Title:
Composite floor system with fully-embedded studs
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
A composite floor system is provided and includes at least one lower beam, a plurality of projections and a floor slab. The at least one lower beam is made from a metallic material. The at least one lower beam has a longitudinal direction. The at least one lower beam has an upper surface. Each projection has a connection to the upper surface of the at least one lower beam. Each projection extends upwards from the upper surface of the at least one lower beam. Each projection is metallic. The floor slab is made from a cementitious material. The floor slab is in contact with the upper surface of the at least one lower beam. Each projection has a first portion that is embedded in the floor slab. Each projection has a second portion that includes the connection. The second portion is spaced from the floor slab in at least a selected longitudinal direction.



Inventors:
Hatzinikolas, Michael (Edmonton, CA)
Application Number:
11/104536
Publication Date:
12/07/2006
Filing Date:
04/13/2005
Primary Class:
International Classes:
E04B5/18
View Patent Images:
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Primary Examiner:
WENDELL, MARK R
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
BERESKIN & PARR LLP/S.E.N.C.R.L., s.r.l. (40 KING STREET WEST 40TH FLOOR, TORONTO, ON, M5H 3Y2, CA)
Claims:
1. A composite floor system, comprising: at least one lower beam made from a metallic material, wherein the at least one lower beam has a longitudinal direction, and wherein the at least one lower beam has an upper surface; a plurality of projections, wherein each projection has a connection to the upper surface of the at least one lower beam and wherein each projection extends upwards from the upper surface of the at least one lower beam, and wherein each projection is metallic; and a floor slab made from a cementitious material, wherein the floor slab is in contact with the upper surface of the at least one lower beam, wherein each projection has a first portion that is embedded in the floor slab, and wherein each projection has a second portion that includes the connection, wherein the second portion is spaced from the floor slab in at least a selected longitudinal direction.

2. A composite floor system as claimed in claim 1, wherein the second portion of each projection is spaced from the floor slab in the selected longitudinal direction by at least a selected distance.

3. A composite floor system as claimed in claim 2, wherein the second portion has a selected length and wherein the length of the second portion and the selected distance in the longitudinal direction are selected based at least in part on a selected ductility for the composite floor system.

4. A composite floor system as claimed in claim 1, further comprising a plurality of spacers, wherein each spacer is positioned between the second portion of one of the projections and the floor slab, and wherein each spacer is made from a material that permits deformation of the projection in at least the selected longitudinal direction.

5. A composite floor system as claimed in claim 4, wherein the spacers are made from a polymeric material.

6. A composite floor system as claimed in claim 5, wherein the spacers are made from a foam rubber.

7. A composite floor system as claimed in claim 4, wherein the spacers are adhered to the at least one lower beam.

8. A composite floor system as claimed in claim 4, wherein the spacers are adhered to the projections.

9. A composite floor system as claimed in claim 1, wherein the at least one lower beam is an I-beam.

Description:

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to composite floor systems, and more particularly the invention relates to a composite floor system with a floor slab positioned on one or more lower beams.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

A composite floor system typically consists of a concrete floor slab positioned on several steel I-beams that extend in parallel. To act together in resisting loads, shear studs are typically resistance-welded to the top surface of the I-beams. The concrete that makes up the floor slab surrounds the shear studs, such that the entirety of each shear stud is embedded in the concrete.

When a vertical load is imposed on the floor system, a compressive load is developed in the concrete floor slab and a tensile force is developed in the I-beam. Such a system, however, typically has relatively low ductility. In general, systems having relatively lower ductility are less able to absorb energy from dynamic forces, such as those that occur during earthquakes, than systems with relatively higher ductility, such as pure steel structures.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

In a first aspect, the invention is directed to a composite floor including at least one lower beam, a plurality of projections and a floor slab. The at least one lower beam is made from a metallic material. The at least one lower beam has a longitudinal direction. The at least one lower beam has an upper surface. Each projection has a connection to the upper surface of the at least one lower beam. Each projection extends upwards from the upper surface of the at least one lower beam. Each projection is metallic. The floor slab is made from a cementitious material. The floor slab is in contact with the upper surface of the at least one lower beam. Each projection has a first portion that is embedded in the floor slab. Each projection has a second portion that includes the connection. The second portion is spaced from the floor slab in at least a selected longitudinal direction.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The present invention will now be described by way of example only with reference to the attached drawings in which:

FIG. 1 is a sectional side view of a composite floor system in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention; and

FIG. 2 is a magnified sectional side view of a portion of the composite floor system shown in FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is a plan view of the composite floor system shown in FIG. 1;

FIG. 4 is a sectional side view of the composite floor system shown FIG. 1, after experiencing deformation due to an event; and

FIG. 5 is a perspective view of a portion of the lower beam, projections and spacer which make up part of the composite floor system shown in FIG. 1;

FIG. 6 is a perspective view of a portion of the lower beam and projections shown in FIG. 1, with an alternative spacer;

FIG. 7 is a sectional side view of a portion of the lower beam and projections shown in FIG. 1, with an alternative configuration for apertures around the projections, to that which is shown in FIG. 1;

FIG. 8 is a sectional side view of a portion of the lower beam and projections shown in FIG. 1, with another alternative configuration for apertures around the projections, to that which is shown in FIG. 1; and

FIG. 9 is a sectional side view of a portion of the lower beam and projections shown in FIG. 1, with yet another alternative configuration for apertures around the projections, to that which is shown in FIG. 1.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

Reference is made to FIG. 1, which shows a composite floor system 10 made in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. The composite floor system 10 includes at least one lower beam 12 and may include a plurality of lower beams 12 (see FIG. 3) arranged in parallel and spaced at a selected distance from one another.

The composite floor system further includes a plurality of projections 14 which extend upwards from each of the lower beams 12, and further includes a floor slab 16, which is positioned on the lower beams 12.

The lower beams 12 may be any suitable type of beam, such as, for example, I-beams or box beams. The lower beam 12 shown in FIG. 1 is an I-beam. The lower beam 12 has an upper surface 18, from which the projections 14 extend upwards. The upper surface 18 is the surface of the lower beam 12 that supports the floor slab 16.

The lower beam 12 is made from a material that is ductile and resistant to catastrophic failure when experiencing tensile forces, such as can occur when the composite floor system 10 is loaded, and in particular during an earthquake or other event. An especially suitable material for the lower beam 12 is steel, however, other materials may be used.

The relative spacing between adjacent lower beams 12 may be selected at least in part based on the overall strength requirements of the floor system 10.

The projections 14 extend upwards from the upper surface 18 of the lower beam 12. The projections 14 may be positioned in a row along the longitudinally-extending, vertical-plane centerline, shown at CLvplong-lb in FIG. 3, of each lower beam 12. The relative spacing of the projections 14 from one another may be selected at least in part on the strength requirements of the composite floor system 10.

Reference is made to FIG. 2. Each projection 14 has a top 19 and a bottom 20. The projection 14 is joined to the upper surface 18 of the lower beam 12 at a connection 21. From the connection 21, the projection 14 extends upwards into the floor slab 16 that rests on the upper surface 18 of the lower beam 12. The connection 21 may be made by any other suitable means, such as, for example, by resistance welding the projection 14 to the lower beam 12.

Around each projection 14 is an aperture 22 in the floor slab 16. The aperture 22 surrounds the projection 14 such that the projection 14 is spaced from the aperture wall, shown at 24 in the longitudinal direction by a distance Dlong. The aperture 22 may be circular, as shown in FIG. 3, such that the projection 14 is spaced from the aperture wall 24 by the same distance in all directions measured in the plane of the floor system 10. Alternatively, the aperture 22 may be made non-circular. For example, the aperture 22 may be made elliptical such that the distance between the projection 14 and the aperture wall 24 is relatively greater in the longitudinal direction (ie. the direction parallel to the centerline CLvplong-lb, see FIG. 3), and relatively smaller in the lateral direction.

The depth of the aperture 22 is selected so that a first portion 26 of the projection 14 is embedded within the floor slab 16, and a second portion 28 of the projection 14 is surrounded by the aperture and is therefore spaced from the aperture wall 24. The depth of the aperture 22 is shown at Dvert. It will be noted that the depth Dvert is the same as the length of the second portion 28 of the projections 14.

The projection 14 is made from a ductile material, and the connection 21 between the projection 14 and the lower beam 12 is a ductile connection, permitting a selected amount of deformation, including elastic and/or plastic deformation, prior to experiencing catastrophic failure. An example of a suitable material for the projections 14 is steel.

The projection 14 may be a stud, eg. a threaded rod, or may be some other member, such as, for example, a bolt.

The floor slab 16 rests on the upper surfaces 18 of the lower beams 12. As a result of the embedment of the projections 14 into the floor slab 16, the composite floor system 10 acts under load as a single, composite structure. The composite floor system 10 has a horizontal-plane centerline CLhp-fs that divides the floor system 10 into a lower half 30 and an upper half 32. In the absence of any pre-stressing of the components of the composite floor system 10, when the floor system 10 is under a bending load the bottom half 30 is in tension and the top half 32 is in compression. Preferably, the bottom half 30 of the floor system 10 includes substantially all of the lower beam 12, and preferably the top half 32 includes substantially all of the floor slab 16.

A suitable material for the floor slab 16 is a material that is strong in compression, such as, for example, a cementitious material. For the purposes of this disclosure, a cementitious material is any material that is a mixture of aggregate and matrix material such as, for example, concrete, Portland cement, or the like, that is known to a person skilled in the art for use in composite floor systems. Typically, such materials are poured into a form. They may be poured on site, or alternatively they may be poured and hardened first and subsequently shipped to the site for installation. The floor slab 16 has an upper surface 34, which may be covered with other layers to make up a floor having whatever physical or aesthetic properties are desired.

Referring to FIG. 1, when the floor system 10 is under a bending load, the compressive load on the upper half 32 of the floor system 10 increases in a direction away from the horizontal-plane floor system centerline CLhp-fs and towards the upper surface 34 of the floor slab 16, and simultaneously, the tensile load on the lower half 30 of the floor system 10 increases in a direction away from the horizontal-plane floor system centerline CLhp-fs and towards the lower surface of the lower beam 12, shown at 36. As a result, different forces act on the tops 19 and bottoms 20 of the projections 14. Referring to FIG. 4, the spacing of the lower (ie. second) portions 28 of the projections 14 from the aperture walls 24 permits the second portions 28 of the projections 14 to bend in the longitudinal direction while remaining spaced from the floor slab 16. In this way, their ductility can be used advantageously so that the floor system 10 can incur loads and absorb energy with a reduced likelihood of shearing the projections 14 off the lower beam 12. As a result, the composite floor system 10 can remain in better condition after an event, such as an earthquake, than a composite floor system that lacks apertures around the projections. The distance Dlong may be selected so that the projections 14 can incur a selected amount of bending in the longitudinal direction. If the distance Dlong is selected to be sufficiently large, ie. beyond a critical value, then it is contemplated that the floor slab 16 would remain spaced in the longitudinal direction from the second portions 28, even at the maximum load which the composite floor system 10 is designed to withstand. A person skilled in the art, after having read this disclosure, would be able to readily calculate the aforementioned critical value for the distance Dlong.

There is a relationship between the longitudinal distance Dlong, the depth Dvert, the shape of the apertures 22 and the amount of longitudinal bending that can take place in the projections 14. Increasing the depth Dvert of the aperture 22 increases the lengths of the unembedded portions of the projections 14, ie. the lengths of the second portions 28, which in turn increases the energy absorption capability of the projections 14. However, care should be taken so that the embedded (ie. first) portions 26 of the projections 14 have sufficient length to meet the strength requirements of the installation.

In earthquake zones, a floor system may be required to be sufficiently strong to withstand a particular strength of earthquake, based on whatever regulations are applicable in the local jurisdiction. The ductility of the composite floor system 10 is a value that is related to the ability of the composite floor system 10 to absorb energy, such as the energy that would be imparted to the floor system during an earthquake. If a floor system is designed with sufficient ductility the strength of the floor system required by code can be reduced, because it is expected that such a floor system would be capable of absorbing a greater amount of energy than a rigid floor system without undergoing catastrophic failure in the event of an earthquake. As a result, the composite floor system 10 can be provided at less cost than a composite floor system without apertures around the projections, while still meeting the design requirements established by such regulations.

The longitudinal distance Dlong and the depth Dvert may be selected based at least in part on the overall ductility that is selected to be provided for the composite floor system 10. Additionally, or alternatively, the longitudinal distance Dlong and the depth Dvert may be selected based at least in part on a maximum selected bending load that the floor system is to withstand.

While it is preferable that the distance Dlong be equal to or greater than the aforementioned critical value, any spacing Dlong in combination with any depth Dvert permit some energy absorption to take place in the projections 14 and thus, provide some advantage over a composite floor system that lacks apertures around the projections.

The apertures 22 may be formed in the floor slab 16 by any suitable means. For example, in the case where the floor slab 16 is made from a material that is poured over the projections 14, a spacer 38 (see in particular FIG. 5) may be fitted around each projection 14 so that the material of the floor slab 16 (see FIG. 2) hardens around the spacers 38, thereby forming the apertures 22. In the embodiment of the floor system 10 shown in FIGS. 1-5, the spacers 38 would be captured permanently between the floor slab 16 and the lower beam 12. In embodiments such as this, ie. where the spacers 38 will remain in place after the floor slab 16 hardens, the spacers 38 may be made from a deformable material that permits deformation in the projections 14 when the floor system 10 incurs a bending load. However, in addition to being deformable, the spacers 38 have sufficient strength to retain their shape sufficiently to form the apertures 22 when the material for the floor slab 16 is poured.

The spacers 38 may be made from a synthetic or natural polymeric material, such as, for example, a foam rubber. In embodiments where the spacers 38 are foam structures, they may include a projection aperture 40 (see FIG. 2) for receiving the projections 14 and a slit 42 (see FIG. 5) permitting the spacers 38 to be easily placed around the projections 14.

Other configurations for the spacers 38 would alternatively be suitable. For example, referring to FIG. 6, spacers 43 may be provided, each comprising a hollow shell 44 that has a projection aperture 46 to permit the pass-through of a projection 14. The shell 44 may be made from a suitably strong material to withstand the load imposed thereon when the material for the floor slab 16 (FIG. 1) is poured. For example, the Shell may be made from a metallic material, such as steel, or aluminum. The shell 44 may include a slit 48 and may be made sufficiently flexible and resilient to permit the shell 44 to be fit around the projection 14.

Adhesive or some other suitable bonding means may be used to hold the spacers 38 and 43 in place, so that they do not lift upwards when the material for the floor slab 16 is poured. For example, the spacer 38 may be bonded to the projection 14 with adhesive.

It is shown in FIG. 2 that the projection 14 is spaced from the aperture wall 24 by the distance Dlong in both directions longitudinally. However, it is alternatively possible for the spacing Dlong to be provided in one longitudinal direction, and for some lesser spacing, or alternatively no spacing, to be provided in the other longitudinal direction. The side in which the spacing Dlong is provided would be selected based on which way the projection 14 is expected to bend during loading of the floor system 10. The direction of bending of the projection 14 depends at least in part on where the beam is expected to be supported in use, and the magnitudes and positions of any loads that the floor system 10 is being designed to withstand.

The particular composition of the steel or other ductile material used for the lower beams 12, connections 21 and projections 14 will be readily selectable by one skilled in the art based on the particular requirements of the installation of the composite floor system 10.

The apertures 22 formed in the floor slab 16 are shown in the figures as having walls 24 that extend directly vertically. It is alternatively possible for the aperture walls 24 to extend inwardly towards the projections 14 while extending upwards. Reference is made to FIG. 7, which illustrates a wall 24 that extends upwards at a selected angle, A, from the horizontal. It is alternatively possible for the wall to extend at an angle B, from the horizontal, as shown in FIG. 8. As another alternative, the wall 24 may have some other shape, such as a curved shape, as shown in FIG. 9. It will be understood, that the spacers 38 or 43 (FIGS. 5 and 6 respectively) would be provided with selected shapes in order to form whatever configuration is selected for the wall 24.

It is possible for the floor slab 16 to be manufactured prior to installation on the lower beams 12. In such an embodiment, the apertures 22 may be formed in the floor slab 16 by any suitable means, and they may remain empty, ie. with no spacer therein, after the floor slab 16 is installed on the lower beams 12. Suitable means, such as an adhesive paste could be provided in projection-receiving apertures in such a floor slab 16, for receiving the top, (ie. first), portions 26 of the projections 14 and for adhering the floor slab 16 thereto.

As will be apparent to persons skilled in the art, various modifications and adaptations of the apparatus described above may be made without departure from the present invention, the scope of which is defined in the appended claims.