Title:
METHODS FOR DETECTING ESTRADIOL BY MASS SPECTROMETRY
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
Provided are methods for determining the amount of estradiol in a sample using mass spectrometry. The methods generally involve ionizing estradiol in a sample and detecting and quantifying the amount of the ion to determine the amount of estradiol in the sample.



Inventors:
Goldman, Mildred M. (Laguna Niguel, CA, US)
Clarke, Nigel J. (Oceanside, CA, US)
Reitz, Richard E. (San Clemente, CA, US)
Application Number:
11/946017
Publication Date:
05/28/2009
Filing Date:
11/27/2007
Primary Class:
International Classes:
H01J49/26
View Patent Images:
Related US Applications:



Primary Examiner:
FRITCHMAN, REBECCA M
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
FOLEY & LARDNER LLP (P.O. BOX 80278, SAN DIEGO, CA, 92138-0278, US)
Claims:
That which is claimed is:

1. A method for determining the amount of estradiol in a test sample said method comprising: (a) purifying estradiol from said test sample by liquid chromatography; (b) ionizing the purified estradiol from said test sample to produce one or more ions detectable by tandem mass spectrometry; and (c) detecting the amount of the estradiol ion(s) by tandem mass spectrometry, wherein the amount of the estradiol ion(s) is related to the amount of estradiol in said test sample; wherein the limit of quantitation of the method is less than or equal to 80 pg/mL and estradiol is not derivatized prior to mass spectrometry.

2. The method of claim 1, wherein said liquid chromatography is high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

3. The method of claim 1, wherein said purifying further comprises high turbulence liquid chromatography (HTLC) followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

4. The method of claim 1, wherein said estradiol ions comprise one or more ions selected from the group consisting of ions with a mass/charge ratio of 271.14±0.5, 255.07±0.5, 183.10±0.5, 159.20±0.5, 145.10±0.5, and 133.20±0.5.

5. The method of claim 1, wherein said ionizing comprises generating a precursor ion selected from the group consisting of ions with a mass/charge ratio of 271.14±0.5 and 255.07±0.5, and generating one or more fragment ions selected from the group consisting of ions with a mass/charge ratio of 183.10±0.5, 159.20±0.5, 145.10±0.5, and 133.20±0.5.

6. The method of claim 1, wherein an agent is added to said test sample in an amount sufficient to free estradiol from a protein that may be present in said test sample prior to said ionizing step.

7. The method of claim 6, wherein said agent is added in an amount sufficient to acidify said test sample.

8. The method of claim 7, wherein said agent is formic acid.

9. The method of claim 6, wherein said agent is a salt.

10. The method of claim 9, wherein said salt is ammonium sulfate.

11. The method of claim 1, wherein both glucuronidated and non-glucuronidated estradiol present in said test sample are detected and measured by the method.

12. The method of claim 1, wherein said test sample is body fluid.

13. A method for determining the amount of estradiol in a body fluid sample by tandem mass spectrometry said method comprising: (a) purifying estradiol from said body fluid sample by liquid chromatography; (b) generating a precursor ion of said estradiol having a mass/charge ratio of 255.07±0.5; (c) generating one or more fragment ions of said precursor ion, wherein at least one of said one or more fragment ions comprise an ion fragment having a mass/charge ratio of 133.20±0.5: and (d) detecting the amount of one or more of said ions generated in step (b) or (c) or both and relating the detected ions to the amount of said estradiol in said body fluid sample.

14. The method of claim 13, wherein said method has a limit of quantitation less than or equal to 80 pg/mL.

15. The method of claim 13, wherein said estradiol is not derivatized prior to mass spectrometry.

16. The method of claim 13, wherein said liquid chromatography is high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

17. The method of claim 13, wherein said purifying further comprises high turbulence liquid chromatography (HTLC) followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

18. The method of claim 13, wherein said precursor ion has a mass/charge ratio of 255.07±0.5, and said one or more fragment ions comprise a fragment ion with a mass/charge ratio of 159.20±0.5.

19. The method of claim 13, wherein an agent is added to said body fluid sample in an amount sufficient to free estradiol from a protein that may be present in said body fluid sample prior to said ionizing step.

20. The method of claim 19, wherein said agent is added in an amount sufficient to acidify said body fluid sample.

21. The method of claim 20, wherein said agent is formic acid.

22. The method of claim 13, wherein both glucuronidated and non-glucuronidated estradiol present in said body fluid are detected and measured by the method.

23. A method for determining the amount of estradiol in a body fluid sample by tandem mass spectrometry said method comprising: (a) purifying estradiol from said body fluid sample by liquid chromatography; (b) generating a precursor ion of said estradiol having a mass/charge ratio of 271.14±0.5; (c) generating one or more fragment ions of said precursor ion, wherein at least one of said one or more fragment ions comprise an ion fragment having a mass/charge ratio of 183.10±0.5; and (d) detecting the amount of one or more of said ions generated in step (b) or (c) or both and relating the detected ions to the amount of said estradiol in said body fluid sample.

24. The method of claim 23, wherein said method has a limit of quantitation less than or equal to 80 pg/mL.

25. The method of claim 23, wherein said estradiol is not derivatized prior to mass spectrometry.

26. The method of claim 23, wherein said liquid chromatography is high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

27. The method of claim 23, wherein said purifying further comprises high turbulence liquid chromatography (HTLC) followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

28. The method of claim 23, wherein said precursor ion has a mass/charge ratio of 271.14±0.5, and said one or more fragment ions comprise a fragment ion with a mass/charge ratio of 145.10±0.5.

29. The method of claim 23, wherein an agent is added to said body fluid sample in an amount sufficient to free estradiol from a protein that may be present in said test sample prior to said ionizing step.

30. The method of claim 29, wherein said agent is a salt.

31. The method of claim 30, wherein said salt is ammonium sulfate.

32. The method of claim 23, wherein both glucuronidated and non-glucuronidated estradiol present in said body fluid sample are detected and measured by the method.

33. A method for determining the amount of estradiol in a test sample said method comprising: (a) acidifying said test sample with an agent in an amount sufficient to free estradiol from a protein that may be present in said test sample; (b) purifying estradiol from said test sample by liquid chromatography; (c) ionizing the purified estradiol from said test sample to produce one or more ions detectable by tandem mass spectrometry; and (d) detecting the amount of the estradiol ion(s) by tandem mass spectrometry in positive ion mode, wherein the amount of the estradiol ion(s) is related to the amount of estradiol in said test sample.

34. The method of claim 33, wherein said method has a limit of quantitation less than or equal to 80 pg/mL.

35. The method of claim 33, wherein said estradiol is not derivatized prior to mass spectrometry.

36. The method of claim 33, wherein said liquid chromatography is high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

37. The method of claim 33, wherein said purifying further comprises high turbulence liquid chromatography (HTLC) followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

38. The method of claim 33, wherein said acidifying agent is formic acid.

39. The method of claim 33, wherein said estradiol ions comprise one or more ions selected from the group consisting of ions with a mass/charge ratio of 255.07±0.5, 159.20±0.5, and 133.20±0.5.

40. The method of claim 33, wherein said ionizing comprises generating a precursor ion with a mass/charge ratio of 255.07±0.5, and generating one or more fragment ions selected from the group consisting of ions with a mass/charge ratio of 159.20±0.5, and 133.20±0.5.

41. The method of claim 33, wherein both glucuronidated and non-glucuronidated estradiol present in said test sample are detected and measured by the method.

42. The method of claim 33, wherein said test sample is body fluid.

43. A method for determining the amount of estradiol in a test sample said method comprising: (a) adding an agent to said test sample in an amount sufficient to free estradiol from a protein that may be present in said test sample; (b) purifying estradiol from said test sample by liquid chromatography; (c) ionizing the purified estradiol from said test sample to produce one or more ions detectable by tandem mass spectrometry; and (d) detecting the amount of the estradiol ion(s) by tandem mass spectrometry in negative ion mode, wherein the amount of the estradiol ion(s) is related to the amount of estradiol in said test sample.

44. The method of claim 43, wherein said method has a limit of quantitation less than or equal to 80 pg/mL.

45. The method of claim 43, wherein said estradiol is not derivatized prior to mass spectrometry.

46. The method of claim 43, wherein said liquid chromatography is high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

47. The method of claim 43, wherein said purifying further comprises high turbulence liquid chromatography (HTLC) followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

48. The method of claim 43, wherein said agent is a salt.

49. The method of claim 48, wherein said salt is ammonium sulfate.

50. The method of claim 43, wherein said estradiol ions comprise one or more ions selected from the group consisting of ions with a mass/charge ratio of 271.14±0.5, 183.10±0.5, and 145.10±0.5.

51. The method of claim 43, wherein said ionizing comprises generating a precursor ion with a mass/charge ratio of 271.14±0.5, and generating one or more fragment ions selected from the group consisting of ions with a mass/charge ratio of 183.10±0.5, and 145.10±0.5.

52. The method of claim 43, wherein both glucuronidated and non-glucuronidated estradiol present in said test sample are detected and measured by the method.

53. The method of claim 43, wherein said test sample is body fluid.

Description:

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The invention relates to the detection of estradiol. In a particular aspect, the invention relates to methods for detecting estradiol by mass spectrometry.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The following description of the background of the invention is provided simply as an aid in understanding the invention and is not admitted to describe or constitute prior art to the invention.

Estradiol [17β-estradiol or Estra-1,3,5(10)-triene-3,17-diol,(17-beta)] or E2 is a C18 steroid hormone with a molecular weight of 272.38 daltons. It is a sex hormone labeled as the “female” hormone (also present in males), which is the most potent estrogen of a group of endogenous steroids, which include estrone (E1) and estriol (E3). In women, mainly the ovaries produce estradiol with secondary production by the adrenal glands and conversion of steroid precursors into estrogens in fat tissue. Estradiol is responsible for growth of the breast and reproductive epithelia and development of secondary sexual characteristics. Normal levels of estradiol provide for proper ovulation, conception and pregnancy, in addition to promoting healthy bone structure and regulating cholesterol levels in females. In men, the testes and the adrenal glands are the principal source of estradiol. Estradiol is needed for hormonal balance and the function of other glands.

Methods for detecting specific estradiol ions using mass spectrometry have been described. For example Nelson R, et al., Clinical Chem 2004, 50(2):373-84; Mellon-Nussbaum S, et al., J Biol Chem 1982, 257(10):5678-5684; and Xu X, et al., Nature Protocols 2007, 2(6):1350-1355 disclose methods for detecting various estradiol ions using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. These methods derivatize estradiol prior to detection by mass spectrometry. Methods to detect underivatized estradiol by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry are disclosed in Guo T, et al., Arch Pathol Lab Med 2004, 128:469-475; Sun Y, et al., J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 2005, 16(2):271-279; and Diaz-Cruz S, et al., J Mass Spectrom 2003, 38:917-923. Methods to detect estradiol by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry are disclosed in Nachtigall L, et al., Menopause: J of N. Amer. Menopause Society 2000, 7(4):243-250; Santen R, et al., Steroids 2007, 72:666-671; Dorgan J, et al., Steroids 2002, 67:151-158; Biancotto G, et al., J Mass Spectrom 2002, 37(12): 1266-1271; Fedeniuk R W, et al., J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2004, 802(2):307-315; and Biddle S, et al., Anal Chim Acta, 2007, 586(1-2);115-121.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention provides methods for detecting the amount of estradiol in a sample by mass spectrometry, including tandem mass spectrometry.

In one aspect, methods are provided for determining the amount of estradiol in a test sample. The methods may include: (a) purifying estradiol in the test sample by liquid chromatography; (b) ionizing estradiol in the test sample; and (c) detecting the amount of the estradiol ion(s) by mass spectrometry and relating the amount of the detected estradiol ion(s) to the amount of estradiol in the test sample. In certain preferred embodiments of this aspect, the limit of quantitation of the methods is less than or equal to 80 pg/mL; and preferably, estradiol is not derivatized prior to mass spectrometry. In some preferred embodiments, the methods include generating one or more precursor ions of estradiol in which at least one of the precursor ions has a mass/charge ratio of 271.14±0.5 or 255.07±0.5. In related preferred embodiments, the methods may include generating one or more fragment ions of an estradiol precursor ion in which at least one of the fragment ions has a mass/charge ratio of 183.10±0.5, 159.20±0.5, 145.10±0.5, or 133.20±0.5; preferably one or more fragment ions are selected from the group consisting of ions with a mass/charge ratio of 183.10±0.5 and 133.20±0.5. In certain preferred embodiments of the aspect, the test sample is body fluid. In some preferred embodiments, the methods may include adding an agent to the test sample in an amount sufficient to free estradiol from a protein that may be present in the test sample. In related preferred embodiments, the methods may include acidifying the test sample; preferably acidifying before ionizing; more preferably acidifying before purifying; preferably acidifying with formic acid. In different preferred embodiments, the methods may include adding a salt to the test sample in an amount sufficient to free estradiol from a protein that may be present in the test sample; preferably adding before ionizing; more preferably adding before purifying; preferably adding ammonium sulfate. In particularly preferred embodiments, 100 mM ammonium sulfate is added to the test sample for a final concentration of ˜57 mM ammonium sulfate in the test sample.

As used herein, unless otherwise stated, the singular forms “a,” “an,” and “the” include plural reference. Thus, for example, a reference to “a protein” includes a plurality of protein molecules.

As used herein, the term “purification” or “purifying” does not refer to removing all materials from the sample other than the analyte(s) of interest. Instead, purification refers to a procedure that enriches the amount of one or more analytes of interest relative to other components in the sample that may interfere with detection of the analyte of interest. Samples are purified herein by various means to allow removal of one or more interfering substances, e.g., one or more substances that would interfere with the detection of selected estradiol parent and daughter ions by mass spectrometry.

As used herein, the term “test sample” refers to any sample that may contain estradiol. As used herein, the term “body fluid” means any fluid that can be isolated from the body of an individual. For example, “body fluid” may include blood, plasma, serum, bile, saliva, urine, tears, perspiration, and the like.

As used herein, the term “derivatizing” means reacting two molecules to form a new molecule. Derivatizing agents may include isothiocyanate groups, dinitro-fluorophenyl groups, nitrophenoxycarbonyl groups, and/or phthalaldehyde groups, and the like.

As used herein, the term “chromatography” refers to a process in which a chemical mixture carried by a liquid or gas is separated into components as a result of differential distribution of the chemical entities as they flow around or over a stationary liquid or solid phase.

As used herein, the term “liquid chromatography” or “LC” means a process of selective retardation of one or more components of a fluid solution as the fluid uniformly percolates through a column of a finely divided substance, or through capillary passageways. The retardation results from the distribution of the components of the mixture between one or more stationary phases and the bulk fluid, (i.e., mobile phase), as this fluid moves relative to the stationary phase(s). Examples of “liquid chromatography” include reverse phase liquid chromatography (RPLC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and high turbulence liquid chromatography (HTLC).

As used herein, the term “high performance liquid chromatography” or “HPLC” refers to liquid chromatography in which the degree of separation is increased by forcing the mobile phase under pressure through a stationary phase, typically a densely packed column.

As used herein, the term “high turbulence liquid chromatography” or “HTLC” refers to a form of chromatography that utilizes turbulent flow of the material being assayed through the column packing as the basis for performing the separation. HTLC has been applied in the preparation of samples containing two unnamed drugs prior to analysis by mass spectrometry. See, e.g., Zimmer et al., J. Chromatogr. A 854: 23-35 (1999); see also, U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,968,367, 5,919,368, 5,795,469, and 5,772,874, which further explain HTLC. Persons of ordinary skill in the art understand “turbulent flow”. When fluid flows slowly and smoothly, the flow is called “laminar flow”. For example, fluid moving through an HPLC column at low flow rates is laminar. In laminar flow the motion of the particles of fluid is orderly with particles moving generally in straight lines. At faster velocities, the inertia of the water overcomes fluid frictional forces and turbulent flow results. Fluid not in contact with the irregular boundary “outruns” that which is slowed by friction or deflected by an uneven surface. When a fluid is flowing turbulently, it flows in eddies and whirls (or vortices), with more “drag” than when the flow is laminar. Many references are available for assisting in determining when fluid flow is laminar or turbulent (e.g., Turbulent Flow Analysis: Measurement and Prediction, P. S. Bernard & J. M. Wallace, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., (2000); An Introduction to Turbulent Flow, Jean Mathieu & Julian Scott, Cambridge University Press (2001)).

As used herein, the term “gas chromatography” or “GC” refers to chromatography in which the sample mixture is vaporized and injected into a stream of carrier gas (as nitrogen or helium) moving through a column containing a stationary phase composed of a liquid or a particulate solid and is separated into its component compounds according to the affinity of the compounds for the stationary phase.

As used herein, the term “large particle column” or “extraction column” refers to a chromatography column containing an average particle diameter greater than about 35 μm. As used in this context, the term “about” means ±10%. In a preferred embodiment the column contains particles of about 60 μm in diameter.

As used herein, the term “analytical column” refers to a chromatography column having sufficient chromatographic plates to effect a separation of materials in a sample that elute from the column sufficient to allow a determination of the presence or amount of an analyte. Such columns are often distinguished from “extraction columns”, which have the general purpose of separating or extracting retained material from non-retained materials in order to obtain a purified sample for further analysis. As used in this context, the term “about” means ±10%. In a preferred embodiment the analytical column contains particles of about 4 μm in diameter.

As used herein, the term “on-line” or “inline”, for example as used in “on-line automated fashion” or “on-line extraction” refers to a procedure performed without the need for operator intervention. In contrast, the term “off-line” as used herein refers to a procedure requiring manual intervention of an operator. Thus, if samples are subjected to precipitation, and the supernatants are then manually loaded into an autosampler, the precipitation and loading steps are off-line from the subsequent steps. In various embodiments of the methods, one or more steps may be performed in an on-line automated fashion.

As used herein, the term “mass spectrometry” or “MS” refers to an analytical technique to identify compounds by their mass. MS refers to methods of filtering, detecting, and measuring ions based on their mass-to-charge ratio, or “m/z”. MS technology generally includes (1) ionizing the compounds to form charged compounds; and (2) detecting the molecular weight of the charged compounds and calculating a mass-to-charge ratio. The compounds may be ionized and detected by any suitable means. A “mass spectrometer” generally includes an ionizer and an ion detector. In general, one or more molecules of interest are ionized, and the ions are subsequently introduced into a mass spectrographic instrument where, due to a combination of magnetic and electric fields, the ions follow a path in space that is dependent upon mass (“m”) and charge (“z”). See, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 6,204,500, entitled “Mass Spectrometry From Surfaces;” U.S. Pat. No. 6,107,623, entitled “Methods and Apparatus for Tandem Mass Spectrometry;” U.S. Pat. No. 6,268,144, entitled “DNA Diagnostics Based On Mass Spectrometry;” U.S. Pat. No. 6,124,137, entitled “Surface-Enhanced Photolabile Attachment And Release For Desorption And Detection Of Analytes;” Wright et al., Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases 2:264-76 (1999); and Merchant and Weinberger, Electrophoresis 21:1164-67 (2000).

As used herein, the term “operating in negative ion mode” refers to those mass spectrometry methods where negative ions are generated and detected. The term “operating in positive ion mode” as used herein, refers to those mass spectrometry methods where positive ions are generated and detected.

As used herein, the term “ionization” or “ionizing” refers to the process of generating an analyte ion having a net electrical charge equal to one or more electron units. Negative ions are those having a net negative charge of one or more electron units, while positive ions are those having a net positive charge of one or more electron units.

As used herein, the term “electron ionization” or “EI” refers to methods in which an analyte of interest in a gaseous or vapor phase interacts with a flow of electrons. Impact of the electrons with the analyte produces analyte ions, which may then be subjected to a mass spectrometry technique.

As used herein, the term “chemical ionization” or “CI” refers to methods in which a reagent gas (e.g. ammonia) is subjected to electron impact, and analyte ions are formed by the interaction of reagent gas ions and analyte molecules.

As used herein, the term “fast atom bombardment” or “FAB” refers to methods in which a beam of high energy atoms (often Xe or Ar) impacts a non-volatile sample, desorbing and ionizing molecules contained in the sample. Test samples are dissolved in a viscous liquid matrix such as glycerol, thioglycerol, m-nitrobenzyl alcohol, 18-crown-6 crown ether, 2-nitrophenyloctyl ether, sulfolane, diethanolamine, and triethanolamine. The choice of an appropriate matrix for a compound or sample is an empirical process.

As used herein, the term “matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization” or “MALDI” refers to methods in which a non-volatile sample is exposed to laser irradiation, which desorbs and ionizes analytes in the sample by various ionization pathways, including photo-ionization, protonation, deprotonation, and cluster decay. For MALDI, the sample is mixed with an energy-absorbing matrix, which facilitates desorption of analyte molecules.

As used herein, the term “surface enhanced laser desorption ionization” or “SELDI” refers to another method in which a non-volatile sample is exposed to laser irradiation, which desorbs and ionizes analytes in the sample by various ionization pathways, including photo-ionization, protonation, deprotonation, and cluster decay. For SELDI, the sample is typically bound to a surface that preferentially retains one or more analytes of interest. As in MALDI, this process may also employ an energy-absorbing material to facilitate ionization.

As used herein, the term “electrospray ionization” or “ESI,” refers to methods in which a solution is passed along a short length of capillary tube, to the end of which is applied a high positive or negative electric potential. Solution reaching the end of the tube is vaporized (nebulized) into a jet or spray of very small droplets of solution in solvent vapor. This mist of droplets flows through an evaporation chamber, which is heated slightly to prevent condensation and to evaporate solvent. As the droplets get smaller the electrical surface charge density increases until such time that the natural repulsion between like charges causes ions as well as neutral molecules to be released.

As used herein, the term “atmospheric pressure chemical ionization” or “APCI,” refers to mass spectroscopy methods that are similar to ESI; however, APCI produces ions by ion-molecule reactions that occur within a plasma at atmospheric pressure. The plasma is maintained by an electric discharge between the spray capillary and a counter electrode. Then ions are typically extracted into the mass analyzer by use of a set of differentially pumped skimmer stages. A counterflow of dry and preheated N2 gas may be used to improve removal of solvent. The gas-phase ionization in APCI can be more effective than ESI for analyzing less-polar species.

The term “Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization” or “APPI” as used herein refers to the form of mass spectroscopy where the mechanism for the photoionization of molecule M is photon absorption and electron ejection to form the molecular ion M+. Because the photon energy typically is just above the ionization potential, the molecular ion is less susceptible to dissociation. In many cases it may be possible to analyze samples without the need for chromatography, thus saving significant time and expense. In the presence of water vapor or protic solvents, the molecular ion can extract H to form MH+. This tends to occur if M has a high proton affinity. This does not affect quantitation accuracy because the sum of M+ and MH+ is constant. Drug compounds in protic solvents are usually observed as MH+, whereas nonpolar compounds such as naphthalene or testosterone usually form M+. Robb, D. B., Covey, T. R. and Bruins, A. P. (2000): See, e.g., Robb et al., Atmospheric pressure photoionization: An ionization method for liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Anal Chem. 72(15): 3653-3659.

As used herein, the term “inductively coupled plasma” or “ICP” refers to methods in which a sample interacts with a partially ionized gas at a sufficiently high temperature such that most elements are atomized and ionized.

As used herein, the term “field desorption” refers to methods in which a non-volatile test sample is placed on an ionization surface, and an intense electric field is used to generate analyte ions.

As used herein, the term “desorption” refers to the removal of an analyte from a surface and/or the entry of an analyte into a gaseous phase.

As used herein, the term “limit of quantification”, “limit of quantitation” or “LOQ” refers to the point where measurements become quantitatively meaningful. The analyte response at this LOQ is identifiable, discrete and reproducible with a precision of 20% and an accuracy of 80% to 120%.

As used herein, the term “limit of detection” or “LOD” is the point at which the measured value is larger than the uncertainty associated with it. The LOD is defined arbitrarily as 2 standard deviations (SD) from the zero concentration.

As used herein, an “amount” of estradiol in a body fluid sample refers generally to an absolute value reflecting the mass of estradiol detectable in volume of body fluid. However, an amount also contemplates a relative amount in comparison to another estradiol amount. For example, an amount of estradiol in a body fluid can be an amount which is greater than a control or normal level of estradiol normally present.

In a second aspect, methods are provided for determining the amount of estradiol in a body fluid sample by tandem mass spectrometry that include: (a) purifying estradiol in the body fluid sample by liquid chromatography; (b) generating a precursor ion of estradiol having a mass/charge ratio of 255.07±0.5; (c) generating one or more fragment ions of the precursor ion in which at least one of the fragment ions has a mass/charge ratio of 133.20±0.5; and (d) detecting the amount of one or more of the ions generated in step (b) or (c) or both and relating the detected ions to the amount of estradiol in the body fluid sample. In some preferred embodiments, the limit of quantitation of the methods is less than or equal to 80 pg/mL. In other preferred embodiments, estradiol is not derivatized prior to mass spectrometry. In certain preferred embodiments, the methods may further include generating one or more fragment ions of an estradiol precursor ion in which at least one of the fragment ions has a mass/charge ratio of 159.20±0.5. In some preferred embodiments, the methods may include adding an agent to the body fluid sample in an amount sufficient to free estradiol from a protein that may be present in the body fluid sample. In related preferred embodiments, the methods may include acidifying the body fluid sample; preferably acidifying before ionizing; more preferably acidifying before purifying; preferably acidifying with formic acid.

In a third aspect, methods are provided for determining the amount of estradiol in a body fluid sample by tandem mass spectrometry that include: (a) purifying estradiol in the body fluid sample by liquid chromatography; (b) generating a precursor ion of estradiol having a mass/charge ratio of 271.14±0.5; (c) generating one or more fragment ions of the precursor ion in which at least one of the fragment ions has a mass/charge ratio of 183.10±0.5; and (d) detecting the amount of one or more of the ions generated in step (b) or (c) or both and relating the detected ions to the amount of estradiol in the body fluid sample. In some preferred embodiments, the limit of quantitation of the methods is less than or equal to 80 pg/mL. In other preferred embodiments, estradiol is not derivatized prior to mass spectrometry. In certain preferred embodiments, the methods may further include generating one or more fragment ions of an estradiol precursor ion in which at least one of the fragment ions has a mass/charge ratio of 145.10±0.5. In some preferred embodiments, the methods may include adding an agent to the body fluid sample in an amount sufficient to free estradiol from a protein that may be present in the body fluid sample. In related preferred embodiments, the methods may include adding a salt agent to the body fluid sample; preferably adding before ionizing; more preferably adding before purifying; preferably adding ammonium sulfate. In particularly preferred embodiments, 100 mM ammonium sulfate is added to the body fluid sample for a final concentration of ˜57 mM ammonium sulfate in the body fluid sample.

In a fourth aspect, methods are provided for determining the amount of estradiol in a test sample that include: (a) acidifying the test sample with an agent in an amount sufficient to free estradiol from a protein that may be present in the test sample; (b) purifying estradiol in the test sample by liquid chromatography; (c) ionizing estradiol in the test sample to produce one or more ions detectable by tandem mass spectrometry; and (d) detecting the amount of the estradiol ion(s) by tandem mass spectrometry in positive ion mode and relating the amount of the detected estradiol ion(s) to the amount of estradiol in the test sample. In certain preferred embodiments, the test sample is body fluid. In some preferred embodiments, the limit of quantitation of the methods is less than or equal to 80 pg/mL. In other preferred embodiments, estradiol is not derivatized prior to mass spectrometry. In some preferred embodiments, the methods include generating one or more precursor ions of estradiol in which at least one of the precursor ions has a mass/charge ratio of 255.07±0.5. In related preferred embodiments, the methods may include generating one or more fragment ions of an estradiol precursor ion in which at least one of the fragment ions has a mass/charge ratio of 159.20±0.5 or 133.20±0.5. In some preferred embodiments, the methods may include acidifying the test sample before ionizing; more preferably acidifying before purifying; preferably acidifying with formic acid.

In a fifth aspect, methods are provided for determining the amount of estradiol in a test sample that include: (a) adding an agent to the test sample in an amount sufficient to free estradiol from a protein that may be present in the test sample; (b) purifying estradiol in the test sample by liquid chromatography; (c) ionizing the purified estradiol in the test sample to produce one or more ions detectable by tandem mass spectrometry; and (d) detecting the amount of the estradiol ion(s) by tandem mass spectrometry in negative ion mode and relating the amount of the detected estradiol ion(s) to the amount of estradiol in the test sample. In certain preferred embodiments, the test sample is body fluid. In some preferred embodiments, the limit of quantitation of the methods is less than or equal to 80 pg/mL. In other preferred embodiments, estradiol is not derivatized prior to mass spectrometry. In some preferred embodiments, the methods include generating one or more precursor ions of estradiol in which at least one of the precursor ions has a mass/charge ratio of 271.14±0.5. In related preferred embodiments, the methods may include generating one or more fragment ions of an estradiol precursor ion in which at least one of the fragment ions has a mass/charge ratio of 183.10±0.5 or 145.10±0.5. In other preferred embodiments, the methods may include adding a salt agent to the test sample, preferably adding before ionizing; more preferably adding before purifying, preferably adding ammonium sulfate. In particularly preferred embodiments, 100 mM ammonium sulfate is added to the test sample for a final concentration of ˜57 mM ammonium sulfate in the test sample.

In some preferred embodiments, estradiol may be derivatized prior to mass spectrometry, however, in certain preferred embodiments; sample preparation excludes the use of derivatization.

In certain preferred embodiments of the above aspects, liquid chromatography is performed using HTLC and HPLC, preferably HTLC is used in conjunction with HPLC, however other methods can be used that include for example, protein precipitation and purification in conjunction with HPLC.

Preferred embodiments utilize high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), alone or in combination with one or more purification methods, for example HTLC or protein precipitation, to purify estradiol in samples.

In certain preferred embodiments of the methods disclosed herein, mass spectrometry is performed in negative ion mode. Alternatively, mass spectrometry is performed in positive ion mode. In particularly preferred embodiments, estradiol is measured using both positive and negative ion mode. In certain preferred embodiments, estradiol is measured using APCI or ESI in either positive or negative mode.

In preferred embodiments of the above aspects, both glucuronidated and non-glucuronidated estradiol present in the body fluid sample are detected and measured.

In preferred embodiments, the estradiol ions detectable in a mass spectrometer are selected from the group consisting of ions with a mass/charge ratio (m/z) of 271.14±0.5, 255.07±0.5, 183.10±0.5, 159.20±0.5, 145.10±0.5, and 133.20±0.5; the latter four being fragment ions of the precursor ions. In particularly preferred embodiments, the precursor ions have a mass/charge ratio of 271.14±0.5 or 255.07±0.5, and the fragment ions have amass/charge ratio of 183.10±0.5 or 133.20±0.5.

In preferred embodiments, a separately detectable internal estradiol standard is provided in the sample, the amount of which is also determined in the sample. In these embodiments, all or a portion of both the endogenous estradiol and the internal standard present in the sample is ionized to produce a plurality of ions detectable in a mass spectrometer, and one or more ions produced from each are detected by mass spectrometry.

A preferred internal estradiol standard is 2,4,16,16,17-d5 estradiol. In preferred embodiments, the internal estradiol standard ions detectable in a mass spectrometer are selected from the group consisting of ions with a mass/charge ratio of 276.15±0.5, 260.10±0.5, 187.10±0.5, 161.10±0.5, 147.10±0.5, and 135.10±0.5. In particularly preferred embodiments, a precursor ion of the internal estradiol standard is selected from the group consisting of ions having a mass/charge ratio of 276.15±0.5 and 260.10±0.5; and one or more fragment ions is selected from the group consisting of ions having a mass/charge ratio of 187.10±0.5, 161.10±0.5, 147.10±0.5, and 135.10±0.5.

In preferred embodiments, the presence or amount of the estradiol ion is related to the presence or amount of estradiol in the test sample by comparison to a reference such as 2,4,16,16,17-d5 estradiol.

In one embodiment, the methods involve the combination of liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. In a preferred embodiment, the liquid chromatography is HPLC. A preferred embodiment utilizes HPLC alone or in combination with one or more purification methods such as for example HTLC or protein purification, to purify estradiol in samples. In another preferred embodiment, the mass spectrometry is tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS).

In certain preferred embodiments of the aspects disclosed herein, the limit of quantitation (LOQ) of estradiol is less than or equal to 80 pg/mL; preferably less than or equal to 75 pg/mL; preferably less than or equal to 50 pg/mL; preferably less than or equal to 25 pg/mL; preferably less than or equal to 10 pg/mL; preferably less than or equal to 5 pg/mL; preferably less than or equal to 4.5 pg/mL; preferably less than or equal to 4 pg/mL; preferably less than or equal to 3.5 pg/mL; preferably less than or equal to 3 pg/mL; preferably less than or equal to 2.5 pg/mL; preferably 2 pg/mL.

The term “about” as used herein in reference to quantitative measurements not including the measurement of the mass of an ion, refers to the indicated value plus or minus 10%. Mass spectrometry instruments can vary slightly in determining the mass of a given analyte. The term “about” in the context of the mass of an ion or the mass/charge ratio of an ion refers to ±0.5 atomic mass unit.

The summary of the invention described above is non-limiting and other features and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the following detailed description of the invention, and from the claims.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 shows the linearity of the quantitation of estradiol in serially diluted stock samples using an LC-MS/MS assay. Details are described in Example 6.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

Methods are described for detecting and quantifying estradiol in a test sample. The methods utilize liquid chromatography (LC), most preferably HTLC in conjunction with HPLC, to perform an initial purification of selected analytes, and combine this purification with unique methods of mass spectrometry (MS), thereby providing a high-throughput assay system for detecting and quantifying estradiol in a test sample. The preferred embodiments are particularly well suited for application in large clinical laboratories. Estradiol methods are provided that have enhanced specificity and are accomplished in less time and with less sample preparation than required in other estradiol assays.

In preferred embodiments, the limit of detection (LOD) of estradiol in test samples is less than or equal to 80 pg/mL; preferably less than or equal to 75 pg/mL; preferably less than or equal to 50 pg/mL; preferably less than or equal to 25 pg/mL; preferably less than or equal to 10 pg/mL; preferably less than or equal to 5 pg/mL; preferably less than or equal to 4.5 pg/mL; preferably less than or equal to 4 pg/mL; preferably less than or equal to 3.5 pg/mL; preferably less than or equal to 3 pg/mL; preferably less than or equal to 2.5 pg/mL; preferably 2 pg/mL.

Suitable test samples include any test sample that may contain the analyte of interest. For example, samples obtained during the manufacture of synthetic estradiol may be analyzed to determine the composition and yield of the manufacturing process. In some preferred embodiments, a sample is a biological sample; that is, a sample obtained from any biological source, such as an animal, a cell culture, an organ culture, etc. In certain preferred embodiments samples are obtained from a mammalian animal, such as a dog, cat, horse, etc. Particularly preferred mammalian animals are primates, most preferably male or female humans. Particularly preferred samples include blood, plasma, serum, hair, muscle, urine, saliva, tear, cerebrospinal fluid, or other tissue sample. Such samples may be obtained, for example, from a patient; that is, a living person, male or female, presenting oneself in a clinical setting for diagnosis, prognosis, or treatment of a disease or condition. The test sample is preferably obtained from a patient, for example, blood serum.

Sample Preparation for Mass Spectrometry

In women, approximately 1.3% of estradiol circulates in free form with the remainder bound to sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and to albumin. Estradiol binds to SHBG with high affinity (approximately 40%) or to albumin with lower affinity.

Methods that may be used to enrich in estradiol relative to other components in the sample (e.g. protein) include for example, filtration, centrifugation, thin layer chromatography (TLC), electrophoresis including capillary electrophoresis, affinity separations including immunoaffinity separations, extraction methods including ethyl acetate extraction and methanol extraction, and the use of chaotropic agents or any combination of the above or the like.

Various methods may be used to disrupt the interaction between estradiol and protein prior to chromatography and or MS sample analysis so that the analysis can be directed to the total amount of estradiol in the sample (e.g., free estradiol and estradiol bound to protein). Protein precipitation is one preferred method of preparing a test sample, especially a biological test sample, such as serum or plasma. Such protein purification methods are well known in the art, for example, Polson et al., Journal of Chromatography B 785:263-275 (2003), describes protein precipitation techniques suitable for use in the methods. Protein precipitation may be used to remove most of the protein from the sample leaving estradiol in the supernatant. The samples may be centrifuged to separate the liquid supernatant from the precipitated proteins. The resultant supernatant may then be applied to liquid chromatography and subsequent mass spectrometry analysis. In certain embodiments, the use of protein precipitation such as for example, acetonitrile protein precipitation, obviates the need for high turbulence liquid chromatography (HTLC) or other on-line extraction prior to HPLC and mass spectrometry. Accordingly in such embodiments, the method involves (1) performing a protein precipitation of the sample of interest; and (2) loading the supernatant directly onto the HPLC-mass spectrometer without using on-line extraction or high turbulence liquid chromatography (HTLC).

In other preferred embodiments, estradiol may be released from a protein without having to precipitate the protein. For example, formic acid or 40% ethanol in water may be added to the sample to disrupt interaction between a protein and estradiol. Alternatively, ammonium sulfate may be added to the sample to disrupt ionic interactions between a carrier protein and estradiol without precipitating the carrier protein.

In some preferred embodiments, HTLC, alone or in combination with one or more purification methods, may be used to purify estradiol prior to mass spectrometry. In such embodiments samples may be extracted using an HTLC extraction cartridge which captures the analyte, then eluted and chromatographed on a second HTLC column or onto an analytical HPLC column prior to ionization. Because the steps involved in these chromatography procedures can be linked in an automated fashion, the requirement for operator involvement during the purification of the analyte can be minimized. This feature can result in savings of time and costs, and eliminate the opportunity for operator error.

It is believed that turbulent flow, such as that provided by HTLC columns and methods, may enhance the rate of mass transfer, improving separation characteristics. HTLC columns separate components by means of high chromatographic flow rates through a packed column containing rigid particles. By employing high flow rates (e.g., 3-5 mL/min), turbulent flow occurs in the column that causes nearly complete interaction between the stationary phase and the analyte(s) of interest. An advantage of using HTLC columns is that the macromolecular build-up associated with biological fluid matrices is avoided since the high molecular weight species are not retained under the turbulent flow conditions. HTLC methods that combine multiple separations in one procedure lessen the need for lengthy sample preparation and operate at a significantly greater speed. Such methods also achieve a separation performance superior to laminar flow (HPLC) chromatography. HTLC allows for direct injection of biological samples (plasma, urine, etc.). Direct injection is difficult to achieve in traditional forms of chromatography because denatured proteins and other biological debris quickly block the separation columns. HTLC also allows for very low sample volume of less than 1 mL, preferably less than 0.5 mL, preferably less than 0.2 mL, preferably 0.1 mL.

Examples of HTLC applied to sample preparation prior to analysis by mass spectrometry have been described elsewhere. See, e.g., Zimmer et al., J. Chromatogr. A 854:23-35 (1999); see also, U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,968,367; 5,919,368; 5,795,469; and 5,772,874. In certain embodiments of the method, samples are subjected to protein precipitation as described above prior to loading on the HTLC column; in alternative preferred embodiments, the samples may be loaded directly onto the HTLC without being subjected to protein precipitation. Preferably, HTLC is used in conjunction with HPLC to extract and purify estradiol without the sample being subjected to protein precipitation. In related preferred embodiments, the purifying step involves (i) applying the sample to an HTLC extraction column, (ii) washing the HTLC extraction column under conditions whereby estradiol is retained by the column, (iii) eluting retained estradiol from the HTLC extraction column, (iv) applying the retained material to an analytical column, and (v) eluting purified estradiol from the analytical column. The HTLC extraction column is preferably a large particle column. In various embodiments, one of more steps of the methods may be performed in an on-line, automated fashion. For example, in one embodiment, steps (i)-(v) are performed in an on-line, automated fashion. In another, the steps of ionization and detection are performed on-line following steps (i)-(v).

Liquid chromatography (LC) including high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) relies on relatively slow, laminar flow technology. Traditional HPLC analysis relies on column packings in which laminar flow of the sample through the column is the basis for separation of the analyte of interest from the sample. The skilled artisan will understand that separation in such columns is a diffusional process. HPLC has been successfully applied to the separation of compounds in biological samples but a significant amount of sample preparation is required prior to the separation and subsequent analysis with a mass spectrometer (MS), making this technique labor intensive. In addition, most HPLC systems do not utilize the mass spectrometer to its fullest potential, allowing only one HPLC system to be connected to a single MS instrument, resulting in lengthy time requirements for performing a large number of assays.

Various methods have been described for using HPLC for sample clean-up prior to mass spectrometry analysis. See, e.g., Taylor et al., Therapeutic Drug Monitoring 22:608-12 (2000); and Salm et al., Clin. Therapeutics 22 Supl. B:B71-B85 (2000).

One of skill in the art may select HPLC instruments and columns that are suitable for use with estradiol. The chromatographic column typically includes a medium (i.e., a packing material) to facilitate separation of chemical moieties (i.e., fractionation). The medium may include minute particles. The particles include a bonded surface that interacts with the various chemical moieties to facilitate separation of the chemical moieties. One suitable bonded surface is a hydrophobic bonded surface such as an alkyl bonded surface. Alkyl bonded surfaces may include C-4, C-8, C-12, or C-18 bonded alkyl groups, preferably C-18 bonded groups. The chromatographic column includes an inlet port for receiving a sample and an outlet port for discharging an effluent that includes the fractionated sample. In one embodiment the sample (or pre-purified sample) is applied to the column at the inlet port, eluted with a solvent or solvent mixture, and discharged at the outlet port. Different solvent modes may be selected for eluting the analyte(s) of interest. For example, liquid chromatography may be performed using a gradient mode, an isocratic mode, or a polytyptic (i.e. mixed) mode. During chromatography, the separation of materials is effected by variables such as choice of eluent (also known as a “mobile phase”), elution mode, gradient conditions, temperature, etc.

In certain embodiments, an analyte may be purified by applying a sample to a column under conditions where the analyte of interest is reversibly retained by the column packing material, while one or more other materials are not retained. In these embodiments, a first mobile phase condition can be employed where the analyte of interest is retained by the column, and a second mobile phase condition can subsequently be employed to remove retained material from the column, once the non-retained materials are washed through. Alternatively, an analyte may be purified by applying a sample to a column under mobile phase conditions where the analyte of interest elutes at a differential rate in comparison to one or more other materials. Such procedures may enrich the amount of one or more analytes of interest relative to one or more other components of the sample.

In one preferred embodiment, the HTLC may be followed by HPLC on a hydrophobic column chromatographic system. In certain preferred embodiments, a TurboFlow Cyclone P® polymer-based column from Cohesive Technologies (60 μm particle size, 50×1.0 mm column dimensions, 100 Å pore size) is used. In related preferred embodiments, a Synergi Polar-RP® ether-linked phenyl, analytical column from Phenomenex Inc (4 μm particle size, 150×2.0 mm column dimensions, 80 Å pore size) with hydrophilic endcapping is used. In certain preferred embodiments, HTLC and HPLC are performed using HPLC Grade Ultra Pure Water and 100% methanol as the mobile phases.

By careful selection of valves and connector plumbing, two or more chromatography columns may be connected as needed such that material is passed from one to the next without the need for any manual steps. In preferred embodiments, the selection of valves and plumbing is controlled by a computer pre-programmed to perform the necessary steps. Most preferably, the chromatography system is also connected in such an on-line fashion to the detector system, e.g., an MS system. Thus, an operator may place a tray of samples in an autosampler, and the remaining operations are performed under computer control, resulting in purification and analysis of all samples selected.

In certain preferred embodiments, estradiol present in a test sample may be purified prior to ionization. In particularly preferred embodiments the chromatography is not gas chromatography. Preferably, the methods are performed without subjecting estradiol, to gas chromatography prior to mass spectrometric analysis.

Detection and Quantitation by Mass Spectrometry

In various embodiments, estradiol present in a test sample may be ionized by any method known to the skilled artisan. Mass spectrometry is performed using a mass spectrometer, which includes an ion source for ionizing the fractionated sample and creating charged molecules for further analysis. For example ionization of the sample may be performed by electron ionization, chemical ionization, electrospray ionization (ESI), photon ionization, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), photoionization, atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI), fast atom bombardment (FAB), liquid secondary ionization (LSI), matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI), field ionization, field desorption, thermospray/plasmaspray ionization, surface enhanced laser desorption ionization (SELDI), inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and particle beam ionization. The skilled artisan will understand that the choice of ionization method may be determined based on the analyte to be measured, type of sample, the type of detector, the choice of positive versus negative mode, etc.

In preferred embodiments, estradiol is ionized by electrospray ionization (ESI) in positive or negative mode. In related preferred embodiments, estradiol ion is in a gaseous state and the inert collision gas is argon or nitrogen. In alternative preferred embodiments, estradiol is ionized by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) in positive or negative mode.

After the sample has been ionized, the positively charged or negatively charged ions thereby created may be analyzed to determine a mass-to-charge ratio. Suitable analyzers for determining mass-to-charge ratios include quadrupole analyzers, ion traps analyzers, and time-of-flight analyzers. The ions may be detected using several detection modes. For example, selected ions may be detected i.e., using a selective ion monitoring mode (SIM), or alternatively, ions may be detected using a scanning mode, e.g., multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) or selected reaction monitoring (SRM). Preferably, the mass-to-charge ratio is determined using a quadrupole analyzer. For example, in a “quadrupole” or “quadrupole ion trap” instrument, ions in an oscillating radio frequency field experience a force proportional to the DC potential applied between electrodes, the amplitude of the RF signal, and the mass/charge ratio. The voltage and amplitude may be selected so that only ions having a particular mass/charge ratio travel the length of the quadrupole, while all other ions are deflected. Thus, quadrupole instruments may act as both a “mass filter” and as a “mass detector” for the ions injected into the instrument.

One may enhance the resolution of the MS technique by employing “tandem mass spectrometry,” or “MS/MS”. In this technique, a precursor ion (also called a parent ion) generated from a molecule of interest can be filtered in an MS instrument, and the precursor ion is subsequently fragmented to yield one or more fragment ions (also called daughter ions or product ions) that are then analyzed in a second MS procedure. By careful selection of precursor ions, only ions produced by certain analytes are passed to the fragmentation chamber, where collisions with atoms of an inert gas produce the fragment ions. Because both the precursor and fragment ions are produced in a reproducible fashion under a given set of ionization/fragmentation conditions, the MS/MS technique may provide an extremely powerful analytical tool. For example, the combination of filtration/fragmentation may be used to eliminate interfering substances, and may be particularly useful in complex samples, such as biological samples.

The mass spectrometer typically provides the user with an ion scan; that is, the relative abundance of each ion with a particular mass/charge over a given range (e.g., 100 to 1000 amu). The results of an analyte assay, that is, a mass spectrum, may be related to the amount of the analyte in the original sample by numerous methods known in the art. For example, given that sampling and analysis parameters are carefully controlled, the relative abundance of a given ion may be compared to a table that converts that relative abundance to an absolute amount of the original molecule. Alternatively, molecular standards may be run with the samples, and a standard curve constructed based on ions generated from those standards. Using such a standard curve, the relative abundance of a given ion may be converted into an absolute amount of the original molecule. In certain preferred embodiments, an internal standard is used to generate a standard curve for calculating the quantity of estradiol. Methods of generating and using such standard curves are well known in the art and one of ordinary skill is capable of selecting an appropriate internal standard. For example, an isotope of estradiol may be used as an internal standard; in certain preferred embodiments the standard is d5-estradiol. Numerous other methods for relating the amount of an ion to the amount of the original molecule will be well known to those of ordinary skill in the art.

One or more steps of the methods may be performed using automated machines. In certain embodiments, one or more purification steps are performed on-line, and more preferably all of the purification and mass spectrometry steps may be performed in an on-line fashion.

In certain embodiments, such as MS/MS, where precursor ions are isolated for further fragmentation, collision activation dissociation is often used to generate the fragment ions for further detection. In CAD, precursor ions gain energy through collisions with an inert gas, and subsequently fragment by a process referred to as “unimolecular decomposition”. Sufficient energy must be deposited in the precursor ion so that certain bonds within the ion can be broken due to increased vibrational energy.

In particularly preferred embodiments, estradiol is detected and/or quantified using MS/MS as follows. The samples are subjected to liquid chromatography, preferably HTLC followed by HPLC, the flow of liquid solvent from the chromatographic column enters the heated nebulizer interface of an MS/MS analyzer and the solvent/analyte mixture is converted to vapor in the heated tubing of the interface. The analyte (e.g., estradiol), contained in the nebulized solvent, is ionized by the corona discharge needle of the interface, which applies a large voltage to the nebulized solvent/analyte mixture. The ions, e.g. precursor ions, pass through the orifice of the instrument and enter the first quadrupole. Quadrupoles 1 and 3 (Q1 and Q3) are mass filters, allowing selection of ions (i.e., “precursor” and “fragment” ions) based on their mass to charge ratio (m/z). Quadrupole 2 (Q2) is the collision cell, where ions are fragmented. The first quadrupole of the mass spectrometer (Q1) selects for molecules with the mass to charge ratios of estradiol. Precursor ions with the correct mass/charge ratios of estradiol are allowed to pass into the collision chamber (Q2), while unwanted ions with any other mass/charge ratio collide with the sides of the quadrupole and are eliminated. Precursor ions entering Q2 collide with neutral argon gas molecules and fragment. This process is called collision activated dissociation (CAD). The fragment ions generated are passed into quadrupole 3 (Q3), where the fragment ions of estradiol are selected while other ions are eliminated.

The methods may involve MS/MS performed in either positive or negative ion mode. Using standard methods well known in the art, one of ordinary skill is capable of identifying one or more fragment ions of a particular precursor ion of estradiol that may be used for selection in quadrupole 3 (Q3).

If the precursor ion of estradiol includes an alcohol or amine group, fragment ions are commonly formed that represent dehydration or deamination of the precursor ion, respectfully. In the case of precursor ions that include an alcohol group, such fragment ions formed by dehydration are caused by a loss of one or more water molecules from the precursor ion (i.e., where the difference in mass to charge ratio between the precursor ion and fragment ion is about 18 for the loss of one water molecule, or about 36 for the loss of two water molecules, etc.). In the case of precursor ions that include an amine group, such fragment ions formed by deamination are caused by a loss of one or more ammonia molecules (i.e. where the difference in mass to charge ratio between the precursor ion and fragment ion is about 17 for the loss of one ammonia molecule, or about 34 for the loss of two ammonia molecules, etc.). Likewise, precursor ions that include one or more alcohol and amine groups commonly form fragment ions that represent the loss of one or more water molecules and/or one or more ammonia molecules (i.e., where the difference in mass to charge ratio between the precursor ion and fragment ion is about 35 for the loss of one water molecule and the loss of one ammonia molecule). Generally, the fragment ions that represent dehydrations or deaminations of the precursor ion are not specific fragment ions for a particular analyte. Accordingly, in preferred embodiments of the invention, MS/MS is performed such that at least one fragment ion of estradiol is detected that does not represent only a loss of one or more water molecules and/or a loss of one or more ammonia molecules from the precursor ion.

As ions collide with the detector they produce a pulse of electrons that are converted to a digital signal. The acquired data is relayed to a computer, which plots counts of the ions collected versus time. The resulting mass chromatograms are similar to chromatograms generated in traditional HPLC methods. The areas under the peaks corresponding to particular ions, or the amplitude of such peaks, are measured and the area or amplitude is correlated to the amount of the analyte (estradiol) of interest. In certain embodiments, the area under the curves, or amplitude of the peaks, for fragment ion(s) and/or precursor ions are measured to determine the amount of estradiol. As described above, the relative abundance of a given ion may be converted into an absolute amount of the original analyte, e.g., estradiol, using calibration standard curves based on peaks of one or more ions of an internal molecular standard, such as d5-estradiol.

The following examples serve to illustrate the invention. These examples are in no way intended to limit the scope of the methods.

EXAMPLES

Example 1

Sample and Reagent Preparation

Blood was collected in a Vacutainer with no additives and allowed to clot 30 minutes at room temperature, 18° to 25° C. Samples that exhibited gross hemolysis and/or lipemia were excluded.

An estradiol stock standard of 1 mg/mL in methanol was prepared and further diluted in methanol to prepare an estradiol intermediate stock standard of 1,000,000 pg/mL, which was used to prepare two estradiol working standards of 10,000 pg/mL, diluted in either methanol for standard A or in stripped serum for standard B.

Deuterated methanol (methyl-d1 alcohol; Fisher Cat. No. AC29913-1000 or equivalent) was used to prepare a 1 mg/mL d5-estradiol stock standard (2,4,16,16,17-d5 estradiol), which was used to prepare a 1,000,000 pg/mL intermediate stock standard in deuterated methanol. The d5-estradiol intermediate stock standard was used to prepare a working d5-estradiol internal standard of 5000 pg/mL in DI water: 1 mL of the d5-estradiol intermediate stock standard was diluted to volume with DI water in a 200 mL volumetric flask.

A 20% formic acid solution was prepared by adding 50 mL of formic acid (˜98% pure Aldrich Cat. No. 06440 or equivalent) to a 250 mL volumetric flask, which was diluted to volume with ultrapure HPLC-grade water. A 100 mM ammonium sulfate solution in DI water was prepared by adding 13.2 gram of ammonium sulfate powder (CAS#7783-20-2 Fisher Cat. No: A702-500) to a 1000 mL volumetric flask, which was diluted to volume with DI water.

All calibrators/standards used in each run were prepared fresh weekly from series of dilutions of frozen aliquots of 10,000 pg/mL estradiol standard in stripped serum. The standards were prepared from highest concentration to the lowest with a final total volume for each standard of 10 mL.

Example 2

Extraction of Estradiol from Serum Using Liquid Chromatography

Liquid chromatography (LC) samples were prepared by pipetting 200 μL of standards, controls, or patient samples into a 96-well plate. If run on positive ion mode, 300 μL of 20% formic acid were delivered to each well for a final concentration of ˜11% (V/V). If run on negative ion mode, 300 μL of 100 mM ammonium sulfate solution were added to each well for a final concentration of ˜57 mM ammonium sulfate. In addition, 25 μL of the 5000 pg/mL d5-estradiol standard were added to each well. The samples were incubated at room temperature for 30 to 45 minutes prior to LC.

Liquid chromatography was performed with a Cohesive Technologies Aria TX-4 HTLC system using Aria OS V 1.5 or newer software. An autosampler wash solution was prepared using 30% acetonitrile, 30% methanol, 30% isopropanol, and 10% acetone (v/v).

The HTLC system automatically injected 75 μL of the above prepared samples into a TurboFlow column (50×1.0 mm, 60 μm Cyclone P column from Cohesive Technologies) packed with large particles. The samples were loaded at a high flow rate (5 mL/min, loading reagent 100% DI) to create turbulence inside the extraction column. This turbulence ensured optimized binding of estradiol to the large particles in the column and the passage of residual protein and debris to waste.

Following loading, the flow direction was reversed and the sample eluted off to the analytical column (Phenomenex analytical column, Synergi Polar-RP® 150×2.0 mm, 4 μm column) with 200 μL of 100% methanol in the loop. A binary HPLC gradient was applied to the analytical column, to separate estradiol from other analytes contained in the sample. Mobile phase A was Ultra Pure Water (HPLC grade) and mobile phase B was 100% methanol. The HPLC gradient started with a 40% organic gradient which ramped to 100% in approximately 5.33 minutes. The analytes eluted off the HPLC column at 77% methanol gradient. The separated sample was then subjected to MS/MS for quantitation of estradiol.

To determine interference with other molecules, blank sera was spiked with 1000 pg/mL each of steroids of the same weight such as 16-β estradiol and 17-α estradiol as well as the following steroids: estrone, estriol, testosterone, 17-α hydroxyprogesterone, progesterone, androstenedione, 17-β estradiol glucuronide, 17-β estradriol sulfate, and dihydroxytestosterone. The samples were subject to LC. None of the steroids co-eluted with estradiol except for 17-α estradiol, which partially interfered with 17-β estradiol but had sufficiently different retention time to allow the operator to determine its presence readily.

Example 3

Detection and Quantitation of Estradiol by MS/MS

MS/MS was performed using a Finnigan TSQ Quantum Ultra MS/MS system (Thermo Electron Corporation). The following software programs all from ThermoElectron were used in the Examples described herein: Tune Master V 1.2 or newer, Xcalibur V 2.0 SRI or newer, TSQ Quantum 1.4 or newer, LCQuan V 2.0 or newer, and XReport 1.0 or newer. Liquid solvent analyte exiting the analytical HPLC column flowed to the heated nebulizer interface of a Thermo Finnigan MS/MS analyzer. The solvent/analyte mixture was converted to vapor in the heated tubing of the interface. Analytes in the nebulized solvent were ionized by the corona discharge needle of the interface, which applied voltage to the nebulized solvent/analyte mixture.

Ions passed to the first quadrupole (Q1), which selected ions with a mass to charge ratio of either 271.14±0.5 m/z or 255.07±0.5 m/z. Ions entering Quadrupole 2 (Q2) collided with argon gas to generate ion fragments, which were passed to quadrupole 3 (Q3) for further selection. Simultaneously, the same process using isotope dilution mass spectrometry was carried out with an internal standard, a 5-deuterated estradiol molecule. The following mass transitions were used for detection and quantitation during validation on positive polarity.

TABLE 1
Mass Transitions for Estradiol (Positive Polarity)
AnalytePrecursor Ion (m/z)Product Ion (m/z)
Estradiol255.07133.20 &159.20
2,4,16,16,17-d5 Estradiol260.10135.10 &161.10

The following mass transitions were used for detection and quantitation during validation on negative polarity.

TABLE 2
Mass Transitions for Estradiol (Negative Polarity)
AnalytePrecursor Ion (m/z)Product Ion (m/z)
Estradiol271.14145.10 &183.10
2,4,16,16,17-d5 Estradiol276.15147.10 &187.10

Example 4

Intra-Assay and Inter-Assay Precision and Accuracy

Three quality control (QC) pools were prepared from charcoal stripped serum, spiked with estradiol to a concentration of 10, 200, and 800 pg/mL.

Ten aliquots from each of the three QC pools were analyzed in a single assay to determine the reproducibility (CV) of a sample within an assay. The following values were determined:

TABLE 3
Intra-Assay Variation and Accuracy
Level ILevel IILevel III
(10 pg/mL)(200 pg/mL)(800 pg/mL)
Mean12203804
Stdev0.814.824.2
CV 7.4% 7.3% 3.0%
Accuracy115%102%101%

Ten aliquots from each of the three QC pools were assayed over 5 days to determine the reproducibility (RSD %) between assays. The following values were determined:

TABLE 4
Inter-Assay Variation and Accuracy
Level 1Level IILevel III
(10 pg/mL)(200 pg/mL)(800 pg/mL
Mean11209797
Stdev2.026.881.6
RSD (%)17.612.810.2
Accuracy (%)112.9104.399.7

Example 5

Analytical Sensitivity: Limit of Detection (LOD) and Limit of Quantitation (LOQ)

The estradiol zero standard was run in 10 replicates to determine the limit of detection of the assay, which is the point at which the measured value is larger than the uncertainty associated with it. The LOD was defined arbitrarily as 2 standard deviations (SD) from the zero concentration. The resulting peak area ratios for the zero standard were statistically analyzed with a mean value of 0.021 and a SD of 0.006. The LOD for the estradiol assay was 2.0 pg/mL.

To determine the limit of quantitation with a precision of 20% and an accuracy of 80% to 120%, five different samples at concentrations close to the expected LOQ were assayed and the reproducibility determined for each. The LOQ for the estradiol assay was defined at 2.0 pg/mL

Example 6

Assay Reportable Range and Linearity

To establish the linearity of estradiol detection in the assay, one blank assigned as zero standard and 11 spiked serum standards were prepared and analyzed on 5 separate days. A quadratic regression from five consecutive runs yielded coefficient correlations of 0.995 or greater, with an accuracy of ±20% revealing a quantifiable linear range of 2 to 2000 pg/mL.

Example 7

Matrix Specificity

Matrix specificity was evaluated using water, stripped serum, and pooled serum to determine whether patient samples could be diluted in a linear fashion. The samples were run in duplicate following a calibration run. The accuracy was as follows:

TABLE 5
Matrix Specificity Accuracy
StrippedPooled
WaterSerumSerum
1:2 Dilution120%94%147%
1:4 Dilution38%85%94%

Example 8

Recovery

To determine the ability to recover estradiol from spiked samples, two patient samples of known concentrations were spiked with 3 levels (low, medium, high) of estradiol. The recovery was calculated by dividing the spiked amount by the expected concentration. The mean recoveries were 92%, 108% and 98% for low, mid and high levels respectively.

The contents of the articles, patents, and patent applications, and all other documents and electronically available information mentioned or cited herein, are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety to the same extent as if each individual publication was specifically and individually indicated to be incorporated by reference. Applicants reserve the right to physically incorporate into this application any and all materials and information from any such articles, patents, patent applications, or other physical and electronic documents.

The methods illustratively described herein may suitably be practiced in the absence of any element or elements, limitation or limitations, not specifically disclosed herein. Thus, for example, the terms “comprising”, “including,” containing”, etc. shall be read expansively and without limitation. Additionally, the terms and expressions employed herein have been used as terms of description and not of limitation, and there is no intention in the use of such terms and expressions of excluding any equivalents of the features shown and described or portions thereof. It is recognized that various modifications are possible within the scope of the invention claimed. Thus, it should be understood that although the present invention has been specifically disclosed by preferred embodiments and optional features, modification and variation of the invention embodied therein herein disclosed may be resorted to by those skilled in the art, and that such modifications and variations are considered to be within the scope of this invention.

The invention has been described broadly and generically herein. Each of the narrower species and subgeneric groupings falling within the generic disclosure also form part of the methods. This includes the generic description of the methods with a proviso or negative limitation removing any subject matter from the genus, regardless of whether or not the excised material is specifically recited herein.

Other embodiments are within the following claims. In addition, where features or aspects of the methods are described in terms of Markush groups, those skilled in the art will recognize that the invention is also thereby described in terms of any individual member or subgroup of members of the Markush group.