Title:
ADENOSINE A2A RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS FOR THE TREATMENT OF EXTRA-PYRAMIDAL SYNDROME AND OTHER MOVEMENT DISORDERS
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
There is disclosed a method for the treatment or prevention of Extra Pyramidal syndrome (EPS), dystonia, restless leg syndrome (RLS) or periodic leg movement in sleep (PLMS) comprising the administration of an adenosine A2a receptor antagonist, alone or in combination with other agents useful for treating EPS, dystonia, RLS or PLMS.



Inventors:
Grzelak, Michael (Wayne, NJ, US)
Hunter, John (Warren, NJ, US)
Pond, Annamarie (Biddeford, ME, US)
Vaity, Geoffrey (Berkeley Heights, NJ, US)
Application Number:
12/181736
Publication Date:
01/29/2009
Filing Date:
07/29/2008
Assignee:
Schering Corporation
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
514/217, 514/220, 514/225.8, 514/227.5, 514/252.16, 514/267
International Classes:
A61K31/519; A61K31/195; A61K31/198; A61K31/4166; A61K31/4515; A61K31/46; A61K31/485; A61K31/496; A61K31/4985; A61K31/5415; A61K31/55; A61K31/551; A61K31/553; A61K31/554; A61K45/06; A61P25/00
View Patent Images:



Primary Examiner:
OLSON, ERIC
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
SCHERING-PLOUGH CORPORATION;PATENT DEPARTMENT (K-6-1, 1990) (2000 GALLOPING HILL ROAD, KENILWORTH, NJ, 07033-0530, US)
Claims:
We claim:

1. A method for the treatment or prevention of Extra-Pyramidal Syndrome or dystonia comprising administering a therapeutically effective amount of an adenosine A2a receptor antagonist to a patient in need thereof.

2. The method of claim 1 wherein the adenosine A2a antagonist is a compound of the formula or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein R is R1-furanyl, R1-thienyl, R1-pyridyl, R1-pyridyl N-oxide, R1-oxazolyl, R10-phenyl, R1-pyrrolyl or C4-C6 cycloalkenyl; X is C2-C6 alkylene or —C(O)CH2—; Y is —N(R2)CH2CH2N(R3)—, —OCH2CH2N(R2)—, —C—, —S—, —CH2S—, —(CH2)2—NH—, or and Z is R5-phenyl, R5-phenyl(C1-C6)alkyl, R5-heteroaryl, diphenylmethyl, R6—C(O)—, R6—SO2—, R6—OC(O)—, R7—N(R8)—C(O)—, R7—N(R8)—C(S)—, phenyl-CH(OH)—, or phenyl-C(═NOR2)—; or when Q is Z is also phenylamino or pyridylamino; or Z and Y together are R1 is 1 to 3 substituents independently selected from hydrogen, C1-C6-alkyl, —CF3, halogen, —NO2, —NR12R13, C1-C6 alkoxy, C1-C6 alkylthio, C1-C6 alkylsulfinyl, and C1-C6 alkylsulfonyl; R2 and R3 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and C1-C6 alkyl; m and n are independently 2-3; Q is R4 is 1-2 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and C1-C6alkyl, or two R4 substituents on the same carbon can form ═O; R5 is 1 to 5 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, C1-C6 alkyl, hydroxy, C1-C6 alkoxy, —CN, di-((C1-C6)alkyl)amino, —CF3, —OCF3, acetyl, —NO2, hydroxy(C1-C6)alkoxy, (C1-C6)-alkoxy(C1-C6)alkoxy, di-((C1-C6)-alkoxy)(C1-C6)alkoxy, (C1-C6)-alkoxy(C1-C6)alkoxy-(C1-C6)-alkoxy, carboxy(C1-C6)alkoxy, (C1-C6)-alkoxycarbonyl(C1-C6)alkoxy, (C3-C6)cycloalkyl(C1-C6)alkoxy, di-((C1-C6)alkyl)amino(C1-C6)alkoxy, morpholinyl, (C1-C6)alkyl-SO2—, (C1-C6)alkyl-SO—(C1-C6)alkoxy, tetrahydropyranyloxy, (C1-C6)alkylcarbonyl(C1-C6)alkoxy, (C1-C6)-alkoxycarbonyl, (C1-C6)alkylcarbonyloxy(C1-C6)-alkoxy, —SO2NH2, phenoxy, or adjacent R5 substituents together are —O—CH2—O—, —O—CH2CH2—O—, —O—CF2—O— or —O—CF2CF2—O— and form a ring with the carbon atoms to which they are attached; R6 is (C1-C6)alkyl, R5-phenyl, R5-phenyl(C1-C6)alkyl, thienyl, pyridyl, (C3-C6)cycloalkyl, (C1-C6)alkyl-OC(O)—NH—(C1-C6)alkyl-, di-((C1-C8)alkyl)aminomethyl, or R7 is (C1-C6)alkyl, R5-phenyl or R5-phenyl(C1-C6)alkyl; R8 is hydrogen or C1-C6 alkyl; or R7 and R6 together are —(CH2)p-A-(CH2)q, wherein p and q are independently 2 or 3 and A is a bond, —CH2—, —S— or —O—, and form a ring with the nitrogen to which they are attached; R9 is 1-2 groups independently selected from hydrogen, C1-C6 alkyl, hydroxy, C1-C6 alkoxy, halogen, —CF3 and (C1-C6)alkoxy(C1-C6)alkoxy; R10 is 1 to 5 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, C1-C6 alkyl, hydroxy, C1-C6 alkoxy, —CN, —NH2, C1-C6alkylamino, di-((C1-C6)alkyl)amino, —CF3, —OCF3 and —S(O)0-2(C1-C6)alkyl; R11 is H, C1-C6 alkyl, phenyl, benzyl, C2-C6 alkenyl, C1-C6 alkoxy(C1-C6)alkyl, di-((C1-C6)alkyl)amino(C1-C6)alkyl, pyrrolidinyl(C1-C6)alkyl or piperidino(C1-C6)alkyl; R12 is H or C1-C6 alkyl; and R13 is (C1-C6)alkyl-C(O)— or (C1-C6)alkyl-SO2—.

3. The method of claim 2 wherein the adenosine A2a receptor antagonist is selected from the group consisting of compounds of the formula wherein R and Z-Y are as defined in the following table:
Z—Y—R
or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof.

4. The method of claim 3 wherein the adenosine A2a receptor antagonist is or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof.

5. The method of claim 1 for treating or preventing Extra-Pyramidal Syndrome.

6. The method of claim 5 wherein the Extra-Pyramidal Syndrome has been caused by treatment with a typical antipsychotic agent or an atypical antipsychotic agent.

7. The method of claim 6 wherein the typical antipsychotic agent is selected from the group consisting of loxapine, haloperidol, chlorpromazine, prochlorperazine and thiothixene, and the atypical antipsychotic agent is selected from the group consisting of clozapine, olanzapine, loxapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone and risperidone

8. The method of claim 5 further comprising administering an antipsychotic agent in combination with the adenosine A2a receptor antagonist.

9. The method of claim 8 wherein the antipsychotic agent is a typical antipsychotic agent selected from the group consisting of loxapine, haloperidol, chlorpromazine, prochlorperazine and thiothixene, or an atypical antipsychotic agent selected from the group consisting of clozapine, olanzapine, loxapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone and risperidone.

10. A kit comprising, in separate containers in a single package, pharmaceutical compositions for use in combination to treat or prevent EPS caused by treatment with antipsychotic agent, wherein one container comprises a pharmaceutical composition comprising an effective amount of an adenosine A2areceptor antagonist in a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, and wherein, a separate container comprises a pharmaceutical composition comprising an effective amount of an antipsychotic agent.

11. A method of claim 1 for the treatment of idiopathic dystonia or dystonia caused by the use of cocaine.

12. The method of claim 1 for the treatment or prevention of dystonia caused by treatment with a tricyclic antidepressant, lithium or an anticonvulsant.

13. The method of claim 12 further comprising administering a tricyclic antidepressant, lithium or an anticonvulsant in combination with the adenosine A2a receptor antagonist.

14. The method of claim 13 wherein the tricyclic antidepressant is selected from the group consisting of perphenazine, amitriptyline, desipramine, doxepin, trimipramine and protriptyline, and the anticonvulsant is selected from the group consisting of phenyloin, carbamazepine and gabapentin.

15. A kit comprising, in separate containers in a single package, pharmaceutical compositions for use in combination to treat or prevent dystonia caused by treatment with a tricyclic antidepressant, lithium or an anticonvulsant, wherein one container comprises a pharmaceutical composition comprising an effective amount of an adenosine A2a receptor antagonist in a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, and wherein, a separate container comprises a pharmaceutical composition comprising an effective amount of a tricyclic antidepressant, lithium or an anticonvulsant.

16. A method of treating restless leg syndrome or periodic leg movement in sleep comprising administering a therapeutically effective amount of an adenosine A2a receptor antagonist to a patient in need thereof.

17. The method of claim 16 wherein the adenosine A2a antagonist is a compound of the formula or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein R is R1-furanyl, R1-thienyl, R1-pyridyl, R1-pyridyl N-oxide, R1-oxazolyl, R10-phenyl, R1-pyrrolyl or C4-C6 cycloalkenyl; X is C2-C6 alkylene or —C(O)CH2—; Y is —N(R2)CH2CH2N(R3)—, —OCH2CH2N(R2)—, —O—, —S—, —CH2S—, —(CH2)2—NH—, or and Z is R5-phenyl, R5-phenyl(C1-C6)alkyl, R5-heteroaryl, diphenylmethyl, R6—C(O)—, R6—SO2—, R6—OC(O)—, R7—N(R8)—C(O)—, R7—N(R8)—C(S)—, phenyl-CH(OH), or phenyl-C(═NOR2)—; or when Q is Z is also phenylamino or pyridylamino; or Z and Y together are R1 is 1 to 3 substituents independently selected from hydrogen, C1-C6-alkyl, —CF3, halogen, —NO2, —NR12R13, C1-C6 alkoxy, C1-C6 alkylthio, C1-C6 alkylsulfinyl, and C1-C6 alkylsulfonyl; R2 and R3 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and C1-C6 alkyl; m and n are independently 2-3; Q is R4 is 1-2 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and C1-C6alkyl, or two R4 substituents on the same carbon can form ═O; R5 is 1 to 5 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, C1-C6 alkyl, hydroxy, C1-C6 alkoxy, —CN, di-((C1-C6)alkyl)amino, —CF3, —OCF3, acetyl, —NO2, hydroxy(C1-C6)alkoxy, (C1-C6)-alkoxy(C1-C6)alkoxy, di-((C1-C6)-alkoxy)(C1-C6)alkoxy, (C1-C6)alkoxy(C1-C6)alkoxy-(C1-C6)-alkoxy, carboxy(C1-C6) alkoxy, (C1-C6)-alkoxycarbonyl(C1-C6)alkoxy, (C3-C6)cycloalkyl(C1-C6)alkoxy, di-((C1-C6)alkyl)amino(C1-C6)alkoxy, morpholinyl, (C1-C6)alkyl-SO2—, (C1-C6)alkyl-SO—(C1-C6)alkoxy, tetrahydropyranyloxy, (C1-C6)alkylcarbonyl(C1-C6)alkoxy, (C1-C6)-alkoxycarbonyl, (C1-C6)alkylcarbonyloxy(C1-C6)-alkoxy, —SO2NH2, phenoxy, or adjacent R5 substituents together are —O—CH2—O—, —O—CH2CH2—O—, —O—CF2—O— or —O—CF2CF2—O— and form a ring with the carbon atoms to which they are attached; R6 is (C1-C6)alkyl, R5-phenyl, R5-phenyl(C1-C6)alkyl, thienyl, pyridyl, (C3-C6)-cycloalkyl, (C1-C6)alkyl-OC(O)—NH—(C1-C6)alkyl-, di-((C1-C6)alkyl)aminomethyl, or R7 is (C1-C6)alkyl, R5-phenyl or R5-phenyl(C1-C6)alkyl; R8 is hydrogen or C1-C6 alkyl; or R7 and R8 together are —(CH2)p-A-(CH2)q, wherein p and q are independently 2 or 3 and A is a bond, —CH2—, —S— or —O—, and form a ring with the nitrogen to which they are attached; R9 is 1-2 groups independently selected from hydrogen, C1-C6 alkyl, hydroxy, C1-C6 alkoxy, halogen, —CF3 and (C1-C6)alkoxy(C1-C6)alkoxy; R10 is 1 to 5 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, C1-C6 alkyl, hydroxy, C1-C6 alkoxy, —CN, —NH2, C1-C6alkylamino, di-((C1-C6)alkyl)amino, —CF3, —OCF3 and —S(O)0-2(C1-C6)alkyl; R11 is H, C1-C6 alkyl, phenyl, benzyl, C2-C6 alkenyl, C1-C6 alkoxy(C1-C6)alkyl, di-((C1-C6)alkyl)amino(C1-C6)alkyl, pyrrolidinyl(C1-C6)alkyl or piperidino(C1-C6)alkyl; R12 is H or C1-C6 alkyl; and R13 is (C1-C6)alkyl-C(O)— or (C1-C6)alkyl-SO2—.

18. The method of claim 16 further comprising administering levodopa/carbidopa, levodopa/benserazide, a dopamine agonist, a benzodiazepine, an opioid, an anticonvulsant or iron in combination with the adenosine A2a receptor antagonist.

19. A kit comprising, in separate containers in a single package, pharmaceutical compositions for use in combination to treat or prevent restless leg syndrome or periodic leg movement in sleep, wherein one container comprises a pharmaceutical composition comprising an effective amount of an adenosine A2a receptor antagonist in a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, and wherein a separate container comprises a pharmaceutical composition comprising an effective amount of a dopamine agonist, benzodiazepine, opioid, anticonvulsant or iron.

Description:

CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application 60/435,321, filed Dec. 19, 2002.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to the use of adenosine A2a receptor antagonists for the treatment of a variety of neurological syndromes involving the extra-pyramidal motor system (i.e. Extra-Pyramidal Syndrome) that occur following the acute and chronic use of almost all antipsychotic drugs. The invention also relates to the use of adenosine A2a receptor antagonists for the treatment of other abnormal movement disorders such as restless leg syndrome (RLS) and periodic limb movement in sleep (PLMS).

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Extra-Pyramidal Syndrome (EPS) is a collective term for a series of adverse neurological reactions associated with the use of antipsychotic drugs. There are six different categories of EPS-related neurological syndromes of which four, dystonia, akathisia, pseudoparkinsonism (parkinsonian syndrome), and tardive dyskinesia, are particularly prevalent in patients taking antipsychotic medication. Dystonia is a painful spasm of the muscle groups of, in particular, the neck, jaw, back, pharynx, and larynx. It is most common in young males being treated with antipsychotic drugs, but can also be associated with the use of cocaine, tricyclic antidepressants, lithium and anticonvulsants such as phenyloin and carbamazepine. Pseudoparkinsonism manifests itself as akinesia (rigidity, stiffness and slow voluntary motion, stooped, shuffling walk) and tremor and these symptoms develop within weeks or months after initiation of therapy. Akathisia manifests itself as strong, subjective inner feelings of distress or discomfort characterized by motor restlessness. Often mistaken for agitation or anxiety, this common syndrome is frequently under-diagnosed and is the least responsive to treatment. Tardive dyskinesia is a late-appearing syndrome associated with chronic use of neuroleptic drugs. It occurs more frequently in older patients and is characterized by stereotypical, repetitive, involuntary, quick choreiform movements of the face, eyelids, mouth, tongue, extremities and trunk.

EPS is more prevalent with the use of typical antipsychotic agents but has also been reported with the use of atypical agents. Typical antipsychotics include loxapine, haloperidol, chlorpromazine, prochlorperazine and thiothixene. Atypical antipsychotics include clozapine, olanzapine, loxapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone and risperidone.

Akathisia is also a characteristic of RLS and PLMS, as well as PLMD (periodic leg (or limb) movement disorder). RLS is a common disorder that causes patients to have an irresistible and unpleasant desire to move their legs; it usually manifests during periods of inactivity and/or at night, and can disturb sleep. Patients who do not have the typical RLS symptoms, but who do exhibit periodic leg movements that adversely impact sleep, are diagnosed with PLMS. Treatments for RLS and PLMS have included levodopa/carbidopa, levodopa/benserazide, dopamine agonists such as pramipexole and ropinerole, benzodiazepines, opioids, anticonvulsants and iron (ferrous sulfate). RLS and PLMS have been extensively described in the literature, for example by Saletu et al, Neuropsvchobiology, 41, 4 (2000), p. 190-9.

The purine nucleotide, adenosine, is known to be an endogenous modulator of a number of physiological functions in the central (CNS) and peripheral nervous systems.

Adenosine exerts its biological actions through a class of membrane specific receptors which belong to the super family of receptors coupled with G proteins. Biochemical and pharmacological studies, together with advances in molecular biology, have allowed the identification of at least four subtypes of adenosine receptors: A1, A2a, A2b and A3. Analogs of adenosine able to interact as antagonists with the A1, A2a, A2b and A3 receptors have also been identified.

In the CNS, data has shown that A2a receptors are present in high density in the basal ganglia, known to be important in the control of fine motor movement. Moreover, selective antagonists for the A2a receptor are of pharmacological interest because of their demonstrated efficacy in reducing motor impairment thereby improving function in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease and related movement disorders (e.g. Huntington's Disease). A2a antagonists appear to demonstrate a reduced side-effect liability (e.g. no dyskinesia) compared to current dopaminergic therapies resulting in an improved therapeutic index. A2a antagonists may also have antidepressant properties and stimulate cognitive functions. Some xanthine-related compounds have been found to be A1 receptor selective antagonists, and xanthine and non-xanthine compounds have been found to have high A2a affinity with varying decrees of A2a vs. A1 selectivity. Adenosine A2a receptor antagonists have been disclosed previously, for example in WO 95/01356 and U.S. Pat. No. 6,630,475.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to a method for the treatment or prevention of Extra-Pyramidal Syndrome (e.g., dystonia, akathisia, pseudoparkinsonism and tardive dyskinesia) comprising administering a therapeutically effective amount of an adenosine A2a receptor antagonist to a patient in need thereof. In particular, this method is for the treatment or prevention of EPS in patients treated with an antipsychotic agent that has the side effect of inducing EPS. The adenosine A2a receptor antagonist can be administered after the symptoms of EPS have manifested, or an adenosine A2a receptor antagonist can be administered at the onset of administering an antipsychotic agent in order to prevent EPS from occurring. The invention, therefore, also includes a method of treating or preventing EPS induced by an antipsychotic agent comprising administering a combination of an antipsychotic agent and an adenosine A2a antagonist to a patient in need thereof. More particularly, the invention relates to the method of using of certain adenosine A2a antagonists for the monotherapy or the combined therapy.

The invention also relates to the treatment of primary (idiopathic) dystonia, and to the treatment or prevention of dystonia in patients who exhibit dystonia as a result of treatment with a tricyclic antidepressant, lithium or an anticonvulsant, or who have used cocaine, comprising administering a therapeutically effective amount of an adenosine A2a receptor antagonist to a patient in need thereof. When dystonia is caused by treatment with a tricyclic antidepressant, lithium or an anticonvulsant, the adenosine A2a receptor antagonist can be administered after the symptoms of dystonia have manifested, or an adenosine A2a receptor antagonist can be administered at the onset of administering a tricyclic antidepressant, lithium or an anticonvulsant in order to prevent dystonia from occurring. The invention, therefore, also includes a method of treating or preventing dystonia induced by a tricyclic antidepressant, lithium or an anticonvulsant comprising administering a combination of an adenosine A2a antagonist and a tricyclic antidepressant, lithium or an anticonvulsant to a patient in need thereof.

The invention also relates to the treatment of RLS or PLMS, comprising administering to a patient in need thereof a therapeutically effective amount of an adenosine A2a receptor antagonist. The invention also comprises a method of treating RLS or PLMS comprising administering a combination of an adenosine A2a antagonist with another agent useful in treating RLS or PLMS, such as levodopa/carbidopa, levodopa/benserazide, a dopamine agonist, a benzodiazepine, an opioid, an anticonvulsant or iron, to a patient in need thereof.

In another aspect, this invention relates to a kit comprising, in separate containers in a single package, pharmaceutical compositions for use in combination to treat or prevent EPS caused by treatment with antipsychotic agent, wherein one container comprises a pharmaceutical composition comprising an effective amount of an adenosine A2a receptor antagonist in a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, and wherein a separate container comprises a pharmaceutical composition comprising an effective amount of an antipsychotic agent.

In another aspect, this invention relates to a kit comprising, in separate containers in a single package, pharmaceutical compositions for use in combination to treat or prevent dystonia caused by treatment with a tricyclic antidepressant, lithium or an anticonvulsant, wherein one container comprises a pharmaceutical composition comprising an effective amount of an adenosine A2a receptor antagonist in a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, and wherein a separate container comprises a pharmaceutical composition comprising an effective amount of a tricyclic antidepressant, lithium or an anticonvulsant.

In another aspect, this invention relates to a kit comprising, in separate containers in a single package, pharmaceutical compositions for use in combination to treat RLS or PLMS, wherein one container comprises a pharmaceutical composition comprising an effective amount of an adenosine A2a receptor antagonist in a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, and wherein a separate container comprises a pharmaceutical composition comprising an effective amount of levodopa/carbidopa, levodopa/benserazide, a dopamine agonist, a benzodiazepine, an opioid, an anticonvulsant or iron.

The invention also relates to the use of an adenosine A2a receptor antagonist for the preparation of a medicament for treating or preventing EPS, dystonia, RLS or PLMS, alone or in combination with the other agents discussed above.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

A more complete understanding of the invention may be obtained by reading the following description in conjunction with the appended figures relating to haloperidol-induced EPS in Cebus apella monkeys.

FIG. 1A illustrates the effect of Compound A (1-30 mg/kg, p.o.) on maximum EPS score.

FIG. 1B represents the mean delay in onset of EPS for each treatment group compared to a vehicle control group.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

Any adenosine A2a receptor antagonist is contemplated for use in the method of this invention. Suitable adenosine A2a receptor antagonists useful in the method of the invention can be identified by the binding assay described below. Specific examples of suitable adenosine A2a antagonists include the compounds disclosed in several patents and patent applications, e.g. WO 95/01356; U.S. Pat. No. 5,565,460; U.S. Pat. No. 6,630,475 B2; U.S. Pat. No. 5,935,964; WO 03/032996; WO 03/048165; WO 03/048164; WO 03/048163; and WO 01/02409. Specifically, these patents and applications disclose the following compounds.

U.S. Pat. No. 6,630,475 B2 discloses compounds having the structural formula I

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein

R is R1-furanyl, R1-thienyl, R1-pyridyl, R1-pyridyl N-oxide, R1-oxazolyl, R10-phenyl, R1-pyrrolyl or C4-C6 cycloalkenyl;

X is C2-C6 alkylene or —C(O)CH2—;

Y is —N(R2)CH2CH2N(R3)—, —OCH2CH2N(R2)—, —O—, —S—, —CH2S—, —(CH2)2—NH—, or

and

Z is R5-phenyl, R5-phenyl(C1-C6)alkyl, R5-heteroaryl, diphenylmethyl, R6—C(O)—,

R6—SO, R6—OC(O)—, R7—N(R8)—C(O)—, R7—N(R8)—C(S)—,

phenyl-CH(OH)—, or phenyl-C(═NOR2)—; or when Q is

Z is also phenylamino or pyridylamino;
or

Z and Y together are

R1 is 1 to 3 substituents independently selected from hydrogen, C1-C6-alkyl, —CF3, halogen, —NO2, —NR12R13, C1-C6 alkoxy, C1-C6 alkylthio, —C6 alkylsulfinyl, and C1-C6 alkylsulfonyl;

R2 and R3 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and C1-C6 alkyl;

m and n are independently 2-3;

Q is

R4 is 1-2 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and C1-C6alkyl, or two R4 substituents on the same carbon can form ═O;

R5 is 1 to 5 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, C1-C6 alkyl, hydroxy, C1-C6 alkoxy, —CN, di-((C1-C6)alkyl)amino, —CF3, —OCF3, acetyl, —NO2, hydroxy(C1-C6)alkoxy, (C1-C6)-alkoxy(C1-C6)alkoxy, di-((C1-C6)-alkoxy)(C1-C6)alkoxy, (C1-C6)-alkoxy(C1-C6)alkoxy-(C1-C6)-alkoxy, carboxy(C1-C6)-alkoxy, (C1-C6)-alkoxycarbonyl(C1-C6)alkoxy, (C3-C6)cycloalkyl(C1-C6)alkoxy, di-((C1-C6)alkyl)amino(C1-C6)alkoxy, morpholinyl, (C1-C6)alkyl-SO2—, (C1-C6)alkyl-SO—(C1-C6)alkoxy, tetrahydropyranyloxy, (C1-C6)alkylcarbonyl(C1-C6)-alkoxy, (C1-C6)-alkoxycarbonyl, (C1-C6)alkylcarbonyloxy(C1-C6)-alkoxy, —SO2NH2, phenoxy,

or adjacent R5 substituents together are —O—CH2—O—, —O—CH2CH2—O—, —O—CF2—O— or —O—CF2CF2—O— and form a ring with the carbon atoms to which they are attached;

R6 is (C1-C6)alkyl, R5-phenyl, R5-phenyl(C1-C6)alkyl, thienyl, pyridyl, (C3-C6)-cycloalkyl, (C1-C6)alkyl-OC(O)NH—(C1-C6)alkyl-, di-((C1-C6)alkyl)aminomethyl, or

R7 is (C1-C6)alkyl, R5-phenyl or R5-phenyl(C1-C6)alkyl;

R8 is hydrogen or C1-C6 alkyl; or R7 and R8 together are —(CH2)p-A-(CH2)q, wherein p and q are independently 2 or 3 and A is a bond, —CH2—, —S— or —O—, and form a ring with the nitrogen to which they are attached;

R9 is 1-2 groups independently selected from hydrogen, C1-C6 alkyl, hydroxy, C1-C6 alkoxy, halogen, —CF3 and (C1-C6)alkoxy(C1-C6)alkoxy;

R10 is 1 to 5 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, C1-C6 alkyl, hydroxy, C1-C6 alkoxy, —CN, —NH2, C1-C6alkylamino, di-((C1-C6)alkyl)amino, —CF3, —OCF3 and —S(O)0-2(C1-C6)alkyl;

R11 is H, C1-C6 alkyl, phenyl, benzyl, C2-C6 alkenyl, C1-C6 alkoxy(C1-C6)alkyl, di-((C1-C6)alkyl)amino(C1-C6)alkyl, pyrrolidinyl(C1-C6)alkyl or piperidino(C1-C6)alkyl;

R12 is H or C1-C6 alkyl; and

R13 is (C1-C6)alkyl-C(O)— or (C1-C6)alkyl-SO2—.

Preferred compounds of formula I are those wherein R is R1-furanyl, R1-thienyl, R1-pyrrolyl or R10-phenyl, more preferably R1-furanyl. R1 is preferably hydrogen or halogen. Another group of preferred compounds is that wherein X is alkylene, preferably ethylene. Y is preferably

wherein Q is

with Q preferably being nitrogen. Preferably, m and n are each 2, and R4 is H. A preferred definition for Z is R5-phenyl, R5-heteroaryl, R6—C(O)— or R6—SO2—. R5 is preferably H, halogen, alkyl, alkoxy, hydroxyalkoxy or alkoxyalkoxy. R6 is preferably R5-phenyl.

Preferred specific compounds of formula I are those of the formula IA

wherein R and Z-Y are as defined in the following table:

Z—Y—R

Other useful adenosine A2a receptor antagonists include those disclosed in WO 95/01356 as compounds having the structural formula II

wherein:

A is pyrazole, imidazole or a triazole ring;

R is hydrogen; C1-C8 alkyl; C3-C7 alkenyl; C3-C7 alkynyl; C3-C7 cycloalkyl; C1-C5 alkyl substituted with one or more halogen atoms, hydroxy groups, C1-C4 alkoxy, C3-C7 cycloalkyl, groups of formula —NR1R2, —CONR1R2; aryl optionally substituted with halogen atoms, C1-C4 alkoxy groups, C1-C4 alkyl, nitro, amino, cyano, C1-C4 haloalkyl, C1-C4 haloalkoxy, carboxy, carboxyamido; C7-C10 aralkyl in which the aryl moiety can be substituted with one or more of the substituents indicated above for the aryl group; a group of formula —(CH2)m-Het, wherein Het is a 5-6 membered aromatic or non aromatic heterocyclic ring containing one or more heteroatoms selected from N, O, S and m is an integer from 1 to 5;

R1, R2 which are the same or different, are hydrogen, C1-C5 alkyl, C7-C10 aralkyl, phenyl, or taken together with the nitrogen they are linked to, form an azetidine ring or a 5-6 membered heterocyclic ring containing one or more heteroatoms such as N, O, S and n is an integer from 2 to 5.

Preferably, compounds of formula II are those wherein R is hydrogen, C1-C8 alkyl, aryl or C7-C10 aralkyl optionally substituted, preferably with halogen atoms.

U.S. Pat. No. 5,935,964 discloses useful adenosine A2a receptor antagonist compounds having the structural formula III

wherein A is pyrazole, imidazole or triazole ring;

R is

R1 and R2, which are the same or different, are H, OH, halogen, C1-C4 alkoxy, C1-C4 alkyl, nitro, amino, cyano, C1-C4 haloalkyl, C1-C4 haloalkoxy, carboxy or carboxamido; or the OH group, together with one of R1 or R2, or R1 and R2, can form a methylenedioxy group —O—CH2—O—; and

n is an integer from 0-4.

Preferred compounds of formula III are those wherein A is pyrazolo[4,3-e] or 1,2,3-triazolo[5,4-e].

U.S. Pat. No. 5,565,460 discloses useful adenosine A2a receptor antagonist compounds having the structural formulas IVA and IVB, wherein formula IVA is

wherein R1 represents hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted lower alkyl, or substituted or unsubstituted lower alkanoyl;

R2 represents hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted lower alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted lower alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted aralkyl, or a substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclic group;

R3 represents a substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclic group;

X represents a single bond, O, S, S(O), S(O)2, or NR4 (in which R4 represents hydrogen, or substituted or unsubstituted lower alkyl; or R2 and NR4 are combined to form a substituted or unsubstituted 4 to 6-membered saturated heterocyclic group): and

A represents N or CR5 (in which R5 represents hydrogen, or a substituted or unsubstituted lower alkyl); and

wherein formula IVB is

wherein R6 represents substituted or unsubstituted aryl, or a substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclic group;

Y represents O, S, or NR7 (in which R7 represents substituted or unsubstituted lower alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl, or substituted or unsubstituted aryl);

R8 represents hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted lower alkyl, substituted or unsubstituted lower alkenyl, substituted or unsubstituted lower alkynyl, substituted or unsubstituted cycloalkyl, substituted or unsubstituted aryl, substituted or unsubstituted aralkyl, or a substituted or unsubstituted heterocyclic group; and

B and the adjacent two carbon atoms are combined to form a substituted or unsubstituted, partially saturated or unsaturated, monocyclic or bicyclic, carbocyclic or heterocyclic group.

WO 03/032996 discloses useful adenosine A2a receptor antagonist compounds having the structural formula V

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein

R is R1-heteroaryl, R10-phenyl, C4-C6 cycloalkenyl, <(═CH2)CH3, —C≡C—CH3, —C≡C—CH2—OR2, —CH═C(CH3)2,

X is C1-C6 alkylene, —C(O)CH2— or —C(O)N(R2)CH2—;

Y is —N(R2)CH2CH2N(R3)—, —OCH2CH2N(R2)—, —O—, —S—, —CH2S—, —(CH2)2-3—N(R2)—, R5-divalent heteroaryl,

and

Z is R5-phenyl, R5-phenyl(C1-C6)alkyl, R5-heteroaryl, R5-bicyclic heteroaryl, R5-benzofused heteroaryl, diphenylmethyl or R6—C(O)—; or when Y is

Z is also R6—SO2—, R7—N(R8)—C(O)—, R7—N(R8)—C(S)— or R6OC(O)—; or when Q is

Z is also phenylamino or pyridylamino;
or Z and Y together are

or Y and Z together form a piperidinyl or pyrrolidinyl ring fused to a monocyclic or bicyclic aryl or a monocyclic or bicyclic heteroaryl ring wherein X is attached to the N atom of the piperidinyl or pyrrolidinyl ring;

R1 is 1 to 3 substituents independently selected from hydrogen, C1-C6-alkyl, —CF3, halogen, —NO2, —NR12R13, C1-C6 alkoxy, C1-C6 alkylthio, C1-C6 alkylsulfinyl, C1-C6 alkylsulfonyl, —COOR7 or —C(O)NR2R3;

R2 and R3 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and C1-C6 alkyl;

m and n are independently 2-3;

p and q are independently 0-2;

Q and Q1 are independently selected from the group consisting of

provided that at least one of Q and Q1 is

R4 is 1-2 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, C1-C6alkyl, R1-aryl and R1-heteroaryl, or two R4 substituents on the same carbon can form ═O;

R5 is 1 to 5 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, C1-C6 alkyl, hydroxy, C1-C6 alkoxy, —CN, di-((C1-C6)alkyl)amino, —CF3, —OCF3, acetyl, —NO2, hydroxy(C1-C6)alkoxy, (C1-C6)-alkoxy(C1-C6)alkoxy, di-((C1-C6)-alkoxy)(C1-C6)alkoxy, (C1-C6)-alkoxy(C1-C6)alkoxy-(C1-C6)alkoxy, carboxy(C1-C6)-alkoxy, (C1-C6)-alkoxycarbonyl(C1-C6)alkoxy, (C3-C6)cycloalkyl(C1-C6)alkoxy, di-((C1-C6)alkyl)amino(C1-C6)alkoxy, morpholinyl, (C1-C6)alkyl-SO2—, (C1-C6)alkyl-SO2—(C1-C6)alkoxy, tetrahydropyranyloxy, (C1-C6)alkylcarbonyl(C1-C6)alkoxy, (C1-C6)-alkoxycarbonyl, (C1-C6)alkylcarbonyloxy(C1-C6)-alkoxy, —SO2NH2, phenoxy,

(R2O)2—P(O)—CH2—O— and (R2O)2—P(O)—; or adjacent R5 substituents together are —O—CH2—O—, —O—CH2CH2—O—, —O—CF2—O— or —O—CF2CF2—O— and form a ring with the carbon atoms to which they are attached;

R6 is (C1-C6)alkyl, R5-phenyl, R5-phenyl(C1-C6)alkyl, thienyl, pyridyl, (C3-C6)-cycloalkyl, (C1-C6)alkyl-OC(O)NH—(C1-C6)alkyl-, di-((C1-C6)alkyl)aminomethyl, or

R7 is (C1-C6)alkyl, R5-phenyl or R5-phenyl(C1-C6)alkyl;

R8 is hydrogen or C1-C6 alkyl; or R7 and R8 together are —(CH2)pA-(CH2)q, wherein p and q are independently 2 or 3 and A is a bond, —CH2—, —S— or —O—, and form a ring with the nitrogen to which they are attached;

R9 is 1-2 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, C1-C6 alkyl, hydroxy, C1-C6 alkoxy, halogen, —CF3 and (C1-C6)alkoxy-(C1-C6)alkoxy;

R10 is 1 to 5 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, C1-C6 alkyl, hydroxy, C1-C6 alkoxy, —CN, —NH2, C1-C6alkylamino, di-((C1-C6)alkyl)amino, —CF3, —OCF3, —S(O)0-2(C1-C6)alkyl and —CH2—SO2-phenyl;

R11 is H, C1-C6 alkyl, phenyl, benzyl, C2-C6 alkenyl, C1-C8 alkoxy(C1-C6)alkyl, di-((C1-C6)alkyl)amino(C1-C6)alkyl, pyrrolidinyl(C1-C6)alkyl or piperidino(C1-C6)alkyl;

R12 is H or C1-C6 alkyl;

R13 is H, (C1-C6)alkyl-C(O)— or (C1-C6)alkyl-SO2—;

R14 is H, halogen, C1-C6 alkyl, hydroxy(C1-C6)alkyl, C1-C6 alkoxy(C1-C6)alkyl, thio(C1-C6)alkyl, (C1-C6)alkylthio(C1-C6)alkyl or NR2R3—(C1-C6)alkyl; and

R15 is H, halogen, C1-C6 alkyl or C1-C6 alkoxy.

Preferred compounds of formula V are those wherein R is R1-furanyl, R1-thienyl, R1-pyrrolyl, R1-pyridyl or R10-phenyl, more preferably R1-furanyl or R10-phenyl. R1 is preferably hydrogen or halogen. R10 is preferably hydrogen, halogen, alkyl or —CF3. Another group of preferred compounds is that wherein X is alkylene, preferably ethylene. Y is preferably

wherein Q is

with Q preferably being nitrogen. Preferably, m and n are each 2, and R4 is H. A preferred definition for Z is R5-phenyl or R5-heteroaryl. R5 is preferably H, halogen, alkyl, alkoxy, hydroxyalkoxy or alkoxyalkoxy. R6 is preferably R5-phenyl.

Preferred specific compounds of formula V are those of the formula VA

wherein R and Z-Y are as defined in the following table:

Z—YR

WO 03/048165 discloses useful adenosine A2a receptor antagonist compounds having the structural formula VI

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate of said compound, wherein:

R is selected from the group consisting of R1-furanyl-, R1-thienyl-, R1-pyridyl-, R1oxazolyl-, R1-pyrrolyl- and R2-aryl-;

X is —(CH2)n—;

Y is a piperidinyl, pyrrolidinyl or azepanyl group with an aryl or heteroaryl moiety fused to two adjacent carbon atoms on Y, wherein X is attached to the N atom of the piperidinyl, pyrrolidinyl or azepanyl group;

Q is 1-4 substituents, which can be the same or different, and are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, cycloalkyl, cycloheteroalkyl, amino, aryl, aralkyl, heteroaryl, alkyl, CF3, CN, halogen, NO2, alkoxy, alkoxyalkoxy, cycloalkylalkoxy, acyloxy, alkylamino, acylamino, alkylsulfonamino, alkylaminosulfonyl, dialkylaminosulfonyl, NH2SO2—, and hydroxy;

n is 1 to 4;

R1 is 1-3 substituents, which may be the same or different, and are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, alkyl, CF3, halogen and NO2; and

R2 is 1-3 substituents, which may be the same or different, and are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, alkyl, CF3, halogen, NO2, alkoxy, acyloxy, alkylamino, acylamino, alkylsulfonamido, alkylaminosulfonyl, dialkylaminosulfonyl, aminosulfonyl, and hydroxyl.

In a preferred embodiment of compounds of formula VI, Y is

wherein A1 is N—X, and A2 and A3 each are CR4R5, or

    • A1 and A3 each are CR4R5, and A2 is N—X, or
    • A1 and A2 each are CR4R5, and A3 is N—X;

A4 is CR4R5;

Z1, Z2, Z3 and Z4, which can the same or different, are each independently selected from the group consisting of N and CR3, provided that 0-2 of Z1, Z2, Z3 or Z4 are N and the remainder are CR3;

Z5 is NR5, O, S or CR4R5;

Z6 is N or CR3;

Z7 is N or CR3;

m is an integer from 0 to 2;

R3 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, cycloalkyl, amino, aryl, heteroaryl, C1-C6-alkyl, CF3, CN, halogen, NO2, C1-C6-alkoxy, C1-C6-acyloxy, C1-C6-alkylamino, C1-C6-acylamino, C1-C6-alkylsulfonamino, C1-C6-alkylaminosulfonyl, C1-C6-dialkylaminosulfonyl, NH2—SO2—, and hydroxy;

R4 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, hydroxyalkyl, aryl, aralkyl, C1-C6-alkyl, C1-C6-alkoxy, CF3, CN, halogen, hydroxy, and NO2; and

R5 is hydrogen or C1-C6 alkyl.

Preferred specific examples of compounds of formula VI include compounds of the formula:

WO 03/048164 discloses useful adenosine A2a receptor antagonist compounds having the structural formula VII

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof; wherein:

R is selected from the group consisting of R4-heteroaryl, R5-phenyl, (C4-C6)cycloalkenyl, —C(═CH2)CH3, —C≡C—CH3,

—H═C(CH3)2,

and —CH═CH—CH3;

R2 is selected from the group consisting of —W—X, —NR19(CH2)m—W—X, and —NR19CH(CH3)—W—X, or

R2 is selected from the group consisting of alkyl, alkenyl and —NR18R19, wherein said alkyl, alkenyl or —NR18R19 is optionally substituted by —W—X;

R3 is selected from the group consisting of H, halo, alkyl, trifluoromethyl, alkoxy, alkoxyalkyl, hydroxyalkyl, alkylamino, alkylaminoalkyl, dialkylamino, dialkylaminoalkyl, aminoalkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, and CN;

R4 is 1 to 3 substituents, which can be the same or different, and are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, (C1-C6)-alkyl, —CF3, halogen, —NO2, —NR15R16, (C1-C6)alkoxy, (C1-C6)alkylthio, (C1-C6)alkylsulfinyl, (C1-C6)alkylsulfonyl, —COOR17 and —C(O)NR6R7;

R5 is 1 to 5 substituents, which can be the same or different, and are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, (C1-C6)alkyl, hydroxy, (C1-C6)alkoxy, —CN, —NH2, (C1-C6)alkylamino, di-((C1-C6)alkyl)amino, —CF3, —OCF3, —S(O)0-2(C1-C6)alkyl and —CH2—SO2-phenyl;

R6 and R7, which can be the same or different, are each independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and (C1-C6)alkyl;

R8 is 1 to 5 substituents, which can be the same or different, and are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, halogen, (C1-C6)alkyl, hydroxy, C1-C6 alkoxy, —CN, amino, di-((C1-C6)alkyl)amino, —CF3, —OCF3, acetyl, —NO2, hydroxy(C1-C6)alkoxy, (C1-C6)-alkoxy(C1-C6)alkoxy, di-((C1-C6)-alkoxy)(C1-C6)alkoxy, (C1-C6)alkoxy(C1-C6)alkoxy-(C1-C6)-alkoxy, carboxy(C1-C6)-alkoxy, (C1-C6)alkoxycarbonyl(C1-C6)alkoxy, (C3-C6)cycloalkyl(C1-C6)alkoxy, di-((C1-C6)alkyl)amino(C1-C6)alkoxy, morpholinyl, (C1-C6)alkyl-SO2—, (C1-C6)alkyl-SO2—(C1-C6)alkoxy, tetrahydropyranyloxy, (C1-C6)alkylcarbonyl(C1-C6)-alkoxy, (C1-C6)alkoxycarbonyl, (C1-C6)alkylcarbonyloxy(C1-C6)-alkoxy, —SO2NH2, phenoxy,

—O—CH2—P(O)(OR6)2,- and —P(O)(OR5)2; or

adjacent R8 substituents together are —O—CH2—O—, —O—CH2CH2—O—, —O—CF2—O—or

—O—CF2CF2—O— and form a ring with the carbon atoms to which they are attached;

R9 is selected from the group consisting of (C1-C6)alkyl, R8-aryl-, R8-aryl(C1-C6)alkyl-, thienyl, pyridyl, (C3-C6)-cycloalkyl, (C1-C6)alkyl-OC(O)—NH—(C1-C6)alkyl-, di-((C1-C6)alkyl)aminomethyl, cycloheteroalkyl(C1-C6)alkyl, aryloxy(C1-C6)alkyl, alkoxy(C1-C6)alkyl and

R10 is 1-2 substituents, which can be the same or different, and are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, (C1-C6)alkyl, R5-aryl and R4-heteroaryl, or two R10 substituents on the same carbon can form ═O;

R11 is hydrogen or (C1-C6)alkyl; —C(O)alkyl, or R17 and R11 taken together are —(CH2)p-A-(CH2)q, wherein p and q are each independently 2 or 3 and A is selected from the group consisting of a bond, —CH2—, —S— and —O—, and form a ring with the nitrogen to which they are attached;

R12 is 1-2 substituents, which can be the same or different, and are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, (C1-C6)alkyl, hydroxy, (C1-C6)alkoxy, halogen, and —CF3;

R13 is selected from the group consisting of H, (C1-C6)alkyl, phenyl, benzyl, (C2-C6)alkenyl, (C1-C6)alkoxy(C1-C6)alkyl, di-((C1-C6)alkyl)amino(C1-C6)alkyl, pyrrolidinyl(C1-C6)alkyl and piperidino(C1-C6)alkyl;

R14 is selected from the group consisting of H, halogen, (C1-C6)alkyl or (C1-C6)alkoxy;

R15 is selected from the group consisting of H and (C1-C6)alkyl;

R16 is selected from the group consisting of H, (C1-C6)alkyl-C(O)— and (C1-C6)alkyl-SO2—;

R17 is selected from the group consisting of (C1-C6)alkyl, (C1-C6)hydroxyalkyl, (C3-C6)cycloalkyl, (C1-C6)alkoxy(C1-C6)alkoxy, (C1-C6)alkoxy, (C1-C6)alkoxy(C1-C6)alkyl, allyl, propargyl, R8-heteroaryl-, R8-aryl- and R8-aryl(C1-C6)alkyl-;

R18 is selected from the group consisting of a bond, —CH2—, —CH(OH)—, —CH(CH3)—, —C(CH3)n—, —(CH2)n—, and —O(CH2)n—,

R19 is selected from the group consisting of H, (C1-C6)alkyl, (C1-C6)alkyl(C1-C6)cycloalkyl, (C1-C6)cycloalkyl(C1-C6)alkyl and (C1-C6)alkoxy(C1-C6)alkyl;

Q and Q1 can be the same or different and are each independently selected from the group consisting of

m and n are each independently 1-3;

p and q are each independently 0-2;

s is 0-4;

W is aryl or heteroaryl having 1-3 heteroatoms, which can be the same or different, and are independently selected from the group consisting of N, O and S, and wherein said aryl or heteroaryl is optionally substituted with 1-3 substituents, which can be the same or different, and are independently selected from the group consisting of alkyl, aryl, alkylcycloalkyl, halo, hydroxy, hydroxyalkyl, alkoxy, alkylalkoxy, alkoxyalkoxy, —NR6R7, (C2-C6)alkene, and —CN, or

X is selected from the group consisting of H, NH2, —N(R6)(CH2)s-aryl, —N(R6)(CH2)s-heteroaryl, —N(R6)(CH2)m+1—OH, and —N(CH3)2, or

X is —R18—Y-Z;

Y is selected from the group consisting of —N(R6)CH2CH2N(R7)—, —N(R6)(CH2)naryl, —OCH2CH2N(R6)—, —O—, —S—, —CH2S—, —(CH2)2-3—N(R6)—, R8-divalent heteroaryl,

and

Z is selected from the group consisting of H, alkyl, alkoxyalkyl, R8-aryl-, R8-aryl(C1-C6)alkyl-, R8-heteroaryl-, R8-bicyclicalkyl-, aminoalkyl, alkylamino, NH2, —N—(R6)(CH2)s-aryl, —N(R6)(CH2)s-heteroaryl, —N(R6)C(O)OR17, alkylcycloheteroalkyl, cycloheteroalkyl, cycloheteroalkylalkyl, alkoxycycloheteroalkyl, heteroaryl; R8-benzofused heteroaryl-, diphenylmethyl and R9—C(O)—; or

when Y is

Z can also be —OH, R9—SO2—, R17—N(R11)(CH2)s—C(O), R17—OC(O)—, R17—O(CH2)nC(O)—, benzofused heteroaryl(CH2)nC(O)—, benzofused heteroaryl(CH2)n— or R17—N(R11)—C(S)—;
or

when Q is

Z can also be R17R11N—, phenylamino or pyridylamino; or

Z and Y taken together are selected from the group consisting of

Preferred compounds of formula VII are those having the following structures:

WO 03/048163 discloses useful adenosine A2a receptor antagonist compounds having the structural formula VII

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein:

A is C(R1) or N;

R1 and R1a are independently selected from the group consisting of H, (C1-C6)-alkyl, halo, CN and —CF3;

Y is —O—, —S—, —SO—, —SO2—, R5-heteroaryldiyl, R5-arylene or

p and q are independently 2-3;

Q and Q1 are independently selected from the group consisting of

provided that at least one of Q and Q1 is

R is R5-aryl, R5-heteroaryl, R6—(C2-C6)alkenyl or R6—(C2-C6)alkynyl;

R2 is R5-aryl, R5-heteroaryl, R5-aryl(C1-C6)alkyl or R5-heteroaryl(C1-C6)alkyl; or R2—Y is

U, V, and W are independently selected from the group consisting of N and CR1, provided that at least one of U, V and W is CR1;

n is 1, 2 or 3; and

    • (a) A is C(R1) and X is —C(R3)(R3a)—, —C(O)—, —O—, —S—, —SO—, —SO2—, R4-arylene, R4-heteroarldiyl, or —N(R9)—; or A is C(R1), Y is a bond, and X is —C(R3)(R3a), —C(O)—, —O—, —S—, —SO—, —SO2—, R4-arylene, —N(R9)— or R4-heteroaryldiyl, provided that when X is —N(R9)— or R4-heteroaryldiyl, R2 is not phenyl or phenyl-(C1-C6)alkyl; or
    • (b) A is N, X is —N(R9)—, Y is R5-arylene and R2 is

or n is 2 or 3; and

    • (c) A is N and X is —C(R3)(R3a)—, —C(O)—, —O—, —S—, —SO—, —SO2—, —N(R9)—, R4-arylene or R4-heteroaryldiyl; or A is N, Y is a bond and X is —C(O)—, —N(R9)—, R4-arylene or R4-heteroaryldiyl; or A is N, Y is —N(R9a), —C(O)N(R9a)— or —O—(CH2)2—N(R9a)—, and X is —N(R9)—; or A is N, X is —N(R9)—, and Y and R2 together are

or n is 0; and

    • (d) A is N, Y is a bond, X is —N(R9)—, and R2 is

    • (e) A is N, X is —N(R9)— and Y and R2 together are

      • wherein Z is —(O)—CH2—, —C(O)—CH(C1-C6 alkyl), —CH2—CH(C1-C6 alkyl)-, or —CH(C1-C6 alkyl)-CH2—;

R3 and R3a are independently selected from the group consisting of H, —OH, C1-C6 alkyl, hydroxy(C1-C6)alkyl, (C1-C6)alkoxy(C1-C6)alkyl, amino(C1-C6)alkyl, (C1-C6)alkylamino(C1-C6)alkyl and di(C1-C6)alkylamino(C1-C6)alkyl;

R4 is 1-3 substituents selected from the group consisting of H, (C1-C6)alkyl, —OH, (C1-C6)alkoxy, (C1-C6)alkoxy(C1-C6)alkoxy, halo, —CF3, and —CN;

R5 is 1-3 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of H, (C1-C6)alkyl, —OH, (C1-C6)alkoxy, (C1-C6)alkoxy(C1-C6)alkyl, (C1-C6)alkoxy(C1-C6)alkoxy, halo, —CF3, —CN, —NH2, (C1-C6)alkylamino, di(C1-C6)alkylamino, amino(C1-C6)-alkyl, (C1-C6)alkylamino(C1-C6)alkyl, di(C1-C6)alkylamino(C1-C6)alkyl, (C1-C6)alkanoyl-amino, (C1-C6)alkanesulfonylamino, (C1-C6)alkylthio, (C1-C6)alkylthio(C1-C6)alkyl,

R6—(C2-C6)alkenyl, R6—(C2-C6)alkynyl, hydroxy(C1-C6)alkyl, (C1-C6)alkoxy-C(O)-amino, or heterocycloalkyl(C1-C6)alkyl;

R6 is 1 to 3 substituents independently selected from the group consisting of H, —OH, (C1-C6)alkoxy and halo;

R7 and R7a are independently selected from the group consisting of H, (C1-C6)alkyl, (C1-C6)alkoxy(C1-C6)alkyl, R8-aryl and R8-heteroaryl, or an R7 and an R7a substituent on the same carbon can form ═O;

R8 is 1 to 3 substituents independently selected from H, (C1-C6)alkyl, —OH, (C1-C6)alkoxy, (C1-C6)alkoxy(C1-C6)alkoxy, halo, —CF3, and —CN;

R9 and R9a are independently selected from the group consisting of H, (C1-C6)alkyl, hydroxy(C2-C6)alkyl, (C1-C6)alkoxy(C2-C6)alkyl, amino(C2-C6)alkyl, (C1-C6)alkylamino(C2-C6)alkyl, di(C1-C6)alkylamino(C2-C6)alkyl, halo-(C3-C6)alkenyl, CF3—(C1-C6)alkyl, (C3-C6)alkenyl, (C3-C6)cycloalkyl and (C3-C6)cycloalkyl-(C1-C6)alkyl; and

R10 is H, —C(O)—O—(C1-C6)alkyl, R5-aryl, —C(O)—(C1-C6)alkyl, —C(O)—(R5-aryl) or R5-aryl-(C1-C6)alkyl.

Preferred compounds of formula VIII are those wherein A is N. R is preferably furyl. R1a is preferably hydrogen. Another group of preferred compounds is that wherein X is —O—, —S—, —N(R9)— or R4-arylene, with compounds wherein X is —N(R9)— being more preferred. R9 is preferably C1-C6 alkyl. Preferred definitions for Y are a bond or piperazinyl. R2 is preferably R5-aryl. When Y and/or R2 is

Q is preferably N, Q1 is preferably N, p and q are each preferably 2, each R7 and R7a is preferably hydrogen, and R10 is preferably —C(O)—O—(C1-C6)alkyl, —C(O)—(C1-C6)alkyl or —C(O)—(R5-aryl). R5 is preferably 1 or 2 substituents selected from the group consisting of H, (C1-C6)alkoxy, (C1-C6)alkoxy(C1-C6)-alkoxy, halo and —CF3. R4 is preferably H, halo or (C1-C6)alkyl. R3 and R3a are preferably independently selected from H and (C1-C6)alkyl. R9a is preferably H or (C1-C6)alkyl. R6 is preferably hydrogen.

Preferred specific examples of compounds of formula VIII include compounds of the formula

wherein R2—Y—(CH2)n—N(R9)— is as defined in the table:

R2—Y—(CH2)n—N(R9)—

WO 01/02409 discloses useful adenosine A2a receptor antagonist compounds having the structural formula IX

wherein

X is O or S;

R1 and R2 are independently selected from hydrogen, alkyl, aryl, hydroxy, alkoky, aryloxy, cyano, nitro, CO2R7, COR7, OCOR7, CONR7R8, CONR7NR8R9, OCONR7R8, NR7R8, NR7COR8, NR7CONR8R9, NR7CO2R8, NR7SO2R8, NR7CONR8NR9R10, NR7NR8CO2R9, NR7NR8CONR9R10, NR7SO2NR8R9, SO2R7, SOR7, SR7 and SO2NR7R8, or R1 and R2 together form a carbonyl group (C═O), an oxime group (C═NOR11), an imine group (C═NR1) or a hydrazine group (C═NNR11R12), or R1 and R2 together form a 5, 6 or 7 membered carbocyclic or heterocyclic ring;

R3 is alkyl or aryl;

R4, R5 and R6 ate independently selected from hydrogen, alkyl, aryl, halogen, hydroxy, nitro, cyano, alkoxy, aryloxy, CO2R7, COR7, OCOR7, SO2R7, SOR7, SR7, SO2NR7R8, CONR7R8, CONR7NR8R9, OCONR7R8, NR7R8, NR7COR8, NR7CONR8R9, NR7CO2R8, NR7SO2R8, CR7═NOR8, NR7CONR8NR9R10, NR7NR8CO2R9, NR7NR8CONR9R10, SO2NR7NR8R9, NR7SO2NR8R9, NR7NR8SO2R9, NR7NR8CO2R9, NR7NR8R9 and NR7CSNR8R9, or R5 and R6 together form a 5, 6 or 7 membered carbocyclic or heterocyclic ring; and

R7, R8, R9, R10, R11 and R12 are independently selected from hydrogen, alkyl and aryl, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or prodrug thereof.

The US patents and applications cited herein are incorporated herein by reference. The adenosine A2a receptor antagonists are prepared by known methods as described in the cited patents and applications.

As used herein, “patient” means a mammal, especially a human.

It is contemplated that more than one adenosine A2a receptor antagonist (e.g., 2 or 3) can be administered to treat EPS, dystonia, RLS or PLMS; preferably, one adenosine A2a receptor antagonist is administered.

Antipsychotic agents causing the EPS treated by adenosine A2a receptor antagonists and for use in combination with adenosine A2a receptor antagonists include typical and atypical antipsychotic agents. Typical antipsychotics include loxapine, haloperidol, chlorpromazine, prochlorperazine and thiothixene. Atypical antipsychotics include clozapine, olanzapine, loxapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone and risperidone.

Tricyclic antidepressants causing dystonia treated by adenosine A2a receptor antagonists include perphenazine, amitriptyline, desipramine, doxepin, trimipramine and protriptyline. Anticonvulsants which may cause dystonia, but which also may be useful in treating ERLS or PLMS include phenyloin, carbamazepine and gabapentin.

Dopamine agonists useful in treating RLS and PLMS include pergolide, pramipexole, ropinerole, fenoldopam and cabergoline.

Opioids useful in treating PRLS and PLMS include codeine, hydrocodone, oxycodone, propoxyphene and tramadol.

Benzodiazepines useful in treating PRLS and PLMS include clonazepam, triazolam and temazepam.

The antipsychotics, tricyclic antidepressants, anticonvulsants, dopamine agonists, opioids and benzodiazepines are commercially available and are described in the literature, e.g., in The Physicians' Desk Reference (Montvale: Medical Economics Co., Inc., 2001).

It is contemplated that two or more A2a receptor antagonists could be administered in combination with one or more other agents (e.g., antipsychotics, tricyclic antidepressants, anticonvulsants, dopamine agonists, opioids or benzodiazepines), although administration of one A2a antagonist in combination with one other agent is preferred for each of the indications. While administration of separate dosage forms of the A2a antagonist(s) and the other agent(s) are preferred, it is also contemplated that the other agent(s) could be combined in a single dosage form with the A2a receptor antagonist(s) for the treatment or prevention of EPS, dystonia, RLS or PLMS.

Preferred adenosine A2a antagonists are those described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,630,475.

A particularly preferred compound of the invention is Compound A of the formula

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof, disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,630,475 and listed as the first compound in the table of compounds of structure I.

Compounds useful in the method of the invention will show utility as adenosine A2a receptor antagonists in these assays.

Human Adenosine A2a and A1 Receptor Competition Binding Assay Protocol

Membrane sources: A2a: Human A2a Adenosine Receptor membranes, Catalog #RB-HA2a, Receptor Biology, Inc., Beltsville, Md. Dilute to 17 μg/100 μl in membrane dilution buffer (see below).
Assay Buffers Membrane dilution buffer: Dulbecco's Phosphate Buffered Saline (Gibco/BRL)+10 mM MgCl2.
Compound Dilution Buffer: Dulbecco's Phosphate Buffered Saline (Gibco/BRL)+10 mM MgCl2 supplemented with 1.6 mg/ml methyl cellulose and 16% DMSO. Prepared fresh daily.
Ligands: A2a: [3H]-SCH 58261, custom synthesis, AmershamPharmacia Biotech, Piscataway, N.J. Stock is prepared at 1 nM in membrane dilution buffer. Final assay concentration is 0.5 nM.

A1: [3H]-DPCPX, AmershamPharmacia Biotech, Piscataway, N.J. Stock is prepared at 2 nM in membrane dilution buffer. Final assay concentration is 1 nM.

Non-Specific Binding:

A2a: To determine non-specific binding, add 100 nM CGS 15923 (RBI, Natick, Mass.). Working stock is prepared at 400 nM in compound dilution buffer.

A1: To determine non-specific binding, add 100 μM NECA (RBI, Natick, Mass.). Working stock is prepared at 400 μM in compound dilution buffer.

Compound Dilution:

Prepare 1 mM stock solutions of compounds in 100% DMSO. Dilute in compound dilution buffer. Test at 10 concentrations ranging from 3 μM to 30 μM. Prepare working solutions at 4× final concentration in compound dilution buffer.

Assay Procedure:

Perform assays in deep well 96 well plates. Total assay volume is 200 μl. Add 50 μl compound dilution buffer (total ligand binding) or 50 μl CGS 15923 working solution (A2a non-specific binding) or 50 μl NECA working solution (A1 non-specific binding) or 50 μl of drug working solution. Add 50 μl ligand stock ([3H]-SCH 58261 for A2a, [3H]-DPCPX for A1). Add 100 μl of diluted membranes containing the appropriate receptor. Mix. Incubate at room temperature for 90 minutes. Harvest using a Brandel cell harvester onto Packard GF/B filter plates. Add 45 μl Microscint 20 (Packard), and count using the Packard TopCount Microscintillation Counter. Determine IC50 values by fitting the displacement curves using an iterative curve fitting program (Excel). Determine Ki values using the Cheng-Prusoff equation.

Haloperidol-Induced Catalepsy in the Rat

Male Sprague-Dawley rats (Charles River, Calco, Italy) weighing 175-200 g are used. The cataleptic state is induced by the subcutaneous administration of the dopamine receptor antagonist haloperidol (1 mg/kg, sc), 90 min before testing the animals on the vertical grid test. For this test, the rats are placed on the wire mesh cover of a 25×43 plexiglas cage placed at an angle of about 70 degrees with the bench table. The rat is placed on the grid with all four legs abducted and extended (“frog posture”). The use of such an unnatural posture is essential for the specificity of this test for catalepsy. The time span from placement of the paws until the first complete removal of one paw (descent latency) is measured maximally for 120 sec.

The selective A2a adenosine antagonists under evaluation are administered orally at doses ranging between 0.03 and 3 mg/kg, 1 and 4 h before scoring the animals.

In separate experiments, the anti-cataleptic effects were determined for the reference compound, L-DOPA (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, ip),

For preparing pharmaceutical compositions from the compounds useful in the method of this invention, inert, pharmaceutically acceptable carriers can be either solid or liquid. Solid form preparations include powders, tablets, dispersible granules, capsules, cachets and suppositories. The powders and tablets may be comprised of from about 0.1 to about 99 percent active ingredient. Suitable solid carriers are known in the art, e.g. magnesium carbonate, magnesium stearate, talc, sugar, lactose. Tablets, powders, cachets and capsules can be used as solid dosage forms suitable for oral administration.

For preparing suppositories, a low melting wax such as a mixture of fatty acid glycerides or cocoa butter is first melted, and the active ingredient is dispersed homogeneously therein as by stirring. The molten homogeneous mixture is then poured into convenient sized molds, allowed to cool and thereby solidify.

Liquid form preparations include solutions, suspensions and emulsions. As an example may be mentioned water or water-propylene glycol solutions for parenteral injection.

Liquid form preparations may also include solutions for intranasal administration.

Aerosol preparations suitable for inhalation may include solutions and solids in powder form, which may be in combination with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, such as an inert compressed gas.

Also included are solid form preparations which are intended to be converted, shortly before use, to liquid form preparations for either oral or parenteral administration. Such liquid forms include solutions, suspensions and emulsions.

The compounds useful in the method of the invention may also be deliverable transdermally. The transdermal compositions can take the form of creams, lotions, aerosols and/or emulsions and can be included in a transdermal patch of the matrix or reservoir type as are conventional in the art for this purpose.

Preferably the adenosine A2a receptor antagonist and the antipsychotic are administered orally.

Preferably, the pharmaceutical preparation is in unit dosage form. In such form, the preparation is subdivided into unit doses containing appropriate quantities of the active component, e.g., an effective amount to achieve the desired purpose.

The quantity of adenosine A2a receptor antagonist in a unit dose of preparation may be varied or adjusted from about 0.1 mg to 1000 mg, more preferably from about 1 mg to 300 mg, according to the particular application.

The actual dosage employed may be varied depending upon the requirements of the patient and the severity of the condition being treated. Determination of the proper dosage for a particular situation is within the skill of the art. Generally, treatment is initiated with smaller dosages which are less than the optimum dose of the compound. Thereafter, the dosage is increased by small increments until the optimum effect under the circumstances is reached. For convenience, the total daily dosage may be divided and administered in portions during the day if desired.

The amount and frequency of administration of the adenosine A2a receptor antagonist useful in the method of the invention will be regulated according to the judgment of the attending clinician considering such factors as age, condition and size of the patient as well as severity of the symptoms being treated. A typical recommended dosage regimen for an adenosine A2a receptor antagonist is oral administration of about 10 mg to 2000 mg/day preferably 10 to 1000 mg/day, in two to four divided doses to provide relief from the effects of EPS, dystonia, RLS or PLMS. The compounds are non-toxic when administered within this dosage range.

The doses and dosage regimen of the other agents used in combination with the adenosine A2a receptor antagonists, i.e., the antipsychotics, tricyclcic antidepressants, anticonvulsants, dopamine agonists, benzodiazepines, opioids, lithium or iron, will be determined by the attending clinician in view of the approved doses and dosage regimen in the package insert, taking into consideration the age, sex and condition of the patient and the severity of the disease. When administered in combination, the adenosine A2a receptor antagonist and the other agent can be administered simultaneously or sequentially. This is particularly useful when the components of the combination are preferably given on different dosing schedules, e.g., one component is administered daily and the other every six hours, or when the preferred pharmaceutical compositions are different, e.g. one is preferably a tablet and one is a capsule. It is therefore advantageous to provide the adenosine A2a receptor antagonist and the other agent in a kit comprising, in separate containers in a single package, pharmaceutical compositions for use in combination to treat or prevent EPS, dystonia, RLS or PLMS, wherein one container comprises a pharmaceutical composition comprising an effective amount of an adenosine A2a receptor antagonist in a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, and wherein a separate container comprises a pharmaceutical composition comprising an effective amount of another agent appropriate to treat the indicated condition.

Those skilled in the art will recognize that a dosage form for one of the components of the combination can be modified to contain both an adenosine A2a receptor antagonist and another agent, e.g., an adenosine A2a receptor antagonist and an antipsychotic or an adenosine A2a receptor antagonist and a dopamine agonist.

The following example shows the use of adenosine A2a antagonists to attenuate the Extra-Pyramidal Syndrome (EPS) displayed in cebus apella monkeys sensitized to the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, haloperidol.

EXAMPLE

A colony of seven Cebus apella monkeys that were previously sensitized to the chronic effects of haloperidol, exhibit EPS when administered haloperidol acutely (0.3 mg/kg, p.o.). Compound A was administered orally (p.o.) at doses of 0.3-30 mg/kg, in conjunction with haloperidol. The studies were conducted using a within-subjects design such that each monkey received all 6 treatments (vehicle and 5 doses of Compound A) in a crossover, balanced design. In all the studies, the group of seven monkeys exhibited baseline levels of EPS when dosed with haloperidol.

Compound A produced a dose-dependent reduction in the maximum EPS score (FIG. 1A), as well as a dose-dependent delay in the onset of EPS (FIG. 1B). At a dose of 1 mg/kg, Compound A prevented the onset of EPS in one monkey, and delayed the onset of EPS by 1 hr. Compound A, at a dose of 3 mg/kg, prevented the onset of EPS in two monkeys, and delayed the onset of EPS by almost 2 hr in the remaining monkeys. At 10 and 30 mg/kg, Compound A prevented the onset of EPS in three monkeys and delayed the onset of EPS by an average of 2.3-2.9 hr.

Clinical guidelines for the treatment of RLS and PLMS have been established: see A. L. Chesson et al, Sleep, 22, 7 (1999), p. 961-8. Efficacy of adenosine A2a antagonists in treating RLS and PLMS can be determined by a method analogous to the clinical method described in the literature for pramipexole and ropinerole by Weimerskirch et al, Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 35, 5 (2001), p. 627-30.

While the present invention has been described in conjunction with the specific embodiments set forth above, many alternatives, modifications and variations thereof will be apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art. All such alternatives, modifications and variations are intended to fall within the spirit and scope of the present invention.