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Title:
Non-Absorbent Articles Containing Additives for Inhibiting the Production of TSST-1
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
Non-absorbent articles, such as tampon applicators, containing an additive are disclosed. The non-absorbent articles include an effective amount of an inhibitory compound, such as thiolactomycin or thiomalonate, for example, to substantially inhibit the production of TSST-1 or exoprotein by Gram positive bacteria.


Inventors:
Syverson, Rae Ellen (Fond du Lac, WI, US)
Proctor, Richard A. (Madison, WI, US)
Application Number:
11/736430
Publication Date:
08/16/2007
Filing Date:
04/17/2007
Assignee:
KIMBERLY-CLARK WORLDWIDE, INC. (401 N. Lake Street, Neenah, WI, US)
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
514/445, 514/24
International Classes:
A61K31/7052; A61F13/15; A61K9/70; A61K31/12; A61K31/335; A61K31/381; A61K31/407; A61K31/60; A61K31/655; A61L15/46
View Patent Images:
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
SENNIGER POWERS (KCC) (ONE METROPOLITAN SQUARE, 16TH FLOOR, ST LOUIS, MO, 63102, US)
Claims:
What is claimed is:

1. A tampon applicator comprising a non-absorbent substrate, an effective amount of a first active ingredient and an effective amount of a second active ingredient, the first active ingredient having a general formula: embedded image wherein: R300 is, when present, selected from hydrogen and substituted or unsubstituted alkyl; R301 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a monovalent, saturated or unsaturated, substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbyl moiety, and when R300 is not present, a substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbenyl moiety; R302 is selected from hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl; and, R303 is selected from hydrogen, hydroxy, and alkoxy, the second active ingredient having a general formula:
R10—O—R11 (IV) wherein R10 is a straight or branched alkyl or straight or branched alkenyl having from 8 to about 18 carbon atoms and R11 is selected from the group consisting of an alcohol, a polyalkoxylated sulfate salt and a polyalkoxylated sulfosuccinate salt, and wherein the first active ingredient and the second active ingredient are effective in substantially inhibiting the production of TSST-1 from Gram positive bacteria.

2. The tampon applicator as set forth in claim 1 wherein the first active ingredient is thiolactomycin.

3. The tampon applicator as set forth in claim 1 wherein the first active ingredient is present in an amount of from about 0.05 micromoles/gram of non-absorbent substrate to about 5 micromoles/gram of non-absorbent substrate, and the second active ingredient is present in an amount of at least about 0.1 micromoles per gram of non-absorbent substrate.

4. The tampon applicator as set forth in claim 1 wherein R10 is a straight or branched alkyl group.

5. The tampon applicator as set forth in claim 1 wherein R10 is a straight or branched alkenyl group.

6. The tampon applicator as set forth in claim 1 wherein R10 is obtained from the group consisting of caprylic acid, capric acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid.

7. The tampon applicator as set forth in claim 1 wherein R11 is an aliphatic alcohol.

8. The tampon applicator as set forth in claim 7 wherein R11 is an aliphatic alcohol selected from the group consisting of glycerol, glycol, sucrose, glucose, sorbitol, and sorbitan.

9. The tampon applicator as set forth in claim 1 wherein the second active ingredient is selected from the group consisting of laureth-3, laureth-4, laureth-5, PPG-5 lauryl ether, 1-0-dodecyl-rac-glycerol, sodium laureth sulfate, potassium laureth sulfate, disodium laureth (3) sulfosuccinate, dipotassium laureth (3) sulfosuccinate and polyethylene oxide (2) sorbitol ether.

10. The tampon applicator as set forth in claim 1 wherein the first active ingredient and the second active ingredient are effective in substantially inhibiting the production of TSST-1 from Staphylococcus aureus bacteria.

11. A non-absorbent article comprising a non-absorbent substrate, an effective amount of a first active ingredient, and an effective amount of a second active ingredient, the first active ingredient having a general formula: embedded image wherein: R300 is, when present, selected from hydrogen and substituted or unsubstituted alkyl; R301 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a monovalent, saturated or unsaturated, substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbyl moiety, and when R300 is not present, a substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbenyl moiety; R302 is selected from hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl; and, R303 is selected from hydrogen, hydroxy, and alkoxy, the second active ingredient having a general formula:
R10—O—R11 (IV) wherein R10 is a straight or branched alkyl or straight or branched alkenyl having from 8 to about 18 carbon atoms and R11 is selected from the group consisting of an alcohol, a polyalkoxylated sulfate salt and a polyalkoxylated sulfosuccinate salt, wherein the first active ingredient and the second active ingredient are effective in substantially inhibiting the production of TSST-1 from Gram positive bacteria, and wherein the non-absorbent article is selected from the group consisting of non-absorbent incontinence devices, barrier birth control devices, and douches.

12. The tampon applicator as set forth in claim 11 wherein the first active ingredient is thiolactomycin.

13. The tampon applicator as set forth in claim 11 wherein the first active ingredient is present in an amount of from about 0.05 micromoles/gram of non-absorbent substrate to about 5 micromoles/gram of non-absorbent substrate, and the second active ingredient is present in an amount of at least about 0.1 micromoles per gram of non-absorbent substrate.

14. The tampon applicator as set forth in claim 11 wherein R10 is a straight or branched alkyl group.

15. The tampon applicator as set forth in claim 11 wherein R10 is a straight or branched alkenyl group.

16. The tampon applicator as set forth in claim 11 wherein R10 is obtained from the group consisting of caprylic acid, capric acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid.

17. The tampon applicator as set forth in claim 11 wherein R11 is an aliphatic alcohol.

18. The tampon applicator as set forth in claim 17 wherein R11 is an aliphatic alcohol selected from the group consisting of glycerol, glycol, sucrose, glucose, sorbitol, and sorbitan.

19. The tampon applicator as set forth in claim 11 wherein the second active ingredient is selected from the group consisting of laureth-3, laureth-4, laureth-5, PPG-5 lauryl ether, 1-0-dodecyl-rac-glycerol, sodium laureth sulfate, potassium laureth sulfate, disodium laureth (3) sulfosuccinate, dipotassium laureth (3) sulfosuccinate and polyethylene oxide (2) sorbitol ether.

20. The tampon applicator as set forth in claim 11 wherein the first active ingredient and the second active ingredient are effective in substantially inhibiting the production of TSST-1 from Staphylococcus aureus bacteria.

Description:

REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application is a divisional application of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/271,457, filed Oct. 16, 2002, which is a patent application claiming the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 60/331,971 and Ser. No. 60/331,937, both of which were filed Nov. 21, 2001. The entire contents of these applications are incorporated herein by reference.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The present invention generally relates to inhibiting the production of toxic shock syndrome toxin one (TSST-1) by Staphylococcus aureus. More particularly, the present invention relates to inhibiting the production of TSST-1 in the presence of non-absorbent articles by incorporating certain compounds into the absorbent articles having an inhibitory effect on Gram positive bacteria and the production of TSST-1.

There exists in the female body a complex process which maintains the vagina and physiologically related areas in a healthy state. In a female between the age of menarche and menopause, the normal vagina provides an ecosystem for a variety of microorganisms. Bacteria are the predominant type of microorganism present in the vagina; most women harbor about 109 bacteria per gram of vaginal fluid. The bacterial flora of the vagina is comprised of both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. The more commonly isolated bacteria are Lactobacillus species, Corynebacteria, Gardnerella vaginalis, Staphylococcus species, Peptococcus species, aerobic and anaerobic Streptococcus species, and Bacteroides species. Other microorganisms that have been isolated from the vagina on occasion include yeast (Candida albicans), protozoa (Trichomonas vaginalis), mycoplasma (Mycoplasma hominis), chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis), and viruses (Herpes simplex). These latter organisms are generally associated with vaginitis or venereal disease, although they may be present in low numbers without causing symptoms.

Physiological, social, and idiosyncratic factors affect the quantity and species of bacteria present in the vagina. Physiological factors include age, day of the menstrual cycle, and pregnancy. For example, vaginal flora present in the vagina throughout the menstrual cycle can include lactobacilli, corynebacteria, ureaplasma, and mycoplasma. Social and idiosyncratic factors include method of birth control, sexual practices, systemic disease (e.g., diabetes), and medications.

Bacterial proteins and metabolic products produced in the vagina can affect other microorganisms and the human host. For example, the vagina between menstrual periods is mildly acidic having a pH ranging from about 3.8 to about 4.5. This pH range is generally considered the most favorable condition for the maintenance of normal flora. At that pH, the vagina normally harbors numerous species of microorganisms in a balanced ecology, playing a beneficial role in providing protection and resistance to infection and makes the vagina inhospitable to some species of bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The low pH is a consequence of the growth of lactobacilli and their production of acidic products. Microorganisms in the vagina can also produce antimicrobial compounds such as hydrogen peroxide and bactericides directed at other bacterial species. One example is the lactocins, bacteriocin-like products of lactobacilli directed against other species of lactobacilli.

Some microbial products produced in the vagina may negatively affect the human host. For example, S. aureus is a bacteria that commonly colonizes human skin and mucous membranes. It causes disease in humans through invasion or through the production of toxic proteins. One such disease is toxic shock syndrome (TSS), caused by toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) and other similar toxins. When absorbed into the blood stream, TSST-1 produces TSS in non-immune humans.

S. aureus is found in the vagina of approximately 16% of healthy women of menstrual age. Approximately 25% of the S. aureus isolated from the vagina are found to produce TSST-1. TSST-1 has been identified as causing TSS in humans.

Symptoms of TSS generally include fever, diarrhea, vomiting and a rash followed by a rapid drop in blood pressure. Multiple organ failure occurs in approximately 6% of those who contract the disease. S. aureus does not initiate TSS as a result of the invasion of the microorganism into the vaginal cavity. Instead as S. aureus grows and multiplies, it can produce TSST-1. Only after entering the bloodstream does TSST-1 toxin act systemically and produce the symptoms attributed to TSS.

Menstrual fluid has a pH of about 7.3. During menses, the pH of the vagina moves toward neutral and can become slightly alkaline. This change permits microorganisms whose growth is inhibited by an acidic environment the opportunity to proliferate. For example, S. aureus is more frequently isolated from vaginal swabs during menstruation than from swabs collected between menstrual periods.

When S. aureus is present in an area of the human body that harbors a normal microbial population such as the vagina, it may be difficult to eradicate the S. aureus bacteria without harming members of the normal microbial flora required for a healthy vagina. Typically, antibiotics that kill S. aureus are not an option for use in catamenial products because of their effect on the normal vaginal microbial flora and their propensity to stimulate toxin production if all of the S. aureus are not killed. An alternative to eradication is technology designed to prevent or substantially reduce the bacteria's ability to produce toxins.

There have been numerous attempts to reduce or eliminate pathogenic microorganisms and menstrually occurring TSS by incorporating into vaginal products one or more biostatic, biocidal, and/or detoxifying compounds. For example, L-ascorbic acid has been applied to a menstrual tampon to detoxify toxin found in the vagina. Others have incorporated monoesters and diesters of polyhydric aliphatic alcohols, such as glycerol monolaurate, as biocidal compounds (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,679,369). Still others have introduced other non-ionic surfactants, such as alkyl ethers, alkyl amines, and alkyl amides as detoxifying compounds (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,685,872, 5,618,554, and 5,612,045).

Despite the aforementioned attempts, there continues to be a need for compounds that will effectively inhibit the production of TSST-1 from Gram positive bacteria, and maintain activity even in the presence of the enzymes lipase and esterase which can have adverse effects on potency and which may also be present in the vagina. Further, it is desirable that the detoxifying compounds useful in the inhibition of the production of TSST-1 be substantially non-harmful to the natural flora found in the vaginal area. It is also desirable that the detoxifying compound be coated or otherwise introduced onto a non-absorbent substrate prior to use.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to non-absorbent substrates or articles which inhibit the production of TSST-1 from Gram-positive bacteria. The substrates are particularly useful for inhibiting the production of TSST-1 from S. aureus bacteria in the vaginal area. Examples of suitable non-absorbent substrates which can have the inhibitory compounds described herein incorporated thereon include non-absorbent incontinence devices, barrier birth control devices, douches, contraceptive sponges, and tampon applicators. One specific example of a non-absorbent incontinence device is a female barrier incontinence device, such as an incontinence pledget formed from a resilient material like rubber. Another suitable non-absorbent substrate is the applicator used with a tampon. For example, the tampon applicator may have one or more of the inhibitory compounds described herein coated on an outer surface, such that when the applicator is used to introduce a tampon into a women's vagina the inhibiting compound (typically in the form of a cream, wax, gel or other suitable form) is transferred from the applicator onto the wall of the vagina.

It is a general object of the present invention to provide a non-absorbent article which inhibits the production of TSST-1 from Gram positive bacteria. A more specific object of the present invention is to provide a non-absorbent incontinence device, a barrier birth control device, a contraceptive sponge, tampon applicator, or a douche incorporating one or more of the inhibitory compounds described herein which act to substantially inhibit the production of TSST-1 by S. aureus.

Another object of the present invention is to provide a non-absorbent substrate incorporating one or more inhibitory compounds described herein in combination with one or more other inhibitory ingredients such as, but not limited to, for example, aromatic compounds, isoprenoid compounds, laureth-4, PPG-5 lauryl ether, 1-0-dodecyl-rac-glycerol, disodium laureth sulfosuccinate, glycerol monolaurate, alkylpolyglycosides, polyethylene oxide (2) sorbital ether or myreth-3-myristate which in combination act to substantially inhibit the production of TSST-1 by S. aureus.

A further object of the present invention is to provide a non-absorbent substrate that has incorporated thereon one or more compounds that will inhibit the production of TSST-1 from Gram positive bacteria without significantly imbalancing the natural flora present in the vaginal tract.

Therefore, the present invention is based on the discovery that when one or more inhibitory compounds are incorporated into or onto a non-absorbent article, the production of TSST-1 in Gram positive bacteria is substantially inhibited. In one embodiment, a first inhibitory compound has the Structure (I): embedded image
wherein: R300 is, when present, selected from hydrogen and substituted or unsubstituted alkyl; R301 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a monovalent, saturated or unsaturated, substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbyl moiety, and when R300 is not present, a substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbenyl moiety; R302 is selected from hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl, and, R303 is selected from hydrogen, hydroxyl, and alkoxy.

One preferred compound of Structure (I) includes thiolactomycin.

As such, the present invention is directed to a tampon applicator comprising a non-absorbent substrate, an effective amount of a first active ingredient and an effective amount of a second active ingredient. The first active ingredient has a general formula: embedded image
wherein: R300 is, when present, selected from hydrogen and substituted or unsubstituted alkyl; R301 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a monovalent, saturated or unsaturated, substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbyl moiety, and when R300 is not present, a substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbenyl moiety; R302 is selected from hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl; and, R303 is selected from hydrogen, hydroxy, and alkoxy. The second active ingredient has a general formula:
R10—O—R11 (IV)
wherein R10 is a straight or branched alkyl or straight or branched alkenyl having from 8 to about 18 carbon atoms and R11 is selected from the group consisting of an alcohol, a polyalkoxylated sulfate salt and a polyalkoxylated sulfosuccinate salt. The first active ingredient and the second active ingredient are effective in substantially inhibiting the production of TSST-1 from Gram positive bacteria.

The present invention is further directed to a non-absorbent article comprising a non-absorbent substrate, an effective amount of a first active ingredient, and an effective amount of a second active ingredient. The first active ingredient has a general formula: embedded image
wherein: R300 is, when present, selected from hydrogen and substituted or unsubstituted alkyl; R301 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a monovalent, saturated or unsaturated, substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbyl moiety, and when R300 is not present, a substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbenyl moiety; R302 is selected from hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl; and, R303 is selected from hydrogen, hydroxy, and alkoxy. The second active ingredient has a general formula:
R10—O—R11 (IV)
wherein R10 is a straight or branched alkyl or straight or branched alkenyl having from 8 to about 18 carbon atoms and R11 is selected from the group consisting of an alcohol, a polyalkoxylated sulfate salt and a polyalkoxylated sulfosuccinate salt. The first active ingredient and the second active ingredient are effective in substantially inhibiting the production of TSST-1 from Gram positive bacteria. The non-absorbent article is selected from the group consisting of non-absorbent incontinence devices, barrier birth control devices, and douches.

Other objects and advantages of the present invention, and modifications thereof, will become apparent to persons skilled in the art without departure from the inventive concepts defined in the claims.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

In accordance with the present invention, it has been discovered that certain compounds as described herein can be incorporated into or onto a non-absorbent article, such as an incontinence pledget, for example, to substantially inhibit the production of TSST-1 from Gram positive bacteria. The compounds described herein can also be used in combination with surface-active agents such as, for example, compounds with an ether, ester, amide, glycosidic, or amine bond linking a C8-C18 fatty acid to an aliphatic alcohol, polyalkoxylated sulfate salt, or polyalkoxylated sulfosuccinic salt, to substantially inhibit the production of TSST-1 from Gram positive bacteria. Through vigorous research and experimentation, it has been discovered that, surprisingly, compounds that inhibit certain fatty acid synthesis routes in bacteria also inhibit the production of TSST-1 by S. aureus. Specifically, compounds that inhibit fatty acid II enzymes in other bacterial species appear to inhibit their S. aureus homologues.

This invention will be described herein in detail in connection with various non-absorbent substrates or products such as non-absorbent incontinence devices, barrier birth control devices, contraceptive sponges, tampon applicators, and douches, but will be understood by persons skilled in the art to be applicable to other non-absorbent articles, devices and/or products as well wherein the inhibition of TSST-1 from Gram positive bacteria would be beneficial. As used herein, the term “non-absorbent article” generally refers to substrates or devices which include an outer layer formed from a substantially hydrophobic material which repels fluids such as menses, blood products and the like. Suitable materials for construction of the non-absorbent articles of the present invention include, for example, rubber, plastic, and cardboard.

It has been discovered that certain compounds can substantially inhibit the production of TSST-1 by Gram positive bacteria and, specifically, the production of TSST-1 from S. aureus bacteria. The inhibitory compounds useful in the practice of the present invention have the general chemical Structure (I): embedded image
wherein: R300 when present, is selected from hydrogen or substituted or unsubstituted alkyl (e.g., methyl, ethyl, propyl, etc.); R301 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a monovalent, saturated or unsaturated, substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbyl moiety (e.g., methyl, ethyl, etc.); and when R300 is not present, a substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbenyl moiety (e.g., methylene, ethylene, etc.); R302 is selected from hydrogen, substituted or unsubstituted alkyl (e.g., methyl, ethyl, propyl, etc.); and, R303 is selected from hydrogen, hydroxyl, and alkoxy (e.g., methoxy, ethoxy, etc.).

In this regard it is to be noted that the hydrocarbyl moieties described herein include both straight chain and branched chain hydrocarbyl moieties and those interrupted with hetero atoms such as nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen, for example. One skilled in the art will recognize that one or more of the inhibitory compounds or structures set forth herein can exist in one or more isomers which are also part of the present invention. Also, one or more of the inhibitory compounds set forth herein may exist as salts, which are also part of the present invention.

In some embodiments, R301 is substituted or unsubstituted oxo, having for example the structure: embedded image
Alternatively, R301 is a monovalent, saturated or unsaturated, substituted or unsubstituted hydrocarbyl moiety having about 4 to about 12, or about 6 to about 10, carbon atoms in the main or primary chain (i.e., the longest chain in R301 which is attached directly to the ring of Structure (I)). Examples of such moieties include C4H4, C4H8, C4H6, C8H11, C8H12, C8H15, and C12H16, as well as hydrocarbon moieties having the following structures: embedded image

With respect to Structure (I), an exemplary compound is: embedded image
wherein R300 and R302 are as defined above. One preferred compound of Structure (I) is thiolactomycin. Another preferred compound of Structure (I) is thiomalonate.

The non-absorbent articles include an inhibitory compound described herein in an amount effective to substantially inhibit the formation of TSST-1 when the non-absorbent article is exposed to S. aureus bacteria. Several methods are known in the art for testing the effectiveness of potential inhibitory agents on the inhibition of the production of TSST-1 by S. aureus. One such preferred method is set forth in Example 1, below. When tested in accordance with the testing methodology described herein the inhibitory compounds preferably reduce the formation of TSST-1 when the non-absorbent article is exposed to S. aureus by at least about 40%, more preferably by at least about 50%, still more preferably by at least about 60%, still more preferably by at least about 70%, still more preferably by at least about 80%, still more preferably by at least about 90%, and still more preferably by at least about 95%.

Effective amounts of the inhibitory compounds of Structure (I) capable of significantly reducing the production of TSST-1 are from about 0.05 micromoles/gram of non-absorbent product to 5 micromoles/gram of non-absorbent product and, desirably, from about 0.1 micromoles/gram of non-absorbent product to about 1 micromole/gram of non-absorbent product.

Although discussed in the singular, one skilled in the art would recognize that two or more of the inhibitory compounds can be combined in a non-absorbent article. In such embodiments, it may be possible to reduce the amount of the inhibitory compounds incorporated into the absorbent article and still achieve satisfactory results.

The inhibitory compounds used in the practice of the present invention can be prepared and applied to the non-absorbent article in any suitable form, but are preferably prepared in forms including, without limitation, aqueous solutions, lotions, balms, gels, salves, ointments, boluses, suppositories, and the like. The inhibitory compounds may be applied to the non-absorbent article using conventional methods. For example, the inhibitory compounds described herein can be formulated into a variety of formulations such as those employed in current commercial douche formulations, or in higher viscosity douches.

The inhibitory compounds as described herein may be employed with one or more conventional pharmaceutically-acceptable and compatible carrier materials useful for the desired application. The carrier can be capable of co-dissolving or suspending the compound applied to the non-absorbent article. Carrier materials suitable for use in the instant invention include those well-known for use in the cosmetic and medical arts as a basis for ointments, lotions, creams, salves, aerosols, suppositories, gels, and the like.

The non-absorbent articles of the present invention may additionally include adjunct components conventionally found in pharmaceutical compositions in their art-established fashion and at their art-established levels. For example, the non-absorbent articles may contain additional compatible pharmaceutically active materials for combination therapy, such as supplementary antimicrobials, antioxidants, anti-parasitic agents, antipruritics, astringents, local anaesthetics, or anti-inflammatory agents.

In another embodiment of the present invention, the inhibitory compounds of Structure (I) are incorporated into or onto the non-absorbent article in combination with one or more compounds known to retard TSST-1 production without significantly eliminating the beneficial bacterial flora. These include, for example, aromatic compounds, isoprenoid compounds, compounds with an ether, ester, amide, glycosidic, or amine bond linking a C8-C18 fatty acid to an aliphatic alcohol, polyalkoxylated sulfate salt, or polyalkoxylated sulfosuccinic salt.

In one embodiment, the compounds of Structure (I) are used in combination with aromatic compounds having the following chemical structure: embedded image

wherein R1 is selected from the group consisting of H, embedded image
—OR5, —R6C(O)H, —R6OH, —R6COOH, —OR6OH, —OR6COOH, —C(O)NH2, NH2 and salts thereof; R5 is a monovalent saturated or unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbyl moiety; R6 is a divalent saturated or unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbyl moiety; R7 is a trivalent saturated or unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbyl moiety; R8 is hydrogen or a monovalent substituted or unsubstituted saturated or unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbyl moiety which may or may not be interrupted with hetero atoms; R2, R3, and R4 are independently selected from the group consisting of —H, —OH, C(O)OH, and —C(O)R9; R9 is a monovalent saturated or unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbyl moiety.

With respect to the aromatic compounds of Structure (II), the hydrocarbyl moieties include both straight chain and branched chain hydrocarbyl moieties and may or may not be substituted and/or interrupted with hetero atoms. Desirably, the aromatic compounds for use in the present invention contain at least one —OH and/or —C(O)OH group. The —OH and/or —C(O)OH group can be bonded to the aromatic structure, or can be bonded to an atom which may or may not be directly bonded to the aromatic structure. R5 is desirably a monovalent saturated aliphatic hydrocarbyl moiety having from 1 to about 15 carbon atoms, preferably from 1 to about 14 carbon atoms. R6 is desirably a divalent saturated or unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbyl moiety having from 1 to about 15 carbon atoms, preferably from 1 to about 14 carbon atoms. R7 is desirably a trivalent saturated or unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbyl moiety having from 1 to about 15 carbon atoms, preferably from 1 to about 10 carbon atoms, and more preferably from 1 to about 4 carbon atoms. Hetero atoms which can interrupt the hydrocarbyl moiety include, for example, oxygen and sulfur.

Preferred aromatic compounds used in combination with the inhibitory compounds of Structure (I) include 2-phenylethanol, benzyl alcohol, trans-cinnamic acid, methyl ester of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, 2-hydroxybenzoic acid, 2-hydoxybenzamide, acetyl tyrosine, 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, lauryl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate, phenoxyethanol, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid, p-aminobenzoic acid, and 4-acetamidophenol.

The non-absorbent articles of the present invention containing a first inhibitory compound of Structure (I) combined with a second inhibitory aromatic compound of Structure (II) contain a sufficient amount of both inhibitory compounds to substantially inhibit the formation of TSST-1 when the absorbent article is exposed to S. aureus bacteria. Preferably, the combination of inhibitory compounds reduces the formation of TSST-1 when the non-absorbent article is exposed to S. aureus by at least about 40%, more preferably by at least about 50%, still more preferably by at least about 60%, still more preferably by at least about 70%, still more preferably by at least about 80%, still more preferably by at least about 90%, and still more preferably by at least about 95%.

Generally, the amount of the aromatic compound included in the non-absorbent article is at least about 0.1 micromoles of aromatic compound per gram of non-absorbent article, and desirably at least about 0.5 micromoles of aromatic compound per gram of non-absorbent article and preferably about 0.5 micromoles of aromatic compound per gram of non-absorbent article to about 100 micromoles of aromatic compound per gram of absorbent article. In a preferred embodiment, the non-absorbent article contains from about 1.0 micromole of aromatic compound per gram of non-absorbent article to about 50 micromoles of aromatic compound per gram of non-absorbent article. The amount of first inhibitory compound of Structure (I) is as described above.

In another embodiment, the inhibitory compounds of Structure (I), are combined with isoprenoid compounds on the non-absorbent article. As used herein, the term “isoprenoid compound” means a hydrocarbon structurally based on multiple isoprene units which may or may not be substituted and may or may not contain hetero atoms and functional groups such as carbonyl (e.g., ketones and aldehydes), and hydroxyl (e.g., alcohols). Isoprene, also commonly referred to as 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, has the following chemical structure: embedded image
Desirably, the isoprenoid compounds used in the accordance with the present invention are terpene compounds. As used herein, “terpene compound” refers to compounds which are based on isoprene, but which may contain heteroatoms such as oxygen and/or hydroxyl (e.g., alcohols), or carbonyl (e.g., aldehydes and ketones).

Various types of terpenes are useful in accordance with the present invention. The terpene compounds may be cyclic or acyclic, and may be saturated or unsaturated. Suitable terpenes include hemiterpenes (terpenes containing 5 carbon atoms), monoterpenes (terpenes containing 10 carbon atoms), sesquiterpenes (terpenes containing 15 carbon atoms), diterpenes (terpenes containing 20 carbon atoms), triterpenes (terpenes containing 30 carbon atoms), tetraterpenes (terpenes containing 40 carbon atoms), as well as polyterpenes and mixtures and combinations thereof. Terpenoids, oxygenated derivatives of terpenes, which may or may not contain hydroxyl and/or carbonyl groups, are also suitable terpenes.

Examples of monoterpenes useful in the present invention include α-pinen, β-pinen, campher, geraniol, borneol, nerol, thujone, citral a, limonen, cineole, terpineol, terpinene, terpin (cis and trans), α-myrcene, β-myrcene, dipentene, linalool, 2-methyl-6-methylene-1,7-octadiene, and menthol. Examples of sesquiterpenes useful in the present invention include humulene, ionone, nerolidol and farnesol. An example of a suitable diterpene is phytol. A suitable triterpene for use in the present invention is squalen. Suitable tetraterpenes for use in the present invention include α-carotene, β-carotene, γ carotene, δ-carotene, lutein, and violaxanthin.

Preferred isoprenoid compounds for use in the present invention include terpineol, β-ionone, terpin (cis and trans), linalool, geraniol, menthol, and mixtures and combinations thereof.

The non-absorbent articles of the present invention containing a first inhibitory compound of Structure (I) combined with a second inhibitory isoprenoid contain a sufficient amount of both inhibitory compounds to substantially inhibit the formation of TSST-1 when the absorbent article is exposed to S. aureus bacteria. Preferably, the combination of inhibitory compounds reduces the formation of TSST-1 when the non-absorbent article is exposed to S. aureus by at least about 40%, more preferably by at least about 50%, still more preferably by at least about 60%, still more preferably by at least about 70%, still more preferably by at least about 80%, still more preferably by at least about 90%, and still more preferably by at least about 95%.

Generally, the amount of the isoprenoid compound included in the non-absorbent article is at least about 0.1 micromoles of isoprenoid compound per gram of non-absorbent article, and desirably from about 0.5 micromoles of isoprenoid compound per gram of non-absorbent article to 100 micromoles of isoprenoid compound per gram of non-absorbent. In a preferred embodiment, the non-absorbent article contains from about 1 micromole of isoprenoid compound per gram of non-absorbent article to about 50 micromoles of isoprenoid compound per gram of non-absorbent article. The amount of first inhibitory compound of Structure (I) is as described above.

In another embodiment, the inhibitory compounds of Structures (I) are combined with certain ether compounds on the non-absorbent substrate. The ether compound has the following chemical structure:
R10—O—R11 (IV)
wherein R10 is a straight or branched alkyl or alkenyl group having a chain of from about 8 to about 18 carbon atoms and R11 is selected from an alcohol, a polyalkoxylated sulfate salt or a polyalkoxylated sulfosuccinate salt.

The alkyl, or the R10 moiety of the ether compounds useful in the practice of the present invention can be obtained from saturated and unsaturated fatty acid compounds. Suitable compounds include, C8-C18 fatty acids, and preferably, fatty acids include, without limitation, caprylic, capric, lauric, myristic, palmitic and stearic acid whose carbon chain lengths are 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18, respectively. Highly preferred materials include capric, lauric, and myristic acids.

Preferred unsaturated fatty acids are those having one or two cis-type double bonds and mixtures of these materials. Suitable materials include myrystoleic, palmitoleic, linolenic and mixtures thereof.

Desirably, the R11 moiety is an aliphatic alcohol which can be ethoxylated or propoxylated for use in the ether compositions in combination with the inhibitory compounds of Structure (I). Suitable aliphatic alcohols include glycerol, sucrose, glucose, sorbitol and sorbitan. Preferred ethoxylated and propoxylated alcohols include glycols such as ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, polyethylene glycol and polypropylene glycol.

The aliphatic alcohols can be ethoxylated or propoxylated by conventional ethoxylating or propoxylating compounds and techniques. The compounds are preferably selected from the group consisting of ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, and mixtures thereof, and similar ringed compounds which provide a material which is effective.

The R11 moiety can further include polyalkoxylated sulfate and polyalkoxylated sulfosuccinate salts. The salts can have one or more cations. Preferably, the cations are sodium, potassium or both.

Preferred ether compounds for use in combination with the inhibitory compounds of Structure (I) include laureth-3, laureth-4, laureth-5, PPG-5 lauryl ether, 1-0-dodecyl-rac-glycerol, sodium laureth sulfate, potassium laureth sulfate, disodium laureth (3) sulfosuccinate, dipotassium laureth (3) sulfosuccinate, and polyethylene oxide (2) sorbitol ether.

The non-absorbent articles of the present invention containing a first inhibitory compound of Structure (I) combined with a second inhibitory ether compound contain a sufficient amount of both inhibitory compounds to substantially inhibit the formation of TSST-1 when the absorbent article is exposed to S. aureus bacteria. Preferably, the combination of inhibitory compounds reduces the formation of TSST-1 when the non-absorbent article is exposed to S. aureus by at least about 40%, more preferably by at least about 50%, still more preferably by at least about 60%, still more preferably by at least about 70%, still more preferably by at least about 80%, still more preferably by at least about 90%, and still more preferably by at least about 95%.

Generally, the amount of ether compound included in the non-absorbent article is at least about 0.1 micromoles of ether compound per gram of non-absorbent article, and desirably at least about 0.005 millimoles of ether compound per gram of non-absorbent article. In a preferred embodiment, the non-absorbent article contains from about 5.0 micromoles of ether compound per gram of non-absorbent article to about 2 millimoles of ether compound per gram of non-absorbent article. The amount of first inhibitory compound of Structure (I) is as described above.

In another embodiment, the inhibitory compounds of Structure (I) are combined with an alkyl polyglycoside compound on the non-absorbent substrate. Suitable alkyl polyglycosides for use in combination with the inhibitory compounds of Structures (I) include alkyl polyglycosides having the following chemical structure:
H—(Zn)—O—R14 (V)
wherein Z is a saccharide residue having 5 or 6 carbon atoms, n is a whole number from 1 to 6, and R14 is a linear or branched alkyl group having from about 8 to about 18 carbon atoms. Commercially available examples of suitable alkyl polyglycosides having differing carbon chain lengths include Glucopon 220, 225, 425, 600, and 625, all available from Henkel Corporation (Ambler, Pa.). These products are all mixtures of alkyl mono- and oligoglucopyranosides with differing alkyl group chain lengths based on fatty alcohols derived from coconut and/or palm kernel oil. Glucopon 220, 225, and 425 are examples of particularly suitable alkyl polyglycosides for use in combination with the inhibitory compounds of Structures (I). Another example of a suitable commercially available alkyl polyglycoside is TL 2141, a Glucopon 220 analog available from ICI Surfactants (Wilmington, Del.).

It should be understood that as referred to herein, an alkylpolyglycoside may consist of a single type of alkyl polyglycoside molecule or, as is typically the case, may include a mixture of different alkyl polyglycoside molecules. The different alkyl polyglycoside molecules may be isomeric and/or may be alkyl polyglycoside molecules with differing alkyl groups and/or saccharide portions. By use of the term alkyl polyglycoside isomers reference is made to alkyl polyglycosides which, although including the same alky ether residues, may vary with respect to the location of the alkyl ether residue in the alkyl polyglycoside as well as isomers which differ with respect to the orientation of the functional groups about one or more chiral centers in the molecules. For example, an alkyl polyglycoside can include a mixture of molecules with saccharide portions which are mono, di-, or oligosaccharides derived from more than one 6 carbon saccharide residue and where the mono-, di- or oligosaccharide has been etherified by reaction with a mixture of fatty alcohols of varying carbon chain length. The present alkyl polyglycosides desirably include alkyl groups where the average number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain is about 8 to about 14 or from about 8 to about 12. One example of a suitable alkyl polyglycoside is a mixture of alkyl polyglycoside molecules with alkyl chains having from about 8 to about 10 carbon atoms.

The alkyl polyglycosides employed in the non-absorbent articles in combination with the inhibiting compounds described herein can be characterized in terms of their hydrophilic lipophilic balance (HLB). This can be calculated based on their chemical structure using techniques well known to those skilled in the art. The HLB of the alkyl polyglycosides used in the present invention typically falls within the range of about 10 to about 15. Desirably, the present alkyl polyglycosides have an HLB of at least about 12 and, more desirably, about 12 to about 14.

The non-absorbent articles of the present invention containing a first inhibitory compound of Structure (I) combined with a second inhibitory alkyl polyglycoside contain a sufficient amount of both inhibitory compounds to substantially inhibit the formation of TSST-1 when the absorbent article is exposed to S. aureus bacteria. Preferably, the combination of inhibitory compounds reduces the formation of TSST-1 when the non-absorbent article is exposed to S. aureus by at least about 40%, more preferably by at least about 50%, still more preferably by at least about 60%, still more preferably by at least about 70%, still more preferably by at least about 80%, still more preferably by at least about 90%, and still more preferably by at least about 95%.

Generally, the amount of alkyl polyglycoside compound included in the non-absorbent article is at least about 0.0001 millimoles of alkyl polyglycoside per gram of non-absorbent article, and preferably at least about 0.005 millimoles of alkyl polyglycoside per gram of non-absorbent article. In a preferred embodiment, the non-absorbent article contains from about 0.005 millimoles per gram of non-absorbent article to about 1 millimole per gram of non-absorbent article of alkyl polyglycoside. The amount of first inhibitory compound of Structure (I) is as described above.

In another embodiment, the inhibitory compounds of Structure (I) are combined with an amide containing compound having the following chemical structure: embedded image
wherein R17, inclusive of the carbonyl carbon, is an alkyl group having 8 to 18 carbon atoms, and R18 and R19 are independently selected from hydrogen or an alkyl group having from 1 to about 12 carbon atoms which may or may not be substituted with groups selected from ester groups, ether groups, amine groups, hydroxyl groups, carboxyl groups, carboxyl salts, sulfonate groups, sulfonate salts, and mixtures thereof.

R17 can be derived from saturated and unsaturated fatty acid compounds. Suitable compounds include, C8-C18 fatty acids, and preferably, the fatty acids include, without limitation, caprylic, capric, lauric, myristic, palmitic and stearic acid whose carbon chain lengths are 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18, respectively. Highly preferred materials include capric, lauric, and myristic.

Preferred unsaturated fatty acids are those having one or two cis-type double bonds and mixtures of these materials. Suitable materials include myrystoleic, palmitoleic, linolenic and mixtures thereof.

The R18 and R19 moieties can be the same or different and each being selected from hydrogen and an alkyl group having a carbon chain having from 1 to about 12 carbon atoms. The R18 and R19 alkyl groups can be straight or branched and can be saturated or unsaturated. When R18 and/or R19 are an alkyl moiety having a carbon chain of at least 2 carbons, the alkyl group can include one or more substituent groups selected from ester, ether, amine, hydroxyl, carboxyl, carboxyl salts, sulfonate and sulfonate salts. The salts can have one or more cations selected from sodium, potassium or both.

Preferred amide compounds for use in combination with the inhibitory compounds of Structure (I) include sodium lauryl sarcosinate, lauramide monoethanolamide, lauramide diethanolamide, lauramidopropyl dimethylamine, disodium lauramido monoethanolamide sulfosuccinate and disodium lauroamphodiacetate.

The non-absorbent articles of the present invention containing a first inhibitory compound of Structure (I) combined with a second inhibitory amide compound contain a sufficient amount of both inhibitory compounds to substantially inhibit the formation of TSST-1 when the absorbent article is exposed to S. aureus bacteria. Preferably, the combination of inhibitory compounds reduces the formation of TSST-1 when the non-absorbent article is exposed to S. aureus by at least about 40%, more preferably by at least about 50%, still more preferably by at least about 60%, still more preferably by at least about 70%, still more preferably by at least about 80%, still more preferably by at least about 90%, and still more preferably by at least about 95%.

The amount of amide-containing compound included in the non-absorbent article is at least about 0.0001 millimoles of amide containing compound per gram of non-absorbent article, and preferably at least about 0.005 millimoles of amide containing compound per gram of non-absorbent article. In a preferred embodiment, the non-absorbent article contains from about 0.005 millimoles per gram of non-absorbent article to about 2 millimoles per gram of non-absorbent article. The amount of first inhibitory compound of Structure (I) is as described above.

In another embodiment, the inhibitory compounds of Structures (I) are combined with an amine compound having the following chemical structure: embedded image
wherein R20 is an alkyl group having from about 8 to about 18 carbon atoms and R21 and R22 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and alkyl groups having from 1 to about 18 carbon atoms and which can have one or more substitutional moieties selected from the group consisting of hydroxyl, carboxyl, carboxyl salts and imidazoline.

Desirably, R20 is derived from fatty acid compounds which include, without limitation, caprylic, capric, lauric, myristic, palmitic and stearic acid whose carbon chain lengths are 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18, respectively. Highly preferred materials include capric, lauric, and myristic. Preferred unsaturated fatty acids are those having one or two cis-type double bonds and mixtures of these materials. Suitable materials include myrystoleic, palmitoleic, linolenic, and mixtures thereof.

The R21 and R22 alkyl groups can further include one or more substitutional moieties selected from hydroxyl, carboxyl, carboxyl salts, and R1 and R2 can form an unsaturated heterocyclic ring that contains a nitrogen that connects via a double bond to the alpha carbon of the R1 moiety to form a substituted imidazoline. The carboxyl salts can have one or more cations selected from sodium potassium or both. The R20, R21, and R22 alkyl groups can be straight or branched and can be saturated or unsaturated.

Preferred amine compounds for use with the inhibitory compounds of Structures (I) include triethanolamide laureth sulfate, lauramine, lauramino propionic acid, sodium lauriminodipropionic acid, lauryl hydroxyethyl imidazonline and mixtures thereof.

In another embodiment, the amine compound can be an amine salt having the following chemical structure: embedded image
wherein R23 is an anionic moiety associated with the amine and is derived from an alkyl group having from about 8 to about 18 carbon atoms, and R24, R25, and R26 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and alkyl group having from 1 to about 18 carbon atoms and which can have one or more substitutional moieties selected from the group consisting of hydroxyl, carboxyl, carboxyl salts, and imidazoline. R24, R25, and R26 can be saturated or unsaturated. Desirably, R23 is a polyalkyloxylated alkyl sulfate. A preferred compound illustrative of an amine salt is TEA laureth sulfate.

The non-absorbent articles of the present invention containing a first inhibitory compound of Structure (I) combined with a second inhibitory amine compound contain a sufficient amount of both inhibitory compounds to substantially inhibit the formation of TSST-1 when the absorbent article is exposed to S. aureus bacteria. Preferably, the combination of inhibitory compounds reduces the formation of TSST-1 when the non-absorbent article is exposed to S. aureus by at least about 40%, more preferably by at least about 50%, still more preferably by at least about 60%, still more preferably by at least about 70%, still more preferably by at least about 80%, still more preferably by at least about 90%, and still more preferably by at least about 95%.

In accordance with the present invention, the non-absorbent article contains an effective amount of the combination of the inhibitory compounds described herein and amine and/or amine salt compounds. The amount of amine and/or amine salt compound included in the non-absorbent article is at least about 0.00001 millimoles of amine and/or amine salt per gram of non-absorbent article, and preferably at least about 0.0005 millimoles of amine and/or amine salt per gram of non-absorbent article. In a preferred embodiment, the non-absorbent article contains from about 0.005 millimoles per gram of non-absorbent article to about 2 millimoles per gram of non-absorbent article. The amount of first inhibitory compound of Structure (I) is as described above.

It will be noted by one skilled in the art that various structures of “R” groups which may be attached to one or more of Structure (I) as set forth herein, are set forth in independent form; that is, they are shown structurally independent without being directly bound to one of the Structure (I). It is to be noted that the “R” group structures shown in independent form may have various points of attachment to the main Structure (I) and that it will be recognized by one skilled in the art where appropriate points of attachment can be made on the “R” groups to provide compounds in accordance with the present invention (some of the “R” groups presented herein having, for example, a dangling or incomplete bond, which is understood to generally indicate where these structures will attach to the main Structure (I)).

The present invention is illustrated by the following examples which are merely for the purpose of illustration and are not to be regarded as limiting the scope of the invention or manner in which it may be practiced.

EXAMPLE 1

In this Example, the effect of various test compounds on the growth of S. aureus and the production of TSST-1 was determined. The test compound, in the desired concentration (expressed in micrograms/milliliter) was placed in 10 mL of a growth medium in a sterile, 50 mL conical polypropylene tube (Sarstedt, Inc. Newton, N.C.).

The growth medium was prepared by dissolving 37 grams of brain heart infusion broth (BHI) (Difco Laboratories, Cockeysville, Md.) in 880 mL of distilled water and sterilizing the broth according to the manufacturer's instructions. The BHI was supplemented with fetal bovine serum (FBS) (100 mL) (Sigma Chemical Company, St. Louis, Mo.). Hexahydrate of magnesium chloride (0.021 M, 10 mL) (Sigma Chemical Company, St. Louis, Mo.) was added to the BHI-FBS mixture. Finally, L-glutamine (0.027 M, 10 mL) (Sigma Chemical Company, St. Louis, Mo.) was added to the mixture.

Compounds to be tested included hexachlorophene, triclosan and 4-hydroxydiphenyl methane. Test compounds were received as solids. The solids were dissolved in methanol, spectrophotometric grade (Sigma Chemical Company, St. Louis, Mo.) at a concentration that permitted the addition of 200 microliters of the solution to 10 mL of growth medium for the highest concentration tested. Each test compound that was dissolved in methanol was added to the growth medium in the amount necessary to obtain the desired final concentration.

In preparation for inoculation of the tubes of growth medium containing the test compounds, an inoculating broth was prepared as follows: S. aureus (MN8) was streaked onto a tryptic soy agar plate (TSA; Difco Laboratories Cockeysville, Md.) and incubated at 35° C. The test organism was obtained from Dr. Pat Schlievert, Department of Microbiology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minn. After 24 hours of incubation three to five individual colonies were picked with a sterile inoculating loop and used to inoculate 10 mL of growth medium. The tube of inoculated growth medium was incubated at 35° C. in atmospheric air. After 24 hours of incubation, the culture was removed from the incubator and mixed well on a S/P brand vortex mixer. A second tube containing 10 mL of the growth medium was inoculated with 0.5 mL of the above-described 24 hour old culture and incubated at 35° C. in atmospheric air. After 24 hours of incubation the culture was removed from the incubator and mixed well on a S/P brand vortex mixer. The optical density of the culture fluid was determined in a microplate reader (Bio-Tek Instruments, Model EL309, Winooski, Vt.). The amount of inoculum necessary to give 5×106 CFU/mL in 10 mL of growth medium was determined using a standard curve.

This Example included tubes of growth medium with varying concentrations of test compounds, tubes of growth medium without test compounds (control) and tubes of growth medium with 20-400 microliters of methanol (control). Each tube was inoculated with the amount of inoculum determined as described above. The tubes were capped with foam plugs (Identi-plug plastic foam plugs, Jaece Industries purchased from VWR Scientific Products, South Plainfield, N.J.). The tubes were incubated at 35° C. in atmospheric air containing 5% by volume CO2. After 24 hours of incubation the tubes were removed from the incubator and the optical density (600 nm) of the culture fluid was determined and the culture fluid was assayed for the number of colony forming units (CFU) of S. aureus using standard plate count procedures. The remaining culture fluid was prepared for the analysis of TSST-1 as follows: the culture fluid was centrifuged at 2500 rpm at about 2-10° C. for 15 minutes. The supernatant was filter sterilized through an Autovial 5 syringeless filter, 0.2 micrometer pore size (Whatman, Inc., Clifton N.J.). The resulting fluid was frozen at −70° C. in a Fisherbrand 12×75 millimeter polystyrene culture tube.

The amount of TSST-1 per mL was determined by a non-competitive, sandwich enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA). Samples of the culture fluid and the TSST-1 reference standard were assayed in triplicate. The method employed was as follows: four reagents, TSST-1 (#TT-606), rabbit polyclonal anti-TSST-1 IgG (LTI-101), rabbit polyclonal anti-TSST-1 IgG conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (LTC-101), and normal rabbit serum (NRS) certified anti-TSST-1 free (NRS-10) were purchased from Toxin Technology (Sarasota, Fla.). A 10 microgram/milliliter solution of the polyclonal rabbit anti-TSST-1 IgG was prepared in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) (pH 7.4). The PBS was prepared from 0.016 molar NaH2PO4, 0.004 molar NaH2PO4—H2O, 0.003 molar KCl and 0.137 molar NaCl, (Sigma Chemical Company, St. Louis, Mo.). One hundred microliters of the polyclonal rabbit anti-TSST-1 IgG solution was pipetted into the inner wells of polystyrene microplates (Nunc-Denmark, Catalogue Number 439454). The plates were covered and incubated at room temperature overnight. Unbound anti-toxin was removed by draining until dry. TSST-1 was diluted to 10 nanograms/milliliter in PBS with phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.4) containing 0.05% (vol/vol) Tween-20 (PBS-Tween) (Sigma Chemical Company, St. Louis, Mo.) and 1% NRS (vol/vol) and incubated at 4° C. overnight. Test samples were combined with 1% NRS (vol/vol) and incubated at 4° C. overnight.

The plates were treated with 100 microliters of a 1% (wt/vol) solution of the sodium salt of casein in PBS (Sigma Chemical Company, St. Louis, Miss.), covered and incubated at 35° C. for one hour. Unbound BSA was removed by 3 washes with PBS-Tween. TSST-1 reference standard (10 nanograms/milliliter) treated with NRS, test samples treated with NRS, and reagent controls were pipetted in 200 microliter volumes to their respective wells on the first and seventh columns of the plate. One hundred microliters of PBS-Tween was added to the remaining wells. The TSST-1 reference standard and test samples were then serially diluted 6 times in the PBS-Tween by transferring 100 microliters from well-to-well. The samples were mixed prior to transfer by repeated aspiration and expression. This was followed by incubation for 1.5 hours at 35° C. and five washes with PBS-T and three washes with distilled water to remove unbound toxin.

The rabbit polyclonal anti-TSST-1 IgG conjugated to horseradish peroxidase wash diluted according to manufacturer's instructions and 50 microliters was added to each microtiter well, except well A-1, the conjugate control well. The plates were covered and incubated at 35° C. for one hour.

Following incubation the plates were washed five times in PBS-Tween and three times with distilled water. Following the washes, the wells were treated with 100 microliters of horseradish peroxidase substrate buffer consisting of 5 milligrams of o-phenylenediamine and 5 microliters of 30% hydrogen peroxide in 11 mL of citrate buffer (pH 5.5). The citrate buffer was prepared from 0.012 M anhydrous citric acid and 0.026 M dibasic sodium phosphate. The plates were incubated for 15 minutes at 35° C. The reaction was stopped by the addition of 50 microliters of a 5% sulfuric acid solution. The intensity of the color reaction in each well was evaluated using the BioTek Model EL309 microplate reader (OD 490 nanometers). TSST-1 concentrations in the test samples were determined from the reference toxin regression equation derived during each assay procedure. The efficacy of the compounds in inhibiting the production of TSST-1 is shown in Table I below.

In accordance with the present invention, the data in Table 1 shows that S. aureus (MN8), when compared to the control, produced significantly less TSST-1 in the presence of the hexachlorophene and triclosan compounds. At the concentration tested, these compounds reduced the amount of toxin produced by 68% to 88%. Although 4-hydroxydiphenyl-methane did reduce the toxin production by about 24%, it lacks the chlorine and hydrogen groups that have been shown to stabilize triclosan in the active site of the enzyme/NAD complex.

TABLE 1
ELISA:
AmountOpticalTSST-1Reduction
TestDensityng/ODof
CompoundCompound600 nmCFU/mLunitToxin (%)
Methanol200μL0.5692.9E+081038N/A
Hexa-2μg/mL0.3503.7E+0833068%
chlorophene
Triclosan0.01μg/mL0.2711.0E+0812988%
4-2μg/mL0.5811.1E+0878524%
Hydroxy-
diphenyl-
methane

N/A = Not Applicable

EXAMPLE 2

In this Example, the growth of, and TSST-1 production by, S. aureus FRI-1169 and 3 mutants able to grow in the presence of triclosan, was evaluated. S. aureus FRI-1169 was obtained as a lyophilized culture from the stock collection of Merlin Bergdoll (Food Research Institute, Madison Wis.). The mutants were selected by plating overnight growth of S. aureus FRI-1169 in growth medium onto tryptic soy agar plates containing 5 micrograms/milliliter triclosan. The effect of triclosan was determined by placing a range of concentrations, expressed in micrograms/milliliter, in 10 mL of growth medium as set forth in Example 1. The samples were then tested and evaluated utilizing the procedure set forth in Example 1. The effect of the triclosan on the growth of S. aureus FRI-1169 and on the production of TSST-1 is shown in Table 2.

In accordance with the present invention, the data shows that S. aureus FRI-1169, when compared to the control, produced less TSST-1 in the presence of triclosan. In addition, mutants selected for their ability to grow in the presence of triclosan showed a reduction in toxin production, compared to the parent strain, of 71%-95% in the presence of triclosan.

TABLE 2
ELISA:
AmountOpticalTSST-1Reduction
TestDensityng/ODof
CompoundCompound600 nmCFU/mLunitToxin %
Methanol200μL0.5771.79E+09958N/A
Triclosan0.5μg/mL0.6251.50E+094096%
Mutant #15μg/mL0.5301.78E+094795%
Mutant #25μg/mL0.4641.41E+0911488%
Mutant #35μg/mL0.5141.58E+0928271%

N/A = Not Applicable

EXAMPLE 3

In this Example, the growth of, and TSST-1 production by, S. aureus FRI-1187 and 3 mutants able to grow in the presence of triclosan were evaluated. S. aureus FRI-1187 was obtained as a lyophilized culture from the stock collection of Merlin Bergdoll (Food Research Institute, Madison Wis.). The mutants were selected by plating overnight growth of S. aureus FRI-1187 in growth medium onto tryptic soy agar plates containing 5 microgram/milliliter triclosan. The effect of triclosan was determined by placing a range of concentrations, expressed in microgram/milliliter, in 10 mL of a growth medium as in Example 1. The samples were then tested and evaluated as in Example 1. The effect of the triclosan on the growth of S. aureus FRI-1187 and mutants and on the production of TSST-1 is shown in Table 3 below.

In accordance with the present invention, Table 3 shows that S. aureus FRI-1187, when compared to the control, produced less TSST-1 in the presence of triclosan. In addition, mutants selected for their ability to grow in the presence of triclosan showed a reduction in toxin production, compared to the parent strain, of 85%-94% in the presence of triclosan.

TABLE 3
ELISA:
AmountOpticalTSST-1Reduction
TestDensityng/ODof
CompoundCompound600 nmCFU/mLunitToxin %
Methanol200uL0.5944.40E+09675N/A
Triclosan0.5ug/mL0.1561.56E+099586%
Mutant #410ug/mL0.613Not10285%
Deter-
mined
Mutant #510ug/mL0.618Not4294%
Deter-
mined
Mutant #610ug/mL0.6131.41E+094294%

N/A = Not Applicable

EXAMPLE 4

In this Example, an experiment was conducted to evaluate the growth of, and TSST-1 production by, S. aureus in the presence of cerulenin. The effect of the test compounds was determined by placing the desired concentration, expressed in micrograms/milliliter, in 10 mL of a growth medium as set forth in Example 1. The compounds were then tested and evaluated as in Example 1. The effect of the test compounds on the growth of S. aureus MN8 and the production of TSST-1 is shown in Table 4.

In accordance with the present invention, the data in Table 4 show that S. aureus MN8, when compared to the control, produce significantly less TSST-1 in the presence of cerulenin. At the concentrations tested, cerulenin reduced the amount of toxin produced by 89% to 93% on the concentration tested.

TABLE 4
AmountELISA:
TestOpticalTSST-1Reduction
CompoundDensityng/ODof
Compound(ug/mL)600 nmCFU/mLunitToxin %
Methanol120uL0.5676.6E+081088N/A
Cerulenin1200.5393.3E+0812389%
Methanol80uL0.5263.9E+081003N/A
Cerulenin800.6269.1E+087093%

N/A = Not Applicable

EXAMPLE 5

In this Example, an experiment was conducted to evaluate the growth of, and TSST-1 production by, S. aureus in the presence of cerulenin. The effect of the test compound was determined by placing the desired concentration, expressed in percent of the active compound, in 100 mL of growth medium (as described in Example 1) in a 500 mL fleaker (Corning Life Sciences, Acton, Mass.). The fleakers were incubated in a 37° C. gyratory water bath and shaken at 180 rpm. Growth was monitored periodically by optical density (600 nm) readings. When the optical density reached approximately 1.0, samples were taken and prepared for ELISA testing as described in Example 1. The effect of the test compounds on the growth of S. aureus MN8 and on the production of TSST-1 is shown in Table 5 below.

In accordance with the present invention, the data show that S. aureus MN8, when compared to the control, produced significantly less TSST-1 in the presence of cerulenin. At the concentration tested, these compounds reduced the amount of toxin produced by 83% to 95%.

TABLE 5
AmountOpticalELISA:Reduction
TestDensityTSST-1of
CompoundCompound600 nmng/OD unitToxin %
Growth Medium01.008 (5 hr)1653N/A
Cerulenin40 ug/mL1.128 (6 hr)7195%
Cerulenin20 ug/mL0.956 (5 hr)27883%

N/A = Not Applicable

In view of the above, it will be seen that the several objects of the invention are achieved. As various changes could be made in the above-described non-absorbent articles without departing from the scope of the invention, it is intended that all matter contained in the above description be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.