual members of the group of movable members 437 may vary from one embodiment to another. Preferably, the distance between the individual movable members within a group of movable members 437 may be approximately half the length of an individual movable member within the group of movable members 437.

Similar to previous embodiments, heat exchange conduit 404 may include first fluid 405 flowing through heat exchange conduit interior 411. In embodiments that may use a movable member 422 or more than one movable member, the flow field within heat exchange conduit 404 may vary. Additionally, the flow field may vary based on the orientation or position of movable member 422 and other movable members. The flow field may resemble those previously described for movable members 122, 133, and 137. In addition, because the movable members 422, 433, and 437 may be recessed when in a retracted position, the flow may be more laminar than in previous embodiments where the movable members may not be recessed.

Embodiments may also include a control system comprising an electromagnet and other electrical components as described in previous embodiments. The electromagnet may be activated to attract or repel a movable member magnet depending on the heat transfer needed. Electromagnet 428 may be located near heat exchange conduit exterior surface 413 and preferably in the vicinity of movable member 422 and movable member magnet 426.

Some embodiments may include additional provisions to restrict the movement or range of motion of movable member 422. These provisions assist in controlling the position of movable member 422 so that the flow rate and heat transfer rate can be more precisely controlled. For example, heat exchange conduit recess 457 may include a sliding mechanism that allows movable member 422 and movable body 464 to move from a retracted position, within heat exchange conduit recess 457, to an extended position, where movable member free end 421 moves into heat exchange conduit 404 to impede flow.

The sliding mechanism may be attached to movable body 464. Sliding element 466 may be configured in one or more pieces that extend wholly or partially through movable body 464. Sliding element 466 may also be slidably connected to heat exchange conduit recess surface 459. However, sliding element 466 may not continuously contact heat exchange conduit recess surface 459. Sliding element 466 may be designed to extend towards heat exchange conduit recess surface 459 so that movable member 422 and movable body 464 have little clearance to move laterally. Heat exchange conduit recess 457 may also be designed so that the portions that receive sliding element 466 may be slots.

Some embodiments may also include provisions for restricting the range of motion of movable member 422. Stops 468 and 470 may be used to prevent movable member 422 from moving beyond the distal position. Stops 468 and 470 may be extensions of heat exchange conduit 404 that extend into heat exchange conduit recess 457. To contact stops 468 and 470 and prevent movable member 422 from moving beyond the distal position, sliding element 466 may be utilized. When movable member 422 moves from a retracted position to the distal position, the ends of sliding element 466 may contact sides 472 and 474 of stops 468 and 470 and prevent movable member 422 from moving beyond the distal position.

In different embodiments, the shape, length, and orientation of stops 468 and 470 and sliding element 466 may vary based on the distal position of movable member 422. Stops 468 and 470 and sliding element 466 may be of any shape, length, or orientation. For example, stops 468 and 470 may protrude at an angle into heat exchange conduit recess 457, at an angle into heat exchange conduit interior 411, or at no angle and lie parallel to heat exchange conduit 404. Preferably, stops 468 and 470 and sliding element 466 do not contact each other unless movable member 422 shifts to a distal position.

Embodiments of a heat exchange system including a heat exchanger and a device that heats fluid as a byproduct of use, as illustrated in FIG. 7, may incorporate one or more movable members 422, 437 that move from a retracted position to an extended position. Heat exchanger 101 may otherwise function similarly to previously described embodiments.

Embodiments of a heat exchanger with variable heat transfer capabilities at different sections of the heat exchange conduit, as illustrated in FIG. 8, may incorporate one or more movable members 422, 437 that move from a retracted position to an extended position. The heat exchanger of FIG. 8 may otherwise function similarly to previously described embodiments.

Embodiments of a heat exchanger with a casing conduit, as illustrated in FIGS. 9-10, may incorporate one or move movable members 422, 437 that move from a retracted position to an extended position. Heat exchanger 100 may otherwise function similarly to previously described embodiments.

While various embodiments of the invention have been described, the description is intended to be exemplary, rather than limiting and it will be apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art that many more embodiments and implementations are possible that are within the scope of the invention. Accordingly, the invention is not to be restricted except in light of the attached claims and their equivalents. Also, various modifications and changes may be made within the scope of the attached claims.