Title:
Demand Controlled Ventilation System with Central Air Quality Measurement and Method Herefor
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
The invention describes an outlet system in which a characteristic of one of gas and/or a liquid, for example the percentage CO2 in air, is measured in a central outlet duct (2). The outlet system comprises local outlet ducts (5, 6, 7) that are in flow communication with the central outlet duct (2). The flow through the local outlet ducts is partly determined by corresponding flow regulators (25, 26, 27) By means of selective setting of these flow regulators by a control system (22) the local value of the characteristic can be calculated using measured values in the central outlet duct (2) and the positions of the flow regulators (25, 26, 27). By means of the invention costs of sensor controlled ventilation systems, in, for example, residential and utility building, are reduced.



Inventors:
Boxhoorn, Arie (Delfgauw, NL)
Application Number:
11/597051
Publication Date:
08/14/2008
Filing Date:
05/19/2005
Assignee:
ITHO B. V. (Schiedam, NL)
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
454/339
International Classes:
F24F11/04; F24F11/00; F24F13/08; G01N33/00
View Patent Images:
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Primary Examiner:
KOLB, NATHANIEL J
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
YOUNG & THOMPSON (209 Madison Street Suite 500, Alexandria, VA, 22314, US)
Claims:
1. 1-15. (canceled)

16. Ventilation system (1) for extracting air from a number of spaces (10, 13, 14, 15, 16), comprising: a central exhaust duct (2) and a number of local exhaust ducts (5, 6, 7) that are in flow communication with the central exhaust duct (2); a measurement device (23) for measuring a characteristic of the air; a number of flow regulators (25, 26, 27), each arranged to determine a flow rate in a local exhaust duct (5, 6, 7); a control system (22) arranged to control the measurement device (23) and the flow regulators (25, 26, 27), characterised in that the measurement device (23) is installed in the central exhaust duct (2) and that the control system (22) is arranged to determine a sequence for the setting of the position of one or more of said flow regulators (25, 26, 27) and to calculate a value of the characteristic of the air in at least one of the local exhaust ducts (5, 6, 7) with the aid of measured values of said characteristic measured in the central exhaust duct (2) during said sequence.

17. Ventilation system according to claim 16, wherein the control system (22) is arranged to perform the following steps: (a) suitable setting of the position of one or more of said flow regulators (25, 26, 27) at a first setting time (t1); (b) determination of a first measured value measured at a first measurement time (t2) that is later than the first setting time (t1); (c) calculation of the value of the characteristic of the air in at least one of the local exhaust ducts (5, 6, 7) with the aid of the first measured value.

18. Ventilation system according to claim 16, wherein the control system (22) is arranged to perform the following steps: (d) determination of a second measured value measured at a second measurement time (t0) that precedes the first setting time (t1); (e) calculation of the value of the characteristic of the air in at least one of the local exhaust ducts (5, 6, 7) with the aid of the first measured value and the second measured value.

19. Ventilation system (1) according to claim 18, wherein the position of only one flow regulator (25, 26, 27) is set at the first setting time (t1) and wherein the value of the characteristic of the air in one of the local exhaust ducts (5, 6, 7) is calculated with the aid of the first and the second measured value.

20. Ventilation system (1) according to claim 18, wherein the control system (22) is arranged to perform: N repetitions of steps (a) and (b) so that N measured values are determined, where N is the number of local exhaust ducts, and calculation of the value of the characteristic of the air in N local exhaust ducts (5, 6, 7) with the aid of the N measured values.

21. Ventilation system (1) according to claim 16, wherein the positions of the flow regulators are changed in such a way that none of the local exhaust ducts are closed off.

22. Ventilation system (1) according to claim 16, wherein the control system (22) is arranged to determine said sequence for the setting of the position of one or more of said flow regulators (25, 26, 27) with the aid of a measurement algorithm and knowledge of the ventilation system (1).

23. Ventilation system (1) according to claim 16, wherein the control system (22) is arranged to control the positions of one or more of said flow regulators (25, 26, 27) depending on the calculated value(s) of the characteristic of the air in one of the local exhaust ducts (5, 6, 7) and depending on a process parameter.

24. Ventilation system according to claim 23, wherein the process parameter is a threshold value for the characteristic to be measured.

25. Ventilation system (1) according to claim 23, wherein the process parameter is a measurement trend.

26. Ventilation system according to claim 23, comprising an inlet system comprising: a number of local inlet ducts (30, 31, 32, 33) for feeding air to a space; a number of inlet flow regulators (34, 35, 36, 37), each arranged to determine a flow rate in a local inlet duct (30, 31, 32, 33), wherein the control system (22) is arranged to control the inlet flow regulators (34, 35, 36, 37).

27. Ventilation system (1) according to claim 26, wherein the inlet system comprises a central inlet duct (38) and a fan (39) arranged in the central inlet duct (38).

28. Ventilation system (1) according to claim 23, wherein the control system (22) is arranged to control the positions of the flow regulators (25, 26, 27) with the aid of a ventilation protocol, wherein the ventilation protocol comprises at least one of the following parameters: threshold values for the characteristics to be measured; minimum ventilation values per local exhaust duct (5, 6, 7); step sizes for controlling the flow regulators (25, 26, 27).

29. Ventilation system (1) according to claim 24, wherein the threshold values are dependent on time.

30. Ventilation system (1) according to claim 23, wherein the control system (22) is arranged to determine the position of one or more flow regulators (25, 26, 27) with the aid of measurements from the past.

31. Method for determining a characteristic of air flowing, at least in use, in a ventilation system (1), wherein the ventilation system (1) comprises a central exhaust duct (2) and a number of local exhaust ducts (5, 6, 7) that are in flow communication with the central exhaust duct (2), and a number of flow regulators (25, 26, 27) each corresponding to a local exhaust duct (5, 6, 7), characterised by: determining a sequence for the setting of the position of one or more of said flow regulators; measurement of a characteristic of air in the central exhaust duct (2); calculating a value of the characteristic of the air in at least one of the local exhaust ducts (5, 6, 7) with the aid of measured values of said characteristic measured in the central exhaust duct (2) during said sequence.

32. Method according to claim 31, wherein said method comprises the following steps: suitable setting of the position of one or more of said flow regulators (25, 26, 27) at a first setting time (t1); measurement of the characteristic of the air in the central exhaust duct (2) at a first measurement time (t2) that is later than the first setting time (t1); calculation of a value of the characteristic of the air in at least one of the local exhaust ducts (5, 6, 7) with the aid of a value measured in the central exhaust duct (2).

Description:

The invention relates to a ventilation system for extracting air from a number of spaces, comprising:

    • a central exhaust duct and a number of local exhaust ducts that are in flow communication with the central exhaust duct;
    • a measurement device for measuring a characteristic of the air;
    • a number of flow regulators, each arranged to determine a flow rate in a local exhaust duct;
    • a control system arranged to control the measurement device and the flow regulators.

A ventilation system of this type is described in the patent publication WO 02/41095. In WO 02/41095 a ventilation system is described in which the air quality in various spaces in a building is measured with the aid of one central measurement system. The measurement system is connected to a separate duct system where each duct opens into a specific space for which the air quality has to be measured. The measurement system takes samples of the air in each space and analyses the samples. If the air quality is not good, measures are taken by a conditioning system. Because with such a ventilation system the amount of air is determined on the basis of the demand for fresh air, such a ventilation system is also referred to as a demand controlled ventilation system. The duct system for the measurement system is separate from the actual ventilation system. Thus, a separate pipe system has to be installed for this measurement system. This technology is thus not very suitable for existing buildings and moreover is expensive so that it is suitable/cost-effective only for large buildings.

Patent publication U.S. Pat. No. 6,425,297 discloses a networked measurement system which comprises a network of tubes which may be installed next to a ventilation system in order to measure a characteristic of an air sample. The measurement system itself is not suitable to ventilate spaces, so it can not be regarded as a ventilation system.

In other known demand controlled ventilation systems use is made of multiple measurement systems that are installed locally in the individual occupied spaces. Each measurement system sends information to a central control system that adjusts the flow rate of air to be supplied for the various spaces on the basis of the air quality measured. Local installation of measurement systems is expensive as far as installation and maintenance costs are concerned.

One aim of the present invention is to provide an outlet system where only one central measurement device and no additional pipe system is needed for measuring the quality of the air.

Said aim is achieved with an ventilation system as claimed by claim 1. In an embodiment the control system is arranged to perform the following steps:

(a) suitable setting of the position of one or more flow regulators at a first setting time;
(b) determination of a first measured value measured at a first measurement time that is later than the first setting time;
(c) calculation of the value of the characteristic of the air in at least one of the local exhaust ducts with the aid of the first measured value.

By means of suitable setting of the position of one or more flow regulators and subsequent measurement of the characteristic of the air in the central exhaust duct the characteristic of the air in the local exhaust ducts can be deduced from the measured value and the positions of the various flow regulators in the local exhaust ducts.

Here the term ‘characteristic’ is understood to mean physical, biological and chemical characteristics or states, such as, for example, the temperature of the air, or the composition thereof. When the term ‘characteristic’ is used below this refers to all possible chemical, physical and biological characteristics and/or states of the air, or a combination thereof, that can be measured by measurement instruments.

One example of a ventilation system according to the invention is an air ventilation system in a building in which, for example, the percentage CO2 in the air in specific spaces is determined. In this case it is assumed that the percentage CO2 in an exhaust duct connected to a space to be ventilated virtually corresponds to the percentage CO2 in that space. By means of central measurement of the percentage CO2 and suitable adjustment of the flow regulators the percentage CO2 in the local ducts (read: exhaust ducts) can be determined and thus also the percentage CO2 in the associated spaces without there having to be a sensor in the various spaces.

In another embodiment the control system is arranged to perform the following steps:

(d) determination of a second measured value measured at a second measurement time that precedes the first setting time;
(e) calculation of the value of the characteristic of the air in at least one of the local exhaust ducts with the aid of the first measured value and the second measured value,
wherein the position of only one flow regulator is set at the first setting time and wherein the value of the characteristic of the air in one of the local exhaust ducts is calculated with the aid of the first and the second measured value.

In this embodiment only one flow regulator has to be changed. The ventilation in the other local exhaust ducts, read spaces, is not influenced by the measurement.

The invention also relates to a method as described in claim 16.

Further advantages and characteristics of the present invention will become clear on the basis of a description of a few embodiments, where reference is made to the appended drawings, where:

FIG. 1 is a diagrammatic representation of a ventilation system according to one embodiment of the invention;

FIG. 2 is a diagrammatic representation of a ventilation system according to another embodiment;

FIG. 3 is a flowchart of one embodiment of a measurement and control procedure according to the invention;

FIG. 4 is a flowchart of embodiments of a measurement procedure for local values;

FIG. 5 shows an example of measurement values over time.

FIG. 1 shows one embodiment of the present invention. In this embodiment a ventilation system 1 of a building comprises a central exhaust duct 2 and three local exhaust ducts 5, 6 and 7. The spaces 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 to be ventilated are also shown in FIG. 1. Local exhaust duct 5 extracts air from space 8 and local exhaust duct 6 extracts air from space 9. Furthermore, local exhaust duct 7 extracts air from spaces 10, 11 as well as 12. Arrows 13, 14, 15 and 16 indicate where air is supplied to the spaces 8, 9, 15, 16. In practice this can be, for example, a ventilation grating or a window. The ventilation system 1 furthermore comprises three flow regulators 25, 26 and 27, for example ventilation dampers, which are positioned in the local exhaust ducts 5, 6, 7, respectively. Local exhaust ducts 5 and 6 merge into an intermediate duct 20. Intermediate duct 20 merges with the local exhaust duct 7. The embodiment in FIG. 1 furthermore comprises an extract fan 24 that is arranged for the mechanical outlet of air from the building.

The flow rate in the local exhaust ducts 5, 6, 7 is determined by the position of the flow regulators 25, 26, 27 and by the fan 24 which may be present. The presence of a duct such as the intermediate duct 20 has no influence of the functioning of the invention. A duct is referred to as a “local exhaust duct” if this is in flow communication with the central exhaust duct 2 and the flow rate in the duct is determined by a local flow regulator. This local flow regulator does not have to be in the duct. It is conceivable that the flow regulator is positioned in the space that is in flow communication with the local exhaust duct.

The ventilation system 1 furthermore comprises a control system 22 and a measurement device 23, which according to the invention is installed in the central exhaust duct. The measurement device 23 contains, for example, a CO2 sensor or a number of different sensors for measuring several characteristics of air, such as temperature or air humidity. In the same measurement device 23 there can also be a sensor for measuring the amount of air or the flow rate. The control system 22 is arranged to control the measurement device 23 and the flow regulators 25, 26, 27. According to the invention the control system 22 is arranged to record values measured by the measurement device 23 at specific points in time. The control system 22 is arranged to set the positions of the flow regulators 25, 26, 27 and to control the fan 24 that may be present.

The control system can be a computer but can also consist of various interacting computers. The control system can also be completely or partially based on analogue and/or digital techniques. Communication of signals can take place via leads or be wireless.

The ventilation system 1 furthermore comprises a database 21 in which knowledge and experience relating to the ventilation system is stored. Algorithms that make use of such knowledge and experience are also referred to as ventilation protocols. With the aid of various ventilation protocols the control system 22 is able to measure and control the ventilation system in an optimum manner. The possible ventilation protocols are stored in the database 21. Various types of ventilation protocols are discussed in more detail in the description further below.

FIG. 2 shows another embodiment of the invention. Here the ventilation system 1 from FIG. 1 also comprises an inlet system with a number of local inlet ducts 30, 31, 32, 33. Inlet flow regulators 34, 35, 36, 37 are fitted in the local inlet ducts. The inlet flow regulators 34, 35, 36, 37 determine the flow rates in the ducts 30, 31, 32, 33, respectively. The inlet system furthermore comprises a central inlet duct 38 in which an inlet fan 39 has been installed. The inlet fan 39 is controlled by control system 22. In use the inlet fan 39 is set such that the amount of air fed into the building is equal to the amount of air extracted through central exhaust duct 2.

It will be clear that the invention can also be used in a ventilation system with mechanical outlet and natural inlet of air. In that case a local inlet duct can consist, for example, merely of an inlet grating or a window. It will be possible to use the principle of the invention even with a system which makes use solely of natural ventilation. In that case the central inlet duct 38 and the inlet fan 39 are absent. Usually a sensor that measures the volume flow will then be installed in the central exhaust duct.

FIG. 3 shows a flowchart of the functioning of one embodiment where the control system 22 is arranged to calculate a characteristic of the air, such as, for example, the percentage CO2 in the air. The control system 22 is furthermore arranged to control the positions of the flow regulators 25, 26, 27 and of the fan 22 depending on the calculated values of the characteristic of the air. In this case the control system 22 is thus a measurement and control system. FIG. 3 shows a measurement and control procedure 100 that starts with a start-up procedure 101 and a counter n is then initialised, for example set to 1, in step 102. A measurement mn in the central exhaust duct 2 then follows in step 103. In step 104 the measured value Wn for measurement mn is stored in the database 21. It is pointed out that measured values can also be stored in an arbitrary memory location in the control system. Thus, this does not necessarily have to be in the database. In a following step, see step 105, the measured value Wn is compared with a parameter, such as an upper and a lower threshold value. It is also possible that the measured value Wn is compared with previous measurements. In a step 106 a test is then carried out to determine whether the measured value Wn exceeds, for example, an upper threshold value or is below a lower threshold value. If this is not (yet) so, a step 107 then follows in which a check is carried out to determine whether a valid ventilation protocol calls for a specific control. If this is not so, a step 108 then follows in which there is a wait of a specific number of seconds. A step 109 then follows in which the counter n is incremented by 1. After step 109, step 103 follows again. In step 106 it is also possible to look to see whether a specific trend, for example a rapid increase, in the measured values can be ascertained. If this is not so, step 107 then also follows. If a specific threshold value is reached or if a specific trend is ascertained in step 106, a step 110 then follows in which a measurement procedure for local values is carried out. In this measurement procedure 110 one or more central measurements are carried out whilst the positions of the flow regulators are suitably set. This step is described in more detail in FIG. 4. Step 110 also follows after step 107 if it is found in step 107 that a valid ventilation protocol gives cause for control. After the local values, for example the percentage CO2, have been determined in various areas in a building, a control step 111 follows in which the ventilation level and the flow rates in the local exhaust ducts 5, 6, 7 and/or inlet ducts 30, 31, 32, 33 are set. Control of the flow regulators is effected with the aid of the calculated value for, for example, the percentage CO2 in the exhaust ducts 5, 6, 7 and the valid ventilation protocol.

An embodiment of the measurement procedure 110 for determining the local values is described in FIG. 4 with the aid of a flowchart. The measurement procedure 110 starts at step 201. In a step 202 a counter m is then set to one. A step 203 then follows in which the position of one or more flow regulators is changed. The flow regulators can be set in accordance with a specific measurement algorithm. It is possible, for example, to indicate in a measurement algorithm which space, read exhaust duct, has to be measured first. Exceeding, for example, an upper threshold value for air humidity can be the reason for first measuring a local exhaust duct that extracts air from a shower room. If it is found that exceeding the threshold value is a direct consequence of the increase in the humidity in the shower room, no further measurements are then necessary. The requisite settings of the fan and flow regulators to bring the air qualities and characteristics to the desired level in the various spaces can then already be determined. In this way it is possible with the aid of knowledge of the structure of the ventilation system and knowledge of the characteristics of the air to be measured to measure rapidly and in a targeted manner without being tied to a specific fixed measurement sequence. The said knowledge can have been stored in the database 21, see FIGS. 1 and 2. After step 203, there is a wait in step 204 until it is certain that air that passes the changed flow regulators after the position of the flow regulators has been changed has reached the central measurement device 23. A measurement mn is then carried out, see step 205. This measurement mn yields a measured value Wn that is stored by the control system. In a decision step 206 a check is now made to determine whether sufficient information has been obtained by the measurements. If this is not yet the case, a step 208 follows in which the counter m is incremented by one. Step 203 is then carried out again. If there is sufficient information in step 206 to be able to determine the value of, for example, the percentage CO2 in all local exhaust ducts, a step 207 follows. In step 207 the percentage CO2 in the local exhaust ducts is determined with the aid of the measured values obtained. Here use can also be made of measured values Wn that have been stored in the database in step 104.

An example of the abovementioned measurement procedure will now be described with the aid of FIG. 5. The starting point here is a ventilation system with three local exhaust ducts X, Y and Z. The extract fan 24 can be so controlled by the control system 22 that the pressure in the central exhaust duct 2 is constant. With this setting a change in flow rate in a specific local exhaust duct will not influence the air stream in the other ducts. It is also possible that the fan 24 is so controlled by control system 22 that this gives rise to a specific extract stream to which the various flow regulators are tuned by the control system. Yet another possibility is that the setting of the flow regulators and/or the fan by the control system 22 is made partly dependent on the air flow measured via the central measurement device 23 or in the various exhaust ducts. The degree of contamination of the air flowing through the exhaust ducts is represented by Vx, Vy and Vz, respectively. It is assumed that a V value of 0 corresponds to completely fresh air and of 100 to completely contaminated air. At a measurement time to a value W(t0) of 53.3 is measured. At this time the positions of the flow regulators are such that 2 dm3/sec flows through duct X, 3 dm3/sec through duct Y and 1 dm3/sec through duct Z. At a setting time t1 the flow rate in duct Y is then reduced to 2 dm3/sec. A measurement, specifically a value W(t2) of 58, is then measured at a later time t2. At a setting time t3 the flow rate in duct Y is then reduced to 1 dm3/sec. A value W(t4) of 65 is then measured at a measurement time t4. The following equations have now been produced:


(2Vx+3Vy+Vz)/6=53.3


(2Vx+2Vy+Vz)/5=58


(2Vx+Vy+Vz)/4=65

In step 206 it will now be established that sufficient measurements have been carried out. The control system 22 can now calculate the three variables Vx, Vy and Vz using the three abovementioned equations. It follows: Vx=90, Vy=30 and Vz=50 degrees of contamination.

In the above example the positions of the flow regulators were changed in such a way that none of the local exhaust ducts was closed off. The measurements thus do not give rise to an interruption in the ventilation of the spaces concerned. However, it is also possible, for example, to close the flow regulator in duct Y completely at time t1 and to restore this to the original position again at time t3, whilst at that time the flow regulator for duct Z is completely closed. By now performing the same measurements as in the first example, three equations with three unknowns are also produced. The advantage of such a variant is that with a system with a relatively large number of ducts it is still possible to achieve a desired measurement resolution without a highly sensitive measurement installation being required.

In another embodiment the control system 22 sets the position of one or more flow regulators in a suitable manner at a first setting time t1. A first measured value is then determined, measured at a first measurement time t2 that comes after the first setting time t1. The value of the characteristic of the air in at least one of the local exhaust ducts is then calculated with the aid of the first measured value. One example of such an embodiment is that where the control system 22 closes all flow regulators except one at the first setting time t1. A value is then measured at measurement time t2. The measured value W(t2) is now a direct measure for the characteristic of the air to be determined in said one local exhaust duct. In a further embodiment the control system 22 determines a second measured value at a second measurement time to that precedes the first setting time t1. The value of the characteristic of the air in at least one of the local exhaust ducts is then calculated with the aid of the first measured value and the second measured value.

In a simple embodiment the position of only one flow regulator is set at the first setting time t1. The value of the characteristic of the air in one of the local exhaust ducts corresponding to the one flow regulator is now calculated with the aid of the first and the second measured value.

In one embodiment the control system 22 is arranged to control the positions of one or more flow regulators depending on the calculated value(s) of the characteristic of the air in one of the local exhaust ducts and depending on a process parameter. The process parameter is, for example, a threshold value for the characteristic to be measured. If the measured value exceeds an upper threshold value or is below a specific lower threshold value, the control system will start to control the flow regulators. With this arrangement the flow regulators are set in an optimum manner so that the local values in the ventilation system again fall within the desired limits. It is pointed out that the flow regulators are thus controlled by the control system 22 both in the measurement procedure and in the control procedure.

The abovementioned process parameter can also be a specific measurement trend. In this case the measured values are stored and compared over time. If a value of a specific characteristic rises to a relatively large extent, for example, it can then be the case that a specific action has to be taken even before a specific threshold value has been exceeded. For example, if a rapid rise in the air humidity and at the same time a rapid rise in the temperature is measured in a dwelling with a ventilation system according to the invention and no change in the percentage CO2 is measured, it can then be decided with the aid of knowledge of the ventilation system (such as: duct 7 ventilates a bathroom 10) to measure duct 7 first. If it is found by a single measurement of the local value in the duct 7 that the rise in the air humidity and the rise in temperature are mainly caused by activity in the bathroom, the control system will then be able to make adjustments immediately. The other rooms now do not have to be measured. This major advantage is the consequence of the knowledge of the ventilation system and more general knowledge of air quality. This knowledge can be stored in the database 21 in the form of measurement algorithms and/or ventilation protocols. Use can also be made of knowledge of the ventilation system and general knowledge when controlling the flow regulators (thus during the control procedure). Two possible control situations that are possible with the ventilation system according to the invention will be described below.

If the temperature of the outside air in the summer is lower than the temperature of the inside air, ventilation will then be augmented, the temperature in bedrooms being lowered first (down to, for example, 16 degrees or a number of degrees higher than the outside air) and then ventilation in a living room will be augmented. This control is called night cooling. It is also possible that if the temperature of the outside air is at least 2° C. lower than the temperature of the inside air, and the temperature of the inside air is higher than 23° C., ventilation will then be augmented. This control is also called summer cooling.

Measures that have to be carried out by the control system 22 are incorporated in a so-called ventilation protocol in one embodiment. This ventilation protocol can also include, inter alia, the following parameters in addition to the knowledge already mentioned:

    • threshold values for the characteristics to be measured;
    • minimum ventilation values per local exhaust duct;
    • step sizes for control of the flow regulators.

The threshold values can be dependent on time. One example is the seasonal control where the temperature in a building in the summer may be higher than in the winter. A ventilation protocol can also specify how frequently measurements have to be carried out. Furthermore, it is possible that the protocol contains knowledge on the average number of people in a specific area.

In a further embodiment of the ventilation system according to the invention the control system 22 is arranged to determine the position of one or more flow regulators with the aid of measurements from the past. By storing measurements and controls from the past and performing analyses on these, a control system is able to control increasingly intelligently (that is to say in a more optimum and/or more efficient manner).

It will be understood that variants will be immediately apparent to those skilled in the art on reading the above. Instead of measuring the percentage CO2 in air the air humidity or any other characteristic of air or a combination of characteristics as disclosed in patent publication WO 02/41095 can be measured. It is also conceivable that not all exhaust ducts require a flow regulator. The invention can also be used in systems where one local exhaust duct does not have a flow regulator. Such variants are considered to fall within the scope of the application as described in appended claims.