Title:
GROUNDWATER MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES APPLIED TO CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
A fluid monitoring system for a subsurface well in a subterranean formation includes a first zone isolator, a second zone isolator, a fluid inlet, a first pressure canister and a first gas-in line. The first and second zone isolators are positioned in the subsurface well. The fluid inlet receives fluid from the subterranean formation. The first pressure canister is positioned between the first zone isolator and the second zone isolator. The first pressure canister receives the fluid at an in-situ pressure. The first gas-in line selectively delivers a gas to the first pressure canister to pressurize the first pressure canister so that the first pressure canister is adapted to be removed from the subsurface well at a substantially similar pressure as the in-situ pressure. In one embodiment, the first pressure canister receives the fluid at an in-situ temperature. In this embodiment, the first pressure canister is adapted to be removed from the subsurface well at a substantially similar temperature as the in-situ temperature.



Inventors:
Heller, Noah R. (Corte Madera, CA, US)
Application Number:
12/351834
Publication Date:
07/16/2009
Filing Date:
01/10/2009
Assignee:
BESST, Inc.
Primary Class:
International Classes:
E21B49/08
View Patent Images:
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Primary Examiner:
STEPHENSON, DANIEL P
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
James P. Broder (Roeder & Broder LLP 13400 Sabre Springs Pkwy. Suite 155, San Diego, CA, 92128, US)
Claims:
What is claimed is:

1. A fluid monitoring system for a subsurface well in a subterranean formation, the fluid monitoring system comprising: a first zone isolator positioned in the subsurface well; a second zone isolator positioned in the subsurface well; a fluid inlet that receives fluid from the subterranean formation; a first pressure canister positioned between the first zone isolator and the second zone isolator, the pressure canister receiving the fluid at an in-situ pressure; and a first gas-in line that selectively delivers a gas to the pressure canister to pressurize the pressure canister so that the pressure canister is adapted to be removed from the subsurface well at a substantially similar pressure as the in-situ pressure.

2. The fluid monitoring system of claim 1 wherein the pressure canister receives the fluid at an in-situ temperature, and wherein the pressure canister is adapted to be removed from the subsurface well at a substantially similar temperature as the in-situ temperature.

3. The fluid monitoring system of claim 1 further comprising: a docking receptacle positioned in the subsurface well, a docking apparatus that selectively docks with the docking receptacle in the subsurface well; a second pressure canister that is positioned so that the docking apparatus is between the docking receptacle and the pressure canister, the pressure canister receiving the fluid at an in-situ pressure; and a second gas-in line that selectively delivers a gas to the pressure canister to pressurize the pressure canister so that the pressure canister is adapted to be removed from the subsurface well at a substantially similar pressure as the in-situ pressure.

4. A fluid monitoring system for a subsurface well in a subterranean formation, the subsurface well having a surface region, the fluid monitoring system comprising: a docking receptacle positioned in the subsurface well; a docking apparatus that selectively docks with the docking receptacle in the subsurface well; a fluid inlet that receives fluid from the subterranean formation; a pressure canister that is positioned so that the docking apparatus is between the docking receptacle and the pressure canister, the pressure canister receiving the fluid at an in-situ pressure; and a gas-in line that selectively delivers a gas to the pressure canister to pressurize the pressure canister so that the pressure canister is adapted to be removed from the subsurface well at a substantially similar pressure as the in-situ pressure.

5. The fluid monitoring system of claim 4 wherein the pressure canister receives the fluid at an in-situ temperature, and wherein the pressure canister is adapted to be removed from the subsurface well at a substantially similar temperature as the in-situ temperature.

Description:

RELATED APPLICATION

This application claims benefit under 35 U.S.C. §119(e) from U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 61/010,831, filed Jan. 11, 2008, the entire contents of which are expressly incorporated herein by reference to the extent permitted.

BACKGROUND

Generating energy which is an alternative to oil has become increasingly important. Because oil is a finite resource that is relatively costly and exists only in certain regions of the world, the move to less expensive, renewable energy sources has reached the critical stage. For example, substantial research in the production and use of hydrogen fuel is currently underway. Additionally, the world's abundant coal reserves are being considered as an excellent source of energy, and could be used in the transition from oil to hydrogen or other energy sources. One major concern stemming from coal usage is the production of carbon dioxide, which has been found to likely contribute to ozone depletion and global warming.

One method of dealing with the carbon dioxide reaction product from coal refinement is to sequester the carbon dioxide in fractured rock formations to form subterranean carbon dioxide reservoirs. These reservoirs can be thousands of feet below ground surface (bgs). The carbon dioxide levels should be accurately monitored from subsurface wells in order to detect at an early stage whether leakage or seepage problems may be occurring. Thus, down-hole containerization and measurement of groundwater samples in corrosive and saline environments has become increasingly important. In addition, other fluids, such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and high and low level radioactive waste repositories are critical to monitor. However, monitoring any or all of these fluids at their actual in-situ temperature and pressure in order to attain greater accuracy can be particularly challenging.

SUMMARY

The present invention is directed toward a fluid monitoring system for a subsurface well in a subterranean formation. In one embodiment, the fluid monitoring system includes a first zone isolator; a second zone isolator, a fluid inlet, a first pressure canister and a first gas-in line. The first and second zone isolators are positioned in the subsurface well. The fluid inlet receives fluid from the subterranean formation. The first pressure canister is positioned between the first zone isolator and the second zone isolator. The first pressure canister receives the fluid at an in-situ pressure. The first gas-in line selectively delivers a gas to the first pressure canister to pressurize the first pressure canister so that the first pressure canister is adapted to be removed from the subsurface well at a substantially similar pressure as the in-situ pressure. In one embodiment, the first pressure canister receives the fluid at an in-situ temperature. In this embodiment, the first pressure canister is adapted to be removed from the subsurface well at a substantially similar temperature as the in-situ temperature.

In another embodiment, the fluid monitoring system includes a docking receptacle, a docking apparatus, a fluid inlet, a pressure canister and a gas-in line. The docking receptacle is positioned in the subsurface well. The docking apparatus selectively docks with the docking receptacle in the subsurface well. The fluid inlet receives fluid from the subterranean formation. The pressure canister is positioned so that the docking apparatus is between the docking receptacle and the pressure canister. The pressure canister receives the fluid at an in-situ pressure. The gas-in line selectively delivers a gas to the pressure canister to pressurize the pressure canister so that the pressure canister is adapted to be removed from the subsurface well at a substantially similar pressure as the in-situ pressure.

In a further embodiment, features from the previous two embodiments are combined with one or more sensors that permit in-situ measurement of formation fluids at close to or actual formation temperatures and pressures.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The novel features of this invention, as well as the invention itself, both as to its structure and its operation, will be best understood from the accompanying drawings, taken in conjunction with the accompanying description, in which similar reference characters refer to similar parts, and in which:

FIG. 1A is a simplified cross-sectional side view illustration of one embodiment of a fluid monitoring system having features of the present invention, including one or more pressure canisters;

FIG. 1B is a detailed cross-sectional view of a portion of the fluid monitoring system illustrated in FIG. 1A;

FIG. 2 is a series of simplified cross-sectional view illustrations showing how pressure canisters operate in the system.

FIG. 3A is a simplified cross-sectional view of one embodiment of the fluid monitoring system that omits a first set of canisters;

FIG. 3B is a simplified cross-sectional view of one embodiment of the fluid monitoring system that omits the first set of canisters, and only includes one or more canisters in a second set of canisters, illustrated in a nested configuration;

FIG. 4 is a simplified cross-sectional view of another embodiment of a nested fluid monitoring system;

FIG. 5 is a simplified cross-sectional view of another embodiment of the fluid monitoring system;

FIG. 6 is a simplified cross-sectional view of yet another embodiment of the fluid monitoring system; and

FIG. 7 is a top view and a plurality of perspective views of one or more embodiments of a centralizer used in the fluid monitoring system.

DESCRIPTION

As an overview, the fluid monitoring and collection system 10 (hereinafter sometimes referred to as a “fluid monitoring system”) shown and described herein is particularly suited for monitoring and sampling sequestered subterranean fluid. Although carbon dioxide is specifically referenced herein as one fluid that can be monitored and/or sampled by the fluid monitoring system 10, it is recognized that other suitable fluids can equally be monitored and/or sampled. Additionally, although the sensor devices described herein are particularly suited for sensing carbon dioxide, other suitable sensors can be utilized with the fluid monitoring system 10 in order to sense other fluid parameters. For example, as non-exclusive examples only, the fluid monitoring system 10 can be used to sense and/or monitor temperature, conductivity, flow conductivity, the presence of oxygen or other fluids, pH, oxidation-reduction potential, dimensions and/or weight, the presence of metals or other solids, or any other suitable parameters.

FIG. 1 is a side-view illustration of one embodiment of a fluid monitoring system 10 that is used in a subsurface well. In this embodiment, the fluid monitoring system 10 includes one or more of a well casing 12, a first zone isolator 14 (such as a straddle packer, as one example), a second zone isolator 16 (such as a straddle packer, as one example), one or more fluid entry ports 18, one or more pressure canisters 20 (sometimes referred to simply as “canister”), a lower pump 22, a docking receptacle 24, a docking apparatus 26, a sensor 28, an upper pump 30, one or more gas-in lines 32, one or more sample return lines 34, a power source 36, a sensor signal return line 38 and a fluid-tight adapter 40. This fluid monitoring system can be placed within a riser pipe 41 in the borehole.

One embodiment consists of an evolutionary technology for collecting depth discrete soil gas and groundwater samples at formation temperatures and pressures during borehole advancement in unconsolidated to semi-consolidated earth materials as well as in hard-rock formation materials using advanced drilling and coring apparatus and methods. In the embodiment illustrated in FIG. 1A, the fluid monitoring system 10 is positioned within the borehole (not shown). Advantages can include one or more of the following: the ability to collect a groundwater and soil and/or soil-gas and soil samples at the same time; and/or the ability of the fluid monitoring system 10 to be pile-driven or advanced by coring while still under pneumatic pressure inside the pressure canister 20. Further, in certain embodiments, back pressurization with nitrogen gas prior to collection of a groundwater sample is maintained so that borehole fluids are prevented from entering the fluid monitoring system 10 during transport to the bottom of the borehole and during the pile driving process into the sediments below the bottom of the borehole. Further, the fluid monitoring system 10 can include one or more sensors 28 for measuring formation fluid properties, rock properties as well as chemical constituents can be incorporated into the apparatus for multi-tasking performance.

Each pressure canister 20 can vary in capacity. In one embodiment, the canister 20 can have a capacity of between 50 milliliters to 10 liters. Multiple canisters 20 in the system 10 can have different volumes or the same volume.

In one embodiment, once the fluid monitoring system 10 is driven approximately two feet beyond a bottom of the borehole, pressure is released from a pneumatic line that extends from the top of the sampler to the ground surface (not shown)—by opening a release valve located at the ground surface. In alternative embodiments, the device can be driven greater than or less than two feet beyond the bottom of the borehole. Filling of the pressure canister 20 can be pneumatically monitored from the ground surface through the back pressurization line 32. The fill detection process can also allow a determination of the quantity of water that has entered the pressure canister(s) 20. After sufficient groundwater sample has been obtained, the canisters 20 can be re-pressurized to simulate formation pressure, and the system 10 can be withdrawn or pulled from the punched hole below the bottom of the borehole, and tripped back to the ground surface for depressurization and sample transfer, for example.

One or more pressure canisters 20 can be integrated into straddle packer systems as illustrated in the embodiment in FIG. 1A, either as a single unit or as an in-line series of canisters 20 isolated between a set of straddle packers. As a matter of flexibility, any of the pressure canister configurations can be outfitted with shut-off valves located at the top and bottom of the canisters—such that following removal of canisters from the borehole the top and bottom pressure containment valves can be closed prior to direct connection to analytical systems for analysis of supercritical fluids in a single, or double or three-phase system. During retrieval of the canisters 20 to the ground surface, pressure inside the canisters 20 can be maintained by use of shut-off valves in combination with compressed at the ground surface.

FIG. 1B is a more detailed view of a portion of the fluid monitoring system 10. For example, in FIG. 1B, the lower pump 22 is connected to the gas-in line 32 and the sample return line 34. These lines 32, 34 can extend from the lower pump 22 through a fluid-tight adapter 40 to allow the lines to enter and/or exit the interior of the fluid monitoring system 10. Further, a back pressurization line can extend from an exterior of the fluid monitoring system 10 through the fluid-tight adapter 40 to the pressure canisters 20.

Referring back to FIG. 1A, two sets of pressure canisters for two separate retrieval operations can be used. A first set 42 of pressure canisters 20 (three canisters 20 are illustrated in the first set 42 in FIG. 1A) are illustrated in the lower portion of FIG. 1A, and are positioned between the first zone isolator 14 and the second zone isolator 16. A second set 44 of pressure canisters 20 (two canisters are illustrated in the second set 44 in FIG. 1A) are illustrated above the upper pump 30. In one embodiment, the second set 44 of canisters 20 can be removed from to the ground surface prior to and independently from the first set 42 of canisters 20. In other words, the docking apparatus 26 can be “undocked” from the docking receptacle 24, to remove the sensor 28, the upper pump 30, and the second set 44 of canisters 20, along with one or more gas-in line 32, sample return line 34, power source 36 and/or signal return lines 38. This allows the second set 44 of samples to be analyzed in a laboratory while the first set 42 of canisters 20 remains within the borehole for in-situ monitoring and corroboration with the laboratory results from the second set 44 of canisters 20. Alternatively, both the first set 42 of canisters 20 and the second set 44 of canisters 20 can be removed from the borehole for analysis.

It should be recognized that although the embodiment in FIG. 1A illustrates both the first set 42 of canisters 20 and the second set 44 of canisters 20, the fluid monitoring system 10 can be operated with one of the two sets 42, 44 of canisters. Stated another way the second set 44 of canisters 20 can be omitted from the fluid monitoring system 10, and the system 10 can be utilized with only the first set 42 of canisters. Conversely, the first set 42 of canisters 20 can be omitted, and the fluid monitoring system 10 can be operated with only the second set 44 of canisters 20.

From the standpoint of deployment into a borehole to depths of 1,000 to 10,000 feet below ground surface (bgs), a robust, heavy duty motorized hose spool can be required—much like that required in deep oceanographic applications. A pump can be integrated so that groundwater can be purged through the system before samples are containerized. Use of the down-hole sensor array can determine when parameters are stabilized for collection of the water samples. Moreover, the in-situ sensor field measurements can be used to corroborate laboratory measurements for establishing data validation.

With respect to groundwater monitoring carbon dioxide sequestration there are at least four general embodiments that can be utilized depending on depth, functional requirements or necessities and budget, as follows:

    • Paired Smaller Removable Tube/Pipe Inside Larger Removable Pipe System (to 10,000 feet bgs).
    • Nested Systems: typically achievable to 1,500 feet bgs.
    • Hardwired Straddle Packer Systems: to 10,000 ft. bgs.
    • Hybrid Hardwired/Nested Straddle Packer Systems: Nested Portion to 1,500 ft. bgs. and Hardwired portion to 10,000 ft. bgs.

Paired Smaller Removable Tube/Pipe Inside Larger Removable Pipe System

A single or multiple straddle packer zone isolation technology (SP-ZIST) is connected to the bottom end of a steel pipe strand extending up to 10,000 feet below ground surface. In one embodiment, the straddle packer section is outfitted with one or more pressure canisters 20 between each pair of isolating zone packers that are inflated by water or air. A fluid entry port is located at the bottom of each set of pressure canisters. The bottom most canister has one or more valves located on the inside of the canister and near its bottom. On the outside of each pressure canister is located a shut off valve that can be closed upon retrieval of the pressure canisters to the ground surface. A back pressurization line is connected to the top most canister with pressure inside this line controlled from the ground surface by use of compressed gas and valves. A completely separate fluid entry port is located above the top most canister and allows passage of formation fluids from to an open tapered receiver located between the straddle packer assembly and the hollow steel pipe strand.

As fluids enter and ascend through the fluid entry port, their migration is channeled through a cross-over adapter that permits an air-tight and fluid tight exit of back pressurization tubing, pump tubing and sensor cables that are located between the straddle packers to pass from the inside of the apparatus to the outside of the steel pipe strand that rises to the ground surface. Steel centralizers located above the cross-over sub have steel arms that extend from the main body of the centralizer ring and allow tubes and cables to be recessed for protection during transport if the entire SP-ZIST and steel pipe strand into and from the borehole environment. When being lowered into the borehole, all of the canisters can be back pressurized from the ground surface such that the internal sealing valve located near the bottom of the lower most canister between in pair of straddle packers can be closed to prevent borehole fluids from entering the canisters during descent to the target sampling location(s).

Once the SP-ZIST system is in place, the straddle packers can be inflated and sealed against the borehole wall. Back pressure from the ground surface can be released allowing the canisters to be filled in-situ formation fluid from the bottom up. A bubbler monitor or any other type of instrument made for such purpose can be used to monitor when the canisters are full. Once the canisters are full, compressed gas can be released from the ground surface to once again back pressure the internal valve located near the bottom of the bottom most canister. A small gas displacement pump can also be used to purge water from the canisters and is positioned inside the cross-over sub or at some other position directly within, above or below the straddle packer assembly.

A second sample collection and sensor system can be deployed on the inside of the steel pipe strand. The system is small enough to easily fit on the inside of the steel pipe and is lowered until it reaches the tapered receiver as described above. In this portion of the apparatus it can be configured such that sensors, pump and miniaturized pressure canisters can all be lowered independently to dock with the tapered receiver for only a single task function. Alternatively, any combination of the devices can be coupled together to allow multi task functions after docking with the tapered receiver. When using miniaturized pressure canisters, the canisters can be back pressurized during descent using compressed gas at the ground surface.

Once the apparatus has been seated into the tapered receiver, the back pressure charge can be released so that the canisters can fill with formation fluid. A fluid entry port located below the top most packer of the straddle packer pair allows formation fluid from the isolated sample target zone to migrate directly to the opening with the tapered receiver. When the sample and monitoring apparatus docks with the receiver formation fluid then come into direct contact with apparatus. A pump can be located within the apparatus to purge formation fluids that are derived from other areas of the borehole that are not part of the isolated sampling target.

Additionally, sensors within the apparatus can monitor parameter stabilization during pumping to determine when sample target zone fluids are in contact with the apparatus and inside the miniaturized pressure canisters. Once the sensor measurements are completed and formation fluid samples collected into the miniaturized pressure canisters, the canister can be back pressurized and retrieved to the ground surface with the entire second apparatus described herein. As before, with the larger canisters located between the pairs of straddle packers, valves located above and below each of the miniaturized pressure canisters can be closed, disconnected from the apparatus, and then directly connected to laboratory instruments for analysis. Sensor data can be corroborated against lab analyses of the formation fluid samples for the purpose of data validation.

Nested Systems

The Nested System is quite achievable to a depth of at least approximately 1,500 feet bgs. The key advantage of this technology is that it is simple to install and easy to operate. Moreover, development of each well within the nest is readily doable by use of air-lifting methods. Provided that there is sufficient hydraulic head, use of nitrogen gas (or a 150 scfm air compressor), a weighted drop tube inside the well, a properly designed diverter mechanism for discharging the water, and/or a Baker tank to hold the discharged water may be included.

In the embodiment illustrated in FIG. 1A, the fluid monitoring system 10 includes a zone isolation assembly, such as those more fully described in U.S. Patent Publication Nos. 2007/0158062, 2007/0158065, 2007/0158066 and 2007/0199691, which are incorporated herein by reference to the extent permitted. Alternatively, any other suitable zone isolation assembly can be incorporated into the fluid monitoring system 10. The upper pump 30 and the docking apparatus 26 docks with the docking receptacle 24. The receptacle 24 can be placed between the riser pipe 41 and the well screen—and is geometrically tapered on the inside. The upper pump 30 can have an external o-ring 56 close to its bottom—near the intake. When the upper pump 30 reaches the bottom of the riser pipe 41, the external o-ring near the upper pump 30 base combined with the weight of the upper pump 30 and hydraulic head of water inside the riser pipe 41 seats the o-ring 56 inside the tapered wall of the receptacle 24. In so doing, the upper pump 30 is now hydraulically connected directly to the well screen target zone—and the volume of water inside the riser pipe 41 is negated or eliminated from the sampling process. This type of zone isolation assembly is

FIG. 2 shows one embodiment of how the pressure canisters operate in the system. At step 246, the canister 20 is lowered into the borehole 200. Borehole fluids cannot enter the canister 20 during the lowering process because the canister 20 is back pressurized with a gas 202, such as nitrogen, or another suitable fluid.

At step 248, the canister 20 is driven ahead of the borehole bottom with an up-hole or down-hole drive hammer. The canister 20 is still under pressure.

At step 250, the gas 202 is released from the canister 20 by a ground surface controller, and a well screen 204 is exposed to allow the canister 20 to begin filling with groundwater 206.

At step 252, the canister 20 fills with groundwater 206. The displaced gas 202 enters a water-filled bottle or bucket as bubbles, serving as a fill indicator.

At step 254, the canister 20 is repressurized with gas 202, and then the canister 20 is removed from the drive hole at the bottom of the borehole 200. Back-pressure charge inhibits the borehole fluids from cross-contaminating the groundwater sample 206 and inhibits off-gassing of VOC molecules in the groundwater sample 206.

FIG. 3A shows one embodiment of the fluid monitoring system 310A that omits the first set of canisters, and only includes one or more canisters in the second set of canisters, in a single configuration.

FIG. 3B shows one embodiment of the fluid monitoring system 310B that omits the first set of canisters, and only includes one or more canisters in the second set of canisters, in a nested configuration. The nested configuration includes a plurality of fluid monitoring subsystems 358 that can be included in a plurality of different boreholes, or in a single uniform diameter borehole or telescoping diameter borehole.

For the purpose of carbon dioxide sequestration monitoring, the nested fluid monitoring system 310B has one or more advantages. The nested systems 310B can be outfitted with one or more of the features that are shown in the embodiment in FIG. 1—i.e. integrating 1) one or more pumps, 2) docking Receptacle, 3) pressure transducers, 4) pressure canisters, and/or 5) an automated and/or semi-automated control system at the ground surface.

FIG. 4 illustrates another embodiment of a nested system 410. As shown in the embodiment in FIG. 4, the pumps 430 are placed above the pressure canister(s) 420 and sensors 428 (if included) so that pumping from the system 410 continuously pulls fresh water from the screened target zone 462. When it is determined that parameters have stabilized (down-hole or up-hole) the pressure canisters 420 and pumps 430 can be back-pressurized from the ground surface—with simulated formation pressure locked into both devices. Once each pressure canister 420 is retrieved at ground surface, valves located at the tops and bottoms of each pressure vessel are closed—locking in the simulated formation pressure into each canister 420. At this point, the pump(s) 430 can be depressurized, and the pressure canister 420 detached from the bottom of the sampling string.

In certain embodiments, a nested system 410 can be successfully completed to a depth of at least 2,500 feet bgs, and perhaps to 3,000 feet bgs. Use of Schedule 120 PVC would likely be suitable to these depths in conjunction with stainless steel well screen. Each well within the nest could be developed using air-lifting methods with a relatively small 150 standard cubic feet per minute (scfm) air compressor (i.e. Ingersol Rand).

FIG. 5 illustrates another embodiment of the fluid monitoring system 510. In this embodiment, the fluid monitoring system 510 includes a plurality of pump/canister assemblies 564 that are positioned in series for use in a single borehole (not shown in FIG. 5). In this embodiment, multiple samples, each from a different level in the formation can be monitored and/or collected. Each of these pump/canister assemblies 564 operates in a similar manner to at least some of those previously described.

As used herein, the term “Hardwired Straddle Packer System” (HW-SPS) includes a system where tubing and instrumentation components are individually not removable from any part of the system unless most or all of the straddle packer system is removed from the borehole. As an example, some wells have various integral components that are not removable from the ground surface—such as packers, sampling ports, electromagnetic couplings, etc. So, if any one of these components malfunctions, most or all of the system has to be removed from the well or borehole for repair and/or replacement.

Such a system can incorporate one or more of the following: 1) one or more pumps, 2) one or more pressure canisters, 3) one or more multi-parameter sensors, and/or 4) a multi-channel control unit for simultaneous purging, sampling, and/or back pressurization. It is contemplated that the HW-SPS could be designed for a 6 (150 mm) to 8 inch (200 mm) diameter borehole, although other boreholes of different diameters can be used with the HW-SPS. This would allow the stainless steel mandrills of each packer to be made with a large enough inside diameter to pass through one or more of the following:

    • Packer inflation line. One line can be used for all of the packers.
    • A Gas-In and Sample Return Line (two lines) for each pump.
    • Cable pass-through for each sensor.

In one non-exclusive embodiment, a straddle packer of 140 mm would permit a pass through of approximately 125 mm and have ample coverage for inflation pressure, sealing pressures and pressure differentials between packers located at different depths within the same borehole and for the same depth range group. A single packer inflation line would be all that is required and would likely have an OD of 4.6 mm ( 3/16-inch)—made from high pressure Nylon or other polyamides—reinforced with fiberglass or synthetic fibers, for example. The back-pressurization line for each of the pressure canisters can also be 4.6 mm OD and be made from high pressure Nylon, in one non-exclusive embodiment. The gas-in and sample return lines for each of the pumps could be 6.35 mm OD (¼-inch)×4.6 mm ID, for example, and can be made from high pressure Nylon or other suitable materials. In certain embodiments, each of the Idronaut cables can be about 6 mm to 7 mm and can be made from military grade cable materials, for instance. Alternatively, the cables can be larger than 7 mm or smaller than 6 mm.

When using a long term HS-SPS, one or more of four factors can come into play, such as: 1) the method for deployment and retrieval from the borehole, 2) the method and system used for jacketing tubing and cable, 3) the method and apparatus for supporting the system over the long term following placement into the borehole, and 4) the materials used for resisting and preventing corrosion from long term exposure to brinish or other corrosive fluids.

When lowering such a system into a deep borehole, the total weight of the system will have been calculated in order to size out the specific crane to be used. In one embodiment, a structural support rod can be used to interconnect all of the straddle packer units and to connect the top straddle packer unit to the ground surface. Although the use of the support rod would possibly be slower than the use of a strong, thick steel cable to deploy and retrieve the HW-SPS, the support rod makes for a reliable and robust substrate to attach the jacketed tubing bundles and instrumentation cables.

Whether a common jacket is used for all of the Nylon tubes or a community of jackets, the Nylon tubes for each zone can be of different colors so that they are easily identified. Moreover, if not enough colors are available due to coloring limitations from fabricators and retailers, then tubes of the same color for each zone can be differentiated simply by using a lettering or numbering convention, for example.

Upon reaching total depth of emplacement within the borehole, the HW-SPS can be supported from both the bottom and the top. In one embodiment, the bottom of the system can be outfitted with a heavy-duty steel structural support pedestal. In one embodiment, the top of the support system can receive most of the load and be supported with a substantial stainless steel manifold plate in the shape of a large donut, several inches thick, and can be bolted to a reinforced concrete block or pedestal.

In one embodiment, materials used for jacketing Nylon tubes and instrumentation cables can be made from marine grade polymers used for oceanographic work. Metallic components used in instrumentation that would be exposed to the brinish fluids over a period of years can be made from materials such as titanium aluminum alloys, and the like.

A Hybrid system, referred to herein as a Hardwired/Nested Straddle Packer System (HW/N-SPS) is a versatile system for very deep carbon dioxide observation well applications—since this particular design would still facilitate use of pressure canisters for collection of carbon dioxide under super critical fluid conditions. FIG. 6 shows the basic layout of one embodiment of such a fluid monitoring system 610. The advantages of a hybrid system can include that a minimal number of sampling components would be placed between each straddle packer unit—thereby: 1) minimizing long term maintenance involving removal of the system from the well bore for repair and/or replacement of pumps and sensors, and/or, 2) permitting the use of removable pumps, sensors and/or pressure canisters for analyzing samples containing super critical carbon dioxide fluids.

The use of a hybrid system would lend itself to the use of a telescoping borehole that would significantly reduce drilling costs. In one embodiment, one important feature of the system is the attachment of the riser pipe sections to the central support rod via customized support centralizers 770—some of which are illustrated in FIG. 7. All of the structural and materials conditions that are described for the Hardwired Straddle Packer System can also be used for the Hybrid system described herein.

While the fluid monitoring and collection systems 10 and methods as shown and disclosed herein are fully capable of obtaining the objects and providing the advantages herein before stated, it is to be understood that they are merely illustrative of the presently preferred embodiments of the invention and that no limitations are intended to the details of the methods, processes, construction or design herein shown and described.