Title:
Earthquake defense vibrotechnology
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
The Earthquake Defense Vibrotechnology for a definite local area comprises an underground structure of vibroset-kits placed in casing-well units.

Vibrosets generate mechanical operating response-vibrations and effectively transmit them to elastic layers of ground for instant seismic waves damping by closed vibro-cage, formed by vibro-frequentative shields, closed-loop walls, and closed guards, which are shaped under protected area.

Vibrosets are automatically and directly controlled by vibrosensors for operation within 1.5-2 seconds after seismic waves of definite magnitude start and stop when earthquake ends.

The frequentative interactions with forced superposition of generated response-vibrations and seismic waves provide their destructive interference, and thus effective damping.

The amplitudes of seismic waves become about 5 times reduced, and calmed down to safe levels until dangerous shocks end.




Inventors:
Lazar, Bereli M. (San Francisco, CA, US)
Lazar, Yuriy B. (San Francisco, CA, US)
Application Number:
11/502157
Publication Date:
02/14/2008
Filing Date:
08/11/2006
Primary Class:
International Classes:
E02D31/08
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Primary Examiner:
ANDRISH, SEAN D
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Bereli, Lazar M. (Apt. 4105, 1590 Broadway St., San Francisco, CA, 94109, US)
Claims:
What is claimed is:

1. An Earthquake Defense Vibrotechnology for a local area comprising: a) An underground structure of vibroset-kits, placed in casing-well units, for generating and systemic transmitting mechanical operating vibrations of definite adjusted frequencies in order to dampen seismic waves down into safe magnitudes, and b) A sensor control system to provide instant start and well-timed stop of dampening vibrations.

2. The vibrotechnology of claim 1 wherein any of said vibroset-kits includes: Level-vibrosets producing operating, frequentative dampening upper and lower v-belts; Rim-vibrosets producing operating, frequentative dampening upper and lower v-fences; Vertical arrangement of both said kinds of vibrosets into a common casing-well unit.

3. Said v-belts and v-fences of claim 2 form operating, continuous, and dampening: Upper and lower v-shields consisting of v-belts, Upper and lower closed-loop v-walls consisting of v-fences, Upper and lower closed v-guards consisting of v-fences.

4. Said v-shields, v-walls, and v-guards of claim 3 shape a closed combined v-cage underground protected local area.

5. Said v-shields, v-walls, and v-guards of claim 3 are dampening vibro-fields with generated frequencies at least 5 times higher than seismic waves frequencies in order to provide effective and substantial reducing of earthquake amplitudes by forced destructive vibro-wave superposition.

6. Any of said level-vibroset and rim-vibroset of claim 2 includes: Vibration machine with vibro-drive adjuster and vibro-frame; Stop-slab device with back stop-adjuster; Suspension-gasket unit.

7. Said vibration machines of claim 6 are depending on local conditions and design arrangements, and can be: Reaction type with rotating unbalanced masses Direct-drive vibro-units, Electrodynamic assemblies, and/or combined.

8. The vibrotechnology of claim 1 wherein any of said casing-well units comprises: a) Vertical concrete dry well with directing windows for vibrosets, b) Multisegment inner casing-assembly, c) Maintenance unit.

9. Said casing-assembly of claim 8 includes: V-segments with holes for vibrosets, Insert-segments with flexible connectors to adjacent segments, Maintenance elements.

10. Said windows of claim 8 and holes of claim 9 are placed on levels of elastic layers of protected area underground.

11. The vibrotechnology of claim 1 wherein said sensor control system includes: a) vibration sensors for every said vibroset, b) a reserve sensor-unit for every said vibroset and every said vibroset-kit.

12. The Earthquake Defense Vibrotechnology for a local area includes regulating and/or adjusting units and devices in order to provide: a) Immediate start of operation within 2 seconds maximum, after definite magnitude earthquake begins, b) Back-stop forces of stop-slab devices for effective vibrations transmission to elastic layers of underground depending on local conditions, c) Frequency ratio about 5.0 between generated operating vibrations and real seismic waves for effective dampening to safe levels; d) Independent and flexible vibroset suspensions for effective transmission of generated vibrations to ground layers and reliable insulation casing-well units from said vibrations.

13. Said regulating and/or adjusting units and devices of claim 12 can be mechanical, and/or electromechanical, and/or electronic, and/or combined depending on design and local conditions.

Description:

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

Not applicable.

FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH

Not applicable.

SEQUENCE LISTING OR PROGRAM

Not applicable.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

This proposal relates to the multiple problems connected with dangerous earthquakes. It also particularly relates to:

    • General wave mechanics, wave propagation in elastic solids, seismic waves specifics;
    • Wave superposition, mechanical waves damping, especially combined mutual damping of forced mechanical oscillations, frequentative interactions;
    • Mechanical and other vibromachines;
    • Automatic control with usage of vibration sensors;
    • Dry well structures.

We have in the world about 210 violent earthquakes of magnitudes 6.0 to 8.1 per year. Seismic areas need reliable protection. Regular predictions, precautions, preparedness, antiseismic reinforcements of some separate structures are not enough. The VAN-method uses seismic electrical signals of telluric currents in the ground of some areas only for advanced predictions.

The subject matter of the present proposal is a local underground structure of vibrosets placed in casing-well units. Vibrosets generate and transmit operating vibrations for seismic waves damping by effective frequentative superpositions. Instant starting of operation, adjusted frequency of multiple v-forms (vibroforms) such as closed continuous operating v-shields, v-fences, v-guards provide calming seismic waves down to safe levels.

Any prior art connected with developed in present proposal vibrotechnology of immediate frequentative responding, treating, and damping seismic waves down for a whole area were not found.

Patents in classes 346, 367, 181, 33, 52 deal with only earthquake recorders, seismographs, seismoinstruments, and proof construction of separate objects and/or elements.

BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

It is an object of this proposal to provide:

  • a) A reliable protection of local seismic areas like towns, cities, dams, bridges, others, from destructive earthquakes instead of regular vibroinsulation and various reinforcements of separate buildings, towers, others;
  • b) Effective response, automatic instant acting with frequentative interference, destructive superposition and dampening all kinds of seismic waves by generated acting vibrations;
  • c) Immediate shaping underground of protected areas, a closed vibrocage of doubled frequentative v-shields, v-walls and v-guards for reliable dampening seismic waves and reducing shake-amplitudes to safe levels.

The nature and substance of Earthquake Defense Vibro-Technology is a local array of frequentative vibrosets placed by kits in vertical casing-well units for:

    • Generating and systemic transmitting higher frequency operating vibrations to the elastic layers of protecting area underground,
    • Destructive interacting and effective dampening of seismic waves,
    • Calming seismic waves down to safe magnitude levels.

The sensor control system of said vibro-technology provides:

    • Instant start and well-timed stop of dampening vibrations, directly depended on real definitive seismic magnitudes,
    • Frequentative and phase disorder to all kinds of seismic waves for dampening them as fast as possible, and thus shortening earthquake duration on strong levels to about 2 seconds maximum.
    • Substantial, about 80%, reducing of seismic waves amplitude indexes.

DRAWING FIGURES

In the drawings closely related elements have the same numbers but different alphabetic suffixes. Numbers of views and sections accord to numbers of figures where they are shown. All the drawings are schematic and scaleless for needed clarity of proposed solutions.

FIG. 1 shows a plain view of the Earthquake Defense Vibrotechnology structure protecting an exemplary town area.

FIGS. 2, 3, 4 illustrate elements of closed underground vibro-cage formed by generated dampening vibrations.

FIG. 2 is a section 2-2 taken in FIG. 1.

FIG. 3 is a two-level section 3-3 taken in FIG. 2.

FIG. 4 is a two-level section 4-4 taken in FIG. 2.

FIG. 5 is a longitudinal vertical section 5-5, taken in FIG. 1.

FIGS. 6 and 7 are turned 90-degree cross-sections 6-6 and 7-7 taken in FIG. 5, respectively.

FIG. 8 is an examplary seismogram showing seismic waves' amplitudes underground of unprotected area.

FIG. 9 is an examplary seismogram showing damped seismic waves' reduced amplitudes underground of area protected by present vibrotechnology means.

A note: an examplary time indicator, common for both seismograms of FIGS. 8 and 9, is placed between said figures.

FIG. 10 is a graph illustrating the functional dependence of dampened seismic waves' amplitude reducings from frequency ratios and showing the preferable regions of operation in various conditions and adjustments.

All the figures relate to operation time.

REFERENCE NUMERALS, SYMBOLS, NOTATION, NOTES

Structures and units.

  • 20
  • Vibro-set kit
  • 21 Casing-well unit
  • 21A Vibro-outlet through hole
  • 22 Sensor control system
  • 22A Vibration sensor
  • 23A
  • Level vibroset
  • 23B
  • Rim vibroset
  • 23C Vibration machine
  • 23D Stop-slab device
  • 23E Vibroframe
  • 23F Vibro-drive-adjuster
  • 23G Back stop-adjusters
  • 23H Suspension-gasket unit
  • 24A Casing assembly
  • 24B Casing vibroset-segment
  • 24C Casing insert-segment
  • 25 Dry well
  • 26 Maintenance unit
  • 27 Stair case zone
  • 28 Reserve zone

Wave forms and operating vibrations.

  • a) 29 Seismic earthquake shocks:
  • 29A,
  • Undampened waves
  • 29D,
  • Dampened waves in protected area
  • b) 30,
  • Response dampening vibrations, v-forms.
  • 30P, -x-x- Protected area perimeter line
  • 21, <Upper v-belt (vibro-belt)<
  • 31S,
  • (Upper v-shield (vibro-shield)
  • 32,
  • Lower v-belt
  • 32S,
  • Lower v-shield
  • 33,
  • Upper v-fence
  • 33W, Upper closed-loop v-wall
  • 33G, Upper closed v-guard
  • 34,
  • Lower v-fence
  • 34W, Lower closed-loop v-wall
  • 34G, Lower closed v-guard
  • 35, Closed vibro-cage
  • c) 36,
  • Superposition of seismic waves and response vibrations

Reference numerals 21, 24, 26, 27, 28 are conventional units used in present new vibrotechnology. Control connections and regular devices are not shown.

Notes to FIGS. 8, 9, and 10.

  • a) asi Seismic waves amplitude indexes
  • as Amplitude indexes of seismic waves
  • ad Amplitude indexes of dampened seismic waves in protected area.
  • ar Amplitude indexes ratio related to average displacements and accelerations:

ar=adas;

  • —-time, sec; —starting time
  • dr—-earthquake duration.
  • b) Wr Frequency ratio;

wr=wdvwsw,

  • where
  • Wdv averaged frequency of dampening vibrations
  • Wsw averaged frequency of seismic waves.
  • c)

L.D.Low dampeningwr ≅ 4.5;ar ≅ 0.25
G.D.Good dampeningwr ≅ 5.0;ar ≅ 0.22
B.D.The best dampeningwr ≅ 5.5;ar ≅ 0.18
  • d) Operating values of wr according reduced ar

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

The Earthquake Defense Vibrotechnology for a definite local area includes:

a) an array of vibroset-kits 20, placed inside
b) a structure of casing-well units 21, and
c) a sensor control system 22,

Any of kits 20 includes level-vibrosets 23A, and rim-vibrosets 23B.

Any of units 21 includes a casing assembly 24A and a dry well 25.

The system of control 22 comprises vibration sensors for automatic detecting of definite magnitude seismic shakes, instant starting, and well-timed ending of vibrosets operations.

FIG. 1 shows an examplary structure of casing-well units 21 with vibroset kits 20 placed around an examplary town area. The schematic map shows borders of protected area from seismic waves 24/A marked by perimeter lines 30P. Sensor control systems 22 of any of kits 20 are also shown.

FIGS. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 represent said vibrotechnology:

The level-vibrosets 23A and rim-vibrosets 23B produce forced operating vibrations 30 forming underground vibro-belts 31, 32 and vibro-fences 33, 34 respectively; said vibro-belts shape frequentative vibro-shields 31s, 32s. Said vibro-fences shape frequentative vibro-walls 33w, 34w, and vibro-guards 33G, 34G. Said underground frequentative vibro-shields and vibro-walls are continuous and closed-loop respectively. Said shields, walls, and guards together form a closed voluminous frequentative vibro-cage 35 of forced dampening vibrations 30, almost instantly, within 1.5-2 seconds after seismic shakes of definite magnitude begin, and vibro-sets 23A, 23B start operation.

FIG. 2 illustrates said vibro-cage 35 in underground cross-section of examplary town and shows: upper v-shield 31s, lower v-shield 32s, upper closed-loop v-wall 33w, lower closed-loop v-wall 34w, upper and lower closed v-guards 33G, 34G respectively. The casing-well unit 21, undampened seismic waves 29A, dampened seismic waves 29D in protected area are also shown.

FIG. 3 shows rim-vibrosets 23B, placed in their casing-well units 21, and producing upper and lower operating vibro-fences 33, 34; said fences form: upper closed-loop v-wall 33w, identical lower closed-loop v-wall 34w, upper and lower closed v-guards 33G, 34G, respectively. Said v-walls 33w, 34w, and v-guards 33w, 34w, and 33G, 34G shape the vertical protecting perimeter which is doubled at expected dangerous directions. Undampened and dampened seismic waves 29, 29D respectively are shown.

FIG. 4 illustrates level vibrosets 23A, inside their casing-well units 21, and producing upper and lower operating vibro-belts 31, 32. Said belts form upper v-shield 31S and identical lower v-shield 32S. Undampened and dampened seismic waves 29, 29D respectively are shown relatively to the protected area.

FIG. 5 illustrates the general preferable design and arrangement of the vibroset-kit 20. Said kit 20 includes two, for example, level-vibrosets 23A, and two rim-vibrosets 23B, and sensor control system 22, all placed in and connected with their casing-well unit 21. Casing assembly 24A, casing segments 24B, 24C, maintenance unit 26, dry well 25, examplary upper and lower operating v-belts and v-fences 31, 32, 33, 34 are shown, respectively.

FIGS. 6, 7 illustrate plan-view design of level-vibroset 23A and rim-vibroset 23B respectively. Arrangements of vibrosets 23A, 23B with vibro-outlet through holes 21S of casing-well unit 21 are shown. Any of examplary unbalanced masses vibration machines 23C and their vibro-drive adjusters 23F are in assembly with their vibroframes 23E, two stop-slab devices 23D, two stop-slab adjusters 23G, two suspension-gasket units 23H. Casing segments 24B, dry well 25, stair case zone 27, reserve zone 28 are also shown. FIGS. 6, 7 show also dampened seismic waves 29D, upper v-fence 33, lower v-belt 32 operating in common frequentative fields of protected area.

FIGS. 8 and 9 are examplary comparative and relative seismograms which illustrate:

a) Undamped seismic waves 29A in unprotected area
b) Dampened seismic waves 29D in protected area inside perimeter line 30P
c) ≅0.2; average of amplitude ratio
d) Starting time of vibrosets 23A, 23B operation ______≅1.5-2 seconds
e) Vibrosets operation time ______≅40 seconds
f) Earthquake duration time ______≅2+40≅42 seconds (example)

FIG. 10 is a graph illustrating one of the substantial theoretical bases of present earthquake defense vibrotechnology. The curves explain functional dependences of amplitude indexes ratios ar from frequency averaged ratios wr for various adjustment dampening factors. The curves show:

  • a) Indicated frequentative superposition 36 of response damping vibrations 36 and seismic waves 29, with frequency ratio wr equal about 5.5, accords to amplitude indexes ratio ar≅0.2 in average.
  • b) The adjustments of frequency ratio wr more than about 5.0±15% can provide effective reducing of amplitude indexes to the levels of about 20% of undamped seismic waves, and thus effective damping and calming seismic waves down to safe levels.
  • c) Three curves show dependencies ar=f(wr) for low, good, and best dampings L.D., G.D., and B.D. respectively.

Key Elements and Steps of Operation:

  • a) Sensor control system 22 automatically defines real frequencies of earthquake waves 29A and launches vibroset kits 20 into work within 1.8-2 seconds after shocks 29 began and reached definite magnitudes.
  • b) Vibrosets 23B and 23C generate damping operating vibrations 30 with frequencies wdv higher about 4.5±15% times of real seismic waves 29 frequencies.
  • c) Stop-slab devices 23D, with slab stop adjusters 23F, providing constant backing to the elastic layers of underground, transmit damping vibrations 30 to said layers forming frequentative vibro-belts 31, 32 and vibro-fences 33, 34 in both of every vibroset 23 opposite directions.
  • d) Upper v-belts 31 form upper continuous v-shield 31S, lower v-belts 32 form lower continuous v-shield 32S.
  • e) Simultaneously upper and lower v-fences 33, 34 form upper and lower closed loop v-walls 33W, 34W, and upper and lower closed v-guards 33G, 34G, respectively.
  • f) The v-shields 31S, 32S, v-walls 33W, 34W, v-guards 33G, 34G shape the operating frequentative closed vibro-cage 35 underground of protected area.
  • g) All the vibro-elements of cage 35 interact with earthquake shocks 29, superpositioning them with needed frequency ratio wr and dampening earthquakes waves down.
  • h) The amplitude indexes of seismic waves are reduced in 4-6 times thus making the protected area safe.
  • i) When the earthquake ends, the sensor control system 22 stops vibroset-kits 20 operation, remaining ready to possible aftershocks and/or other earthquakes.