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Title:
Internal combustion engine header/tubing fiber composite exhaust system or carbon fiber composite exhaust (CMX)
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
This invention is a light weight, high heat resistant composite exhaust, header/tubing system for an internal combustion system constructed out of fiber and resin. The carbon fiber composite exhaust, CMX invention employs fibers and resin, but is not limited to carbon fiber and alumina-silicate resin. To accomplish the objectives of the present invention, the fiber system is first molded into the desired component by using a collapsible apparatus. Secondly, a single layer of fiber material such as, but not limited to, carbon is applied to uniformly cover the component. Third, the resin is evenly coated by brushing, injection, or squeezing method, and is pushed through the uniform weave. Thus, when the resin has been converted to a ceramic by means of the firing process, the mold can be removed to reveal the first layer of the composite. In order to achieve the desired stiffness and rigidity the following steps must be performed a number of times, depending on the application that will use the exhaust component.


Inventors:
Ruggiero, Richard E. (Falls Church, VA, US)
Application Number:
11/096913
Publication Date:
10/05/2006
Filing Date:
04/02/2005
Primary Class:
International Classes:
F01N13/10
View Patent Images:
Related US Applications:
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Richard, Ruggiero (3211 Patrick Henry Dr., Falls Church, VA, 22044, US)
Claims:
What is claimed for this invention is:

1. An internal combustion engine header/tubing exhaust system made of a high temperature fiber reinforced resin matrix. The combustion engine header/tubing exhaust system, as cite, is a composite matrix. The combustion engine header/tubing exhaust system, as cited, is comprised of a matrix of organic materials. The combustion engine header/tubing exhaust system, as cited, incorporates the use of a uniform weaved fiber, but not limited to carbon, sleeve. The combustion engine header/tubing exhaust system, as cited, incorporates the use of a water based resin.

2. An internal combustion engine header/tubing exhaust system, as recited in claim 1, is an ultra-light exhaust system, or component, consisting of composite material. The combustion engine header/tubing exhaust system, as cited, incorporates the use of light weight material to create an ultra-light weight exhaust system or component. The combustion engine header/tubing exhaust system, as cited, incorporates the use of fibers and resin, as stated in claim 1, to manufacture from a mold, a composite exhaust system or component. The combustion engine header/tubing exhaust system, as cited, incorporates layers of fibers and resin as needed for the desired application. The combustion engine header/tubing exhaust system, as cited, incorporates layers of fibers and resin, reducing the weight of the full exhaust system or component, as compared to its metallic counterpart.

3. CMX can be formed in to a flangeless exhaust system. The combustion engine header/tubing exhaust system, as recited in claim 1, is a composite matrix that can be formed as one piece flangeless exhaust system. The combustion engine header/tubing exhaust system, as cited, is a composite matrix formed out of a collapsible apparatus that can hold the shape any combustion engine. The combustion engine header/tubing exhaust system, as cited, is a composite matrix that is formed from to adapt to the length and shape of the client's specification. The combustion engine header/tubing exhaust system, as cited, is a composite matrix exhaust formed with no flanges, creating a direct path for gases to pass, unlike its metallic counter parts that are connected with welds and flanges that disrupt the gas flow and negatively impact the performance of the internal combustion engine.

4. An internal combustion engine header/tubing exhaust system, as recited in claim 1, has the property of low heat retention. The combustion engine header/tubing exhaust system as recited in claim 1 is a composite matrix, resulting in a significantly less thermal retention, unlike its metallic counter parts. The combustion engine header/tubing exhaust system, as cited, is a composite matrix exhaust that has the capability to rapidly cool to a safe handling temperature (cooling to or around ambient temperature) within one minute of engine shut down. The combustion engine header/tubing exhaust system, as cited, is a composite matrix formed from materials stated in previous claim 1. The combustion engine header/tubing exhaust system as cited, is a composite matrix exhaust capable of withstanding extreme temperatures and fluctuating with no thermal fatigue.

5. An internal combustion engine header/tubing exhaust system, as cited in claim 1, can manifest in numerous forms to meet the needs of any application. The combustion engine header/tubing exhaust system, as cited in claim 1, can be formed into numerous custom shapes. The combustion engine header/tubing exhaust system, as cited, is formed using an inflatable apparatus, able to be manipulated into any form or shape The combustion engine header/tubing exhaust system, as cited, can be shaped into various forms, such as individual tubes or one-piece monocoque, from fiber stated in previous claim 1. The combustion engine header/tubing exhaust system, as recited in claim 1, enables the mold to have a complex shape allowing the fiber to conform tightly to the custom form.

6. An internal combustion engine header/tubing exhaust system, as cited in claim 1, can be decorated to match client's application. The combustion engine header/tubing exhausts system as recited in claim 1, is coated with paint, but not limited to, silicone to protect the fiber composite form UV light. The combustion engine header/tubing exhaust system, as cited, may be coated with numerous colors to match the client's application.

7. An internal combustion engine header/tubing exhaust system, as cited in claim 1, is a performance enhancing product. The combustion engine header/tubing exhaust system, as recited in claim 2, will enable the combustion engine to produce more horsepower, because of the weight differential between a CMX system and its metallic counterparts. The combustion engine header/tubing exhaust system, as recited in claim 3, can be custom formed to maximize engine efficiency which will enable more horsepower and torque to be achieved.

8. An internal combustion engine header/tubing exhaust system, as recited in claim 1, can be recycled, limited to instances of low to moderate we ar and tear on the system.

Description:

On Nov. 20th of 2004, I was discussing the purchase of carbon fiber sleeves for a project that involved the making of a carbon fiber bicycle fork. During the discussion with the salesperson regarding the different types of carbon fiber weave, I asked about the durability and the lightness of the carbon fiber sleeve when encapsulated in a resin. After my discussions with the salesperson, I realized that for my application the resin would need to be pulled through the layers of carbon in order to allow the structure to withstand impact. Once cured, it would need to be heat treated and painted in order to be able to withstand direct UV light from the sun. At this point, I found that the resin used for this process could only withstand an average temperature about 400 degrees Fahrenheit. From experimenting with carbon fiber and the limitations it holds, I found that the carbon fiber could hold up in continuous contact with open flame, without significant damage. I then reached the conclusion that carbon fiber would be a valuable material to use in extreme heat situations, such as vehicle exhaust systems.

I decided to fabricate an exhaust, header/tubing system for an engine which is composed of, but not limited to, carbon fiber reinforced matrix composite material, so as to be light weight, low heat conductive, high temperature resistant, and cool rapidly.

I discovered a new method of making the exhaust, header/tubing system which consists of the following steps. The first step is to form the desired component from an collapsible apparatus, using multiple sleeves of fiber, but not limited to carbon, material that has a uniform weave. The fiber, but not limited to carbon, covers the entirety of the mold, then fills in the uniform weave with an alumina-silicate resin. This process forms an exhaust, header/tubing system structure from the mixture of fiber, but not limited to carbon, material by placing the first layer of carbon and resin, for a given amount of time sufficient to convert the resin to a carbon composite matrix. This is done by firing the exhaust component shaped structure at a temperature and period of time sufficient to convert the aluminum-silicate resin to a carbon fiber composite, and a carbon fiber composite exhaust (CMX) is formed. By repeating the following procedures, one can obtain a desired strength that will be sufficient to allowing the formed component the capability to span a series of length between exhaust mounts/hangers.

Conventional exhaust systems are heavy and cumbersome, as well as consisting of metals that conducts heat, as well as providing slow heat distribution. Metallic exhaust systems are bonded together by welds. If a weld protrudes in the inner portion of an exhaust pipe, then the air flow becomes constrained, and engine efficiency is negatively impacted. The difficulty with metal welds is that it is not readily apparent if the welds protrude into the inside of the exhaust pipes. A high rate of exhaust gas flow is a necessity in engine performance. Metals have a limited capacity to form small bend radii before becoming kinked; good pipes are made with U and J bends, so that compact bends can be assembled using parts of the tubes; however, compound curves create a less direct path for gases to escape. Interior smoothness, i.e. protruding welds, and compound bends are factors considered by designers wanting to achieve maximum performance. The extreme periods of high temperatures within of the exhaust system presents yet another problem, which those skilled in the field would agree is a difficultly. Heat is a result of high power generation; a key component that radiates this heat is the exhaust system consisting of the header, tubing, and tail pipe components. In engine performance prior art have used exotic steels and ceramics to help optimize the exhaust, but with limited success. Methods of coating the components with a ceramic lining or paint have been useful to help dampen the extreme heat but still the problem remains of power loss due to excessive heat created by the exhaust header, tubing, and tail pipe components

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS

Those skilled in the art will clearly see the advantages of this invention. The drawings that have been selected are accompanied by a detailed description that can be briefly described as follows:

FIG. 1 is a drawing of a prior art exhaust manifold, complete with cross-section views.

FIG. 2 is a drawing of the present exhaust manifold/tubing system invention (CMX), including a perspective and a cross-section view of a CMX system.

DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 illustrates a typical combustion engine manifold. The manifold 1 is a prior art metallic manifold. Cross-section FIG. 1A is a detailed view of manifold 1, and layer 2 is metallic, with no additives used, such as a composite or matrix material. FIG. 1B is a cross-section of a manifold (not shown) with a ceramic lining. Layer 3 is a metallic, with a lining of ceramic coating 4 on the inside to help prevent the metallic from heating. FIG. 2 represents a carbon fiber composite exhaust (CMX) header 5, consisting of layers of carbon fiber and resin. FIG. 2A is a cross-section of the CMX header 5. Layer 7 is a composite; that is, a fiber and resin formed from a collapsible apparatus in the shape of the desired form that is needed for the appropriate application. Layer 8 is a coating of resin that insulates layer 7. Layer 9 is a composite; that, is, a fiber and resin formed to protect the coat of insulating resin. Layer 10 is a composite; that is, a fiber and resin that add strength and protect from foreign objects that might damage the insulating fiber and resin composite layers 7-9. The fully assembled tube 11 consists of layers 7-10 that have been formed over each other. The metallic, but not limited to metallic-based material, compression/connection tube 6, is then pressed and bonded with a resin, giving the exhaust system a firm connection that will not leak, or compress between the combustion engines exhaust ports, located on the cylinder heads, on either one or both sides of the combustion engine.

There are numerous advantages that CMX can offer for an internal combustion engine over the current metallic, metallic ceramic matrix and ceramic exhaust components.

  • 1. CMX can be formed into any shape, whether it is a custom shaped exhaust component, or a simple exhaust tube.
  • 2. CMX is based on a uniform fiber weave, allowing multiple layers to be used to achieve the required strength, unlike others where molten metallic is needed for additional strength.
  • 3. CMX is composed of a carbon fiber composite material, making it inherently lighter than its metallic counterparts.
  • 4. CMX can be formed into a long continuous flangeless exhaust system consisting of no flanges between the manifold and exhaust outlet that would disrupt gas flow, unless government specifications demand a muffler and/or catalytic converter to be installed between the exhaust manifold and exhaust tubing.
  • 5. CMX is an organic composite consisting of organic fibers and water-based resin.
  • 6. CMX contains no additional fibers, consisting of an impregnated resin, unlike its ceramic counterpart.
  • 7. CMX can withstand rapid change in thermal fluctuation.
  • 8. CMX is based on a tubular or monocoque design that is able to conform to existing exhaust specifications, as well as being fully tunable and customizable.
  • 9. CMX is a non-conductive material; therefore, heat is neither stored, nor retained within the exhaust component unlike its metallic counterparts.
  • 10. CMX is a non thermal retaining invention, therefore allowing rapid cooling. Within 30 seconds of turning off the combustion engine, the CMX will cool to touch-temperatures.
  • 11. CMX is an organic composite made of biodegradable ingredients.
  • 12. CMX is a fiber reinforced composite, allowing its thermal expansion to be less than that of a metallic counterpart.
  • 13. CMX is made entirely of organic material making it more corrosion resistant than its metallic counterpart.
  • 14. CMX consists of a fiber which can adhere to coating of paint, but not limited to silicone paint, as a means of UV light protecting and as a decoration.

There are many distinct advantages offered by a CMX internal combustion engine exhaust, header/tubing system over current metal manifolds, which are described as follows:

1) Being that the exhaust, header/tubing system is a fiber composite ceramic, it inherently has a better non-insulating capability than the metallic counterpart, thus reducing the heat load in the engine compartment.

2) Being that the exhaust, header/tubing system is a fiber reinforced composite, it is inherently corrosion resistant.

3) Being that the exhaust, header/tubing system is a fiber reinforced composite, it inherently is more temperature resistant than its metallic counterpart.

4) Being that the exhaust, header/tubing system is a fiber reinforced composite, it inherently is substantially lighter than its metallic counterpart

5) Being that the exhaust, header/tubing system is a fiber reinforced composite, it reduces the heat retained to a minimal factor compared to its metallic counterparts.

6) Being that the exhaust, header/tubing system is a fiber reinforced composite, and it is manufactured with a water-based resin, it has the inherent potential for recycling for future CMX applications.

EXAMPLE

Fabrication of a CMX Exhaust Header/Tubing System.

First the mold process,

This process consists of determining which component of the exhaust will be fabricated. Then a mold, in the proper shape, will be constructed out of a collapsible apparatus.

Second the lay up,

Depending on the application, a fiber material such as, but not limited to, carbon will be either layered on or pulled over as a sleeve to conform to the mold.

Third saturating,

The fiber will now be saturated with a resin. In this example, an alumina-silicate resin is diluted to a ratio of 1 part resin to 5 parts water. This step may also include squeezing, and/or injecting, the mixture of resin and water into the form of the component mold of the structure.

Fourth firing,

The resin-saturated structure is then heated as per the following example, but it should be noted that there are numerous definitions of heating and cooling cycles, not limited to the example presented here:

A) Heat from ambient temperature to 300 degree F.

B) Hold at 300 degree F. for 15 minutes

C) Cool at ambient temperature. For 15 minutes.

Fifth mold removal,

The collapsible apparatus is now removed from the CMX composite, which is then saturated by brushing on a non-diluted alumina-silicate resin.

Sixth firing,

The resin-saturated structure is heated as per the following example, but it should be noted that there are numerous definitions of heating and cooling cycles, not limited to the example presented here:

A) Heat from ambient temperature to 450 degree F.

B) Hold at 450 degrees F. for 30 minutes.

C) Cool at ambient temperature for 15 minutes

Seventh adding strength,

Multiple layers are utilized in this application, each adhering to the foregoing procedure.

Eighth insertion of connection/compression tube,

The connection/compression tube, but not limited to metallic material, is then inserted. These tubes are used as a surface at which the exhaust, header/tubing system may be jointed with the internal combustion engine, and then bonded with resin. Then the component must be fired in a procedure as follows:

A) Heat from ambient temperature to 300 degrees F.

B) Hold at 300 degrees F. for 30 minutes

C) Cooled at ambient temperatures for 1 hour.

Ninth the coating,

Once the exhaust, header/tubing system has gone through the previously stated steps, described above, it is then coated with a, but not limited, to high-temperature silicone paint. Once coating, the component is then fired.

A) Hold at ambient temperature for 1 hour.

B) Heat from ambient temperature to 200 degrees F.

C) Hold at 200 degrees F. for 15 minutes.

D) Cool at ambient temperature for 1 hour.

There are numerous definitions for desired thermal heat treatments, and the foregoing is only one example, not intended to be exhaustive.

This process is an example of how a carbon and resin, but not limited to, carbon fiber and alumina-silicate resin can be formed in to an exhaust, header/tubing system for, but limited to, a motorcycle and automobile.

The design of the mold for each system will differ as the technology surrounding internal combustion engines changes, as one experienced in this field would understand.

This invention is applicable to any internal combustion engine such as, but not limited to, 2 cycle engines, 4 cycle engines or 4/6/8/10/12/16 cylinder internal combustion engines.

EXAMPLE

Use of Carbon Fiber Composite Exhaust (CMX)

New regulations have been made for the 2005 season of Formula 1 racing. These regulations have heavily impacted the performance requirements of the car, a person associated with the production of these high performance automobiles would agree.

    • A. Current as of 2005, the new regulations for Formula 1 racing state that one driver may use only one engine for two consecutive events.1
    • B. Changes have been made to the aerodynamics of the cars in order to decrease the downforce and hence cut performance.2

In part A, it is stated that only one engine may be used for every two race weekend. This means that unlike previous seasons where engines could be changed at any point, the driver must be more cautious when running the engine at high revolutions (RPS) to insure that the engine does not fail due to overheating.

By having a CMX system instead of a metallic exhaust, the engine would have a larger margin heat fluctuation, which causes temporary high peak temperatures, because the CMX system would not conduct as much heat as the metallic counterpart. During pit stops in a race situation, the CMX system would quickly cool and enable the mechanics to start and complete work on the engine components more quickly without added risk of severe burns.

In part B, the changed rules on the aerodynamics resulted in having to create and modify the aerodynamics of the car, so that the proper down force could be achieved. These modifications cause overheating complications within the airflow in the engine compartment.

Since a CMX system would emit less heat than the metallic counterpart, the use of a CMX system would result in a cooler engine compartment, minimizing the overheating complications brought on by the aerodynamic modifications.

Overall, having a CMX system on a high performance engine, such as a Formula 1 race car, will benefit the race crew by having a cooler engine compartment; as well as allowing mechanics, when having to fix a problem that is located near the engine, to have an exhaust system that has cooled dramatically within seconds. This fast-cooling ability of a CMX system can help prevent severe burns that could be given by its metallic counterparts and provide a larger period of time for working repairs within a given period of time.