Title:
BIO FORMULA TO SUBSTITUTE DIESEL FUEL
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
Methods for preparing a diesel substitute are disclosed. The methods may include continuous processes from distillation of waste vegetable oil, preparation of methanol, preparation of Na-methoxide mixtures, reactions between distilled waste vegetable oil and Na-methoxide mixtures, and separations of reaction products. A biodiesel substitute having a brownish-yellow color and a maximum acid number of 6 is also disclosed.



Inventors:
Prawoto B. F. (JAKARTA PUSAT, ID)
Application Number:
11/831535
Publication Date:
02/28/2008
Filing Date:
07/31/2007
Primary Class:
International Classes:
C10L1/00
View Patent Images:
Related US Applications:



Primary Examiner:
CUTLIFF, YATE KAI RENE
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
VOLPE AND KOENIG, P.C. (30 SOUTH 17TH STREET, 18th Floor, PHILADELPHIA, PA, 19103, US)
Claims:
What is claimed is:

1. A method of producing an alternative diesel substitute that includes a methyl ester/biodiesel, the method comprising: (a) distilling waste vegetable oil to obtain waste vegetable oil distillate; (b) adding methanol and sulphuric acid to the distillate to produce first reaction products; (c) subjecting the first reaction products to evaporation; (d) distilling a first portion of products obtained in step (c) to produce a bottom fraction including methyl ester, and a top/vapor fraction including methanol; (e) mixing methanol produced in step (d) with NaOH/KOH to produce a Na-methoxide mixture; (f) homogenizing a second portion of products obtained in step (c) and mixing the homogenized products with Na-methoxide produced in step (e) to produce second reaction products; (g) distilling the second reaction products to produce a top/vapor fraction including methanol and a bottom fraction including methyl ester/biodiesel and glycerol; (h) distilling the methyl ester/biodiesel and glycerol obtained in step (g) to produce a top fraction including glycerol and a bottom fraction including methyl ester/biodiesel; (i) neutralizing the methyl ester/biodiesel, and subjecting the neutralized methyl ester/biodiesel to evaporation to produce a bottom fraction including the alternative diesel substitute.

2. The method of claim 1, wherein the distillation of step (a) is accomplished through membrane filtration.

3. The method of claim 1, wherein step (b) includes maintaining the distillate, methanol, and sulphuric acid at 60-70° C. and atmospheric pressure for 60-120 minutes.

4. The method of claim 1, wherein the evaporation in step (c) includes maintaining a temperature of 60-70° C. at 20-60 mmHg for 60-90 minutes.

5. The method of claim 1, wherein the distilling of step (d) is performed with a first distillation column operated at 60-70° C. at 20-60 mmHg.

6. The method of claim 1, wherein the bottom fraction obtained in step (d) also includes water, glycerol, and soap; the bottom fraction is subjected to refluxing and the methyl ester is separated from the water, glycerol, and soap.

7. The method of claim 1, further comprising condensing the methanol in the top/vapor fraction produced in step (d) in a condenser at 20°.

8. The method of claim 6, further comprising concentrating the methanol to a concentration of 99%.

9. The method of claim 1, wherein the distilling step (g) is performed with a second distillation column operated at 60-70° C. at 20-60 mmHg.

10. The method of claim 1, further comprising concentrating the methanol in the top/vapor fraction produced in step (g) in a condenser at 20°; and optionally combining the methanol of step (g) with the methanol obtained in step (d) to produce combined methanol, wherein the combined methanol is processed in the same steps as the methanol of step (d).

11. The method of claim 1, wherein the bottom fraction including methyl ester/biodiesel and glycerol in step (g) is reboiled prior to step (h).

12. The method of claim 1, wherein the distilling of step (h) is performed with a third distillation column operated at 60-70° C. at 20-60 mmHg.

13. The method of claim 1, wherein the glycerol in the top fraction of step (h) is transferred to a glycerol reserve tank.

14. The method of claim 1, further comprising reboiling the bottom fraction including methyl ester/biodiesel of step (h) prior to step (i).

15. The method of claim 1, wherein the neutralizing step in (i) further comprises adjusting the pH to 5.5-6.5.

16. The method of claim 15, wherein the step of adjusting the pH is accomplished by adding sulphuric acid.

17. The method of claim 16, wherein the sulphuric acid is 12 M and is added at a volume corresponding to 1-1.5% of the methyl ester/biodiesel volume.

18. The method of claim 1, wherein the neutralizing step in (i) further comprises adding water.

19. The method claim 1, wherein the evaporating step in (i) includes an evaporator operating at 60-70° C. at 20-60 mmHg for 60 minutes.

20. An alternative diesel substitute produced by the method of claim 1.

Description:

FIELD OF INVENTION

The invention relates to a bio formula which is an alternative diesel fuel and originated from vegetables in the form of palm coconut oil waste. The invention also relates to a process for production of the bio formula.

BACKGROUND

Fuel has been always an issue in various countries and many ways have been explored in search of alternative materials that could substitute for current fuels. The current invention relates to a substitute material suitable to operate a diesel engine, e.g. a substitute diesel fuel.

Fuel oil material subsidies account for fossil fuel prices, and result in fossil fuel price hikes. As a result, all public levels, especially the lower level community are deeply affected by fossil fuel availability. Since fossil fuel is a natural resource that cannot be renewed, it is necessary and important to develop alternatives or substitutes.

Many fossil fuel substitutes, such as bricks, coals taken from plantation waste, biogas and others, have been highlighted. Also, either obtaining fossil fuel from different raw materials, or producing fossil fuel through chemical reaction processes, distillation residues, thermal cracking, fractionalization and other processes has been explored to meet the need for alternatives. Many of these approaches are, however, costly due to the supply of raw materials, additives, supporting materials, catalysts, instrumentation, location, and so on. In most cases, the alternatives or substitutes must go through difficult processing stages. It especially difficult to maintain continued processes. Even though the processes can be simplified, the result is product quality and quantity below the maximum, that is, far from anticipated adequate levels. Attempts to overcome these deficiencies have resulted in inadequate product, especially for public use.

In addition, the products made by these prior attempts to overcome the deficiencies are not suitable for industrial use. Needless to say, the products are useless and do not have economic value.

The current invention, a substitute diesel fuel, is directed to avoiding these obstacles and the resulting high prices for fossil fuel. An alternative must be found to process a different raw material for diesel fuel and, thus, obtain an alternative or substitute diesel fuel. There is a need for innovators, willing to express and to interact in their area and find alternatives to produce diesel fuel from alternative raw materials. The alternatives could reduce the entire cost of production and also the sales price of the product.

The current invention includes bio formula 100 and a process for its production. Bio formula 100 is a substitute for diesel fuel. Through the use of bio formula 100 and the methods for its production, the obstacles mentioned above may be reduced or overcome.

SUMMARY

The invention herein relates to a method of producing an alternative diesel substitute that includes a methyl ester/biodiesel. The method includes distilling waste vegetable oil to obtain waste vegetable oil distillate. Methanol and sulphuric acid are added to the distillate to produce first reaction products, which are subjected to evaporation. A first portion of these products are distilled to produce a bottom fraction including methyl ester, and a top/vapor fraction including methanol. A portion of the methanol is mixed with NaOH/KOH to produce a Na-methoxide mixture. A second portion of the first reaction products are homogenized and the homogenized products are mixed with a portion the Na-methoxide mixture to produce second reaction products. The second reaction products are distilled to produce a top/vapor fraction including methanol and a bottom fraction including methyl ester/biodiesel and glycerol. The methyl ester/biodiesel and glycerol fraction is further distilled to produce a top fraction including glycerol and a bottom fraction including the methyl ester/biodiesel. The methyl ester/biodiesel is neutralized and subjected to evaporation to produce a bottom fraction including the alternative diesel substitute.

The invention herein also relates to the alternative diesel substitute produced by a method of producing an alternative diesel substitute. The method includes distilling waste vegetable oil to obtain waste vegetable oil distillate. Methanol and sulphuric acid are added to the distillate to produce first reaction products, which are subjected to evaporation. A first portion of these products are distilled to produce a bottom fraction including methyl ester, and a top/vapor fraction including methanol. A portion of the methanol is mixed with NaOH/KOH to produce a Na-methoxide mixture. A second portion of the first reaction products are homogenized and the homogenized products are mixed with a portion the Na-methoxide mixture to produce second reaction products. The second reaction products are distilled to produce a top/vapor fraction including methanol and a bottom fraction including methyl ester/biodiesel and glycerol. The methyl ester/biodiesel and glycerol fraction is further distilled to produce a top fraction including glycerol and a bottom fraction including the methyl ester/biodiesel. The methyl ester/biodiesel is neutralized and subjected to evaporation to produce a bottom fraction including the alternative diesel substitute.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING

FIG. 1 is a stream diagram of B-100 formula production process for a diesel fuel substitute which is in line with embodiments of the current invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

As used herein, “bio formula 100,” “BioFuel B-100,” or “B-100” refers to a substitute diesel fuel originated from vegetables in the form of palm coconut oil waste (WVO).

A production process for B-100 is shown in FIG. 1 and described as follows.

Embodiments of the current invention are directed to bio formula 100 and its production process. Bio formula 100 can function as an alternative or substitute for diesel fuel, and is of solar origin. The production process may include the following stages:

In a preferred embodiment, membrane distillation, and more preferably membrane plate distillation is used in a preliminary stage of the process. As shown in FIG. 1, stages from tank TB6 to reactor R1 include distillation of palm coconut oil waste by a membrane/filter press at 1 time/stage to obtain. As indicated, the distillate is transferred to reactor R1, an FFA Treatment Unit Reactor, which is a mixing tank reactor suitable for continuous operation; for example a CSTR reactor. Reactor R1, in preferred embodiments is double jacketed. In a preferred embodiment, reactor R1 receives 1000 kg palm coconut oil waste distillate. In an embodiment, the distillate is maintained at a temperature of 60-70° C. at atmospheric pressure for 60-120 minutes. In a preferred embodiment, this time is about 90 minutes. At this stage, a volume of 99% methanol corresponding to 10-15% of the WVO volume is added. A volume of 12 Molar sulphuric acid corresponding to 1-1.5% of the WVO volume is also added. In a preferred embodiment, the final concentration of methanol in this step is 10.7%. Also, sulphuric acid may be added in alternative amounts, including 25 kg.

The reaction products proceed to an evaporator E1. In an embodiment, the evaporator E1 operates at a temperature of 60-70° C. and a pressure of 20-60 mmHg (preferably 30-50 mmHg). In a preferred embodiment the temperature is about 65° C. Evaporation may be carried out for 60-90 minutes.

The evaporated products proceed to a distillation column D1 and are distilled at 60-70° C. (preferably 65° C.) and 20-60 mmHg (preferably 30-50 mmHg). The result of distillation, in the bottom fraction, includes a methyl ester having a temperature of 65-70° C. (preferably 65° C.). Liquid methyl ester proceeds to tank TB5. A mixture of water, glycerol, and soap is also in the bottom/liquid fraction and is refluxed from a condenser and reboiler at 65-70° C. (preferably 65° C.). The water, glycerol, and soap are transferred to the Dirty Water Reserve Tank TB5 in liquid form.

The top/vapor fraction in distillation column D1 includes methanol that is condensed as it travels through a 20° C. condenser. Methanol concentrated to 99% is retained in the TB1 bait tank, which is a Stainless Steel tank. The volume of methanol could be 800 mls or more, and in the embodiment where 1000 kg distillate enters reactor R1, approximately 50 liters 99% methanol may be obtained. The methanol proceeds to mixing tank R3. The amount of methanol transferred is about 10-15% of the WVO, and solid NaOH/KOH at about 1-1.5% of the WVO weight is added as catalyst at the same time. In another embodiment, the NaOH/KOH measure may be 15-25 kg. The contents are then mixed in the M1 mixing tank till a reaction mixture is reached. The reactions include methanol+NaOH/KOH→NaMethanol. A Na-Methoxide mixture is obtained.

Then, evaporated WVO (the bait in the form of oil waste of fruits/palm coconut) proceeds from the evaporator E1 to a Pre Reactor Reserved PR1. To obtain homogeneity, the evaporated WVO is retained in PR1 for 30-60 minutes (preferably 60).

A Methyl Ester is preferably obtained by combination of the NaMethanol from reactor R3 with the WVO emerging from the Pre Reactor PR1. These components are mixed in mixer M1 and then transferred into reactors R2A and R2B. These reactors are the main reactor (mixing rector tank), CSTR Main Reactor, and are the mixing tanks for a continuous process.

The products obtained in R2A and R2B are removed through the bottom part of the reactors, and preferably proceed into Pre Reactor Reserved PR2 for optimal results. At this stage, the products proceed into distillation column D2. The distillation column D2 has Column Packing specifications and is operated at 65° C. and 20-60 mmHg. The condenser/reboiler configuration of the distillation column includes a distillation container in the form of Shell and Tube, and the reboiler is a Reboiler Kettle.

The top/vapor fraction from distillation column D2 includes methanol, which is condensed by passage through a 20° C. condenser. In liquid condition, the methanol fraction may be transferred into distillation column D1 for continued processing. In these embodiments, D1 receives two inputs of methanol, one from evaporator E1 and one from distillation column D2. And the continued processing of methanol from distillation column D2 proceeds similarly to the processing described above regarding methanol leaving evaporator E1.

The bottom/liquid fraction from distillation column D2 includes a mixture of methyl ester (biodiesel) and glycerol. This combination is processed in liquid condition through a reboiler at 65-100° C. (preferably 65° C.). This fraction is recovered/withdrawn through D3 distillation column.

The D3 distillation column has Column Packing specifications and may be operated at 65° C. and 20-60 mmHg. In an embodiment, this distillation is carried out for 60-90 minutes. The top/vapor fraction of this column includes Glycerol, which is condensed in a 20° C. condenser. In liquid condition, this fraction then proceeds to and is reserved in Glycerol Reserved Tank TB2.

The bottom/liquid fraction of distillation column D3 includes the methyl ester/biodiesel. This product is processed through a reboiler at 65° C., and then proceeds to reactor R4 in liquid condition.

Mixing tank R4 functions as neutralizing reactor. In an embodiment, the mixing tank R4 operates at 30-40° C. (preferably 40° C.) and atmospheric pressure, and the methyl ester/biodiesel is processed for 60 minutes in this tank. The methyl ester/biodiesel is neutralized from pH 10 to pH 5.5-6.5 by adding 12 Molar sulphuric acid from a sulphuric acid bait tank. In an embodiment, the volume of sulphuric acid added is one hundreth that of the methyl ester volume, and in another embodiment the acid volume ranges from 1-1.5% of the methyl ester. A volume of water amounting to 10-15% of the methyl ester is also added, and the water may be drawn from the TB4 water reserve tank. These are processed as the second catalyst, and then evaporated in an evaporator E2. The evaporator E2 operates at 65° C. and 20-60 mmHg for 60 minutes.

The top fraction from evaporator E2 includes water, soap, and salt, which is reserved in the TB5 Dirty Water Reserve Tank. The bottom fraction is the biodiesel 100, which is reserved in the BioFuel B-100 Product Tank TB 7.

A BioFuel B-100 product made by the above process is physically a yellow-brownish liquid, and chemically has a preferred maximum acid number of 6. These characteristics meet the criteria as an alternate material for solar substitution.

It is understood, therefore, that this invention is not limited to the particular embodiments disclosed, but is intended to cover all modifications which are within the spirit and scope of the invention as defined by the appended claims; the above description; and/or shown in the attached drawings.