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1. Field of the Invention
The present invention relates to a novel C-shaped elongate structural member, having improved fastening and lateral strength characteristics, and in particular providing load bearing frames, as determined per application by professional engineers. This invention is concerned with a structural member that is cold formed from sheet metal wherein the rigidity of the frame as a whole results from the angular intervening web extensions, perpendicular flanges, variable exaggerated bends and stiffening lips of the member. Various metal framing systems have been developed to reduce the cost and labor in the construction of partition structures.
2. Description of the Prior Art
Elongate structural members that are cold formed from sheet metal are known in the art and are formed by rolling, folding and/or pressing a metal strip to achieve a cross section which is essentially either a channel, C-shaped, Z-shaped, or I-shaped members. These prior structural members are defined by a web having flanges projecting from the edges of the web and are formed from a steel strip of thin dimension.
Common C-shaped studs may be susceptible to local, torsional, flexural, torsional-flexural, lateral-torsional or distortional buckling. The response performance of the stud depends on a number of parameters such as how it is supported along its length, including its ends, the relative magnitudes of the applied loads and the distribution of these loads, the cross-section configuration and the member's material properties. In cold-formed/light gauge steel design, two of the common loading conditions for framing members are a combination of axial and flexural (bending) loads.
Walls in buildings are usually made by erecting a framework of a plurality of spaced vertical beams called “studs” joined together into a unit by an upper horizontal beam and a lower horizontal beam (known as “plates”). The lower plate is an abutment piece that distributes the load of vertical studs. Sheets of wall board are then applied to both sides of the framework to produce finished wall surfaces.
For flexure of studs, where the studs are attached to the top and bottom plates with fasteners, the studs may be treated as laterally and torsionally supported at these points of attachment. Where conventional sheathing (plywood, oriented strand board, or gypsum wallboard sheathing) is attached to the wall stud on both flanges, it is generally assumed that the sheathing provides lateral support for flexure by way of the fasteners.
The rising cost of lumber has caused increased interest in fabricating and constructing buildings with frames of sheet metal construction members. These construction members include roof joists, trusses, exterior walls and interior walls. A common structural design utilized in such metal frame construction is the C-shaped stud or member, based upon its cross-section resembling the letter C. Also, the member comprises a longitudinal web with flanges from the longitudinal edges of the web to the same side of the web and flanges being substantially parallel to each other and perpendicular to the web.
Such C-shaped members are used as the vertical support members for exterior and interior walls and are positioned at their tops and bottoms in a rail or track which is essentially a C-shaped member positioned in a horizontal configuration with the vertical C-shaped stud positioned within the rails and tracks such that the respective flanges of the vertical C-shaped stud and the horizontal track are secured together to form the framework for a wall. The metal studs that are installed at their ends in floor and ceiling tracks are used to support drywall panels. The panels are usually secured to the framing studs by adhesive and/or drywall screws or fasteners.
Supporting metal studs should have good rigidity and withstand the linear loads perpendicular to the flanges, which arise during mounting and also when subjecting the finished wall to loads. Prior art has suggested various measures for the reinforcing of supporting elements; however, the market continually requires increased rigid supporting elements, which is the starting point of this invention. There is a need of a supporting element, which has improved strength and rigidity and whose flanges in particular are reinforced such that they yield toward each other to a minimal extent when subjected to loads. The new supporting members need to have improved torsional-flexural and lateral-torsional bracing. It is desirable to have a cold form metal structural member that is easily fabricated and exhibits exceptional structural strength even when fabricated of relatively thin sheet metal.
Also, prior C-shaped metal construction members lack the flexibility of multiple fastening surfaces, which limit applications at different angles.
An object of the present invention is to provide for a novel elongate, cold-formed, metal structural member fabricated out of relatively thin sheet metal that has improved lateral resistance and rigidity. This invention provides for an improved lateral-strength metal construction member of a C-shaped configuration, deriving from angular intervening web extensions and variable exaggerated bends. A further object of the present invention is to provide for three fastening surfaces to allow for change in directions with different applications.
The invention provides for a novel C-shaped metal construction member in which angular intervening web extensions and perpendicular flanges with parallel end stiffening lips form opposite to the center longitudinal, elongate web member. The invention provides for a novel C-shaped metal construction member with improved lateral resistance for load-bearing support as determined per application by a professional engineer. The invention provides for variable exaggerated bends to satisfy certain engineering safety requirements. Previous undesired internal stress of the supporting element is eliminated or changed by the angular intervening web extensions, perpendicular flanges with variable exaggerated bends and parallel end stiffening lips that provide increased resistance to tension and compression.
Applicant's C-shaped metal construction member provides for additional angles of fastening surface for a change of direction of exterior or interior sheathing application. Typically, the exterior sheathing will consist of plywood which is normally secured by an approved fastener per determined application while the interior wall may consist of gypsum board or dry wall which may be secured by a threaded fastener or a nail. The member has three fastening surfaces. As an additional application, the member works with existing track because of the member's conventional size to the existing market.
These and other objects of the present invention will become evident from the following illustrations:
FIG. 1 is a cross sectional view of a first embodiment of the C-shaped construction member.
FIG. 2 is a three dimensional partial side view of FIG. 1 illustrating the stiffening lips, the variable exaggerated bending and the angular intervening web extensions and parallel flanges by which there is improved lateral resistance.
FIG. 3 is a cross sectional view of two abutted C-shaped structural members of FIG. 1 along the outside web side as a composite truss vertical beam or a structural component that provides increased lateral resistance.
FIG. 4 is a cross sectional view of two C-shaped structural members of FIG. 1, facing in opposite directions, abutted along the outside of the parallel lip members as a composite truss vertical beam or a structural component for increased lateral resistance.
FIG. 5 is a cross sectional view of two C-shaped structural members of FIG. 1, facing in opposite directions with one member inserted and pressed into a second elongate member, forming a fully enclosed metal channel, as a composite truss vertical beam or a structural component for increased lateral resistance.
The structural member illustrated in FIG. 1 would be roll formed from thin, high tensile, galvanized steel in a structural grade. It can be roll formed by a single passage of an initially flat strip of sheet metal through a series of stands of forming rolls which successively modify the shape of the strip passing through the machines. FIG. 1 is a cross sectional view of a first embodiment of the C-shaped construction member. It comprises a longitudinal, elongate web member 5 having an angular intervening web extension 3 with variable exaggerated bends 4 and extending laterally to flange member 2 perpendicular to web member 5 and extending to an end wall member I of the flange member 2, in which the stiffening lip 1 is formed substantially parallel to web member 5 at the cross sectional end. The variable exaggerated bends 4, on both sides of flange member 3, satisfies safety requirements and provides improved lateral strength. The longitudinal, elongate web member 5, being the center portion of the C-shaped design, provides additional fastening surface and has an angular intervening web extension 6 with variable exaggerated bends 7 formed along the opposing longitudinal edge of web member 5 and extending laterally identical to that of web extension 3 on the opposite longitudinal edge of web member 5 to flange member 8 perpendicular to web member 5 and extending to a stiffening lip 9 of the flange member 8, in which the stiffening lip 9 is formed substantially parallel to web member 5 at the cross sectional end. The variable exaggerated bends 7 on both sides of web extension 6, satisfies engineering safety requirements and provides increased lateral strength.
FIG. 2 is a perspective partial end view of a C-shape member of FIG. 1, illustrating the stiffening lips, the variable exaggerated bends, the angular intervening web extensions and the three fastening surfaces.
FIG. 3 is a cross sectional view of abutted C-shaped construction members along the outer longitudinal, elongate web member of FIG. 1 in a composite truss vertical beam or a structural component combination that provides increased lateral resistance.
FIG. 4 is a cross sectional view of two C-shaped structural members of FIG. 1 abutted along the outside parallel lip of the members as a composite truss vertical beam or a structural component for increased lateral resistance. The two elongate channel members, facing oppositely, are secured together with fasteners.
FIG. 5 is a cross sectional view of two C-shaped structural members of FIG. 1 with one member inserted and pressed into a second elongate member, forming a fully enclosed metal channel as a composite truss vertical beam or a structural component for increased lateral resistance. The two elongate members, facing oppositely, are secured together with fasteners. The overlapping of the members into a channel provides reinforcing for the continuity of the stress in the studs when a load is applied.
While the present invention has been described with respect to the exemplary embodiments thereof, it will be evident to one of ordinary skill in the art that many modifications may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. Therefore, it is manifestly intended that the invention be limited only by the claims and the equivalence thereof.