Title:
Truncated safety dome device and method
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
The present invention teaches that a warning dome system may have domes which are truncated and have no portion which is vertical nor near vertical, in fact, a very low angle of incline may be used. It further teaches that the material MMA (methyl methacrylate) may be used to provide an extremely hard and durable device. The present invention yet further teaches that admixtures of glass beads and the like into the mix at manufacture may allow the device to “wear down” while still providing excellent traction.



Inventors:
Koehn, Doyle L. (Arvada, CO, US)
Application Number:
12/316794
Publication Date:
07/02/2009
Filing Date:
12/16/2008
Primary Class:
International Classes:
E01F9/00
View Patent Images:
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Primary Examiner:
HARTMANN, GARY S
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Doyle Koehn (5709 W. 71st Cir., Arvada, CO, 80003, US)
Claims:
What is claimed is:

1. A safety dome warning mat comprising: a base having a thickness, length and width, the base having an upper surface, the upper surface having thereon a plurality of warning domes; each warning dome having the shape of a truncated cone having no vertical nor near vertical side; each warning dome having a top surface having a top diameter, a base having a base diameter, and a circular planform; the mat having at least one anchor passing through the mat, the anchor having a first bolt penetrating the mat, a rubber bushing about the first bolt, a washer about the first bolt below the bushing, a rod coupler threaded upon the first bolt and retaining the rubber bushing and washer about the first bolt, a second bolt threaded into the rod coupler, and a lock nut disposed against the rod couple about the second bolt.

2. The safety dome warning mat of claim 1, further comprising: a polymer material having small skid resistant particles therein.

3. The safety dome warning mat of claim 2, wherein the small skid resistant particles are located at one member selected from the group consisting of: the upper surface of the base, the upper surfaces of the warning domes, mixed into the warning domes, mixed into the base, and combinations thereof.

4. The safety dome warning mat of claim 2, wherein the small skid resistant particles are small beads of glass.

5. A safety dome warning mat comprising: a base having a thickness, length and width, the base having an upper surface, the upper surface having thereon a plurality of warning domes; one part of the mat including methyl-methacrylate as a material.

6. The safety dome warning mat of claim 5, wherein the part of the mat which includes methyl-methacrylate as a material is one member selected from the group consisting of: the base, the warning domes, and combinations thereof.

7. The safety dome warning mat of claim 5, further comprising: each warning dome having the shape of a truncated cone; each warning dome having a top surface having a top diameter, a base having a base diameter, and a circular planform, each dome having no vertical side.

8. The safety dome warning mat of claim of 5, further comprising: an impact modifier in the material.

9. The safety dome warning mat of claim of 5, further comprising: at least one color pigment in the material.

10. The safety dome warning mat of claim of 5, further comprising: a hardening accelerator in the material.

11. The safety dome warning mat of claim of 5, further comprising: a mineral filler in the material.

12. The safety dome warning mat of claim 5, further comprising: small skid resistant particles in the material.

13. The safety dome warning mat of claim 12, wherein the small skid resistant particles are located at one member selected from the group consisting of: the upper surface of the base, the upper surface of the warning domes, mixed into the warning domes, mixed into the base, and combinations thereof.

14. The safety dome warning mat of claim 12, wherein the small skid resistant particles are small beads of glass.

15. The safety dome warning mat of claim 5, further comprising: at least one anchor passing through the mat, the anchor having a first bolt penetrating the mat, a rubber bushing about the first bolt, a washer about the first bolt below the bushing, a rod coupler threaded upon the first bolt and retaining the rubber bushing and washer about the first bolt, a second bolt threaded into the rod coupler, and a lock nut disposed against the rod couple about the second bolt.

Description:

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

The application claims the priority and benefit of U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 60/665,787 filed Mar. 28, 2005 in the name of the same inventor, Doyle L. Koehn, and entitled TRUNCATED SAFETY DOME WARNING SYSTEM AND METHOD, and ALSO claims the priority and benefit of U.S. Utility application Ser. No. 11,389,454, filed Mar. 24, 2006 with the same title and inventorship, the entire disclosure of which are both incorporated herein by this reference.

COPYRIGHT NOTICE

A portion of the disclosure of this patent document contains material which is subject to copyright protection. The copyright owner has no objection to the facsimile reproduction by anyone of the patent document or the patent disclosure, as it appears in the Patent and Trademark Office patent file or records, but otherwise reserves all copyright rights whatsoever. 37 CFR 1.71(d).

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates generally to warning dome devices, and specifically to shapes, materials and methods of manufacture of such devices.

STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY FUNDED RESEARCH

This invention was not made under contract with an agency of the US Government, nor by any agency of the US Government.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

A pedestrian with visual impairment may feel a safety dome pattern with their feet (or may even hear the sound of the safety domes if they are driving) thereby alerting them that they entering an area of potential danger, areas such as intersections, crosswalks, highway center lanes, danger zones, sidewalks, walkways, platforms, public transit stations, etc, and is a safety dome invention whereby any person and especially for the sight impaired pedestrians will be made aware of the locations of potential hazards. Pedestrians that have some type of disability need to have some type of warning system in place to alert them of the potential danger. There is a need in public transit facilities and streets for pedestrians to be able to detect the locations of potential hazards. By making the pedestrian aware of a potential hazard, safety domes allow the pedestrian or driver to avoid the hazard. The hazardous areas could include sidewalks, curb ramps, crosswalks, stairways, railroad crossings, subways platforms, loading docks, stages, bus loading platforms, man holes, potholes, construction area dangers, road edge warnings, intersections, highways center lanes, etc.

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA ) as of July of 2004 established guide lines that safety domes in a detectable warning surface shall have a base diameter of 0.9 inch minimum to 1.4 inches maximum, and the top of the dome diameter not smaller than 50% of the base diameter up to 65% of the base diameter, and a height of 0.2 inch.

In addition the safety domes in a detectable warning surface shall have a center-to-center spacing of 1.6 inches minimum and 2.4 inches maximum, and a base-to-base spacing of 0.65 inch minimum, measured between the most adjacent domes on a square grid. Detectable warning surfaces at platform boarding edges shall be 24 inches wide and shall extend the full length of the public use areas of the platform. At intersections, domes are normally laid in a semi-circular pattern to cover any direction a pedestrian might legally choose to walk.

Known art within the area of truncated dome warnings includes many different designs for meeting the requirements of the ADA. There are tiles that are glued or mechanically fastened or imbedded into concrete, such as U.S. Pat. No. 4,715,743 to Schmanzki (1987), U.S. Pat. No. 5,303,669 to Szekely (1994), U.S. Pat. No. 0,031,415 to Sippola, (2005), U.S. Pat. No. 0,013,662 to Prozenzano (2005) There are mats where the domes are imbedded into the mats and fastened to the substrate by heat, rivets, glue, etc. All of the above have the same problems including the cost of installing; the time it takes to install; the need to retrofit on existing location or needing to build a custom lay out; snow plows, shovels, or sharp objects knocking the domes off when they hit a vertical section of a dome and the way the domes are designed causes a safety problem. All of the domes are a ½ sphere, therefore there is a vertical section near the base of each ½ sphere, and when that vertical or nearly vertical section is hit, snow plows knock the domes off and people who are at an unstable moment may stub their toes or stumble because of the design of the domes. All of the existing safety domes that have been made are made from cement, fiberglass, rubber, plastic, thermal plastic, tile (a combination of cement & polymer). None of which are made out of polymer with a plurality of fillers which makes a product that is 3 to 4 time harder than any concrete.

U.S. Patent Publication Number 2007/0086859 in the name of Julnes and filed on Oct. 19, 2005 teaches the use of certain polymers for safety dome mats. However, that application's filing date (Oct. 19, 2005) is some months after the filing of the present inventor's provisional application referenced above (Mar. 29, 2005) and to which this application looks for priority and benefit. The present inventor's provisional application references the use of methyl-methacrylic.

Another issue with such devices is that when the concrete matrix/substrate (the sidewalk) sets, it shrinks by a very tine amount. This causes a minuscule airspace between the bottom of the mat and its concrete substrate. The compression and flexing of the mat by pedestrian feet and traffic then act to much more swiftly break up the mat. Even worse, water entering the airspace below the mat may freeze in some climates, even more quickly breaking the mat.

The present invention relates to intersections, crosswalks, highway center lanes, danger zones, sidewalks, walkways, platforms, etc, and is a safety dome invention whereby any person and especially for the sight impaired pedestrians will be made aware of the locations of potential hazards.

It would be preferable to provide, and the present invention provides a safety dome design which is more resistant to being damaged by side impacts such as snow plow blades.

It would be preferable to provide, and the present invention provides a safety dome design of notably more durable material than traditional designs.

It would be preferable to provide, and the present invention provides a safety dome design which is less likely to “catch” the edge of footwear of pedestrians, particularly visually impaired pedestrians.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

General Summary

The present invention teaches that a warning dome system may have domes which are truncated cones and have no portion which is vertical nor near vertical, in fact, a very low angle of incline may be used. It further teaches that the material MMA (methyl methacrylate) may be used to provide an extremely hard and durable device. The present invention yet further teaches that admixtures of glass beads and the like into the mix at manufacture may allow the device to “wear down” while still providing excellent traction.

This invention relates to solving the problems that exist in all of the present truncated dome warning systems.

In manufacture, a mold is made into which liquid polymer is poured with at least one (or more) common mineral fillers, hardeners, accelerators, glass beads and skid resistant particles to produce the truncated dome mat. The mold inside surface is blasted with course blasting compound to make the truncated dome mat have a abrasive texture for skid resistance.

The molds can be made in a plurality different geometric designs. The mold could be in the form of a “S”, “CURVE”, “TRIANGLE”, LINE TAPE”, “RECTANGLE”, CIRCLE, SQUARE, etc., and still maintain the “ADA” requirements.

One advantage of the present design is that as the truncated domes wear down in use on the sidewalk, the imbedded glass particles & glass beads continue to provide the skid resistance.

The entire perimeter of the base truncated dome mat starts with a “0” height to the substrate and increases at about 15 degrees to 90 degrees to the top of the base height of the mat which has a height of about 0.0625 inches to 4 inches.

The domes have a height from about 0.1 inches to 0.3 inches above the mat base.

The base diameter of the truncated domes is about 0.9 inches to 1.4 inches with the top of the domes having a diameter of about 50% to 65% of the base diameter of the domes.

The truncated domes in a detectable warning surface may have a center-to-center plurality spacing of about 0.6 inches to 2.4 inches on a square grid with a base-to-base spacing of about 0.65 inches minimum between the most adjacent domes on a square grid, though other grid arrangements and spacing may be used as legally allowed.

The entire truncated dome mat has a plurality of common mineral fillers, hardeners, glass beads and skid resistant particles, with at least one embedded in the entire mat (base & domes), giving the mat additional safety features.

Installation may be done by using Degadeck® primer on the substrate and applying a coating of Degussa(® 1004 binder resin with a plurality of fillers, though any method of installation may be used, for example, mechanical fasteners may be recessed into domes where needed and anchored into the substrate by drilling a 3/16 inch hole into the substrate.

The invention, an improved and truncated dome warning system is superior to any of the other types of detectable warning system in the following ways.

The truncated domed mat can be bonded to a plurality of surfaces and can only be removed by grinding the mat off.

By design, the damage to mats and truncated domes as result of snow plows and sharp objects coming into contact with mates and truncated is greatly reduced.

By design the injury caused by tripping on the mats are greatly reduced: presently, the best elevation on both the mat and the elevation on the truncated domes is 30 degrees, so everything slides over the top easily, as opposed to prior art hemispheres, which have a 90 degree angle to the base at the point nearest the ground.

All edges may start at a base of “0” reference elevation and have an elevation of about 15 degrees to 90 degrees. All edges of the mat and domes have a plurality of radiuses, and this is true of both the base mat and the base of where the dome base begins. As an object comes into contact with the mat, the object will slide over the top of the mat or domes.

The truncated domed mats do not need any modification to the existing surfaces in use at intersections and stations.

No reconstruction of the area where a detectable warning system is required. This invention is a retrofit system and can be install in 10 minutes.

The truncated domed mats can be installed into new concrete as well.

The truncated domed mats may have a plurality sizes and shapes to meet the customer needs.

The truncated domed mats may have a plurality of glass beads & skid resistant particles for safety.

A plurality of color pigments are available and may be added to the polymer, giving the customer a choice of colors.

After installation, no barricades are needed because of the accelerators used in the bonding agent.

The entire invention is a one piece truncated domed mat made from polymer which is 3 to 4 times harder then concrete, and having a hardness which may be controlled by control of the polymer mix: it may be made considerably harder than 3 to 4 times the hardness of concrete if this is desirable, or it may be made less hard. In practice, testing has revealed that 3 to 4 times is a good compromise point: above this level of hardness, the device may become to brittle.

SUMMARY IN REFERENCE TO CLAIMS

It is therefore another aspect, advantage, objective and embodiment of the invention, in addition to those discussed previously, to provide a safety dome warning mat comprising:

a base having a thickness, length and width, the base having an upper surface, the upper surface having thereon a plurality of warning domes;

each warning dome having the shape of a truncated DOME having no vertical nor near vertical side;

each warning dome having a top surface having a top diameter, a base having a base diameter, and a circular planform;

the mat having at least one anchor passing through the mat, the anchor having a first bolt penetrating the mat, a rubber bushing about the first bolt, a washer about the first bolt below the bushing, a rod coupler threaded upon the first bolt and retaining the rubber bushing and washer about the first bolt, a second bolt threaded into the rod coupler, and a lock nut disposed against the rod couple about the second bolt.

It is therefore another aspect, advantage, objective and embodiment of the invention to provide a safety dome warning mat further comprising:

a polymer material having small skid resistant particles therein.

It is therefore another aspect, advantage, objective and embodiment of the invention to provide a safety dome warning mat wherein the small skid resistant particles are located at one member selected from the group consisting of: the upper surface of the base, the upper surfaces of the warning domes, mixed into the warning domes, mixed into the base, and combinations thereof.

It is therefore another aspect, advantage, objective and embodiment of the invention to provide a safety dome warning mat wherein the small skid resistant particles are small beads of glass.

It is therefore another aspect, advantage, objective and embodiment of the invention to provide a safety dome warning mat comprising:

a base having a thickness, length and width, the base having an upper surface, the upper surface having thereon a plurality of warning domes;

one part of the mat including methyl-methacrylate as a material.

It is therefore another aspect, advantage, objective and embodiment of the invention to provide a safety dome warning mat, wherein the part of the mat which includes methyl-methacrylate as a material is one member selected from the group consisting of: the base, the warning domes, and combinations thereof.

It is therefore another aspect, advantage, objective and embodiment of the invention to provide a safety dome warning mat, further comprising:

each warning dome having the shape of a truncated DOME;

each warning dome having a top surface having a top diameter, a base having a base diameter, and a circular planform, each dome having no vertical side.

It is therefore another aspect, advantage, objective and embodiment of the invention to provide a safety dome warning mat, further comprising:

an impact modifier in the material.

It is therefore another aspect, advantage, objective and embodiment of the invention to provide a safety dome warning mat, further comprising:

at least one color pigment in the material.

It is therefore another aspect, advantage, objective and embodiment of the invention to provide a safety dome warning mat, further comprising:

a hardening accelerator in the material.

It is therefore another aspect, advantage, objective and embodiment of the invention to provide a safety dome warning mat, further comprising:

a mineral filler in the material.

It is therefore another aspect, advantage, objective and embodiment of the invention to provide a safety dome warning mat, further comprising:

small skid resistant particles in the material.

It is therefore another aspect, advantage, objective and embodiment of the invention to provide a safety dome warning mat, wherein the small skid resistant particles are located at one member selected from the group consisting of: the upper surface of the base, the upper surface of the warning domes, mixed into the warning domes, mixed into the base, and combinations thereof.

It is therefore another aspect, advantage, objective and embodiment of the invention to provide a safety dome warning mat, wherein the small skid resistant particles are small beads of glass.

It is therefore another aspect, advantage, objective and embodiment of the invention to provide a safety dome warning mat further comprising:

at least one anchor passing through the mat, the anchor having a first bolt penetrating the mat, a rubber bushing about the first bolt, a washer about the first bolt below the bushing, a rod coupler threaded upon the first bolt and retaining the rubber bushing and washer about the first bolt, a second bolt threaded into the rod coupler, and a lock nut disposed against the rod couple about the second bolt.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a planform top view of the upper surface of the truncated domed mat in accordance with the invention, showing a section of the mat.

FIG. 2 is a planform top view of the upper surface of the truncated domed mat as it is installed at a intersection crosswalk at a 45 degree angle.

FIG. 3 is a side cross-sectional view of the truncated domed mat of FIG. 1 showing the base mat and proposed lay out on base mat with truncated domes.

FIG. 4 is a side cross-sectional view of the truncated domed mat of FIG. 1 as it would be bonded to a surface.

FIG. 5 is a side cross-sectional view of a mold into which the polymer compound is poured during manufacture.

FIG. 6 is a side cross-sectional view of FIG. 5. after it has been filled with polymer compound during manufacture.

FIG. 7 is a side cross-sectional view of a textured warning mat of the invention on concrete.

FIG. 8 is a side cross-sectional of the receiving mold of the invention during the course of manufacture.

FIG. 9 is a side cross-sectional view of the textured warning mat of the invention.

FIG. 10 is a side cross-sectional view of a mold according to the manufacturing embodiment of the invention in an alternative embodiment suitable for setting into concrete.

FIG. 11 is a side cross-sectional view of the textured warning mat in a thicker alternative embodiment suitable for laying into concrete.

FIG. 12 is a side cross-sectional view of the textured warning mat of the invention installed in concrete.

FIG. 13 is a cross-sectional side view of a single anchor according to the invention, installed in concrete.

FIG. 14 is a cross-sectional side view of a single anchor according to the invention, installed in concrete.

FIG. 15 is a cross-sectional side view of a single dome according to the invention showing skid resistant particles on the top surface of the dome.

FIG. 16 is a cross-sectional side view of a single dome according to the invention showing skid resistant particles on the top surface of the base.

FIG. 17 is a cross-sectional side view of a single dome according to the invention showing skid resistant particles in the body of the base.

FIG. 18 is a cross-sectional side view of a single dome according to the invention showing skid resistant particles in the body of the dome.

FIG. 19 is a perspective view of a single square pattern of four truncated DOME-shaped warning domes of the invention.

FIG. 20 is a cross-sectional side view of a single dome according to PRIOR ART designs, showing the 90 degree or near 90 degree angle which exists at the base of the dome.

FIG. 21 is a cross-sectional side view of a single dome according to the invention showing the truncated conical shape which aids shoes, snow plows and other impacting objects in sliding over the dome.

INDEX TO REFERENCE NUMERALS

  • 11 truncated domed mat
  • 11B truncated domed mat
  • 12 base diameter of the domes
  • 13 top diameter of the top of domes
  • 14 center to center spacing of domes
  • 15 base to base spacing on a square grid
  • 16 elevation angle of domes from the base of dome to the top of dome
  • 17 elevation angle of “0” height of the edge to the base height of base mat
  • 18 mechanical fasteners
  • 19 height of domes from the base height of mat to the tope of domes
  • 20 height of the base mat
  • 21 bonding agent
  • 22 surfaces upon which TRUNCATED SAFETY DOME SYSTEM is placed
  • 23 primer
  • 24 reduction of to amount of polymer mix
  • 25 molding form into which polymer with fillers are poured to make the invention.
  • 26 None
  • 27 Increasing the quantity of polymer mix
  • 29 Concrete
  • 30 Pan-headed bolt
  • 31 Rubber bushing
  • 32 Metal washer
  • 33 Rod coupler
  • 34 Lock nut
  • 35 Carriage-headed bolt
  • 1002 skid resistant particles

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

FIG. 13 is a cross-sectional side view of a single dome according to PRIOR ART designs, showing the 90 degree or near 90 degree angle which exists at the base of the dome. It will be appreciated that footwear of pedestrians may catch on this zone of near vertical facing to the safety dome, especially the footwear of visually impaired individuals for whom it is designed. It should also be understood that snow plow blades are specifically designed to ride as low as possible to the ground and catch anything (snow) lying on the ground and lift it away. In snowy climes, the repeated impact of snow plow blades on safety domes can rapidly reduce the dome mat to a series of irregular remnants.

FIG. 14 is a cross-sectional side view of a single dome according to the invention showing the truncated conical shape which aids shoes, snow plows and other impacting objects in sliding over the dome. The smooth sides allow easier crossing over the dome for anything which reaches the dome at a low level. FIG. 19 is a perspective view of a single square pattern of four truncated cone-shaped warning domes of the invention, depicting the fact that the domes are in fact actually truncated cones with smooth sides. Angles as low as 15 degrees are envisioned in embodiments of the invention, although angles which may be quite large (45 degrees, 60 degrees or more) are also envisioned. Shaping the domes for increased safety and durability is only one aspect of the present invention. What is even more important is a material which was first proposed for this purpose in the provisional application (referenced above, for which priority and benefit is claimed) and which was filed on Mar. 28, 2005. Methyl-methacrylic and the product Poly(methyl-methacrylic) mixed with other materials such as mineral fillers, other polymers and so on create extremely hard polymer bodies when finished, and yet pose surmountable obstacles to manufacture and casting. “MMA” and “PMMA” products may in fact be many times as hard as concrete, in fact, so hard that the inventor's testing has revealed that an impact modifier should be used to reduce brittleness. The impact modifiers of the Paraloid (trademark) family actually reduce the hardness of the finished product but offer the benefit of making the product more resistant to blows, ductile, and thus making the product even longer lasting. There may be a wide range of particle sizes, and testing has revealed that fine grain particles work well. When the Paraloid (trademark) impact modifiers are used in the presently preferred embodiment and best mode presently contemplated for carrying out the invention, the final product is approximately 3 to 4 times as hard a concrete. MMA and PMMA are most often seen in CORIAN brand countertops (trademark of Du Pont Corporation) and in making of acrylic glass. Using a countertop material or a glass substitute for making pavement, sidewalks and the like is unexpected.

Thus, in order to increase the useful, life of safety dome mats, not only are the dome shapes changed to a shape with no vertical face but also the material is changed from tile, ceramic or concrete to an MMA/PMMA polymer. Methyl-methacrylic and poly(methyl-methacrylic) thus offer a number of advantages over conventional mineral/ceramic or concrete materials.

FIG. 1 is a planform top view of the top surface of the truncated safety domes warning system 11 constructed in accordance with the invention. The base diameter 12 may have a diameter of about 0.9 inch minimum to a maximum of about 1.4 inches. The top of the domes 13 may have a diameter of about 50% to 65% of the base diameter 12. The truncated domes in a detectable warning surface may have a center-to-center plurality spacing 14 of about 1.6 inches to about 2.4 inches with as a base-to base spacing 15 of about 0.65 inches minimum between the most closely adjacent domes on a square grid. The elevation angle of the domes from the base of the dome 12 to the top of the dome 13 may have a plurality in degrees 16 from about 15 degrees to 60 degrees which will allow any object coming into contact with any dome to slide over the dome. The outer edges of the truncated dome mat 17 starts at “0” inches high and increases at a plurality in degrees incline about 15 degrees to 60 degrees. Which will allow an object coming into contact with the outer edge of the truncated dome warning system to slide over the top.

FIG. 2. is a top view of the truncated safety dome warning system as it is installed at a crosswalk having the requirements of the ADA. The mat 11 could have a wide range of sizes and designs. All reference numbers in FIG. 2 have the same description as in FIG. 1.

FIG. 3 is a lateral cross-section of mat 11. The domes have a height 19 of about 0.2 inches above the base height 20 which has a plurality height of about 0.0625 inches to 4 inches. # 17 &16 give a view of the angle of for form 11.

FIG. 4. is a side cross-section of truncated domed mat 11 as it is placed on a surface 22. Between the truncated domed mat 11 and surface 22 a bonding agent 21 is placed to adhere the truncated domed mat 11 to the surface 22, though fasteners may be used instead: bolts, studs, nails and so on.

FIG. 5 is a side cross-section of the casting mold 25 which shows 17 (the edge elevation of the truncated domed mat), 12 (the diameter of the base dome), 13 (the top of the domes), 14 (the center of the dome to center of the domes), 15 (the distance between the base dome to base dome), 16 (the elevation angles of the base of the dome to top of dome).

FIG. 6. is a side cross-section of the casting mold 25 into which is poured polymer mix with at least one of the following: common mineral fillers, glass beads, skid resistant material, and color pigments. The finished product is the truncated dome mat 11 which is 3 to 4 times harder than concrete. The truncated dome mat 11 when taken out of the casting mold 25 is the finished product of the invention.

FIG. 7 is a side cross-section view of the textured warning mat 11 as it is adhered to surface of a substrate, showing the mechanical fasteners 18 being installed as well as the bonding agent 21 and primer 23 being placed on the substrate.

FIG. 8 is a side cross-section of mold 25 showing that by reducing the amount of polymer mix 24 poured into the mold the textured warning mat 11 will be produced.

FIG. 9 is a side cross-section of the textured warning mat 11, which is a result of what took place in FIG. 8.

FIG. 10 is a side cross-section of the mold 25 showing that by increasing the amount of polymer mix 27 a textured warning mat 11B is produced that ready to be installed into the substrate.

FIG. 11 is a side cross-section of the textured warning mat 11B, showing it is relatively thick, for mounting into the substrate.

FIG. 12 is a side cross-section of the textured warning mat 11B installed in concrete 29, that is, not adhered thereto but rather inset into the concrete.

FIG. 13 is a cross-sectional side view of a single anchor according to the invention, installed in concrete, FIG. 14 is closer view of the cross-sectional side view of a single anchor. The anchor is an elongated body formed of two bolts joined by an internally threaded cylindrical coupler. Importantly, a bushing of rubber or other deformable material allows the device to be adjusted tighter after the concrete around it has set. This minimizes the airspace under the mat (above the concrete) and thus dramatically increases the lifespan of the mat by preventing water from getting into the airspace.

Pan-headed bolt 30 may have a head allowing adjustment from above, in particular, allowing tightening against the rubber bushing 31. Metal washer 32 may retain and reinforce the device. Rod coupler 33 may be thought of as a cylinder with counter-rotating threading starting at opposite ends: two bolts may be screwed in from opposite ends.

Lock nut 34 provides a tight fit of the bottom bolt, carriage-headed bolt 35, to the rest of the device, or more accurately, since the carriage-headed bolt 35 is set firmly within the concrete matrix 29, allows a tight fit of the rest of the anchor and mat to the bottom bolt and substrate.

FIG. 15 is a cross-sectional side view of a single dome according to the invention showing skid resistant particles on the top surface of the dome. FIG. 16 is a cross-sectional side view of a single dome according to the invention showing skid resistant particles on the top surface of the base. In alternative embodiments, the skid resistant-particle 1002 may be a glass bead, a mineral body such as granules of sand or the like. However, in the presently preferred embodiment, the particles may in fact merely be minute extensions of the methyl-methacrylic/poly(methyl-methacrylic) body. In this presently preferred embodiment, at the time the master mold is made, small particles are used to create “particle spaces” on the upper surface of the master. These particles on the positive master then get translated as small particle shaped voids in the negative silicon molds used in processing. Note that the silicon mold is flexible enough to release the MMA/PMMA mat when the actual mat is cast in the silicon mold: other mold materials might not easily release the fine grained skid resistant particles. In any case, the result in the preferred embodiment is that the skid resistant particles, which may be on the order of 1 millimeter in diameter, are cast as tiny projections of the main body/domes/MMA/PMMA polymer body. In other embodiments, the skid resistant particles may of course actually be small glass beads, mineral granules or the like.

FIG. 17 is a cross-sectional side view of a single dome according to the invention showing skid resistant particles in the body of the base. FIG. 18 is a cross-sectional side view of a single dome according to the invention showing skid resistant particles in the body of the dome. These alternative embodiments use actual particles included, with the benefit that when the mat wears away, they are exposed and good traction is still offered by the surface.

Operation

The truncated safety dome warning system (mat) is taken to the location where there is a need for the (mat) to be placed. For a surface mounting, a primer is applied to the substrate and bonding agent is placed on the back side of the mat. The mat is placed on surface, mechanical fasteners are counter sunk as needed (possibly through some of the domes) and the fasteners are drilled into the substrate. Within 10 to 20 minutes the truncated safety dome warning system is ready to be used. There is no need to form out the surface where the mat will be placed, however, as shown in FIG. 11, this is also perfectly suitable as a mounting method for the mat. Such sunken mats tend to last longer in use. The truncated safety dome warning system is a retro fitting system and therefore can be applied to any existing or new surfaces where ADA or other requirements apply. Objects coming into contact with the truncated safety dome warning system will slide over the top of the domes because the angle of elevation is always from 0 degrees to between about 15 degrees and 60 degrees, and this low angle of incidence occurs from any side or any angle of approaching the truncated safety dome warning system. Thus, snow plow blades and the like will be much less likely to remove domes, shoes and other footwear are much less likely to become caught at the edges and so on.

The disclosure is provided to render practicable the invention by those skilled in the art without undue experimentation, including the best mode presently contemplated and the presently preferred embodiment. Nothing in this disclosure is to be taken to limit the scope of the invention, which is susceptible to numerous alterations, equivalents and substitutions without departing from the scope and spirit of the invention. The scope of the invention is to be understood from the appended claims.