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|20080245383||INTERACTIVE COMPACTS AND COSMETIC CASES AND USES THEREOF||October, 2008||Tomandl|
|20030056804||Powder puff||March, 2003||Tajima|
|20050000535||Nozzle comb||January, 2005||Kim|
|20030115694||Toothbrush having a brushhead portion which contains a memory device for communicating with a microcontroller in a handle portion of the toothbrush or other device||June, 2003||Pace|
|20030041870||Unique multiple ended lipstick holder||March, 2003||Su et al.|
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|20100031969||EYELASH MAKEUP AND/OR CARE ASSEMBLY||February, 2010||Jager Lezer et al.|
|20040231691||Hair clip having spring shielding device||November, 2004||Shyu|
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This application claims priority to provisional patent application Ser. No. 60/776,068, filed Feb. 23, 2006.
The invention is in the field of packages for use in containing and applying compositions to keratinous fibers such as eyelashes and related methods.
Mascara is a cosmetic that has been used for thousands of years. In ancient Egypt women were known to darken their eyelashes with kohl or concoctions containing various animal parts. In the 1800's fashion conscious women who were not able to afford cosmetics used lampblack (the black residue left on the bottom of a china plate held over a candle flame) to darken lashes and brows. Prior to World War I, cake mascara was introduced, and by the 1930's it was commercially available in the traditional shopping outlets at the time. Helena Rubinstein's invention of Mascaramatic in the late 1950's revolutionized the mascara business, and that type of package is still the most popular form of mascara today.
Today, the eye category has shown exponential growth in terms of sales and offerings. Mascara users have innumerable choices as cosmetics companies typically have not one, but a plethora of offerings, providing many different benefits, in the mascara category. For example, some mascaras are positioned as good for lengthening lashes. Others are positioned as providing a thickening benefit, particularly sought by users who may have long, but sparse lashes. Mascaras that curl the lashes are also known, and popular with users that believe they can dispense with an eyelash curler if they use a curling mascara. More recently, multi-benefit mascaras have been commercialized. These products have a one-stop-shopping positioning, with formulas that are designed to give the consumers every possible major benefit they could desire such as lengthening, thickening, curling, conditioning, coloring, and accentuating.
Trends in mascara change with the times. The heavy lash took of the 1960's gave way to the natural look of the 1970's. The high-flying excesses of the 1980's brought back big black eyelashes along with heavily rouged cheeks. During the 1990's the pared down look again became popular, that trend lasting until well into the new millineum.
Currently, the emerging trend is toward heavier lash makeup. False eyelashes have once again become popular. One facet of the trend is a goth look, with a heavy, thick, false lash look; with the other facet of the trend being made up lashes suitable for every day wear. While mascara users are happy to follow trends when the products that enable them to do so are available at a reasonable price, there are few women who have the time or inclination to apply false eyelashes to go to work every day. Accordingly, it is the job of the cosmetics manufacturer to provide reasonably priced products formulated to provide the result dictated by the fashion trend and make such products consumer friendly to fit the busy lifestyles of modern women.
Achieving the false lash look with mascara is easier said than done. Simply applying more mascara to the lashes will not necessarily achieve the look if the formula does not have the right characteristics. One way a false lash look may be achieved is with heavy deposit of a formula that provides the necessary thickening, lengthening, and lash accentuation properties. In general, the formula must have a certain composition and consistency, while the brush used to apply the product must be capable of providing just the right deposit onto eyelashes to achieve the desired look.
It is well known that mascara brushes that have high fiber density are not as effective in application of mascara. For example, the typical brushes sold in the early 1980's were generally made of twisted metal wire where small diameter fibers, such as 3 mil fibers, were twisted between the arms of the wire. The resulting brush provided a very dense array of bristles. When the brush was inserted into the viscous mascara, the product was more likely to gather at the bristle tips or between the spirals, rather than between the fibers. Thus, when the user went to apply the mascara to the lashes, the product tended to glob on the lashes. Further, because the individual fibers of the brush were so densely packed, the lashes could not penetrate between them. This meant that mascara was applied mostly to the tips of the lashes and less so along the entire length of the lash. This type of application system was not optimal for thickening lashes.
To optimize product application and deposit to achieve a substantive lash look it is necessary to provide an applicator that maximizes the amount of mascara delivered to all portions of the lash and provide a formula that provides the attributes necessary to achieve that look. One common problem that arises is inadequate set time. Set time is the amount of time it takes for the mascara to set, or dry, on the lashes. Typically, the mascara formulas that have the properties necessary to provide substantivity to lashes have a longer set time. Long set times, in turn, create an increased tendency for smudging and smearing of the mascara. If the mascara formula is modified to reduce the set time, then the resulting films are thinner and less substantive and will not contribute to a false lash look.
Accordingly, it is a careful interplay between the brush and formula that provides a mascara product that provides the best substantivity and definition to the lashes.
It has been discovered that combining a certain type of tufted mascara brush with a certain type of emulsion mascara formula provides a product that gives a false lash look but without the drawbacks normally associated with such products.
FIG. 1A depicts a type of tufted brush having a stem.
FIG. 1B illustrates the manufacture of a stem for the tufted brush where small holes or depressions are molded to facilitate implanting of fiber tufts.
FIG. 1C illustrate how tufts may be embedded into the stem of the brush.
FIG. 1C(i) depicts an anchor set.
FIG. 1C(ii) depicts anchoring of fibers into the stem with a staple.
FIG. 1D illustrates attachment of fiber tufts into the stem by securing to a U shaped attachment.
FIG. 1E depicts a stem where fiber tufts have been implanted in rows in stem holes.
FIG. 1F illustrates a truncated view of a triangular type stem.
FIG. 1G illustrates a truncated view where fiber tufts are implanted on the top and bottom surfaces.
FIG. 1H illustrates a side cross-section of a generally triangular stem having fiber tufts implanted in rows.
FIG. 1I illustrates a side cross section of a stem having fiber tufts of variable lengths embedded in the stem.
FIG. 1J illustrates a plan view of the stem having both fiber tufts and combs.
FIGS. 2A through L depict the cross-sectional shapes of various types of fibers that may be used to make the mascara brush used.
FIG. 3A depicts a storage receptacle for the mascara composition.
FIG. 3B depicts the cap/stem/brush assembly.
FIG. 3C depicts a cap affixed to a vial showing via broken lines the stem and tufted brush found therein.
FIG. 3D depicts a cross-sectional view of vial, cap, stem, and tufted brush when the cap is secured to the vial and immersed in the mascara composition.
The packaged mascara product of the invention comprises a container for holding mascara, a tufted brush, and an emulsion mascara formula comprising at least one substantive film forming polymer and at least one vaporization agent.
A. The Tufted Brush
The term “tufted brush” means a brush for the application of mascara where the fibers used to apply the mascara are inserted into a base or support in tufts, including those as further described herein. The tufted brush comprises a stem and tufted fibers implanted in the stem.
1. The Stem
FIG. 1A depicts various types of tufted brushes 1(a) having a stem 1, preferably made from a molded thermoplastic material such as polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, and the like. Stem typically has a proximal end 9 and a distal end 10. Proximal end 9 is attached to a cap or similar closure, which will be further described herein. Stem is most preferably molded using standard plastic molding techniques well known to those skilled in the art. Fiber tufts are implanted in the stem in a variety of ways.
For example, In the manufacture of the stem 1, it may be desired to mold small depressions or holes 2 in the stem surface to facilitate implanting of fiber tufts 3 as depicted in FIG. 1B.
FIG. 1C illustrates how fiber tufts 3 may be embedded into stem.
FIG. 1C(i) depicts what is commonly referred to as an anchor set. In an anchor set the tufts 3 are secured into stem 1 with an anchor 3a that is implanted perpendicularly to the tufts.
FIG. 1C(ii) depicts another way to secure the fiber tufts 3 into stem 1. In this method a staple 4 is used.
FIG. 1D illustrates another method for attaching fiber tufts 3 to holes 2 in stem 1. In this case the fiber tufts 3 are secured to a U-shaped attachment 5 into which a thermoplastic material 6 has been impregnated into the inner surface 7 of the U-shaped attachment 5. When the fiber tufts 3 are inserted into holes 2 in stem 1, the area of the U-shaped attachment 5 is heated so that the thermoplastic material 6 becomes molten. If desired the stem 1 may also be heated to cause it to become softened. The heated fiber tufts 3 are inserted into holes 2 in stem 1 and when they cool to room temperature they secure fiber tufts 3 into stem 1. U-shaped attachment 5 may be made of thermoplastic material or light metal. The securing of fiber tufts 3 into stem 1 is generally more effective when the U-shaped attachment 5 is embedded in hole 2 and has a generally larger circumference than hole 2 such that it forms an expanding plug that completely fills hole 2. This prevents fiber tufts 3 from being removed from holes 2 too easily.
FIG. 1E depicts a stem where fiber tufts 3 have been implanted in rows 8 in holes 2 of stem 1.
U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,425,084 and 3,980,676, both hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety, illustrate various suitable methods by which fiber tufts 3 may be implanted into stem 1.
There are many different designs suitable for stem 1. For example, stem 1 may be in a cylindrical form as depicted in FIG. 1A.
FIG. 1F illustrates a truncated view of a type of stem 1 where the stem is generally triangular 10 in cross section with rows 11 of implanted fiber tufts 3 on the upper side 12 of stem but not the lower side 13.
FIG. 1G illustrates another truncated view of a type of stem 1 where fiber tufts 3 are implanted along the top surface 14 and bottom surface 15 of stem 1 leaving the remaining section of stem open.
FIG. 1H illustrates a side cross-section of a stem 1 having fiber tufts 3 implanted in rows, and where the stem 1 is in a generally triangular cross-section 16 with a half-circle cut out 17.
FIG. 1I illustrates a side cross-section of a stem 1 having fiber tufts of variable lengths embedded in the stem 1.
FIG. 1J illustrates a plan view of a stem 1 having both fiber tufts 3 and combs or similar molded elements to provide a mascara applicator having both tufts for applying mascara and comb elements for distributing the mascara.
A variety of stem and fiber implantation designs are suitable, depending on the type of fiber, the amount of mascara desired to be applied, the type of wiper and container used, and so on.
2. The Fibers
A variety of different fibers may be used to make the fiber tufts 3 that are implanted in stem 1. Suitable fibers include synthetic fibers such as nylon, polyethylene, polypropylene, and the like. Also suitable are natural fibers such as goat hair, horse hair, boar hairs, and the like
Typically the fibers used to make fiber tufts may have a variety of cross-sectional shapes such as round solid, round hollow, seahorse, quadrilobal, trilobal, sinusoidal, parallelogram, square, spiked, jagged, triangular, horseshoe, peaked, and so on, including but not limited to those depicted in FIG. 2.
The fibers used may be of various cross sectional diameters ranging from about 2 to 25 mils, preferably from about 3 to 15 mils, more preferably from about 3 to 10 mils.
The number of fibers that may be used in each tuft ranges, depending on the type of fiber and the desired density. Fiber tufts may contain anywhere from 2 to 200, preferably from 5 to 100 fibers per tuft.
Tufted brush 1(a) may be made from just one type of fiber or from many different types of fibers. It may be desirable to have tufts forming one row that have a certain fiber density and composition, e.g. 4 mil round solid fibers, and another row that has 5 mil round hollow fibers and so on. Alternatively, tufts themselves may be made from any variety of mixed fibers. For example, one tuft may comprise a mixture 4 mil round solid fibers and 4 mil round hollow fibers; or a mixture of three or more different types of fibers. The tufts may be arranged on the stem 1 distal end 10 in straight rows or in alternating rows. Tufts may form any pattern along stem provided the brush configuration applies the mascara in the desired manner.
The tufted brush 1(a) forms part of a mascara container, the various parts of which are depicted in FIG. 3.
Mascara container 18 generally comprises a vial 19 for storing the mascara composition, which will be further described herein. While vial 19 is a suitable storage medium, other types of storage receptacles may be suitable including jars, pots, and the like. Preferably, however, the vial 19 as depicted in FIG. 3A is the preferred storage receptacle for mascara compositions. This is because the vial easily accommodates the mascara applicator, often referred to as a cap/rod/brush assembly, or in the case of this invention the cap/stem/brush assembly.
Vial 19 may be solid and non-deformable. It is possible for vial 19 to be deformable entirely or having one or more portions of vial 19 that are deformable. The term “deformable” means that the vial can be compressed by squeezing with the fingers. The term “nondeformable” means that the vial is solid and non-compressible when squeezed with the fingers.
The preferred vial 19 is generally cylindrical 20 and nondeformable. Vial is preferably made from a thermoplastic material that is compatible with the mascara formula stored in the vial. Such thermoplastic materials include polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, and the like. Preferred is where vial 19 is made of polyethylene or polypropylene.
The vial 19 is generally closed with a cap 21, to which is attached stem 1, specifically the proximal 9 end of stem 1, with the distal end 10 of stem 1 remaining free. Cap 21 may have threads or similar engagements on the inner surface thereof (not shown) that facilitate securing the cap 21 to the vial 19 when the mascara product 1(a) is not in use. Cap 21 is removable from vial 19 when the user desires to apply mascara to the lashes. Preferably cap 21 is a screw cap, meaning that it has screw threads 22A that mate with corresponding screw threads 22 found on the neck 23 of vial 19.
FIG. 3C depicts the cap 21 affixed to vial 19 and showing via broken lines the stem 1 and tufted brush 1(a) as found therein.
FIG. 3D depicts a cross-sectional view of vial 19, cap 21, stem 1, and tufted brush 1(a) when the cap 21 is secured to vial 19. Stem 1 is secured to inner surface 23 of cap 21. Screw threads 22A on cap 21 inner surface 23 to facilitate securing the cap 21 to the vial 19. Tufted brush 1(a) is found at the distal end 10 of stem 1, immersed in the mascara composition 24.
When the user desires to use mascara, the cap 21 is removed and mascara applied to lashes with tufted brush 1(a).
The mascara suitable for use with the tufted brush and container of the invention may be anhydrous or in an emulsion form. The term “emulsion” means a water-in-oil or oil-in-water emulsion. The mascara composition for use in the packaged product of the invention comprises at least one substantive film forming polymer and at least one vaporization agent that causes the mascara to set when applied to the lashes in an appropriate period of time. The various ingredients of the mascara formula for use in the packaged product of the invention include those set forth herein.
In the event the mascara composition is in the emulsion form, the composition preferably contains from about 0.1-99%, preferably from about 0.5-95%, more preferably from about 5 1-90% by weight of the total composition of water.
If in the emulsion form, suitable emulsions include water-in-oil where water is the dispersed phase in a continuous oil phase. More commonly used are oil-in-water emulsions were water forms the continuous phase and oily droplets are dispersed therein.
B. Substantive Polymer
The mascara composition of the invention contains at least one, or more than one, substantive film forming polymer The polymer must be capable of forming a substantive film on the lashes, either by itself or in combination with other ingredients such as waxes or similar thickening agents. Suitable substantive film forming polymers may be oil soluble, water soluble, water dispersible, and the like. In the case where the mascara composition is in the emulsion form the substantive film forming polymer may include a solution or dispersion of film forming particles in the water phase. Such substantive film forming polymers may also be found in the oil phase of the emulsion, or if the mascara is in the anhydrous form, in the oily phase of the anhydrous product.
The composition preferably comprises 0.1-50%, preferably 0.5-30%, more preferably 1-25% by weight of the total composition of one or more film forming polymers. The film forming polymer (or film former) may be soluble or dispersible in a liquid carrier, or in the particulate form. The term “soluble” means that the film forming polymer is soluble in the liquid vehicle and when combined both components form a homogeneous single phase. The term “dispersible” means that the film forming polymer is readily dispersed in the liquid vehicle and forms a stable, heterogeneous composition where the dispersed polymer remains stable and suspended in a liquid vehicle and is compatible therewith (without settling out, for example).
The substantive film forming polymer also has adhesive properties, meaning that when incorporated into the composition and applied to the lashes, the film forming polymer forms a film or a weld on the lashes. Such a film will have adhesive and cohesive strength, as is understood by those skilled in the art.
A variety of film forming polymers may be suitable so long as they are soluble or dispersible in, and compatible with, the other ingredients in the composition and are capable of forming a substantive film on the lashes. Such polymers may be natural or synthetic and are further described below.
1. Copolymers of Silicone and Ethylenically Unsaturated Monomers
One type of substantive film forming polymer that may be used in the compositions of the invention is obtained by reacting silicone moieties with ethylenically unsaturated monomers. The resulting copolymers may be graft or block copolymers. The term “graft copolymer” is familiar to one of ordinary skill in polymer science and is used herein to describe the copolymers which result by adding or “grafting” polymeric side chain moieties (i.e. “grafts”) onto another polymeric moiety referred to as the “backbone”. The backbone may have a higher molecular weight than the grafts. Thus, graft copolymers can be described as polymers having pendant polymeric side chains, and which are formed from the “grafting” or incorporation of polymeric side chains onto or into a polymer backbone. The polymer backbone can be a homopolymer or a copolymer. The graft copolymers are derived from a variety of monomer units.
One type of polymer that may be used as the film forming polymer is a vinyl-silicone graft or block copolymer having the formula:
wherein G5 represents monovalent moieties which can independently be the same or different selected from the group consisting of alkyl, aryl, aralkyl, alkoxy, alkylamino, fluoroalkyl, hydrogen, and -ZSA; A represents a vinyl polymeric segment consisting essentially of a polymerized free radically polymerizable monomer, and Z is a divalent linking group such as C1-10 alkylene, aralkylene, arylene, and alkoxylalkylene, most preferably Z methylene or propylene.
G6 is a monovalent moiety, which can independently be the same or different selected from the group consisting of alkyl, aryl, aralkyl, alkoxy, alkylamino, fluoroalkyl, hydrogen, and -ZSA;
G2 comprises A;
G4 comprises A;
R1 is a monovalent moiety which can independently be the same or different and is selected from the group consisting of alkyl, aryl, aralkyl, alkoxy, alkylamino, fluoroalkyl, hydrogen, and hydroxyl; but preferably C1-4 alkyl or hydroxyl, and most preferably methyl.
R2 is independently the same or different and is a divalent linking group such as C1-10 alkylene, arylene, aralkylene, and alkoxyalkylene, preferably C1-3 alkylene or C7-10 aralkylene, and most preferably —CH2— or 1,3-propylene, and
R3 is a monovalent moiety, which is independently alkyl aryl, aralkyl, alkoxy, alkylamino, fluoroalkyl, hydrogen, or hydroxyl, preferably C4 alkyl or hydroxyl, most preferably methyl;
R4 is independently the same or different and is a divalent linking group such as C1-10 alkylene, arylene, aralkylene, alkoxyalkylene, but preferably C1-3 alkylene and C7-10 alkarylene, most preferably —CH2— or 1,3-propylene.
x is an integer of 0-3;
y is an integer of 5 or greater; preferably 10 to 270, and more preferably 40-270; and
q is an integer of 0-3.
These polymers are described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,468,477, hereby incorporated by reference. Most preferred is poly(dimethylsiloxane)-g-poly(isobutyl methaerylate), which is manufactured by 3-M Company under the tradename VS 70 IBM. This polymer may be purchased in the dry particulate form, or as a solution where the polymer is dissolved in one or more solvents such as isododecane. One type of such a polymer has the CTFA name Polysilicone-6.
Another type of such a polymer comprises a vinyl, methacrylic, or acrylic backbone with pendant siloxane groups and pendant fluorochemical groups Such polymers preferably comprise comprise repeating A, C, D and optionally B monomers wherein:
A is at least one free radically polymerizable acrylic or methacrylic ester of a 1,1,-dihydroperfluoroalkanol or analog thereof, omega-hydridofluoroalkanols, fluoroalkylsulfonamido alcohols, cyclic fluoroalkyl alcohols, and fluoroether alcohols,
B is at least one reinforcing monomer copolymerizable with A,
C is a monomer having the general formula X(Y)nSi(R)3-mZ.m wherein
X is a vinyl group copolymerizable with the A and B monomers,
Y is a divalent linking group which is alkylene, arylene, alkarylene, and aralkylene of 1 to 30 carbon atoms which may incorporate ester, amide, urethane, or urea groups,
n is zero or 1;
m is an integer of from 1 to 3,
R is hydrogen, C1-4 alkyl, aryl, or alkoxy,
Z is a monovalent siloxane polymeric moiety; and
D is at least one free radically polymerizable acrylate or methacrylate copolymer.
Such polymers and their manufacture are disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,209,924 and 4,972,037, which are hereby incorporated by reference. More specifically, the preferred polymer is a combination of A, C, and D monomers wherein A is a polymerizable acrylic or methacrylic ester of a fluoroalkylsulfonamido alcohol, and where D is a methacrylic acid ester of a C1-2 straight or branched chain alcohol, and C is as defined above. Most preferred is a polymer having moieties of the general formula:
has the general formula:
wherein each of a, b, and c has a value in the range of 1-100,000, and the terminal groups are selected from the group consisting of a C1-20 straight or branched chain alkyl, aryl, and alkoxy and the like. These polymers may be purchased from Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company under the tradenames “Silicone Plus” polymers One type of such polymer is poly(isobutyl methacrylate-co-methyl FOSEA)-g-poly(dimethylsiloxane) which is sold under the tradename SA 70-5 IBMMF.
Another suitable silicone acrylate copolymer is a polymer having a vinyl, methacrylic, or acrylic polymeric backbone with pendant siloxane groups. Such polymers as disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,693,935, 4,981,903, 4,981,902, and which are hereby incorporated by reference. Preferably, these polymers are comprised of A, C, and optionally B monomers wherein:
A is at least on free radically polymerizable vinyl, methacrylate, or acrylate monomer;
B, when present, is at least one reinforcing monomer copolymerizable with A,
C is a monomer having the general formula:
X is a vinyl group copolymerizable with the A and B monomers;
Y is a divalent linking group;
n is zero or 1;
m is an integer of from 1 to 3;
R is hydrogen, C1-10 alkyl substituted or unsubstituted phenyl, C1-10 alkoxy; and
Z is a monovalent siloxane polymeric moiety.
Examples of A monomers are lower to intermediate methacrylic acid esters of C1-12 straight or branched chain alcohols, styrene, vinyl esters, vinyl chloride, vinylidene chloride, acryloyl monomers, and so on.
The B monomer, if present, is a polar acrylic or methacrylic monomer having at least one hydroxyl, amino, or ionic group (such as quaternary ammonium, carboxylate salt, sulfonic acid salt, and so on).
The C monomer is as above defined.
Examples of other suitable copolymers that may be used herein, and their method of manufacture, are described in detail in U.S. Pat. No. 4,693,935, Mazurek, U.S. Pat. No. 4,728,571, and Clemens et al., both of which are incorporated herein by reference. Additional grafted polymers are also disclosed in EPO Application 90307528.1, published as EPO Application 0 408 311, U.S. Pat. No. 5,061,481, Suzuki et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,106,609, Bolich et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,100,658, Bolich et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,100,657, Ansher-Jackson, et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,104,646, Bolich et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,618,524, issued Apr. 8, 1997, all of which are incorporated by reference herein in their entirety.
2. Polymers from Ethylenically Unsaturated Monomers
Also suitable for use as film forming polymers are polymers made by polymerizing one or more ethylenically unsaturated monomers. The final polymer may be a homopolymer, copolymer, terpolymer, or graft or block copolymer, and may contain monomeric units such as acrylic acid, methacrylic acid or their simple esters, styrene, ethylenically unsaturated monomer units such as ethylene, propylene, butylene, etc., vinyl monomers such as vinyl chloride, styrene, and so on.
Preferred are polymers containing one or more monomers which are esters of acrylic acid or methacrylic acid, including aliphatic esters of methacrylic acid like those obtained with the esterification of methacrylic acid or acrylic acid with an aliphatic alcohol of 1 to 30, preferably 2 to 20, more preferably 2 to 8 carbon atoms. If desired, the aliphatic alcohol may have one or more hydroxy groups. Also suitable are methacrylic acid or acrylic acid esters esterified with moieties containing alicyclic or bicyclic rings such as cyclohexyl or isobornyl, for example.
The ethylenically unsaturated monomer may be mono-, di-, tri-, or polyfunctional as regards the addition-polymerizable ethylenic bonds. A variety of ethylenically unsaturated monomers are suitable.
Examples of suitable monofunctional ethylenically unsaturated monomers include those of the formula:
wherein R1 is H, a C1-30 straight or branched chain alkyl, aryl, aralkyl; R2 is a pyrrolidone, a C1-30 straight or branched chain alkyl, or a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic, alicyclic, or bicyclic ring where the substitutents are C1-30 straight or branched chain alkyl, or COOM wherein M is H, a C1-30 straight or branched chain alkyl, pyrrolidone, or a substituted or unsubstituted aromatic, alicylic, or bicyclic ring where the substitutents are C1-30 straight or branched chain alkyl which may be substituted with one or more hydroxyl groups, or [(CH2)mO]H wherein m is 1-20, and n is 1-200.
Preferably, the monofunctional ethylenically unsaturated monomer is of Formula I, above, wherein R1 is H or a C1-30 alkyl, and R2 is COOM wherein M is a C1-30 straight or branched chain alkyl which may be substituted with one or more hydroxy groups.
More preferably, R1 is H or CH3, and R2 is COOM wherein M is a C1-10 straight or branched chain alkyl, which may be substituted with one or more hydroxy groups. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, the monofunctional ethylenically unsaturated monomer is a mixture of monomers of Formula I where in one monomer R1 is H or CH3 and R2 is COOM where M is a C1-10 alkyl, and where in the second monomer R1 is H or CH3, and R2 is COOM where M is a C1-10 alkyl substituted with one or more hydroxy groups.
Di-, tri- and polyfunctional monomers, as well as oligomers, of the above monofunctional monomers may also be used in the composition. Suitable difunctional monomers include those having the general formula:
wherein R3 and R4 are each independently H, a C1-30 straight or branched chain alkyl, aryl, or aralkyl; and X is [(CH2)xOy]z wherein x is 1-20, and y is 1-20, and z is 1-100. Particularly preferred are difunctional acrylates and methacrylates, such as the compound of formula II above wherein R3 and R4 are CH3 and X is [(CH2)xOy]z wherein x is 1-4; and y is 1-6; and z is 1-10.
Particularly preferred are difunctional acrylates and methacrylates, such as the compound of formula II above wherein R3 and R4 are CH3 and X is [(CH2)xOy]z wherein x is 2; and y is 1, and z is 4. The polymerizable compositions preferably contain 0.1-25%, preferably 0.5-20%, more preferably 1-15% by weight of a difunctional monomer. Particularly preferred is where the difunctional monomer is an ethylene glycol dimethacrylate. Most preferred is where the difunctional monomer is tetraethylene glycol dimethacrylate.
Trifunctional and polyfunctional monomers are also suitable for use in the polymerizable monomer compositions of the invention. Examples of such monomers include acrylates and methacrylates such as trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate or trimethylolpropane triacrylate.
The polymers used in the compositions of the invention can be prepared by conventional free radical polymerization techniques in which the monomer, solvent, and polymerization initiator are charged over a 1-24 hour period of time, preferably 2-8 hours, into a conventional polymerization reactor in which the constituents are heated to about 60-175° C., preferably 80-100° C. The polymers may also be made by emulsion polymerization or suspension polymerization using conventional techniques. Also anionic polymerization or Group Transfer Polymerization (GTP) is another method by which the copolymers used in the invention may be made. GTP is well known in the art and disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,414,372; 4,417,034; 4,508,880; 4,524,196; 4,581,428; 4,588,795; 4,598,161; 4,605,716; 4,605,716; 4,622,372; 4,656,233; 4,711,942; 4,681,918; and 4,822,859; all of which are hereby incorporated by reference.
One type of polymer of Formula I, above, may be cyclized, in particular, cycloalkylacrylate polymers or copolymers having the following general formulas:
wherein R1, R2, R3, and R4 are as defined above. Typically such polymers are referred to as cycloalkylacrylate polymers. Such polymers are sold by Phoenix Chemical, Inc. under the tradename Giovarez AC-5099M. Giovarez has the chemical name isododecane acrylates copolymer and the polymer is solubilized in isododecane.
3. Silicone Polymers
Also suitable as the substantive film forming polymers are various types of high molecular weight silicone polymers such as silicone gums, resins, and the like.
Suitable silicone resins include siloxy silicate polymers having the following general formula:
wherein R, R′ and R″ are each independently a C1-10 straight or branched chain alkyl or phenyl, and x and y are such that the ratio of (RR′R″)3SiO3/units to SiO2 units is 0.5 to 1 to 1.5 to 1.
Preferably R, R′ and R″ are a C1-6 alkyl, and more preferably are methyl and x and y are such that the ratio of (CH3)3SiO1/2 units to SiO2 units is 0.75 to 1. Most preferred is this trimethylsiloxy silicate containing 2.4 to 2.9 weight percent hydroxyl groups, which is formed by the reaction of the sodium salt of silicic acid, chlorotrimethylsilane, and isopropyl alcohol. The manufacture of trimethylsiloxy silicate is set forth in U.S. Pat. Nos. 2,676,182; 3,541,205; and 3,836,437, all of which are hereby incorporated by reference. Trimethylsiloxy silicate as described is available from Dow Corning Corporation under the tradename Dow Corning 749 Fluid, which is a blend of about 40-60% volatile silicone and 40-60% trimethylsiloxy silicate. Dow Corning 749 Fluid, in particular, is a fluid containing about 50% trimethylsiloxy silicate and about 50% cyclomethicone. The fluid has a viscosity of 200-700 centipoise at 25° C., a specific gravity of 1.00 to 1.10 at 25° C., and a refractive index of 1.40-1.41. A similar siloxysilicate resin is available from GE Silicones under the tradename SR1000 and is a fine particulate solid material.
Another type of silicone resin suitable for use as the substantive film forming polymer comprises the silicone esters set forth in U.S. Pat. No. 5,725,845, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.
Other polymers that are suitable as the substantive film forming polymer include silicone esters comprising units of the general formula RaREbSiO[4-(a+b)/2] or R13xREySiO1/2 wherein R and R13 are each independently an organic radical such as alkyl, cycloalkyl, or aryl, or, for example, methyl, ethyl, propyl, hexyl, octyl, decyl, aryl, cyclohexyl, and the like, a is a number ranging from 0 to 3, b is a number ranging from 0 to 3, a+b is a number ranging from 1 to 3, x is a number from 0 to 3, y is a number from 0 to 3 and the sum of x+y is 3, and wherein RE is a carboxylic ester containing radical. Preferred RE radicals are those wherein the ester group is formed of one or more fatty acid moieties (e.g. of about 2, often about 3 to 10 carbon atoms) and one or more aliphatic alcohol moieties (e.g. of about 10 to 30 carbon atoms). Examples of such acid moieties include those derived from branched-chain fatty acids such as isostearic, or straight chain fatty acids such as behenic. Examples of suitable alcohol moieties include those derived from monohydric or polyhydric alcohols, e.g. normal alkanols such as n-propanol and branched-chain etheralkanols such as (3,3,3-trimethylolpropoxy)propane. Preferably the ester subgroup (i.e. the carbonyloxy radical) will be linked to the silicon atom by a divalent aliphatic chain that is at least 2 or 3 carbon atoms in length, e.g. an alkylene group or a divalent alkyl ether group. Most preferably that chain will be part of the alcohol moiety, not the acid moiety.
In one case the silicone ester will have a melting point of no higher than about 90° C., although it can be a liquid or solid at room temperature. In the case where it is a solid, it may have a waxy feel and a molecular weight of no more than about 100,000 daltons.
Silicone esters having the above formula are disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,725,658 and U.S. Pat. No. 5,334,737, both of which are hereby incorporated by reference. Preferred silicone esters are the liquid siloxy silicates disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,334,737, e.g. diisostearoyl trimethylolpropane siloxysilicate (prepared in Examples 9 and 14 of this patent), and dilauroyl trimethylolpropane siloxy silicate (prepared in Example 5 of the patent), which are commercially available from General Electric under the tradenames SF 1318 and SF 1312, respectively.
Silicone gums or other types of silicone solids may be used provided they are soluble in the liquid vehicle. Examples of silicone gums include those set forth in U.S. Pat. No. 6,139,823, which is hereby incorporated by reference. Preferred gums have a 600,000 to 100,000,000 centipoise at 25° C.
Particularly preferred is where silicone gum is at least one of the substantive film forming polymers.
4. Natural Polymers
Also suitable for use as the substantive film forming polymer are one or more naturally occurring polymeric materials such as resinous plant extracts including but not limited to rosin, shellac, and the like.
C. Vaporization Agent
A necessary component of the compositions used in the package of the invention is a vaporization agent. The vaporization agent ensures that the mascara composition in the packaged product, when applied to the lashes, sets in an appropriate period of time. Specifically, to achieve a heavy lash look, the composition may contain appreciable amounts of one or more substantive film forming polymers. Such polymers can be tacky and slow drying. Yet, because of their substantivity and tendency to form appreciable films they are desirable for use in the packaged product of the invention. The vaporization agent will ensure that the mascara composition provides the maximum lash accentuation and thickening properties and at the same time dries in a period of time that provides for a commercially acceptable product. Vaporization agents include, but are not limited, to ingredients that have a certain volatility profile. Such vaporization agents may be volatile, which are generally defined as having a vapor pressure of at less than about 2 mm. of mercury at 20° C. Vaporization agents may also be near volatile, which means that they have a vapor pressure in the range of about 1 to 2 mm, of mercury at 20° C. Also suitable are ingredients that are non-volatile but have fairly low viscosities, for example ranging from about 8 to 200 centipoise at 25° C. Examples of suitable vaporization agents include, but are not limited to those set forth herein.
A. Volatile or Near Volatile Silicones
Suitable volatile silicones include linear or cyclic volatile silicones having from about 2 to 8, preferably from about 2 to 6 repeating siloxy units. Volatile silicones that may be used in the composition are linear or cyclic. Suitable cyclic volatile silicones have the general formula:
Examples of such cyclic volatile silicones include hexamethylcyclodisiloxane, octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane, decamethylcyclopentasiloxane, dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane, and so on.
Preferred linear volatile silicones that may be used have the general formula:
wherein n is from 0 to 10.
Examples of such silicones include hexamethyldisiloxane (generally having a viscosity of about 0.65 centipoise), octamethyltrisiloxane (generally having a viscosity of about 1.0 centipoise), decamethyltetrasiloxane (generally having a viscosity of about 1.5 centipoise), dodecamethylpentasiloxane (generally having a viscosity of about 2.0 centipoise), and the like, with all viscosity measurements given for room temperature (25° C.). It is noted that centipoise=centistokes×specific gravity (density). As the density of such linear and cyclic volatile silicones is close to 1, then the values for both centipoises and centistokes will be essentially the same.
Linear and cyclic volatile silicones are available from various commercial sources including Dow Corning Corporation, GE Silicones, Shin-Etsu, Goldschmidt, and Wacker. Examples of suitable Dow Corning volatile silicones are those sold under the tradenames Dow Corning 244, 245, 344, and 200 fluids. Suitable volatile silicones sold by GE Silicones include SF1214, SF1528, SFE839, and the like.
B. Volatile, Near Volatile or Non-Volatile Paraffinic Hydrocarbons
Suitable volatile paraffinic hydrocarbons include those having straight or branched chains having about 5 to 18 carbon atoms, more preferably about 8-18 carbon atoms. Examples include pentane, hexane, heptane, decane, dodecane, tetradecane, tridecane, and C8-20 isoparaffins as disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,439,088 and 3,818,105, both of which are hereby incorporated by reference. Preferred volatile paraffinic hydrocarbons have a molecular weight of about 70-225, preferably about 160 to 190 and a boiling point range of about 30 to 320, preferably 60-260° C., and a viscosity of less than about 10 centipoise at 25° C. Such paraffinic hydrocarbons are available from EXXON under the ISOPARS trademark, and from the Permethyl Corporation. Suitable C12 isoparaffins are manufactured by Permethyl Corporation under the tradename Permethyl 99A. Another C12 isoparaffin (isododecane) is distributed by Presperse under the tradename Permethyl 99A. Various C16 isoparaffins commercially available, such as sohexadecane (having the tradename Permethyl R), are also suitable.
It may be desired to include one or more near volatile or non-volatile paraffinic hydrocarbons in the composition. Examples of such hydrocarbons include straight or branched chain hydrocarbons having from 18 to 40 carbon atoms such as heneicosane, docosane, n-octadecane, nonadecane, eicosane, tetracosane, pentacosane, hexacosane, heptacosane, octacosane, dotriacontane, tritriacontane, hexatriacontane, hydrogenated polyisobutene, mineral oil, pentahydrosqualene, squalene, squalane, and so on.
C. Low Viscosity Oils
Also suitable as the vaporization agent are various types of low viscosity oils, e.g those having viscosities ranging from about 8 to 200 centipoise at 25° C.
Suitable monoesters are generally formed by the reaction of a monocarboxylic acid and an aliphatic alcohol that may be substituted with one or more substituents such as hydroxyl, alkyl, or alkoxy groups. Such esters preferably have the formula R-COOH wherein R is a C1-45 straight or branched chain, saturated or unsaturated alkyl, alkoxy, C1-30 alkoxy alkyl, and the like, any of which such mentioned substituents may be substituted with hydroxyl, C1-30 alkyl, or C1-30 alkoxy groups. Examples of such monoesters include monoesters of fatty acids having from 6 to 30 carbon atoms, such as stearic acid, malic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, behenic acid, palmitic acid, myristic acid, and so on. Further examples of monoesters include isostearyl malate, isopropyl palmitate, stearyl stearate, isopropyl malate, hexyl laurate, cetyl isononanoate, butyl oleate, cetyl palmitate, hexadecyl octanoate, and so on.
Suitable diesters that may be used as vaporization agents include those that are the reaction product of a dicarboxylic acid and an aliphatic or aromatic alcohol, or alternatively, the reaction product of a monocarboxylic acid and an aliphatic or aromatic alcohol having at least two hydroxyl groups and have viscosities within the range of about 8 to 200. The dicarboxylic acid or the alcohol may contain from 2 to 45 carbon atoms, and may be in the straight or branched chain, saturated or unsaturated form. In the case where the ester is formed from a dicarboxylic acid, it may be substituted with one or more hydroxyl groups. The aliphatic or aromatic alcohol may also contain from 2 to 30 carbon atoms, and may be in the straight or branched chain, saturated, or unsaturated form. The aliphatic or aromatic alcohol may also be substituted with one or more substituents such as hydroxyl. Preferably, one or more of the acid or alcohol is a fatty acid or alcohol, i.e. contains 14-22 carbon atoms. The dicarboxylic acid may also be an alpha hydroxy acid. Examples of diester oils that may be used in the compositions of the invention include diisostearyl malate, neopentyl glycol dioctanoate, dibutyl sebacate, di-C12-13 alkyl malate, dicetearyl dimer dilinoleate, dicetyl adipate, diisocetyl adipate, diisononyl adipate, diisostearyl adipate, disostearyl furmarate, and so on.
Suitable triesters that may be used as vaporization agents include those that are the reaction product of a tricarboxylic acid and an aliphatic or aromatic alcohol, or the reaction product of a mono- or dicarboxylic acid and an aliphatic alcohol having two, three, or more substituted hydroxyl groups. As with the mono- and diesters mentioned above, either the acid or the alcohol or both may contain from about 2 to 30 carbon atoms, and may be saturated or unsaturated, straight or branched chain, and may be substituted with one or more hydroxyl groups. Preferably, one or more of the acid or alcohol is a fatty acid or alcohol containing from about 6 to 30, preferably from about 14 to 22 carbon atoms. Examples of triesters include triarachidin, tributyl citrate, tri C12-13 alkyl citrate, tricaprylin, tricaprylyl citrate, tridecyl behenate, trioctyldodecyl citrate, tridecyl behenate, tridecyl cocoate, tridecyl isononanoate, triisostearyl citrate, and so on.
The composition used in the package of the invention comprises particulates, which include both pigments and powders. The term “powder” refers to white particulates (such as titanium dioxide) or non-pigmented particulates (such as boron nitride, nylon, etc.), that are used for muting color or providing certain special effects in the mascara composition. Suggested ranges of pigment are from about 0.001-90%, preferably from about 0.005-85%, more preferably from about 0.01-75% by weight of the total composition. Suggested ranges of powders, if present, are from about 0.001-90%, preferably from about 0.005-80%, more preferably from about 0.01-70% by weight of the total composition.
Suitable pigments include inorganic or organic pigments. The organic pigments are generally various aromatic types including azo, indigoid, triphenylmethane, anthraquinone, and xanthine dyes which are designated as D&C and FD&C blues, browns, greens, oranges, reds, yellows, etc. Organic pigments also generally consist of insoluble metallic salts of certified color additives, referred to as the Lakes.
Inorganic pigments include iron oxides such as red, black, yellow and the like; ultramarines, chromium, chromium hydroxide colors, and mixtures thereof.
Suitable powders include non-pigmentatious powders. Suitable non-pigmentatious powders include bismuth oxychloride, titanated mica, fumed silica, spherical silica, polymethylmethacrylate, micronized teflon, boron nitride, acrylate copolymers, aluminum silicate, aluminum starch octenylsuccinate, bentonite, calcium silicate, cellulose, chalk, corn starch, diatomaceous earth, fuller's earth, glyceryl starch, hectorite, hydrated silica, kaolin, magnesium aluminum silicate, magnesium trisilicate, maltodextrin, montmorillonite, microcrystalline cellulose, rice starch, silica, talc, mica, titanium dioxide, zinc laurate, zinc myristate, zinc rosinate, alumina, attapulgite, calcium carbonate, calcium silicate, dextran, kaolin, nylon, silica silylate, silk powder, sericite, soy flour, tin oxide, titanium hydroxide, trimagnesium phosphate, walnut shell powder, or mixtures thereof. The above mentioned powders may be surface treated with lecithin, amino acids, mineral oil, silicone, or various other agents either alone or in combination, which coat the powder surface and render the particles more lipophilic in nature.
The composition may contain one or more surfactants that assist in providing a stable emulsion. Such surfactants are preferably non-ionic and may be silicone or organic.
1. Silicone Surfactants
Preferred nonionic silicone surfactants include those having at least one hydrophilic radical and at least one lipophilic radical. These silicone surfactants may be a liquid or solid at room temperature and are water-in-oil or oil-in-water type surfactants that have a
Hydrophile/Lipophile Balance (HLB) of about 2 to 18. Preferably the silicone surfactant is a nonionic surfactant having an HLB of about 2 to 12, preferably about 2 to 10, most preferably about 4 to 6. The HLB of a nonionic surfactant is the balance between the hydrophilic and lipophilic portions of the surfactant and is calculated according to the following formula:
where Mw is the molecular weight of the hydrophilic group portion and Mo is the molecular weight of the lipophilic group portion.
The polymeric silicone surfactant used in the composition may have any of the following general formulas:
each M is independently a substituted or unsubstituted trimethylsiloxy endcap unit. If substituted, one or more of the hydrogens on the endcap methyl groups are substituted, or one or more methyl groups are substituted with a substituent that is a lipophilic radical, a hydrophilic radical, or mixtures thereof;
T is a trifunctional siloxy unit having the empirical formula R′SiO1.5 or RSiO1.5 wherein R is methyl and R′ is a C2-22 alkyl or phenyl.
Q is a quadrifunctional siloxy unit having the empirical formula SiO4/2; and
D, D′, D″, x, y, and z are as set forth below, with the proviso that the compound contains at least one hydrophilic radical and at least one lipophilic radical. Preferred is a linear silicone of the formula:
x, y, and z are each independently 0-1000,
where R is methyl or hydrogen, and R′ is a hydrophilic radical or a lipophilic radical, with the proviso that the compound contains at least one hydrophilic radical and at least one lipophilic radical
D′=Si[(CH3)][(CH2)nCH3]O2/2 where n=0-40,
D″=Si[(CH3)][(CH2)o—O—PE)]O2/2 where PE is (—C2H4O)a(—C3H6O)bH, o 0-40,
a 1-100 and b=1-100, and
More specifically, suitable silicone surfactants have the formula:
wherein n is 0-40, preferably 12-18, most preferably 14; and
PE is (—C2H4O)a(—C3H6O)b—H
where x, y, z, a, and b are such that the maximum molecular weight of the polymer is approximately 50,000. An example of such a silicone surfactant is where n=14, having the C.T.F.A. name cetyl dimethicone copolyol. Cetyl dimethicone copolyol may be referred to more specifically by enumerating the number of repeating ethylene oxide and propylene oxide units in the polymer. For example, a particularly suitable cetyl dimethicone copolyol for use in the invention is cetyl PEG/PPG-10/1 dimethicone having 10 PEG units for every 1 PPG unit.
Another type of silicone surfactant that may be used in the compositions of the invention are emulsifiers sold by Union Carbide under the Silwet™ trademark, which are referred to by the C.T.F.A. name dimethicone copolyol. One type of dimethicone copolyol may be more specifically referred to as PEG/PPG 18/18 dimethicone, which is dimethicone having 18 PEG units and 18 PPG units on the EO (ethylene oxide)/PO (propylene oxide) substituent.
Also suitable as nonionic silicone surfactants are hydroxy-substituted silicones such as dimethiconol, which is defined as a dimethyl silicone substituted with terminal hydroxy groups.
Examples of suitable silicone surfactants are those sold by Dow Corning under the tradename Dow Corning 3225C Formulation Aid, Dow Corning 190 Surfactant, Dow Corning 193 Surfactant, Dow Corning Q2-5200, and the like are also suitable. In addition, surfactants sold under the tradename Silwet by Union Carbide are also suitable. One type of silicone surfactant that may be used is dimethicone copolyol or cetyl dimethicone copolyol.
2. Organic Surfactants
The composition may contain one or more organic surfactants either in lieu of, or in combination with, the silicone surfactants mentioned above.
(a). Alkoxylated Alcohols or Ethers
Examples of nonionic organic surfactants include alkoxylated alcohols, or ethers, formed by the reaction of an alcohol with an alkylene oxide, usually ethylene or propylene oxide. Preferably the alcohol is either a fatty alcohol having 6 to 30 carbon atoms. Examples of such ingredients include Beheneth 5-30, which is formed by the reaction of behenyl alcohol and ethylene oxide where the number of repeated ethylene oxide units is 5 to 30; Steareth 2-100, formed by the reaction of stearyl alcohol and ethylene oxide where the number of repeating ethylene oxide units ranges from 2 to 100; Ceteareth 2-100, formed by the reaction of a mixture of cetyl and stearyl alcohol with ethylene oxide, where the number of repeating ethylene oxide units in the molecule is 2 to 100; Ceteth 1-45 which is formed by the reaction of cetyl alcohol and ethylene oxide, where the number of repeating ethylene oxide units is 1 to 45; laureth 1-100 formed by the reaction of lauryl alcohol and ethylene oxide where the number of repeating ethylene oxide units is 1 to 100; and so on.
Other alkoxylated alcohols are formed by the reaction of fatty acids and mono-, di- or polyhydric alcohols with an alkylene oxide. For example, the reaction products of C6-30 fatty carboxylic acids and polyhydric alcohols which are monosaccharides such as glucose, galactose, methyl glucose, and the like, with an alkoxylated alcohol, are also suitable.
(b). Alkoxylated Carboxylic Acids
Also suitable surfactants are alkyoxylated carboxylic acids, which are formed by the reaction of a carboxylic acid with an alkylene oxide or with a polymeric ether. The resulting products have the general formula:
where RCO is the carboxylic ester radical, X is hydrogen or lower C1-4 alkyl, and n is the number of polymerized alkoxy groups. In the case of the diesters, the two RCO— groups do not need to be identical. Preferably, R is a C6-30 straight or branched chain, saturated or unsaturated alkyl, and n is from 1-100.
(c). Monomeric or Polymeric Ethers
Suitable surfactants also include monomeric, homopolymeric or block copolymeric ethers. Such ethers are formed by the polymerization of monomeric alkylene oxides, generally ethylene or propylene oxide. Such polymeric ethers have the following general formula:
wherein R is H or lower C1-4 alkyl and n is the number of repeating monomer units, and ranges from 1 to 500.
(d). Sorbitan Derivatives
Other suitable nonionic surfactants include derivatives of sorbitan, for example form by the alkoxylation of sorbitan, or by the reaction of C1-25, preferably C6-20 carboxylic acids with sorbitol or hexitol anhydrides derived from sorbitol.
For example, alkoxylation, in particular, ethoxylation, of sorbitan provides polyalkoxylated sorbitan derivatives. Esterification of polyalkoxylated sorbitan provides sorbitan esters such as the polysorbates. Examples of such ingredients include Polysorbates 20-85.
Examples of sorbitan derivatives include the reaction product of sorbitol or the hexitol anhydrides thereof with fatty acids to form derivative such as sorbitan oleate, sorbitan palmitate, sorbitan sesquiisostearate, sorbitan stearate, sorbitan sesquioleate, and so on.
It may be desirable to include one or more waxes in the composition to increase viscosity, provide stability, or for other functional purposes. If present, suggested ranges of such waxes are from about 0.01-45%, preferably 0.05-35%, more preferably from about 0.1-25% by weight of the total composition. Such waxes may be solid or semi-solid at room temperature. The waxes preferably have a melting point of about 39 to 135° C., preferably in the range of 45 to 95° C., most preferably 55 to 95° C.
Suitable waxes generally include animal waxes, plant waxes, mineral waxes, silicone waxes, synthetic waxes, and petroleum waxes. More specifically, these waxes include tribehenin, bayberry, beeswax, candelilla, carnauba, ceresin, cetyl esters, hydrogenated jojoba oil, hydrogenated jojoba wax, hydrogenated microcrystalline wax, hydrogenated rice bran wax, japan wax, jojoba butter, jojoba esters, jojoba wax, lanolin wax, microcrystalline wax, mink wax, montan acid wax, montan wax, ouricury wax, ozokerite, paraffin, cetyl alcohol, beeswax, PEG-20 sorbitan beeswax, PEG-8 beeswax, rice bran wax, shellac wax, spent grain wax, sulfurized jojoba oil, synthetic beeswax, synthetic candelilla wax, synthetic carnauba wax, synthetic japan wax, synthetic jojoba oil, synthetic wax, polyethylene, stearoxy dimethicone, dimethicone behenate, stearyl dimethicone, and the like, as well synthetic homo- and copolymer waxes such as PVP/eicosene copolymer, PVP/hexadecene copolymer, and the like. Particularly preferred is where the wax is an organic wax, tribehenin.
The mascara composition may contain other ingredients such as humectants, preservatives, fibers, and the like.
A mascara composition for use in the packaged product of the invention was prepared as follows:
|Acacia Senegal gum||3.00|
|Lecithin, polysorbate 20, sorbitan||0.20|
|laurate, propylene glycol stearate, propylene|
|Hydrogenated stearyl olive ester||0.90|
The composition was prepared by combining the pigments in a portion of the oil and grinding. Separately the water phase ingredients and the oil phase ingredients were mixed. The two phases were combined and emulsified to form an oil in water emulsion,