Title:
METHOD FOR PRODUCING COMPLEX OF BIOTIN-LABELED CYPRIDINA (CYPRIDINA NOCTILUCA) LUCIFERASE WITH STREPTOAVIDIN AND METHOD FOR STABILIZING THE SAME
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
The present invention relates to a method for producing Cypridina luciferase labeled with hydrophilic biotin, characterized in that a biotin reagent containing a polyalkylene glycol structure as a spacer is reacted with Cypridina luciferase, and biotin-labeled Cypridina luciferase wherein a sugar chain in Cypridina luciferase has been biotinylated.



Inventors:
Ohmiya, Yoshihiro (Ikeda-shi, JP)
Wu, Chun (Ikeda-shi, JP)
Ohgiya, Satoru (Sapporo-shi, JP)
Kawasaki, Kosei (Sapporo-shi, JP)
Application Number:
11/692134
Publication Date:
05/08/2008
Filing Date:
03/27/2007
Assignee:
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED INDUSTRIAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY (Tokyo-to, JP)
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
435/189
International Classes:
C12Q1/26; C12N9/02
View Patent Images:



Primary Examiner:
HOBBS, LISA JOE
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
KNOBBE MARTENS OLSON & BEAR LLP (2040 MAIN STREET, FOURTEENTH FLOOR, IRVINE, CA, 92614, US)
Claims:
1. A method for producing Cypridina luciferase labeled with biotin, characterized in that a biotin reagent containing a polyalkylene glycol structure as a spacer is reacted with Cypridina luciferase.

2. The method according to claim 1 wherein polyalkylene glycol is polyethylene glycol.

3. The method according to claim 1 wherein a position corresponding to a lysine residue K180 and/or K203 in the Cypridina luciferase in SEQ ID NO:1 has been biotinylated.

4. A method for producing Cypridina luciferase wherein a sugar chain moiety has been biotinylated, comprising a step of introducing an aldehyde group in the sugar chain moiety by treating Cypridina luciferase having a sugar chain with a periodate salt and a step of subsequently reacting the aldehyde group in Cypridina luciferase having the sugar chain with a biotinylation reagent which selectively reacts with the aldehyde group.

5. Biotinylated Cypridina luciferase which is Cypridina luciferase labeled with biotin having either (i) a structure wherein Cypridina luciferase is linked with biotin through a spacer comprising a polyalkylene glycol moiety; or (ii) a structure wherein Cypridina luciferase having a sugar chain is linked with biotin through the sugar chain.

6. The luciferase according to claim 5 wherein polyalkylene glycol is ethylene glycol.

7. The luciferase according to claim 5 wherein a position corresponding to a lysine residue K180 or K203 in the Cypridina luciferase in SEQ ID NO:1 has been biotinylated.

8. The Cypridina luciferase labeled with biotin according to claim 6 wherein the polyalkylene glycol structure is represented by the following formula:
—(CH2CH2O)n— wherein n represents an integer of 2 to 500.

9. The Cypridina luciferase labeled with biotin according to claim 8 wherein n is 2 to 100.

10. A complex of the Cypridina luciferase labeled with biotin according to claim 5 with a polyvalent avidin substance.

11. The complex according to claim 10 wherein the polyvalent avidin substance has been labeled.

12. A stabilization composition of the complex according to claim 10 comprising said complex and at least one stabilizer selected from the group consisting of surfactants and albumin.

13. The composition according to claim 12 which is in a form of a buffer solution.

14. A method for stabilizing the complex according to claim 10 characterized in that said complex and at least one stabilizer selected from the group consisting of surfactants and albumin are dissolved in a buffer solution.

15. The method according to claim 14 characterized in that the surfactant is combined at about 0.1 to 1%.

16. A kit for immunoassays including a buffer solution comprising the complex according to claim 10 and a stabilizer selected from the group consisting of surfactants and albumin.

17. The kit according to claim 16 which is for measurement by ELISA.

18. A method for producing tagged Cypridina luciferase labeled with biotin, wherein a lysine-containing tag peptide is linked to a C terminus or N terminus of Cypridina luciferase and the lysine contained in the tag peptide is biotinylated using biotin protein ligase (EC. 6.3.4.15).

19. A complex of the Cypridina luciferase labeled with biotin according to claim 6 with a polyvalent avidin substance.

20. A complex of the Cypridina luciferase labeled with biotin according to claim 7 with a polyvalent avidin substance.

21. A complex of the Cypridina luciferase labeled with biotin according to claim 8 with a polyvalent avidin substance.

22. A complex of the Cypridina luciferase labeled with biotin according to claim 9 with a polyvalent avidin substance.

Description:

TECHNICAL FIELD

The present invention relates to biotin-labeled Cypridina luciferase, a complex of the biotin-labeled luciferase with avidin or streptoavidin, a method for stabilizing them, and their application to enzyme immunoassays, immunological stainings in tissues, DNA probe methods and receptor assays.

BACKGROUND ART

In recent years, chemiluminescence has been noticed as a detection system with high sensitivity in enzyme immunoassays. Meanwhile, a luminescence quantum yield in biological luminescence such as a luciferin-luciferase reaction is definitely higher than that in a chemiluminescence reaction, and the biological luminescence is thought to be suitable for microanalysis in the enzyme inmunoassays. In particular, the quantum yield in the luminescence system in Cypridina (Cypridina noctiluca) is high and a turnover number of this enzyme is 10 times or more compared with firefly luciferase. Thus, the practical application of Cypridina luciferase to the enzyme immunoassays has been studied. Meanwhile, a method for preparing recombinant Cypridina luciferase in a large amount and a method for labeling Cypridina luciferase with biotin have been already disclosed in Patent document 1. However, in Patent documents 1 to 4 describing Cypridina luciferase, no example of the enzyme immunoassays using the biotin-labeled Cypridina luciferase was found, and the biotin-labeled Cypridina luciferase made according to the method described in Patent document 1 had only about 1.6% activity compared with the activity before modification. From these, it is obvious that the method for labeling Cypridina luciferase with biotin disclosed in Patent document 1 is not suitable for making the labeled enzyme applicable to the enzyme immunoassay. Meanwhile, in Patent documents 1 to 3, the method for maleimidizing the Cypridina luclferase is disclosed, but the activity of the Cypridina luciferase made by a maleimide hinge method was reduced to one tenth or less compared with the activity before the modification (described in Conventional Art in Patent document 4), and no amplification of signals by an avidin-biotin complex (PEC method) was obtained. Meanwhile, the enzyme immunoassay of the Cypridina luciferase utilizing a monoclonal antibody which recognizes Cypridina luciferase disclosed in Patent document 4 requires its high cost, and its practical application is not accomplished. Therefore, the development of a method for modifying Cypridina luciferase, which is suitable for the enzyme immunoassay, inexpensive and effective is desired.

  • Patent document 1: JP Hei-5-64583-A
  • Patent document 2: JP Hei-5-113443-A
  • Patent document 3: JP Hei-7-98316-A
  • Patent document 4: JP Hei-8-262021-A

DISCLOSURE OF THE INVENTION

It is an object of the present invention to provide technologies for labeling Cypridina luciferase by exploiting a Cypridina luminescence system and for stabilizing the labeled luciferase.

It is the object of the present invention to provide the following inventions.

[1] A method for producing Cypridina luciferase labeled with biotin, characterized in that a biotin reagent containing a polyalkylene glycol structure as a spacer is reacted with Cypridina luciferase.

[2] The method according to [1] above wherein polyalkylene glycol is polyethylene glycol.

[3] The method according to [1] above wherein a position corresponding to a lysine residue K180 and/or K203 in the Cypridina luciferase in SEQ ID NO:1 has been biotinylated.

[4] A method for producing Cypridina luciferase wherein a sugar chain moiety has been biotinylated, comprising a step of introducing an aldehyde group in the sugar chain moiety by treating Cypridina luclferase having a sugar chain with a periodate salt and a step of subsequently reacting the aldehyde group in Cypridina luciferase having the sugar chain with a biotinylation reagent which selectively reacts with the aldehyde group.

[5] Biotinylated Cypridina luciferase which is Cypridina luciferase labeled with biotin having either

(i) a structure wherein Cypridina uciferase is linked with biotin through a spacer comprising a polyalkylene glycol moiety; or
(ii) a structure wherein Cypridina luciferase having a sugar chain is linked with biotin through the sugar chain.

[6] The luciferase according to [5] above wherein polyalkylene glycol is ethylene glycol.

[7] The luciferase according to [5] above wherein a position corresponding to a lysine residue K180 or K203 in the Cypridina luciferase in SEQ ID NO:1 has been biotinylated.

[8] The Cypridina luciferase labeled with biotin according to [6] above wherein the polyalkylene glycol structure is represented by the following formula:


—(CH2CH2O)n—

wherein n represents an integer of 2 to 500.

[9] The Cypridina luciferase labeled with biotin according to [8] above wherein n is 2 to 100.

[10] A complex of the Cypridina luciferase labeled with biotin according to any of [5] to [9] above with a polyvalent avidin substance.

[11] The complex according to [10] above wherein the polyvalent avidin substance has been labeled.

[12] A stabilization composition of the complex according to [10] above comprising the complex and at least one stabilizer selected from the group consisting of surfactants and albumin.

[13] The composition according to [12] above which is in a form of a buffer solution.

[14] A method for stabilizing the complex according to [10] above characterized in that the complex and at least one stabilizer selected from the group consisting of surfactants and albumin are dissolved in a buffer solution.

[15] The method according to [14] above characterized in that the surfactant is combined at about 0.1 to 1%.

[16] A kit for immunoassays including a buffer solution comprising the complex according to [10] above and a stabilizer selected from the group consisting of surfactants and albumin.

[17] The kit according to [16] above which is for measurement by ELISA.

[18] A method for producing tagged Cypridina luciferase labeled with biotin, wherein a lysine-containing tag peptide is linked to a C terminus or N terminus of Cypridina luciferase and the lysine contained in the tag peptide is biotinylated using biotin protein ligase (EC. 6.3.4.15).

According to the present invention, it is possible to label Cypridina luciferase with biotin with keeping a luciferase activity as possible. It is also possible to sufficiently stabilize a complex of the resulting Cypridina luciferase labeled with biotin and a polyvalent avidin substance such as avidin, streptoavidin or NeutrAvidin. The complex can be used suitably for immunoassays (in particular, enzyme immunoassays such as direct methods, indirect methods, sandwich ELISA and ELISPOT methods), DNA probe methods, or various assays for receptors, ligands and sugar chains, in particular, assays for quantifying proteins and DNA.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1: biotinylation reagents;

FIG. 2: Half life of biotinylated luciferase in solutions with various compositions. (1) The solution of 100 mM sodium phosphate and 150 mM NaCl, pH 7.2, (2) the solution of 100 mM sodium phosphate and 150 mM NaCl, pH 7.2 containing 0.1% BSA, or (3) the solution of 100 mM sodium phosphate and 150 mM NaCl, pH 7.4 containing 0.1% Tween 20;

FIG. 3: Quantification property of IFNα ELISA using biotin-labeled Cypridina luciferase-streptoavidin complex;

FIG. 4: Results of MS/MS analysis of digested biotinylated Cypridina luciferase;

FIG. 5: Competitive reaction ELISA of PGE2; and

FIG. 6: Quantitative property of ELISA of IFNα using complex of streptoavidin/Cypridina luciferase whose sugar chain has been biotinylated.

BEST MODES FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION

Cypridina (Cypridina noctiluca) luciferase used in the present invention is known publicly. In the present specification and claims, “Cypridina luciferase” includes widely wild type Cypridina luciferase and optional variants thereof. An amino acid sequence of the wild type Cypridina luciferase is described in AAB86460, AAA30332, BAD08210 and the like.

The Cypridina luciferase variant may have one or multiple, preferably one or several substituted, added, deleted or inserted amino acid residues, and includes optional variants as long as the variant has a luminescence activity when Cypridina luciferin is used as a substrate.

In the present invention, biotin may be bound through any of an amino group (amino group at the N-terminus or derived from Lys), a guanidino group (Arg) or a thiol group (Cys) of Cypridina luciferase, and is preferably bound to Cypridina luciferase through the amino acid croup.

The preferable amino acid group to which biotin is bound is K180 and/or K203 of the amino acid sequence of AAB86460, and in the case of other Cypridina luciferase, the amino group at positions corresponding thereto is biotinylated.

The sequence (SEQ ID NO:1) of Cypridina luciferase is shown below (K180 and K203 are represented by underlines).

MRFPSIFTAVLFAASSALAALVNTTTEDETAQIPAEAVIGYSDLEGDFDV
AVLPFSNSTNNGLLFINTTIASIAAKEEGVSLEKREAEAQDCPYEPDPPN
TVPTSCEAKEGECIDSSCGTCTRDILSDGLCENKPGKTCCRMCQYVIECR
VEAAGWFRTFYGKRFQFQEPGTYVLGQGTKGGDWKVSITLENLDGTKGAV
LTKTRLEVAGDIIDIAQATENPITVNGGADPIIANPYTIGEVTIAVVEMP
GFNITVIEFFKLIVIDILGGRSVRIAPDTANKGMISGLCGDLKMMEDTDFT
SDPEQLAIQPKINQEFDGCPLYGNPDDVAYCKGLLEPYKDSCRNPINFYYY
TISCAFARCMGGDERASHVLLDYRETCAAPETRGTCVLSGHTFYDTFDKAR
YQFQGPCKEILMAADCFWNTWDVKVSHRNVDSYTEVEKVRIRKQSTVVELI
VDGKQILVGGEAVSVPYSSQNTSIYWQDGDTITTAILPEALVVKFNFKQLL
VVHIRDPFDGKTCGICGNYNQDFSDDSFDAEGACDLTPNPPGCTEEQKPEA
ERLCNSLFAGQSDLDQKCNVCHKPDRVERCMYEYCLRGQQGFCDHAWEFKK
ECYIKHGDTLEVPDECKGSGSGSHHHHHH

The polyvalent avidin substance used in the present invention could link another biotin containing compound such as a biotinylated antibody and a biotinylated antigen with the biotinylated Cypridina luciferase, and streptoavidin is preferably exemplified. In addition to it, polyvalent avidin substances such as NeurAvidin and fusion proteins binding multiple avidin molecules, capable of being bound to multiple biotin molecules are widely included.

I. Binding of Biotin to Cypridina Luciferase

Cypridina luciferase is bound to the biotin residue through the spacer having the polyalkylene glycol structure. Polyethylene glycol includes polyethylene glycol (PEG), polypropylene glycol (PPG), polybutylene glycol (PBG), (PEG)-(PPG)-(PEG) block copolymers, (PPG)-(PEG)-(PPG) block copolymers, (PEG)-(PBG)-(PEG) block copolymers, and (PBG)-(PEG)-(PBG) block copolymers. Preferably, PEG, PPG, the (PEG)-(PPG)-(PEG) block copolymers, and the (PPG)-(PEG)-(PPG) block copolymers are included, and more preferably PEG is included. The preferable PEG structure is represented by the following formula:


—(CH2CH2O)n—

wherein n represents an integer of 2 to 500, preferably 2 to 100, more preferably 2 to 50 and still more preferably 4 to 10.

The spacer of the present invention has the polyalkylene glycol structure. It is preferable that the polyalkylene glycol structure is bound to biotin and Cypridina luciferase through an ester, amide or thioether bond, preferably the amide bond.

As biotin labeling reagents, for example, the followings can be used.


X1-Y-(CH2)m1-(OCH2CH2)m2-NH-(biotinyl)


X2-Y-(CH2)m1-(OCH2CH2)m2-NH-(biotinyl)

wherein X1 represents an active ester residue (such as sulfo succinic acid imideoxycarbonyl group, succinic acid imideoxycarbonyl group, tetrafluorophenoxycarbonyl, cyanomethyloxycarbonyl p-nitrophenyloxycarbonyl) or a halogen atom (I, Br, Cl) capable of forming amide (NHCO) or aminoalkyl by reaction with an amino group, or a maleimide group; Y represents an optional liking group such as CH2CONH,CH2CH2CONH or a single bond; m1 represents 2, 3 or 4; and m2 represents an integer of 2 to 500, preferably 2 to 100, more preferably 2 to 50 and still more preferably 4 to 10).

As the biotin labeling reagent capable of introducing the polyalkylene glycol group, various biotin labeling reagents such as EZ-Link NHS-PE04 biotinylation kit and EZ-link TFP-PEO biotinylation kit supplied from Pierce are exemplified.

In a biotin labeling reaction, the biotin labeling reagent as the above could be reacted with Cypridina luciferase at 1 to 37° C. and preferably at room temperature. In Cypridina luciferase labeled with hydrophilic biotin of the present invention, 1 to 10 biotin residues, preferably 2 to 5 and more preferably 2 to 3 biotin residues per Cypridina luciferase are bound to luciferase. If too many biotin residues are bound to luciferase, Cypridina luciferase is easily deactivated, and a Cypridina luciferase ratio per biotin is reduced.

Cypridina luciferase has about 30 lysine residues per molecule. It is possible to introduce biotin by utilizing the reaction of the lysine residue in Cypridina luciferase with N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester. However, a condition to avoid deactivation of luciferase must be established at that time. In particular, the lysine residue is a hydrophilic residue, but a hydrophobic portion is generated on the protein surface after chemical modification. The hydrophobic portion affects a three dimensional structure of the enzyme. Thus, it is effective to introduce biotin through the hydrophilic spacer. The hydrophilic spacer includes alkylene residues having 4 or less, preferably 3 or less, particularly 2 or 3 carbon atoms, represented by —(CH2CH2 )n—. The alkylene residue can be linked with an optional group (particularly a polar group) such as O, NH, CONH and NHCO comprising a hetero atom.

II. Binding of Biotin to Tagged Cypridina Luciferase

In addition to the method of biotinylating the lysine residue by the above chemical modification, the method of using a tag (peptide) is known. The tag is added to the C terminus or the N terminus of Cypridina luciferase, and the lysine residue contained in the tag is specifically biotinylated using biotin ligase. Commercially available such tags include, but are not limited to Avi-tag™ (LERAPGGLNDIFEAQKIEWHE or GLNDTFEAQKIEWHE) supplied from Genecopoeia and BioEase Tag™ (peptide of 72 residues [amino acid residues 524 to 595] of a partial C terminal sequence of α-subunit of oxaloacetate decarboxylase in Klebsiella pneumoniae) supplied from Invitrogen.

III. Biotinylation of Cypridina Luciferase through Sugar Chain

When Cypridina luciferase which is a secretory type glycoprotein is expressed in yeast and animal cells (insects and mammals), Cypridina luciferase binding a sugar chain is obtained. When a periodate salt such as NaIO4 is reacted with this sugar chain, a diol group in the sugar chain is oxidized and an aldehyde group is introduced in this sugar chain portion. By reacting with a biotinylation reagent having a group (e.g., hydrazide group, CONHNH2) which selectively reacts with the aldehyde group, it is possible to selectively introduce biotin into the sugar chain without reacting with the side chain amino group of Lys in Cypridina luciferase. Biotin can be bound by reacting the aldehyde group with amino group in the biotinylation reagent to convert into imine and reducing this with NaBH3CN.

This method is preferable because biotin is introduced into the sugar chain and thus the biotinylation car be performed with keeping the Cypridina luciferase activity. The periodate salt includes sodium periodate, potassium periodate and lithium periodate.

The diol group contained in the sugar chain is oxidized and cleaved by oxidizing 0.5-10 mg of the sugar chain-containing Cypridina luciferase with 2-6 mg of NaIO4. By utilizing the resulting aidehyde group, it is possible to selectively biotinylate the sugar chain in Cypridina luciferase. The introduction of biotin into the sugar chain can be performed according to, for example, the following scheme 1.

wherein, R represents a group derived from the sugar chain and Cypridina luciferase has a part of the sugar chain.

Two types of biotinylation reagents are commercially available from Pierce in addition to the above biotinylation reagent.

The above biotinylation reagents are only exemplifications, and any reagents may be used as long as the reagent has the group which selectively reacted with biotin and the aldehyde group.

Cypridina luciferase labeled with biotin of the present invention forms a complex with avidin, streptoavidin or NeutrAvidin, the complex is further bound to an antibody, an antigen, DNA, a protein (e.g., protein capable of recognizing biomaterials such as receptors, amyloid, synuclein, matrix degrading enzymes, hormones and cytokines), sugar chains (e.g., sialyl Lewis X), substances such as ligands (e.g., hormones, cytokines, lymphokines, prostaglandin, thronboxane, leukotriene, corticosterone, prolactin, endothelin, insulin and the like) capable of recognizing cells or receptors, to which biotin has been bound, and these substances to which biotin has been bound can be used for various assay systems including immunoassays.

Cypridina luciferase labeled with hydrophilic biotin of the present invention can form the complex with the polyvalent avidin substance such as streptoavidin, which can be then stored in this state (particularly, buffer solution). The complex can be stored in the buffer solution such as phosphate buffer, tris buffer, acetate buffer and Good buffer (pH 4.0 to 8.0). The complex of Cypridina luciferase labeled with hydrophillc biotin with the polyvalent avidin substance can be sufficiently stably stored at 4° C. for about 7 to 28 days by adding a stabilizer. The stabilizer can include surfactants, albumin (BSA, HSA), amino acids (glycine, methionine, arginine), sugars (galactose, lactose, sucrose, glucose and fructose), polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, polyol, polyglycerine, gelatin, collagen and dextran.

The surfactants include Tweens such as Tween 20 (Poly(oxyethylene)sorbitan monolaurate), Tween 40(Poly(oxyethylene)sorbitan monopalmitate), Tween60(Poly(oxyethylene)sorbitan monostearate) and Tween 80(Poly(Oxyethylene)sorbitan monooleate), N-bis(3-D-gluconamidopropyl)cholamide [BIGCHAP], N,N-bis(3-D-gluconamidopropyl)deoxycholamide [Deoxy-BIGCHAP], polyoxyethylene(9)lauryl ether, octanoyl-N-methylglucamide [MEGA-8], nonanoyl-N-methylglucamide [MEGA-9], decanoyl-N-methylglucamide [MEGA-10], polyoxyethylene(8)octylphenyl ether [Triton X-114], polyoxyethylene(9)octylphenyl ether [NP-40], polyoxyethylene(10)octylphenyl ether [Triton X-100], polyoxyethylene(20)sorbitan trioleate, polyoxyethylene(23)lauryl ether [Brij35], polyoxyethylene(20)cethyl ether [Brij58], n-dodecyl-β-D-maltopyranoside, n-heptyl-β-D-thioglucopyranoside, n-octyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, and n-octyl-β-D-thioglucopyranoside.

An amount of the complex stabilizer combined in the buffer varies depending on types of the stabilizer, and is typically about 0.01 to 5% and more preferably about 0.1 to 1%.

By making the complex of Cypridina luciferase labeled with hydrophilic biotin with streptoavidin, it is possible to sensitize the luminescence of Cypridina luciferase. That is, since four biotin molecules can be bound to one streptoavidin molecule, it is possible to make the large complex by reacting streptoavidin with Cypridina luciferase labeled with biotin. Multiple luciferase molecules are included in this complex. Thus, it is possible to sensitize the luminescence. The reaction of streptoavidin with Cypridina luciferase labeled with biotin is performed at a molar ratio of about 4:1 to 1:4 in a solution at room temperature for 15 to 30 minutes.

Cypridina luciferase labeled with biotin or the complex thereof of the present invention can be used for labeling various antibodies such as secondary antibodies, can directly used in place of horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled secondary antibody and alkali phosphatase (AP)-labeled secondary antibody conventionally used, and can be directly used for various immunoassay kits including the antibody labeled with HRP or AP.

The stabilizer for the complex used in the present invention scarcely affects the enzyme immunoassay, and the solution (particularly the buffer) containing the complex and the stabilizer can be used in the assay system such as enzyme immunoassay.

EXAMPLE

The present invention will be described in detail below based on Examples.

Preparation of Labeled luciferase by Three Types of Biotin Reagents

Example 1

NHS-PEG4-biotin reagent purchased from Pierce was dissolved in purified water to make a solution with a final concentration of 1%. The solution (0.002 mL) of 1% NHS-PEG4-biotin was added to 0.018 mL of a solution of 100 mM sodium phosphate and 150 mM NaCl. Subsequently, the NHS-PEG4-biotin phosphate solution (0.01 mL) was added to 0.1 mg of purified luciferase (relative total luminescence activity 3.6×108 counts), which was then gently stirred at 4° C. for 8 hours. A reaction solution was applied onto a PD-10 column supplied from GE Health, reaction products were eluted with the solution of 100 mM sodium phosphate and 150 mM NaCl, only active fractions were collected (about 2 mL), and unreacted NHS-PEG4-biotin was eliminated. The eluant (0.01 mL) diluted 1000 times and 0.05 mL of 0.001 mM luciferin were mixed to measure the luciferase activity, and 5.7×107 counts of the relative total luminescence activity was obtained.

Subsequently, according to the method reported in Patent document 1, NHS-LC-Biotin reagent purchased from Pierce was reacted with 0.1 mg of purified luciferase at 4° C. for 8 hours. The reaction solution was applied onto a PD-10 column supplied from GE Health, reaction products were eluted with the solution of 100 mM sodium phosphate and 150 mM NaCl, only active fractions were collected (about 2 mL), and unreacted NHS-LC-Biotin was eliminated. The eluant (0.01 mL) diluted 1000 times and 0.05 mL of 0.001 mM luciferin were mixed to measure the luciferase activity, and 5.8×106 counts of the relative total luminescence activity was obtained. This activity was about 1.6% of the luciferase activity before the modification.

Furthermore, TFP-PEO-Biotin reagent purchased from Pierce was dissolved in the solution of 100 mM sodium phosphate and 150 mM NaCl to make a concentration of 1 mg/0.85 mL. Subsequently, 0.1 mg of purified luciferase was added to 0.01 mL of the TFP-PEO-Biotin solution and reacted at 4° C. for 8 hours. The reaction solution was applied onto the PD-10 column supplied from GE Health, reaction products were eluted, only active fractions were collected (about 2 mL), and unreacted TFP-PEO-Biotin was eliminated. The eluant (0.01 mL) diluted 1000 times and 0.05 mL of 0.001 mM luciferin were mixed to measure the luciferase activity, and 1.0×108 counts of the relative total luminescence activity was obtained. As a result, in this biotinylation method, about 17 times higher activity was observed compared with the activity in the method reported in Patent document 1. In this labeling method, about 28% luminescence activity of purified luciferase has been retained.

Example 2

Preparation and Storage of Complex of Biotin Labeled Cypridina Luciferase with Streptoavidin

Molecular weights of luciferase labeled with biotin made in Example 1 and luciferase before the modification were analyzed by mass spectrometer, and about 1,000 mass or more of the molecular weight was observed to be shifted. From this, it was found that about 2 to 3 biotin molecules in average modified one Cypridina luciferase molecule. Thus, 0.001 mL of luciferase (0.05 mg/mL) labeled with biotin was mixed with 0.099 mL of the solution of 100 mM sodium phosphate and 150 mM NaCl. Then, 0.1 mL of streptoavidin (1 mg/mL) supplied from Pierce, diluted 1250 times with the solution of 100 mM sodium phosphate and 150 mM NaCl was added to the solution (0.1 mL) of luciferase labeled with biotin, which was then left stand for 15 minutes. Subsequently, 0.04 mL of the reaction solution was added to (1) 0.36 mL of the solution of 100 mM sodium phosphate and 150 mM NaCl, pH 7.2, (2) the solution of 100 mM sodium phosphate and 150 mM NaCl, pH 7.2 containing 0.1% BSA, or (3) the solution of 100 mM sodium phosphate and 150 mM NaCl, pH 7.4 containing 0.1% Tween 20. The mixture was stored at 4° C., and a half life of biotinylated luciferase was examined. As a result, it was found that the half life in the case of the solution (1), the half life was one day whereas the half life in the other solutions was 28 days or more (FIG. 2).

Example 3

IFNα Assay by ELISA using Complex of Biotin Labeled Cypridina Luciferase with Streptoavidin

IFNα was detected using a 96-well microplate to which anti-human IFNα antibody had been immobilized, an IFNα preparation and a biotin-labeled anti-human IFNα antibody contained in an IFNα ELISA kit supplied from GE Health and using the complex of biotin-labeled Cypridina luciferase labeled with streptoavidin. A serial dilutions (0.5 mL) of 0, 7.8, 15.6, 31.2, 62.5, 125, 250 and 500 pg/mL of the IFNα preparation were made, and 0.1 mL thereof was added to four rows in the 96-well microplate to which anti-human TFNα antibody had beer. immobilized. The plate was lightly shaken for one hour, and the solution was removed. Then, 0.15 ml of a solution of 20 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.8, 0.9% NaCl and 0.1% Tween was added to the plate to wash the plate four times. Subsequently, 0.1 mL of the biotin-labeled anti-human IFNα antibody was added to each well, the plate was lightly shaken for one hour, and then the solution was removed. The solution (0.15 mL) of 20 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.8, 0.9% NaCl and 0.1% Tween was added to the plate to wash the plate four times. A solution of biotin-labeled Cypridina luciferase with streptavidinmade in Example 2 (0.1 mL/well) was added to each well, and the plate was lightly shaken for 30 minutes. The solution was removed, and 0.15 mL of the solution of 20 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.8, 0.9% NaCl and 0.1% Tween was added to the microplate to wash the plate four times. Then, 0.1 mL of 500 nM Cypridina luciferin solution was added to the 96-well microplate, and the luminescence was measured. As a result, in serially diluted concentrations (7.8 to 500 pg/mL) of IFNα, a linearity was obtained (FIG. 3). Meanwhile, in the detection system using horseradish peroxidase-streptoavidin contained in the IFNα ELISA kit, the linearity is assured in the range of 25 to 1000 pg/mL. Thus, it was demonstrated that the detection system of the biotin-labeled Cypridina luciferase-streptoavidin complex made this time had a higher sensitivity in the measurement.

Example 4

Biotin-labeled Cypridina luciferase was electrophoresed on SDS-PAGE, and stained with SYPRO Ruby. A band corresponding to biotin-labeled Cypridina luciferase was cut out, cysteine was protected with iodoacetamide, and then luciferase was enzymatically digested with trypsin at 37° C. Resulting samples were analyzed by LC-MS and MS/MS. As a result, the following lysine residues (underlined) were identified to be modified (FIG. 4).

1. FQFQEPGTYVLGQGTKGGDWK
2. GAVLTKTR

Example 5

ELISA Experiment of PGE2 using Biotin-Labeled Cypridina Luciferase

Step 1: Avidinylation of PGE2

PGE2 (molecular weight: 352.46) was dissolved in EtOAc (1 mg/mL), and 0.186 mL of the resulting solution was placed in an Eppendorf tube. EtOAc was vaporized and removed under an argon atmosphere, and 0.05 mL of DMF was added. To that solution, 0.05 mL of a solution of 10 mM N-hydroxysuccinimide (molecular weight: 115.09) in DMF was added. Likewise, 0.05 mL of a solution of 10 mM 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide HCl (molecular weight: 191.70) in DMF was added thereto. The mixture was shield from the light by covering with aluminium foil, and left stand at room temperature for 18.5 hours. Subsequently, 0.004 mL of resulting PGE2 active ester was placed in an Eppendorf tube, and DMF was vaporized and removed using a vacuum pump. Then, 0.02 mL of 20 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.5) was added and mixed thoroughly, subsequently a streptoavidin solution (1 mg/mL, in 0.1 mL 100 mM potassium phosphate buffer, pH 7.2) was added, and the mixture was reacted at room temperature for 30 minutes. An avidin complex with PSE2 was purified using a column for gel filtration.

Step 2: Competitive Reaction ELISA of PGE2

0.05 mL Of each PGE2 standard solution (10, 20, 40, 78, 156, 313, 625 and 1250 pg/mL), 0.05 mL of anti-PGE2 antibody and 0.05 mL of the avidin complex with PGE2 were dispensed in an immunoplate. The plate was shielded from the light and left stand overnight. On a subsequent day, reaction solutions were discarded, a solution of 20 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.8, 0.9% NaCl and 0.1% Tween 20 was added to each well to wash the wells five times. 0.05 mL of a biotinylated luciferase solution diluted 500 times with 20 mM Tris-HCl buffer pH 7.8 containing 1 mg/mL BSA was added to each well, and the plate was left stand at room temperature for 30 minutes. After 30 minutes, the reaction solutions were discarded, and the wells were washed five times in the same way as the above. Subsequently, 0.1 mL of 0.001 mM luciferin solution (containing 100 mM Tris-HCl buffer, pH 7.4, 300 mM sodium L-ascorbate and 20 mM sodium sulfite) was added to each well and reacted, and a relative luminescence unit (RLU) for 20 seconds was measured using a luminometer JNR (supplied from ATT). As a result, it was found that IC50 was 48 pg/mL (FIG. 5).

Example 6

Biotinylation of Sugar Chain in Cypridina Luciferase

0.1 mg Of purified luciferase (relative total luminescence activity: 3.6×108 counts) was dissolved in 0.05 ml of 0.1 M acetate buffer (pH 5.2), which was then mixed with the same amount of 20 mM NaIO4 in 0.1 M acetate buffer (pH 5.2), and the mixture was gently stirred at 40° C. for 0.5 hours. A reaction solution was applied onto the PD-10 column supplied from GE Health, reaction products were eluted with the solution of 100 mM sodium phosphate and 150 mM NaCl, only active fractions were collected (about 2 mL). The solution (2 mL) was concentrated to about 0.02 mL using Biomax 10k supplied from Millipore, and mixed and reacted with 0.02 mL of 10 mM biotin hydrazide (Pierce) in 0.1 M acetate buffer pH 5.2 at room temperature for 2 hours. A reaction solution was applied onto the PD-10 column supplied from GE Health, reaction products were eluted with the solution of 100 mM sodium phosphate and 150 mM NaCl, only active fractions were collected (about 2 mL). 0.01 mL Of the eluant diluted 1,000 times was mixed with 0.05 mL of 0.001 mM luciferin to measure the luciferase activity, and 6.6×107 counts of the relative total luminescence activity was obtained.

Example 7

ELISA Assay of IFNα using Cypridina Luciferase whose Sugar Chain has been Biotinylated

IFNα was detected using a 96-well microplate to which anti-human IFNα antibody had been immobilized, an IFNα preparation and a biotin-labeled anti-human IFNα antibody contained in an IFNα ELISA kit supplied from GE Health and using the complex of biotin-labeled Cypridina luciferase labeled with streptoavidin. A serial dilutions (0.5 mL) of 0, 7.8, 15.6, 31.2, 62.5, 125, and 250 pg/mL of the IFNα preparation were made, and 0.1 mL thereof was added to four rows in the 96-well microplate to which anti-human IFNα antibody had been immobilized. The plate was lightly shaken for one hour, and then the solution was removed. Then, 0.15 mL of a solution of 20 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.8, 0.9% NaCl and 0.1% Tween 20 was added to the microplate to wash the plate four times. Subsequently, 0.1 mL of the biotin-labeled anti-human IFNα antibody was added to each well, the plate was lightly shaken for one hour, and then the solution was removed. The solution (0.15 ml) of 20 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.8, 0.9% NaCl and 0.1% Tween 20 was added to the microplate to wash the plate four times.

Cypridina luciferase (50 ng/mL) and streptoavidin (30 ng/mL) were mixed at the same amount, and the resulting mixture was diluted 10 times with 0.1 M Tris-HCl pH 7.4/0.1 M NaCl/0.5% BSA. To each well, 0.1 mL of the diluted solution was added, which was then lightly stirred at room temperature for 30 minutes. The solution was discarded, and 0.15 mL of the solution of 20 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.8, 0.9% NaCl/0.1% Tween 20 was added to the microplate to wash the plate four times. 0.1 mL Of 1 mM luciferin was added to the 96-well microplate to measure the luminescence. As a result, the linearity was obtained in the serial dilution (7.8 to 250 pg/mL) of IFNα (FIG. 6).

INDUSTRIAL APPLICABILITY

Inexpensive and effective methods for producing biotin-labeled Cypridina luciferase and the complex of biotin-labeled Cypridina luciferase with streptoavidin were established. The complex of biotin-labeled Cypridina luciferase with streptoavidin, which is excellent in stability can be applied to the field of enzyme immunoassays. The present invention could open the way to exert a feature that Cypridina luciferase is highly sensitive.