Title:
Pressure sensitive ashesive optical film and image viewing display
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
A pressure-sensitive adhesive type optical film which comprises an optical film and a pressure-sensitive adhesive layer superposed on at least one side thereof through an anchor layer formed from a polyamine compound. It is easy to handle because the pressure-sensitive adhesive does not peel off even when an edge of the film comes into contract during handling in use. The pressure-sensitive adhesive type optical film can be inhibited from being electrostatically charged upon peeling.



Inventors:
Satake, Masayuki (Ibaraki-shi, JP)
Kobayashi, Shigeo (Ibaraki-shi, JP)
Umeda, Michio (Ibaraki-shi, JP)
Harada, Chiaki (Ibaraki-shi, JP)
Sadayori, Naoki (Ibaraki-shi, JP)
Akamatsu, Hideki (Ibaraki-shi, JP)
Ogasawara, Akiko (Ibaraki-shi, JP)
Application Number:
10/502943
Publication Date:
04/07/2005
Filing Date:
01/28/2003
Assignee:
SATAKE MASAYUKI
KOBAYASHI SHIGEO
UMEDA MICHIO
HARADA CHIAKI
SADAYORI NAOKI
AKAMATSU HIDEKI
OGASAWARA AKIKO
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
349/115
International Classes:
B32B7/02; B32B27/00; G02B5/30; G02F1/1335; H01L51/50; H05B33/02; (IPC1-7): G02F1/1335
View Patent Images:
Related US Applications:
20080043162LCD sheet and LCD panelFebruary, 2008Tung et al.
20080074606Smart mirror apparatus using LCD panelMarch, 2008Lee
20070146621Apparatus for fabricating flat panel display, and apparatus and method for detecting quantity of static electricity thereofJune, 2007Yeom
20020159002Direct backlighting for liquid crystal displaysOctober, 2002Chang
20020003610Projection type display system using a polarizing beam splitterJanuary, 2002Park et al.
20070222909Flexible Flat Panel DisplaysSeptember, 2007Slikkerveer et al.
20080002106Transflective Lcd Display DeviceJanuary, 2008Van De et al.
20060215076Selective light transmitting and receiving system and methodSeptember, 2006Karim
20090147177MULTI-VISION DISPLAYJune, 2009Lee et al.
20060244700Monitor systemNovember, 2006Sano et al.
20060146229Display panel having fluorescent color patterns and display device having the sameJuly, 2006Cho et al.



Primary Examiner:
DESAI, ANISH P
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
WESTERMAN, HATTORI, DANIELS & ADRIAN, LLP (8500 Leesburg Pike SUITE 7500, Tysons, VA, 22182, US)
Claims:
1. A pressure sensitive adhesive optical film having a pressure sensitive adhesive layer laminated on at least one surface of the optical film, wherein the pressure sensitive adhesive layer is laminated through an anchor layer formed with polyamine compounds.

2. The pressure sensitive adhesive optical film according to claim 1, wherein a thickness of an anchor layer is 5 to 500 nm.

3. The pressure sensitive adhesive optical film according to claim 1, wherein the polyamine compounds are of polyethylene imines.

4. The pressure sensitive adhesive optical film according to claim 1, wherein the polyamine compounds are of allylamine based compounds.

5. The pressure sensitive adhesive optical film according to claim 1, wherein the pressure sensitive adhesive layer is formed with acrylic based pressure sensitive adhesives.

6. The pressure sensitive adhesive optical film according to claim 1, wherein a base polymer of the pressure sensitive adhesive for forming the pressure sensitive adhesive layer includes a functional group reactive with an amino group.

7. The pressure sensitive adhesive optical film according to claim 6, wherein a functional group reactive with an amino group included in the base polymer of the pressure sensitive adhesive for forming the pressure sensitive adhesive layer is a carboxyl group.

8. The pressure sensitive adhesive optical film according to claim 6, wherein in the pressure sensitive adhesive layer laminated through an anchor layer formed of a polyamine compound, a pressure sensitive adhesive in the pressure sensitive adhesive layer and a polyamine compound in the anchor layer form a mixed reaction layer in the anchor layer, and a thickness of the mixed reaction layer is not less than 50% of a thickness of whole of the anchor layer.

9. The pressure sensitive adhesive optical film according to claim 1, wherein a material of a surface of the optical film on which the anchor layer is laminated is of polycarbonate or norbornene based resins.

10. The pressure sensitive adhesive optical film according to claim 1, wherein activation treatment is given to the optical film.

11. An image viewing display using the at least one pressure sensitive adhesive optical film according to claim 1.

12. The pressure sensitive adhesive optical film according to claim 7, wherein in the pressure sensitive adhesive layer laminated through an anchor layer formed of a polyamine compound, a pressure sensitive adhesive in the pressure sensitive adhesive layer and a polyamine compound in the anchor layer form a mixed reaction layer in the anchor layer, and a thickness of the mixed reaction layer is not less than 50% of a thickness of whole of the anchor layer.

13. The pressure sensitive adhesive optical film according to claim 2, wherein the polyamine compounds are of allylamine based compounds.

Description:

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to a pressure sensitive adhesive optical film having a pressure sensitive adhesive layer laminated on at least one surface of the optical film. Specifically, it relates to an image viewing display using the pressure sensitive adhesive optical film, such as liquid crystal displays, organic EL displays, and PDPs. As the optical films, polarizing plates, retardation plates, optical compensating films, brightness enhancement films, etc., and furthermore optical films with the films laminated to each other may be mentioned.

BACKGROUND ART

In liquid crystal displays etc., an image forming system necessarily requires polarizing elements disposed on both sides of a liquid crystal cell, and, in general, polarizing plate(s) are adhered thereto. Moreover, in liquid crystal panels, in order to improve display quality of displays, various optical elements other than polarizing plates are increasingly used. For example, retardation plates for prevention of coloring, viewing-angle expansion films for improving viewing angle of liquid crystal displays, and furthermore, brightness enhancement films for increasing contrast of displays etc. are used. These films are generically called optical films.

In case of adhesion of the above-mentioned optical films to liquid crystal cells, pressure sensitive adhesives are usually used. Moreover, in adhesion between optical films and liquid crystal cells, and between optical films, each material is usually attached by using pressure sensitive adhesives in order to reduce loss of light. In such a case, since it has such advantage that does not require drying stages for firm adhesion of the optical films, there are generally used pressure sensitive adhesive optical films having a pressure sensitive adhesive beforehand prepared on one side of the optical films as a pressure sensitive adhesive layer.

Following characteristics are mentioned as necessary characteristics required for the pressure sensitive adhesive:

  • (1) the optical films shall be peeled off from a liquid crystal panel surface, and may be attached again (reworking) even when it is incorrectly attached on a position or foreign matter is involved between laminated sides, in case of attaching optical films on a liquid crystal panel surface;
  • (2) it shall has stress relaxation property, in order to prevent optical no uniformity caused by dimensional change of the optical film; and
  • (3) it shall not generate malfunction originated in pressure sensitive adhesive in durability tests by heating, humidification, etc. usually performed as environmental accelerated tests.

Especially, problems have occurred about the reworkability of the above (1): since adhesive properties between a pressure sensitive adhesive layer and an optical film base material are low in old pressure sensitive adhesive optical films, the pressure sensitive adhesives of the pressure sensitive adhesive optical film partially remains on a liquid crystal panel surface in case of peeling of the pressure sensitive adhesive optical film from the liquid crystal panel (hereinafter, referred to as “remained pressure sensitive adhesive”).

Moreover, the pressure sensitive adhesive optical film is cut into a size of a display in use. Contact of an end (cut end) of the pressure sensitive adhesive optical film to a people and an equipment may cause lack of the pressure sensitive adhesive in a contact portion in case of handling during the process for the use (pressure sensitive adhesive omission). Since attachment on a liquid crystal cell of a pressure sensitive adhesive optical film with omission of a pressure sensitive adhesive disables adhesion of the omitted portion, the portion reflects light, and as a result there may occur a problem of a display defect. Recently an edge of a display is required especially to be narrower and then a defect generated at the end markedly reduces display quality.

Moreover, a surface of an optical film usually has a surface protective film attached thereon. The surface protective film concerned is removed after attaching onto a liquid crystal panel of the optical film. In this case, peeling electrification may occur, which may destroy circuits of the panel.

The present invention aims at providing a pressure sensitive adhesive optical film with which a pressure sensitive adhesive layer(s) is laminated on at least one surface of the optical film, wherein the pressure sensitive adhesive optical film does not cause omission of the pressure sensitive adhesive by contact of an end in case of handling during the process for the use, but provides easy handling.

Moreover, the invention aims at providing a pressure sensitive adhesive optical film enabling control of peeling electrification.

Furthermore, it aims at providing an image viewing display using the pressure sensitive adhesive optical film concerned.

DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

As a result of wholehearted research made by the present inventors in order to solve the above-mentioned problems, it was found out that the object might be attained using a following pressure sensitive adhesive optical film, thus leading to completion of the present invention.

That is, the invention relates to a pressure sensitive adhesive optical film with a pressure sensitive adhesive layer laminated on at least one surface of an optical film, wherein the pressure sensitive adhesive layer is laminated through an anchor layer formed with polyamine compounds.

In a pressure sensitive adhesive optical film of the invention, based on a consideration that omission of pressure sensitive adhesives originates mainly in a low adhesive properties between a pressure sensitive adhesive layer and an optical film base material, it has become possible that intervention of an anchor layer formed with polyamine compounds between the pressure sensitive adhesive layer and the optical film base material improves adhesive properties between the pressure sensitive adhesive layer and the optical film. This can reduce greatly partial omission of the pressure sensitive adhesives at a film end in case of handling of the pressure sensitive adhesive optical film, and also can improve handling property of the pressure sensitive adhesive optical film.

Moreover, the anchor layer formed with polyamine compounds can improve handling property, and also can control peeling electrification. Peeling electrification can also be controlled by performing electric conduction treatment to the optical film. However, new addition of an electrically conductive layer causes a cost rise, and causes problems of reducing optical characteristics. An anchor layer formed with polyamine compounds does not cause this problem.

In the pressure sensitive adhesive optical film, a thickness of the anchor layer is preferably 5 to 500 nm. From a viewpoint of reservation of adhesive properties, and inhibition of peeling electrification, a thickness of the anchor layer is preferably not less than 5 nm, and more preferably not less than 10 nm. On the other hand, in consideration of optical characteristics decrease, a thickness of the anchor layer is usually not more than 5000 nm. A greater thickness of the anchor layer tends to cause rupture within the anchor layer based on a shortage of strength of the polyamine compounds, thus sometimes leading to inadequate adhesive properties. A thickness of the anchor layer is preferably not more than 500 nm, more preferably not more than 300 nm, and still more preferably not more than 200 nm. A larger thickness of the anchor layer gives better peeling electrification effect; effect will be saturated even if it exceeds 200 nm. From this reason, it is 5 to 500 nm, preferably 10 to 300 nm, and more preferably 10 to 200 nm.

In the pressure sensitive adhesive optical film, a preferable embodiment is that the polyamine compounds is of polyethylene imines. Since the polyethylene imines forming the anchor layer have primary amino groups at terminal groups, and secondary amino groups in a principal chain and, as a result, it has a high percentage of amino groups in a resin, in a surface boundary and vicinity of the anchor layer and the pressure sensitive adhesive layer, amino groups of the polyethylene imines and functional groups in the pressure sensitive adhesive layer may react with each other to enable formation of a firm adhesive properties between the anchor layer and the pressure sensitive adhesive layer. Polyethylene imines are soluble in water/alcohol, and therefore a pressure sensitive adhesive layer may be formed without deteriorating the optical film concerned even when materials of the optical film have inferior solvent resistance. For example, in the pressure sensitive adhesive optical film, change in quality of materials can be controlled when the materials of the optical film surface on which an anchor layer is to be laminated are of polycarbonates and norbornene based resins.

In addition, an example in which an ethyleneimine addition product of a polyacrylic acid is prepared as an anchor layer between a pressure sensitive adhesive layer and an optical film base material is known (Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 10-20118 official report). However, this anchor layer has only a little percentage of primary amines (secondary amino group) included in a molecule, and as a result a polyacrylic acid portion does not work effectively to adhesive properties with base materials, adhesive properties between the pressure sensitive adhesive layer and the optical film base material is not fully improved. Furthermore, since ethyleneimine addition products of polyacrylic esters require coating in a form of organic solvent diluted state, when the optical film materials are of polycarbonate and norbornene based resins, the materials receive change in quality.

A preferable embodiment is that polyamine compounds are of allylamine based compounds in the pressure sensitive adhesive optical film. Allylamine based compounds also has a higher percentage of primary amino groups at terminal groups, and enable adhesive properties between an anchor layer and a pressure sensitive adhesive layer. Especially as allylamine based compounds, poly allylamines are preferable. Poly allylamines are soluble in water/alcohol, and therefore a pressure sensitive adhesive layer may be formed without deteriorating the optical film concerned even when materials of the optical film have inferior solvent resistance. For example, in the pressure sensitive adhesive optical film, change in quality of materials can be controlled when the materials of the optical film surface on which an anchor layer is to be laminated are of polycarbonates and norbornene based resins.

In the pressure sensitive adhesive optical film, the pressure sensitive adhesive layer is preferably formed of acrylic based pressure sensitive adhesives.

As pressure sensitive adhesives forming the pressure sensitive adhesive layer, polymers including functional groups reactive with amino groups may preferably be used as a base polymer. Using a polymer including functional groups reactive with amino groups as a base polymer, in a surface boundary and vicinity of the anchor layer and the pressure sensitive adhesive layer, amino groups of the poly amine and functional groups in the pressure sensitive adhesive layer may react with each other to enable formation of adhesive properties between the anchor layer and the pressure sensitive adhesive layer.

A preferable embodiment of the invention is that a functional group reactive with amino groups included in a base polymer of a pressure sensitive adhesive for forming the pressure sensitive adhesive layer is a carboxyl group in the pressure sensitive adhesive optical film. Carboxyl groups have excellent reactivity with amino groups, are suitable as the functional group included in the base polymer, and moreover provide excellent adhesive properties between the pressure sensitive adhesive layer and the anchor layer.

In the pressure sensitive adhesive optical film, a base polymer of a pressure sensitive adhesive for forming the pressure sensitive adhesive layer includes functional groups reactive with amino groups, in the pressure sensitive adhesive layer laminated through an anchor layer formed with polyamine compounds, the pressure sensitive adhesive in the pressure sensitive adhesive layer and the polyamine compounds in the anchor layer form a mixed reaction layer in the anchor layer, a thickness of the mixed reaction layer is preferably not less than 50% of a thickness of the whole anchor layer.

Polyamine compounds forming an anchor layer has a primary amino group at terminal groups, on the other hand, polymers including functional groups reactive with the amino groups are used as base polymers as a pressure sensitive adhesive forming a pressure sensitive adhesive layer, and therefore each of them mutually penetrates in a surface boundary and vicinity of the anchor layer and the pressure sensitive adhesive layer. As a result, a mixed reaction layer is formed in an area in which the amino group in the anchor layer and the functional group in the pressure sensitive adhesive layer reacted together, which enables firm adhesive properties between the anchor layer and the pressure sensitive adhesive layer.

In addition, since a portion that does not form the mixed reaction layer of the anchor layer does not participate in the reaction, it does not contribute to enabling adhesive properties, and moreover a larger percentage of the portion may rather decrease the adhesive properties. From this understanding, the mixed reaction layer is preferably adjusted so as to give not less than 50% of thickness of whole of the anchor layer. The mixed reaction layer is preferably at least not less than 50% of whole of the anchor layer, more preferably not less than 80%. In addition, the mixed reaction layer can be checked as a strongly dyed layer when the optical film is dyed by ruthenium acid. This means that polyamine compounds independently exist in a portion of the anchor layer that is not easily dyed with ruthenium acid.

In the pressure sensitive adhesive optical film, polycarbonate or norbornene based resins may be conveniently used as materials for the optical film surface where anchor layer is laminated thereon. As mentioned above, when allylamine based compounds are used as polyamine compounds for formation material of the anchor layer, change in quality of the polycarbonate or norbornene based resins may especially be controlled.

Moreover, in the pressure sensitive adhesive optical film, an optical film preferably has activation treatment performed thereto. Activation treatment given to the optical film can suppress repelling at the time of formation of the anchor layer onto the optical film, which enables easy formation of the anchor layer with excellent adhesive properties on the optical film.

Moreover, the invention relates to an image viewing display using the at least one pressure sensitive adhesive optical films. According to various kinds of utilization embodiments of the image viewing displays, such as liquid crystal displays, the pressure sensitive adhesive optical films of the invention may be used independently or two or more of them may be used in combination.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a cross-sectional view of a pressure sensitive adhesive optical film of the present invention; and

FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional enlarged view of a pressure sensitive adhesive optical film of the invention.

BEST MODE FOR CARRYING OUT OF THE INVENTION

Pressure sensitive adhesives for forming a pressure sensitive adhesive layer of a pressure sensitive adhesive optical film of the present invention is not especially limited, but various kinds of pressure sensitive adhesives, such as rubber based pressure sensitive adhesives, acrylic based pressure sensitive adhesives, and silicone based pressure sensitive adhesives, may be used. In general, acrylic based pressure sensitive adhesives having colorless transparency and excellent adhesive property with liquid crystal cells etc. are used. Moreover, polymers having functional groups reactive with amino groups as base polymers of the pressure sensitive adhesives are preferable.

Acrylic based pressure sensitive adhesives have, as a base polymer, acrylic polymers having a monomer unit of alkyl (meth)acrylate as a principal skeleton. In addition, (meth)acrylate represents acrylate and/or methacrylate and (meth) used in the invention has a same meaning. An average carbon number of alkyl groups of alkyl (meth)acrylates that constitute a principal skeleton of the acrylic polymer is about 1 to 12, and as examples of alkyl (meth)acrylates, there may be mentioned: methyl (meth)acrylates, ethyl (meth)acrylates, butyl (meth)acrylates, 2-ethyl hexyl (meth)acrylates, etc. These may be used independently, or may be used in combination. Among them, alkyl (meth)acrylates of alkyl groups of carbon numbers of 1 to 7 are preferable.

As functional groups reactive with amino groups introduced into a base polymer, such as acrylic polymers, for example, there may be mentioned carboxyl groups, epoxy groups, isocyanate groups, etc. Carboxyl groups are suitable among them. Acrylic polymers having functional groups reactive with amino groups include a monomer unit having the functional group. As monomers having carboxyl groups, acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, fumaric acid, maleic acid, itaconic acid, etc. may be mentioned. Glycidyl (meth)acrylates etc. may be mentioned as monomers including epoxy groups.

Although a percentage of a monomer unit having the functional groups in the acrylic polymer is not especially limited, a weight ratio (a/A) with a monomer unit (A) (wherein except for the above-mentioned monomer unit (a)) constituting the acrylic polymers is preferably about 0.001 to 0.12, and more preferably 0.005 to 0.1.

Moreover, monomer units having a hydroxyl group(s), monomer units having N element may be introduced into the acrylic polymer. As monomers having a hydroxyl group(s), there may be mentioned: hydroxyl group including monomers, such as 2-hydroxy ethyl (meth)acrylate and N-methylol(meth)acrylamide; hydroxy butyl (meth)acrylate; hydroxy hexyl (meth)acrylate etc. As monomers including an N element, there may be mentioned: (meth)acrylamide, N,N-dimethyl (meth)acrylamide, N,N-diethyl (meth)acrylamide, (meth)acryloyl morpholine, (meth)acetonitrile, vinyl-pyrrolidone, N-cyclohexyl maleimide, itaconimide, N,N-dimethylamino ethyl (meth)acrylamide etc. In addition, vinyl acetate, styrene, etc. may also be further used for the acrylic polymers in a range that do not impair performance of the pressure sensitive adhesive. These monomers may be used independently or two or more kinds of them may be used in combination.

Although an average molecular weight of the acrylic polymer is not especially limited, a weight average molecular weight (by GPC) is preferably about 300,000 to 2,500,000. The acrylic polymer may be manufactured using suitably selected various well-known methods, for example, radical-polymerization methods, such as a bulk polymerization method, a solution-polymerization method, and a suspension-polymerization method. As radical polymerization initiators, various kinds of well known azo based and peroxide based polymerization initiators may be used. Reaction temperatures are usually about 50 to 85° C., and reaction time is about 1 to 8 hours. Moreover, also among the manufacturing methods, a solution-polymerization method is preferable, and polar solvents, such as ethyl acetate and toluene, are generally used as solvents for acrylic polymers. Solution concentrations are usually about 20 to 80% by weight.

As base polymers of rubber based pressure sensitive adhesives, for example, there may be mentioned: natural rubbers, isoprene rubbers, styrene butadiene based rubbers, reclaimed rubbers, polyisobutylene based rubbers, and furthermore styrene-isoprene-styrene based rubbers, styrene-butadiene-styrene based rubbers, etc., and as base polymers of silicone based pressure sensitive adhesives, for example, dimethyl polysiloxanes, diphenyl polysiloxanes, etc. may be mentioned, and polymers into which functional groups reactive with amino groups, such as carboxyl groups are introduced may suitably be used.

Moreover, the pressure sensitive adhesive is preferably a pressure sensitive adhesive composition including crosslinking agents. As polyfunctional compounds that may be blended with the pressure sensitive adhesive, organic crosslinking agents and polyfunctional metal chelates may be mentioned. As organic based crosslinking agents, epoxy based crosslinking agents, isocyanate based crosslinking agents, imine based crosslinking agents, etc. may be mentioned. As organic based crosslinking agents, isocyanate based crosslinking agents are preferable. Polyfunctional metal chelates are substances having polyvalent metals that have a coordinate bond or a covalent bond with organic compounds. As polyvalent metal atoms, Al, Cr, Zr, Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, V, Zn, In, Ca, Mg, Mn, Y, Ce, Sr, Ba, Mo, La, Sn, Ti, etc. may be mentioned. An oxygen atom etc. may be mentioned as an atom in organic compounds constituting a covalent bond or a coordinate bond, and as organic compounds, alkyl esters, alcohol compounds, carboxylic acid compounds, ether compounds, ketone compounds, etc. may be mentioned.

Although a blending ratio of a base polymer, such as acrylic polymers, and a crosslinking agent is not especially limited, but usually, preferably the crosslinking agent (solid content) is about 0.01 to 6 parts by weight to the base polymer (solid content) 100 parts by weight, and more preferably 0.1 to 3 parts by weight.

Furthermore, to the pressure sensitive adhesive, if necessary, there may suitably be used tackifiers, plasticizers, glass fibers, glass beads, fillers comprising metal powders, other inorganic powders, etc., pigments, colorants, fillers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, silane coupling agents etc. Moreover, various kinds of additives in a range that does not depart from purposes of the invention may also be suitably used. A pressure sensitive adhesive layer showing light diffusibility obtained by adding micro-particles is also employable.

As polyamine compounds for forming an anchor layer, polyamine compounds that can form a coated film may be used especially without limitation. Polyamine compounds are compounds including many amino groups, and compounds using monomers having amino groups as a main monomer constituting the polyamine compounds are preferable. Polyethylene imines and allylamine based compounds may be mentioned as polyamine compounds. Any of a solvent soluble type, a water dispersable type, and a water dissolved type may be sufficient as types of usage of the polyamine compounds.

Polyethylene imines for forming the anchor layer are not especially limited, but various kinds may be used. A weight average molecular weight of the polyethylene imines is not especially limited, and it is usually about 100 to 1,000,000. For example, as examples of commercially available articles of the polyethylene imines, EPOMIN SP series manufactured by NIPPON SHOKUBAI Co., Ltd. (SP-003, SP-006, SP-012, SP-018, SP-103, SP-110, and SP-200 etc.) and EPOMIN P-1000 etc. may be mentioned. EPOMIN P-1000 is suitable among them.

The allylamine based compounds forming the anchor layer are not especially limited, for example, there may be mentioned: allylamine based compounds, such as diallylamine hydrochloride-sulfur dioxide copolymers, diallyl methylamine hydrochloride copolymers, poly allylamine hydrochlorides, poly allylamines etc.; condensates of poly alkylene polyamines, such as diethylenetriamine, and dicarboxylic acids; and furthermore, epihalohydrin addition products thereof; polyvinyl amine etc. Allylamine based compounds, especially poly allylamines, are soluble in water/alcohol, which are preferable. Moreover, a weight average molecular weight of the polyamine compounds is not especially limited, but is preferably about 10,000 to 100,000.

Moreover, compounds reactive with polyamine compounds may be mixed in addition to the polyamine compounds in formation of the anchor layer to form a crosslinking, enabling improvement in strength of the anchor layer. Epoxy compounds etc. may be illustrated as compounds reactive with the polyamine compounds.

In a pressure sensitive adhesive optical film of the invention, as shown in FIG. 1, a pressure sensitive adhesive layer 3 is formed onto an optical film 1 through an anchor layer 2 formed with a polyamine compound. Moreover, a releasing sheet 4 may be formed on the pressure sensitive adhesive layer 3. Moreover, as shown in FIG. 2, the anchor layer 2 preferably has a mixed reaction layer 5 with a thickness (a) in the layer having a thickness (A).

Optical films used for formation of an image viewing displays, such as liquid crystal displays, as an optical film 1 may be used, and kinds thereof are not especially limited. For example, polarizing plates may be mentioned as the optical films. Polarizing plates having transparent protective film(s) on one side or both sides of a polarizer may be used in general.

A polarizer is not limited especially but various kinds of polarizer may be used. As a polarizer, for example, a film that is uniaxially stretched after having dichromatic substances, such as iodine and dichromatic dye, absorbed to hydrophilic high molecular weight polymer films, such as polyvinyl alcohol type film, partially formalized polyvinyl alcohol type film, and ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer type partially saponified film; poly-ene type alignment films, such as dehydrated polyvinyl alcohol and dehydrochlorinated polyvinyl chloride, etc. may be mentioned. In these, a polyvinyl alcohol type film on which dichromatic materials (iodine, dyes) is absorbed and aligned after stretched is suitably used. Although thickness of polarizer is not especially limited, the thickness of about 5 to 80 μm is commonly adopted.

A polarizer that is uniaxially stretched after a polyvinyl alcohol type film dyed with iodine is obtained by stretching a polyvinyl alcohol film by 3 to 7 times the original length, after dipped and dyed in aqueous solution of iodine. If needed the film may also be dipped in aqueous solutions, such as boric acid and potassium iodide, which may include zinc sulfate, zinc chloride. Furthermore, before dyeing, the polyvinyl alcohol type film may be dipped in water and rinsed if needed. By rinsing polyvinyl alcohol type film with water, effect of preventing un-uniformity, such as unevenness of dyeing, is expected by making polyvinyl alcohol type film swelled in addition that also soils and blocking inhibitors on the polyvinyl alcohol type film surface may be washed off. Stretching may be applied after dyed with iodine or may be applied concurrently, or conversely dyeing with iodine may be applied after stretching. Stretching is applicable in aqueous solutions, such as boric acid and potassium iodide, and in water bath.

As a materials forming the protective film prepared in one side or both sides of the above-mentioned polarizer, with outstanding transparency, mechanical strength, heat stability, moisture cover property, isotropy, etc. may be preferable. As materials of the above-mentioned protective film, for example, polyester type polymers, such as polyethylene terephthalate and polyethylenenaphthalate; cellulose type polymers, such as diacetyl cellulose and triacetyl cellulose; acrylics type polymer, such as poly methylmethacrylate; styrene type polymers, such as polystyrene and acrylonitrile-styrene copolymer (AS resin); polycarbonate type polymer may be mentioned. Besides, as examples of the polymer forming a protective film, polyolefin type polymers, such as polyethylene, polypropylene, polyolefin that has cyclo-type or norbornene structure, ethylene-propylene copolymer; vinyl chloride type polymer; amide type polymers, such as nylon and aromatic polyamide; imide type polymers; sulfone type polymers; polyether sulfone type polymers; polyether-ether ketone type polymers; poly phenylene sulfide type polymers; vinyl alcohol type polymer; vinylidene chloride type polymers; vinyl butyral type polymers; allylate type polymers; polyoxymethylene type polymers; epoxy type polymers; or blend polymers of the above-mentioned polymers may be mentioned. Films made of heat curing type or ultraviolet ray curing type resins, such as acryl based, urethane based, acryl urethane based, epoxy based, and silicone based, etc. may be mentioned.

Moreover, as is described in Japanese Patent Laid-Open Publication No. 2001-343529 (WO 01/37007), polymer films, for example, resin compositions including (A) thermoplastic resins having substituted and/or non-substituted imido group is in side chain, and (B) thermoplastic resins having substituted and/or non-substituted phenyl and nitrile group in sidechain may be mentioned. As an illustrative example, a film may be mentioned that is made of a resin composition including alternating copolymer comprising iso-butylene and N-methyl maleimide, and acrylonitrile-styrene copolymer. A film comprising mixture extruded article of resin compositions etc. may be used.

In general, a thickness of a transparent protective film is 500 μm or more, preferably 1 through 300 μm, and especially preferably 5 through 200 μm.

Moreover, it is preferable that the transparent protective film may have as little coloring as possible. Accordingly, a protective film having a phase difference value in a film thickness direction represented by Rth=[(nx+ny)/2−nz]×d of −90 nm through +75 nm (where, nx and ny represent principal indices of refraction in a film plane, nz represents refractive index in a film thickness direction, and d represents a film thickness) may be preferably used. Thus, coloring (optical coloring) of polarizing plate resulting from a protective film may mostly be cancelled using a protection film having a phase difference value (Rth) of −90 nm through +75 nm in a thickness direction. The phase difference value (Rth) in a thickness direction is preferably −80 nm through +60 nm, and especially preferably −70 nm through +45 nm.

As a transparent protective film, if polarization property and durability are taken into consideration, cellulose based polymer, such as triacetyl cellulose, is preferable, and especially triacetyl cellulose film is suitable. In addition, when transparent protective films are provided on both sides of the polarizer, transparent protective films comprising same polymer material may be used on both of a front side and a back side, and transparent protective films comprising different polymer materials etc. may be used.

A hard coat processing is applied for the purpose of protecting the surface of the polarization plate from damage, and this hard coat film may be formed by a method in which, for example, a curable coated film with excellent hardness, slide property etc. is added on the surface of the protective film using suitable ultraviolet curable type resins, such as acrylic type and silicone type resins. Antireflection processing is applied for the purpose of antireflection of outdoor daylight on the surface of a polarization plate and it may be prepared by forming an antireflection film according to the conventional method etc. Besides, a sticking prevention processing is applied for the purpose of adherence prevention with adjoining layer.

In addition, an anti glare processing is applied in order to prevent a disadvantage that outdoor daylight reflects on the surface of a polarization plate to disturb visual recognition of transmitting light through the polarization plate, and the processing may be applied, for example, by giving a fine concavo-convex structure to a surface of the protective film using, for example, a suitable method, such as rough surfacing treatment method by sandblasting or embossing and a method of combining transparent fine particle. As a fine particle combined in order to form a fine concavo-convex structure on the above-mentioned surface, transparent fine particles whose average particle size is 0.5 to 50 μm, for example, such as inorganic type fine particles that may have conductivity comprising silica, alumina, titania, zirconia, tin oxides, indium oxides, cadmium oxides, antimony oxides, etc., and organic type fine particles comprising cross-linked of non-cross-linked polymers may be used. When forming fine concavo-convex structure on the surface, the amount of fine particle used is usually about 2 to 50 weight part to the transparent resin 100 weight part that forms the fine concavo-convex structure on the surface, and preferably 5 to 25 weight part. An anti glare layer may serve as a diffusion layer (viewing angle expanding function etc.) for diffusing transmitting light through the polarization plate and expanding a viewing angle etc.

In addition, the above-mentioned antireflection layer, sticking prevention layer, diffusion layer, anti glare layer, etc. may be built in the protective film itself, and also they may be prepared as an optical layer different from the protective film.

An optical film of the invention may be used in practical use as a polarizing plate laminated with other optical layers. Although there is especially no limitation about the optical layers, one layer or two layers or more of optical layers, which may be used for formation of a liquid crystal display etc., such as a reflective plate, a transflective plate, a retardation plate (a half wavelength plate and a quarter wavelength plate included), and a viewing angle compensation film, may be used.

Especially preferable polarizing plates are; a reflection type polarization plate or a transflective type polarization plate in which a reflective plate or a transflective reflective plate is further laminated onto a polarizing plate of the present invention; an elliptically polarizing plate or a circular polarizing plate in which a retardation plate is further laminated onto the polarizing plate; a wide viewing angle polarization plate in which a viewing angle compensation film is further laminated onto the polarizing plate; or a polarizing plate in which a brightness enhancement film is further laminated onto the polarizing plate.

A reflective layer is prepared on a polarization plate to give a reflection type polarization plate, and this type of plate is used for a liquid crystal display in which an incident light from a view side (display side) is reflected to give a display. This type of plate does not require built-in light sources, such as a backlight, but has an advantage that a liquid crystal display may easily be made thinner. A reflection type polarization plate may be formed using suitable methods, such as a method in which a reflective layer of metal etc. is, if required, attached to one side of a polarization plate through a transparent protective layer etc.

As an example of a reflection type polarization plate, a plate may be mentioned on which, if required, a reflective layer is formed using a method of attaching a foil and vapor deposition film of reflective metals, such as aluminum, to one side of a matte treated protective film. Moreover, a different type of plate with a fine concavo-convex structure on the surface obtained by mixing fine particle into the above-mentioned protective film, on which a reflective layer of concavo-convex structure is prepared, may be mentioned. The reflective layer that has the above-mentioned fine concavo-convex structure diffuses incident light by random reflection to prevent directivity and glaring appearance, and has an advantage of controlling unevenness of light and darkness etc. Moreover, the protective film containing the fine particle has an advantage that unevenness of light and darkness may be controlled more effectively, as a result that an incident light and its reflected light that is transmitted through the film are diffused. A reflective layer with fine concavo-convex structure on the surface effected by a surface fine concavo-convex structure of a protective film may be formed by a method of attaching a metal to the surface of a transparent protective layer directly using, for example, suitable methods of a vacuum evaporation method, such as a vacuum deposition method, an ion plating method, and a sputtering method, and a plating method etc.

Instead of a method in which a reflection plate is directly given to the protective film of the above-mentioned polarization plate, a reflection plate may also be used as a reflective sheet constituted by preparing a reflective layer on the suitable film for the transparent film. In addition, since a reflective layer is usually made of metal, it is desirable that the reflective side is covered with a protective film or a polarization plate etc. when used, from a viewpoint of preventing deterioration in reflectance by oxidation, of maintaining an initial reflectance for a long period of time and of avoiding preparation of a protective layer separately etc.

In addition, a transflective type polarizing plate may be obtained by preparing the above-mentioned reflective layer as a transflective type reflective layer, such as a half-mirror etc. that reflects and transmits light. A transflective type polarization plate is usually prepared in the backside of a liquid crystal cell and it may form a liquid crystal display unit of a type in which a picture is displayed by an incident light reflected from a view side (display side) when used in a comparatively well-lighted atmosphere. And this unit displays a picture, in a comparatively dark atmosphere, using embedded type light sources, such as a back light built in backside of a transflective type polarization plate. That is, the transflective type polarization plate is useful to obtain of a liquid crystal display of the type that saves energy of light sources, such as a back light, in a well-lighted atmosphere, and can be used with a built-in light source if needed in a comparatively dark atmosphere etc.

The above-mentioned polarization plate may be used as elliptically polarization plate or circularly polarization plate on which the retardation plate is laminated. A description of the above-mentioned elliptically polarization plate or circularly polarization plate will be made in the following paragraph. These polarization plates change linearly polarized light into elliptically polarized light or circularly polarized light, elliptically polarized light or circularly polarized light into linearly polarized light or change the polarization direction of linearly polarization by a function of the retardation plate. As a retardation plate that changes circularly polarized light into linearly polarized light or linearly polarized light into circularly polarized light, what is called a quarter wavelength plate (also called λ/4 plate) is used. Usually, half-wavelength plate (also called λ/2 plate) is used, when changing the polarization direction of linearly polarized light.

Elliptically polarization plate is effectively used to give a monochrome display without above-mentioned coloring by compensating (preventing) coloring (blue or yellow color) produced by birefringence of a liquid crystal layer of a super twisted nematic (STN) type liquid crystal display. Furthermore, a polarization plate in which three-dimensional refractive index is controlled may also preferably compensate (prevent) coloring produced when a screen of a liquid crystal display is viewed from an oblique direction. Circularly polarization plate is effectively used, for example, when adjusting a color tone of a picture of a reflection type liquid crystal display that provides a colored picture, and it also has function of antireflection.

As retardation plates, birefringence films obtained by uniaxial or biaxial stretching high polymer materials, oriented films of liquid crystal polymers, and materials in which orientated layers of liquid crystal polymers are supported with films may be mentioned. Although a thickness of a retardation plate also is not especially limited, it is in general approximately 20 through 150 μm.

As high polymer materials, for example, polyvinyl alcohols, polyvinyl butyrals, polymethyl vinyl ethers, poly hydroxyethyl acrylates, hydroxyethyl celluloses, hydroxypropyl celluloses, methyl celluloses, polycarbonates, polyarylates, polysulfones, polyethylene terephthalates, polyethylene naphthalates, polyethersulfones, polyphenylene sulfides, polyphenylene oxides, polyallyl sulfones, polyvinyl alcohols, polyamides, polyimides, polyolefins, polyvinyl chlorides, cellulose type polymers, or bipolymers, terpolymers, graft copolymers, blended materials of the above-mentioned polymers may be mentioned. These polymer raw materials make oriented materials (stretched film) using a stretching process and the like.

As liquid crystalline polymers, for example, various kinds of polymers of principal chain type and side chain type in which conjugated linear atomic groups (mesogens) demonstrating liquid crystalline orientation are introduced into a principal chain and a side chain may be mentioned. As examples of principal chain type liquid crystalline polymers, polymers having a structure where mesogen groups are combined by spacer parts demonstrating flexibility, for example, polyester based liquid crystalline polymers of nematic orientation property, discotic polymers, cholesteric polymers, etc. may be mentioned. As examples of side chain type liquid crystalline polymers, polymers having polysiloxanes, polyacrylates, polymethacrylates, or polymalonates as a principal chain skeleton, and polymers having mesogen parts comprising para-substituted ring compound units providing nematic orientation property as side chains via spacer parts comprising conjugated atomic groups may be mentioned. These liquid crystalline polymers, for example, is obtained by spreading a solution of a liquid crystal polymer on an orientation treated surface where rubbing treatment was performed to a surface of thin films, such as polyimide and polyvinyl alcohol, formed on a glass plate and or where silicon oxide was deposited by an oblique evaporation method, and then by heat-treating.

A retardation plate may be a retardation plate that has a proper retardation according to the purposes of use, such as various kinds of wavelength plates and plates aiming at compensation of coloring by birefringence of a liquid crystal layer and of visual angle, etc., and may be a retardation plate in which two or more sorts of retardation plates is laminated so that optical properties, such as retardation, may be controlled.

The above-mentioned elliptically polarization plate and an above-mentioned reflected type elliptically polarization plate are laminated plate combining suitably a polarization plate or a reflection type polarization plate with a retardation plate. This type of elliptically polarization plate etc. may be manufactured by combining a polarization plate (reflected type) and a retardation plate, and by laminating them one by one separately in the manufacture process of a liquid crystal display. On the other hand, the polarization plate in which lamination was beforehand carried out and was obtained as an optical film, such as an elliptically polarization plate, is excellent in a stable quality, a workability in lamination etc., and has an advantage in improved manufacturing efficiency of a liquid crystal display.

A viewing angle compensation film is a film for extending viewing angle so that a picture may look comparatively clearly, even when it is viewed from an oblique direction not from vertical direction to a screen. As such a viewing angle compensation retardation plate, in addition, a film having birefringence property that is processed by uniaxial stretching or orthogonal bidirectional stretching and a bidriectionally stretched film as inclined orientation film etc. may be used. As inclined orientation film, for example, a film obtained using a method in which a heat shrinking film is adhered to a polymer film, and then the combined film is heated and stretched or shrinked under a condition of being influenced by a shrinking force, or a film that is oriented in oblique direction may be mentioned. The viewing angle compensation film is suitably combined for the purpose of prevention of coloring caused by change of visible angle based on retardation by liquid crystal cell etc. and of expansion of viewing angle with good visibility.

Besides, a compensation plate in which an optical anisotropy layer consisting of an alignment layer of liquid crystal polymer, especially consisting of an inclined alignment layer of discotic liquid crystal polymer is supported with triacetyl cellulose film may preferably be used from a viewpoint of attaining a wide viewing angle with good visibility.

The polarization plate with which a polarization plate and a brightness enhancement film are adhered together is usually used being prepared in a backside of a liquid crystal cell. A brightness enhancement film shows a characteristic that reflects linearly polarization light with a predetermined polarization axis, or circularly polarization light with a predetermined direction, and that transmits other light, when natural light by back lights of a liquid crystal display or by reflection from a back-side etc., comes in. The polarization plate, which is obtained by laminating a brightness enhancement film to a polarization plate, thus does not transmit light without the predetermined polarization state and reflects it, while obtaining transmitted light with the predetermined polarization state by accepting a light from light sources, such as a backlight. This polarization plate makes the light reflected by the brightness enhancement film further reversed through the reflective layer prepared in the backside and forces the light re-enter into the brightness enhancement film, and increases the quantity of the transmitted light through the brightness enhancement film by transmitting a part or all of the light as light with the predetermined polarization state. The polarization plate simultaneously supplies polarized light that is difficult to be absorbed in a polarizer, and increases the quantity of the light usable for a liquid crystal picture display etc., and as a result luminosity may be improved. That is, in the case where the light enters through a polarizer from backside of a liquid crystal cell by the back light etc. without using a brightness enhancement film, most of the light, with a polarization direction different from the polarization axis of a polarizer, is absorbed by the polarizer, and does not transmit through the polarizer. This means that although influenced with the characteristics of the polarizer used, about 50 percent of light is absorbed by the polarizer, the quantity of the light usable for a liquid crystal picture display etc. decreases so much, and a resulting picture displayed becomes dark. A brightness enhancement film does not enter the light with the polarizing direction absorbed by the polarizer into the polarizer but reflects the light once by the brightness enhancement film, and further makes the light reversed through the reflective layer etc. prepared in the backside to re-enter the light into the brightness enhancement film. By this above-mentioned repeated operation, only when the polarization direction of the light reflected and reversed between the both becomes to have the polarization direction which may pass a polarizer, the brightness enhancement film transmits the light to supply it to the polarizer. As a result, the light from a backlight may be efficiently used for the display of the picture of a liquid crystal display to obtain a bright screen.

A diffusion plate may also be prepared between brightness enhancement film and the above described reflective layer, etc. A polarized light reflected by the brightness enhancement film goes to the above described reflective layer etc., and the diffusion plate installed diffuses passing light uniformly and changes the light state into depolarization at the same time. That is, the diffusion plate returns polarized light to natural light state. Steps are repeated where light, in the unpolarized state, i.e., natural light state, reflects through reflective layer and the like, and again goes into brightness enhancement film through diffusion plate toward reflective layer and the like. Diffusion plate that returns polarized light to the natural light state is installed between brightness enhancement film and the above described reflective layer, and the like, in this way, and thus a uniform and bright screen may be provided while maintaining brightness of display screen, and simultaneously controlling non-uniformity of brightness of the display screen. By preparing such diffusion plate, it is considered that number of repetition times of reflection of a first incident light increases with sufficient degree to provide uniform and bright display screen conjointly with diffusion function of the diffusion plate.

The suitable films are used as the above-mentioned brightness enhancement film. Namely, multilayer thin film of a dielectric substance; a laminated film that has the characteristics of transmitting a linearly polarized light with a predetermined polarizing axis, and of reflecting other light, such as the multilayer laminated film of the thin film; an aligned film of cholesteric liquid-crystal polymer; a film that has the characteristics of reflecting a circularly polarized light with either left-handed or right-handed rotation and transmitting other light, such as a film on which the aligned cholesteric liquid crystal layer is supported; etc. may be mentioned.

Therefore, in the brightness enhancement film of a type that transmits a linearly polarized light having the above-mentioned predetermined polarization axis, by arranging the polarization axis of the transmitted light and entering the light into a polarization plate as it is, the absorption loss by the polarization plate is controlled and the polarized light can be transmitted efficiently. On the other hand, in the brightness enhancement film of a type that transmits a circularly polarized light as a cholesteric liquid-crystal layer, the light may be entered into a polarizer as it is, but it is desirable to enter the light into a polarizer after changing the circularly polarized light to a linearly polarized light through a retardation plate, taking control an absorption loss into consideration. In addition, a circularly polarized light is convertible into a linearly polarized light using a quarter wavelength plate as the retardation plate.

A retardation plate that works as a quarter wavelength plate in a wide wavelength ranges, such as a visible-light region, is obtained by a method in which a retardation layer working as a quarter wavelength plate to a pale color light with a wavelength of 550 nm is laminated with a retardation layer having other retardation characteristics, such as a retardation layer working as a half-wavelength plate. Therefore, the retardation plate located between a polarization plate and a brightness enhancement film may consist of one or more retardation layers.

In addition, also in a cholesteric liquid-crystal layer, a layer reflecting a circularly polarized light in a wide wavelength ranges, such as a visible-light region, may be obtained by adopting a configuration structure in which two or more layers with different reflective wavelength are laminated together. Thus a transmitted circularly polarized light in a wide wavelength range may be obtained using this type of cholesteric liquid-crystal layer.

Moreover, the polarization plate may consist of multi-layered film of laminated layers of a polarization plate and two of more of optical layers as the above-mentioned separated type polarization plate. Therefore, a polarization plate may be a reflection type elliptically polarization plate or a semi-transmission type elliptically polarization plate, etc. in which the above-mentioned reflection type polarization plate or a transflective type polarization plate is combined with above described retardation plate respectively.

Although an optical film with the above described optical layer laminated to the polarizing plate may be formed by a method in which laminating is separately carried out sequentially in manufacturing process of a liquid crystal display etc., an optical film in a form of being laminated beforehand has an outstanding advantage that it has excellent stability in quality and assembly workability, etc., and thus manufacturing processes ability of a liquid crystal display etc. may be raised. Proper adhesion means, such as an adhesive layer, may be used for laminating. On the occasion of adhesion of the above described polarizing plate and other optical films, the optical axis may be set as a suitable configuration angle according to the target retardation characteristics etc.

Formation methods of the anchor layer 2 formed with polyamine compounds to the above-mentioned optical film 1 is not especially limited, and for example, a method of applying a solution or a dispersion liquid of polyamine compounds to an optical film 1, and then drying etc. may be mentioned. In formation of the anchor layer 2, activation treatment may be performed to the optical film 1. Various methods may be adopted as activation treatment, and, for example, corona treatment, low-pressure UV treatment, plasma treatment, etc. may be adopted. Activation treatment is affective especially in the case where the optical film 1 is of polyolefine based resins or norbornene based resins. When a contact angle between water and each film is controlled to be not more than 80°, and preferably not more than 75°, repelling may be suppressed during coating of anchor agents. Although a thickness of the anchor layer 2 (dried film thickness) is not especially limited, it is preferably 5 to 500 nm as mentioned above.

A ratio (a/A) of a thickness (a) of a mixed reaction layer 5 to a thickness (A) of whole of the anchor layer 2 (dried film thickness) is preferably not less than 50%. A thickness (a) of the mixed reaction layer 5 is almost completely dependent on easiness of motion of each molecule of a polyamine compound forming the anchor layer 2 and of a pressure sensitive adhesive forming the pressure sensitive adhesive layer 3, and on affinity between both of them. Therefore, by adjusting a thickness of the anchor layer 2 according to a kind of the polyamine compound and a pressure sensitive adhesive, a thickness (a) of the mixed reaction layer 5 may be adjusted within the above-mentioned range.

Formation of the pressure sensitive adhesive layer 3 is performed by being laminated on the anchor layer 2. Formation methods are not especially limited, and there may be mentioned: a method of applying a pressure sensitive adhesive (solution) on an anchor layer 2, and then drying; and a method of transferring a layer using a releasing sheet 4 having a pressure sensitive adhesive layer 3 provided thereon etc. Although a thickness of a pressure sensitive adhesive layer 3 (dried film thickness) is not especially limited, it is preferably about 10 to 40 μm.

As a separator 4 material, papers, plastics films such as polyethylene polypropylene, rubber sheets, cloths, no woven fabrics, nets, foamed sheets and metallic foils or laminated sheets thereof may be used. As a surface of the separator 4, if necessary, suitable conventional release agents, such as silicone type, long chain alkyl type, fluorine type release agents, is coated.

An adhesive optical film of the present invention may be preferably used for manufacturing various equipment, such as liquid crystal display, etc. Assembling of a liquid crystal display may be carried out according to conventional methods. That is, a liquid crystal display is generally manufactured by suitably assembling several parts such as a liquid crystal cell, optical films and, if necessity, lighting system, and by incorporating driving circuit. In the present invention, except that an adhesive optical film by the present invention is used, there is especially no limitation to use any conventional methods. As for a liquid crystal cell, there is no limitation to use any conventional methods, such as TN type, STN type, π type etc.

Suitable liquid crystal displays, such as liquid crystal display with which the above-mentioned optical film has been located at one side or both sides of the liquid crystal cell, and with which a backlight or a reflective plate is used for a lighting system may be manufactured. In this case, the optical film by the present invention may be installed in one side or both sides of the liquid crystal cell. When installing the optical films in both sides, they may be of the same type or of different type. Furthermore, in assembling a liquid crystal display, suitable parts, such as diffusion plate, anti-glare layer, antireflection film, protective plate, prism array, lens array sheet, optical diffusion plate, and backlight, may be installed in suitable position in one layer or two or more layers.

Subsequently, organic electro luminescence equipment (organic EL display) will be explained. Generally, in organic EL display, a transparent electrode, an organic luminescence layer and a metal electrode are laminated on a transparent substrate in an order configuring an illuminant (organic electro luminescence illuminant). Here, a organic luminescence layer is a laminated material of various organic thin films, and much compositions with various combination are known, for example, a laminated material of hole injection layer comprising triphenylamine derivatives etc., a luminescence layer comprising fluorescent organic solids, such as anthracene; a laminated material of electronic injection layer comprising such a luminescence layer and perylene derivatives, etc.; laminated material of these hole injection layers, luminescence layer, and electronic injection layer etc.

An organic EL display emits light based on a principle that positive hole and electron are injected into an organic luminescence layer by impressing voltage between a transparent electrode and a metal electrode, the energy produced by recombination of these positive holes and electrons excites fluorescent substance, and subsequently light is emitted when excited fluorescent substance returns to ground state. A mechanism called recombination which takes place in a intermediate process is the same as a mechanism in common diodes, and, as is expected, there is a strong non-linear relationship between electric current and luminescence strength accompanied by rectification nature to applied voltage.

In an organic EL display, in order to take out luminescence in an organic luminescence layer, at least one electrode must be transparent. The transparent electrode usually formed with transparent electric conductor, such as indium tin oxide (ITO), is used as an anode. On the other hand, in order to make electronic injection easier and to increase luminescence efficiency, it is important that a substance with small work function is used for cathode, and metal electrodes, such as Mg—Ag and Al—Li, are usually used.

In organic EL display of such a configuration, an organic luminescence layer is formed by a very thin film about 10 nm in thickness. For this reason, light is transmitted nearly completely through organic luminescence layer as through transparent electrode. Consequently, since the light that enters, when light is not emitted, as incident light from a surface of a transparent substrate and is transmitted through a transparent electrode and an organic luminescence layer and then is reflected by a metal electrode, appears in front surface side of the transparent substrate again, a display side of the organic EL display looks like mirror if viewed from outside.

In an organic EL display containing an organic electro luminescence illuminant equipped with a transparent electrode on a surface side of an organic luminescence layer that emits light by impression of voltage, and at the same time equipped with a metal electrode on a back side of organic luminescence layer, a retardation plate may be installed between these transparent electrodes and a polarization plate, while preparing the polarization plate on the surface side of the transparent electrode.

Since the retardation plate and the polarization plate have function polarizing the light that has entered as incident light from outside and has been reflected by the metal electrode, they have an effect of making the mirror surface of metal electrode not visible from outside by the polarization action. If a retardation plate is configured with a quarter wavelength plate and the angle between the two polarization directions of the polarization plate and the retardation plate is adjusted to π/4, the mirror surface of the metal electrode may be completely covered.

This means that only linearly polarized light component of the external light that enters as incident light into this organic EL display is transmitted with the work of polarization plate. This linearly polarized light generally gives an elliptically polarized light by the retardation plate, and especially the retardation plate is a quarter wavelength plate, and moreover when the angle between the two polarization directions of the polarization plate and the retardation plate is adjusted to π/4, it gives a circularly polarized light.

This circularly polarized light is transmitted through the transparent substrate, the transparent electrode and the organic thin film, and is reflected by the metal electrode, and then is transmitted through the organic thin film, the transparent electrode and the transparent substrate again, and is turned into a linearly polarized light again with the retardation plate. And since this linearly polarized light lies at right angles to the polarization direction of the polarization plate, it cannot be transmitted through the polarization plate. As the result, mirror surface of the metal electrode may be completely covered.

EXAMPLE

Although concrete description will be given hereinafter with reference to Examples of the present invention, the present invention is not limited to them. In addition, part represents part by weight in each example.

Example 1

(Production of an Optical Film)

After a polyvinyl alcohol film with a thickness of 80 μm was stretched 5 times in 40° C. iodine aqueous solution, it was dried for 4 minutes at 50° C. to obtain a polarizer. Triacetyl cellulose films were adhered on both sides of this polarizer through a polyvinyl alcohol based adhesive to obtain a polarizing plate.

(Formation of Anchor Layer)

As a polyethylene imine, EPOMIN P1000 by NIPPON SHOKUBAI Co., Ltd. was used, and this was dissolved in a mixed solvent of water: isopropyl alcohol=1:3 (volume ratio) to prepare a diluted solution with a solid content of 0.2%. This solution was applied on the polarizing plate using a wire bar #5, and, subsequently volatile matter was evaporated off. The obtained anchor layer formed of residual polyethylene imine gave 25 nm of thickness.

(Formation of a Pressure Sensitive Adhesive Layer)

As a base polymer, a solution (30% of solid content) including an acrylic polymer of a weight average molecular weight 2,000,000 consisting of a copolymer of butyl acrylate:acrylic acid:2-hydroxy ethyl acrylate=100:5:0.1 (weight ratio) was used. Into the acrylic polymer solution were added Coronate L manufactured by Nippon Polyurethane Co., Ltd. that is an isocyanate based polyfunctional compound 3 parts to 100 parts of a polymer solid content, an additive (manufactured by Shin-Etsu Chemical Co., Ltd., KBM 403) 0.5 part, and a solvent for viscosity adjustment (toluene), to prepare a pressure sensitive adhesive solution (10% of solid content). The pressure sensitive adhesive solution concerned was applied on a releasing film (polyethylene terephthalate based material=Diafoil MRF 38, manufactured by Mitsubishi Polyester Film Corporation) so that a thickness after dried may give 25 μm, and subsequently dried in a circulating hot air type oven to form a pressure sensitive adhesive layer.

(Production of a Pressure Sensitive Adhesive Optical Film)

To an anchor layer formed on a surface of the polarizing plate, a releasing film having a pressure sensitive adhesive layer currently formed thereon was attached to produce a pressure sensitive adhesive polarizing plate.

Example 2

(Production of an Optical Film)

A solution obtained by dissolving flakes of a polycarbonate (PC) in methylene chloride was uniformly cast on a smooth SUS board, and the obtained board was dried in a solvent atmosphere so that the surface might not have dew formation. The obtained PC film was removed from the SUS board after sufficient drying, and then dried in a circulating hot air type oven to obtain a non-stretched film of PC (30 μm). This film was stretched by 1.2 times while being heated, and corona treatment was given to obtain a PC retardation plate (73° of angle of contact with water).

(Production of a Pressure Sensitive Adhesive Optical Film)

Except for having used the retardation plate as an optical film in Example 1, a same method as in Example was repeated to form an anchor layer. Moreover, a releasing film having a same pressure sensitive adhesive layer as in Example 1 currently formed thereon was attached to produce a pressure sensitive adhesive retardation plate.

Example 3

(An Optical Film)

Corona treatment was given to a retardation plate (100 μm) using a biaxially stretched norbornene based resin (manufactured by JSR, Arton) (71° of angle of contact with water), and the obtained plate was used.

(Formation of an Anchor Layer)

EPOMIN P1000 manufactured by NIPPON SHOKUBAI Co., Ltd. was dissolved in a mixed solvent of water:isopropyl alcohol=2:1 (volume ratio), and then diluted to prepare a diluted solution with a solid content of 1%. After this solution was applied on the retardation plate using a wire bar #5, volatile matter was evaporated off. A thickness of an anchor layer formed of the polyethylene imine after evaporated gave about 150 nm.

(Production of a Pressure Sensitive Adhesive Optical Film)

To the anchor layer formed on a surface of the retardation plate, a releasing film having a same pressure sensitive adhesive layer as in Example 1 currently formed was attached to produce a pressure sensitive adhesive retardation plate.

Example 4

(An Optical Film)

A same polarizing plate as in Example 1 was used.

(Formation of an Anchor Layer)

As a polyethylene imine, EPOMIN SP 200 manufactured by NIPPON SHOKUBAI Co., Ltd. was dissolved in a mixed solvent of water: isopropyl alcohol=1:3 (volume ratio) to prepare a diluted solution with a solid content of 1%. After this solution was applied on the polarizing plate using wire bar #5 volatile matter was evaporated off. A thickness of the anchor layer after evaporated gave 100 nm.

(Formation of a Pressure Sensitive Adhesive Layer)

As a base polymer, a solution (30% of solid content) including an acrylic polymer of a weight average molecular weight 2,000,000 consisting of a copolymer of butyl acrylate:acrylic acid:2-hydroxy ethyl acrylate=100:5:0.1 (weight ratio) was used. Into the acrylic polymer solution were added Coronate L manufactured by Nippon Polyurethane Co., Ltd. that is an isocyanate based polyfunctional compound 4 parts to 100 parts of a polymer solid content, an additive (manufactured by Shin-Etsu Chemical Co., Ltd., KBM 403) 0.5 part, and a solvent for viscosity adjustment (ethyl acetate), to prepare a pressure sensitive adhesive solution (12% of solid content). The pressure sensitive adhesive solution concerned was applied on a releasing film (polyethylene terephthalate based material=Diafoil MRF 38, manufactured by Mitsubishi Polyester Film Corporation) so that a thickness after dried might give 25 μm, and subsequently dried in a circulating hot air type oven to form a pressure sensitive adhesive layer.

(Production of a Pressure Sensitive Adhesive Optical Film)

To an anchor layer formed on a surface of the polarizing plate, a releasing film having a pressure sensitive adhesive layer currently formed thereon was attached to produce a pressure sensitive adhesive polarizing plate.

Example 5

(An Optical Film)

Corona treatment was given to a retardation plate (80 μm) using a biaxially stretched norbornene based resin (manufactured by ZEON CORPORATION, Zeonor) (70° of angle of contact with water), and the obtained plate was used.

(Production of a Pressure Sensitive Adhesive Optical Film)

Except for having used the retardation plate as an optical film in Example 3, an anchor layer was formed by a same method as in Example 3, and furthermore, a releasing film having a same pressure sensitive adhesive layer as in Example 1 formed thereon was attached to produce a pressure sensitive adhesive retardation plate.

Example 6

(An Optical Film)

A same polarizing plate as in Example 1 was used.

(Formation of an Anchor Layer)

A poly allylamine (manufactured by Nitto Boseki Co., Ltd., PAA-10C) as an allylamine based compound was dissolved in a mixed solvent of water/ethanol (weight ratio=1/1) to prepare a diluted solution with a solid content of 1%. After this solution was applied on the retardation plate using a wire bar #5, volatile matter was evaporated off. A thickness of an anchor layer after evaporated gave about 100 nm.

(Preparation of a Pressure Sensitive Adhesive)

Butyl acrylate 88 parts; methyl acrylate 12 parts; acrylic acid 3 parts; 2-hydroxy ethyl acrylate 0.1 part; azobisisobutyronitrils 0.3 part; and ethyl acetate 150 parts were reacted each other at about 60° C. for 6 hours, while agitated, to obtain an acrylic polymer solution of a weight average molecular weight 1,650,000. Into the acrylic polymer solution was added Coronate L manufactured by Nippon Polyurethane Co., Ltd. that is an isocyanate based polyfunctional compound 1 part to 100 parts of a polymer solid content, to prepare a pressure sensitive adhesive solution (10% of solid content). The pressure sensitive adhesive solution concerned was applied on a releasing film (polyethylene terephthalate based material=Diafoil MRF 38, manufactured by Mitsubishi Polyester Film Corporation) so that a thickness after dried may give 25 μm, and subsequently dried in a circulating hot air type oven to form a pressure sensitive adhesive layer.

(Production of a Pressure Sensitive Adhesive Optical Film)

To an anchor layer formed on a surface of the polarizing plate, a releasing film having a pressure sensitive adhesive layer currently formed thereon was attached to produce a pressure sensitive adhesive polarizing plate.

Example 7

(An Optical Film)

A same polarizing plate as in Example 3 was used.

(Production of a Pressure Sensitive Adhesive Optical Film)

Except for having used the retardation plate in Example 6 as an optical film, an anchor layer was formed by a same method as in Example 6, and furthermore, a releasing film having a same pressure sensitive adhesive layer as in Example 6 formed thereon was attached to produce a pressure sensitive adhesive retardation plate.

Referential Example 1

(An Optical Film)

A same polarizing plate as in Example 1 was used.

(Formation of a Pressure Sensitive Adhesive Layer)

As a base polymer, a solution (30% of solid content) including an acrylic polymer of a weight average molecular weight of 1,400,000 consisting of a copolymer of butyl acrylate:2-hydroxy ethyl acrylate=100:0.5 (weight ratio) was used. Into the acrylic polymer solution were added Coronate L manufactured by Nippon Polyurethane Co., Ltd. that is an isocyanate based polyfunctional compound 5 parts to 100 parts of a polymer solid content, an additive (manufactured by Shin-Etsu Chemical Co., Ltd., KBM403) 0.5 part, and a solvent for viscosity adjustment (toluene), to prepare a pressure sensitive adhesive solution (10% of solid content). The pressure sensitive adhesive solution concerned was applied on a releasing film (polyethylene terephthalate based material=Diafoil MRF 38, manufactured by Mitsubishi Polyester Film Corporation) so that a thickness after dried may give 25 μm, and subsequently dried in a circulating hot air type oven to form a pressure sensitive adhesive layer.

(Production of a Pressure Sensitive Adhesive Optical Film)

After forming an anchor layer on a surface of a polarizing plate as in Example 1, a releasing film having the pressure sensitive adhesive layer formed thereon was attached on the anchor layer to produce a pressure sensitive adhesive polarizing plate.

Referential Example 2

(An Optical Film)

A same polarizing plate as in Example 3 was used.

(Formation of Anchor Layer)

A same method as in Example 3 was repeated except for having prepared a polyethylene imine solution diluted to 10% of solid content, and formed an anchor layer with a thickness of about 1000 nm on the retardation plate using the solution.

(Production of a Pressure Sensitive Adhesive Optical Film)

To the anchor layer formed on a surface of the retardation plate, a releasing film having a same pressure sensitive adhesive layer as in Example 1 formed thereon was attached to produce a pressure sensitive adhesive retardation plate.

Comparative Example 1

Except for not having formed an anchor layer in Example 1, a same method as in Example 1 was repeated to produce a pressure sensitive adhesive polarizing plate.

Comparative Example 2

(An Optical Film)

A same polarizing plate as in Example 1 was used.

(Formation of an Anchor Layer)

A solution of POLYMENT NK 380 manufactured by NIPPON SHOKUBAI Co., Ltd. as a polyethylene imine based resin (ethyleneimine addition product of polyacrylic ester) was applied on the polarizing plate using wire bar #5, and subsequently volatile matter was evaporated off. A thickness of the anchor layer formed of the polyethylene imine based resin after evaporated gave 100 nm.

Comparative Example 3

Except for not having formed an anchor layer in Example 3, a same method as in Example 3 was repeated to produce a pressure sensitive adhesive retardation plate.

The pressure sensitive adhesive optical films obtained in the Examples and Comparative examples were evaluated for the following.

Table 1 shows the evaluation results.

(A Mixed Reaction Layer)

A pressure sensitive adhesive optical film was dyed with ruthenium acid, and cross-section was observed with a TEM ultrathin membrane section method, and subsequently a dyed area of an anchor layer was checked. A percentage of a thickness (a) of a mixed reaction layer to a thickness (A) of an anchor layer=(a/A)×100 (%) was calculated.

(Pressure Sensitive Adhesive Omission: Method 1)

A pressure sensitive adhesive optical film produced by the above method was die-cut by 25 mm×150 mm size with a Thomson blade die cut system. A cut end (25 mm width side) was contacted to a glass plate (manufactured by Corning Inc., Corning 1737) 20 consecutive times. Then, the contact end of each pressure sensitive adhesive optical film was visually checked, and evaluated according to following criteria. Moreover, an area of the pressure sensitive adhesive omission was evaluated.

  • ◯: A pressure sensitive adhesive omission with a depth of not less than 150 μm not observed
  • Δ: A pressure sensitive adhesive omission with a depth of not less than 300 μm not observed
  • X: A pressure sensitive adhesive omission with a depth of not less than 300 μm observed
    (Pressure Sensitive Adhesive Omission: Method 2)

The pressure sensitive adhesive optical film produced by the above method was die-cut into 50 sheets with 25 mm×150 mm size, and the cut sheets were layered to obtain a bundle of the sheets. A No. 29 pressure sensitive tape manufactured by NITTO DENKO CORP. was attached on a side of this bundle with a pressure of 4.9 N/25 mm. The pressure sensitive tape was then separated at a peeling rate of 10 m/minute in a direction making 90°. This peeling operation was repeated 10 times. Then, the end of each pressure sensitive adhesive optical film was visually observed, and a number of sheets of the pressure sensitive adhesive optical film that has pressure sensitive adhesive omission with a width of not less than 1 mm and a depth of not less than 0.3 mm (number of sheets with omission) was checked.

(Adhesive Properties Between a Pressure Sensitive Adhesive Layer and an Optical Film Base Material)

The pressure sensitive adhesive optical film produced by the above method was die-cut into 25 mm×150 mm size. Subsequently, a pressure sensitive adhesive layer side of this film was attached onto a polyethylene terephthalate film with 50 μm-thick, to a surface of which indium-tin oxide was vapor-deposited, so that the adhesive layer side and the vapor-deposited surface might face each other, and then the obtained attached film was kept standing under an atmosphere of 23° C./60% RH, for not less than for 20 minutes. Then, an end of the polyethylene terephthalate film was peeled by hand. After checking that the pressure sensitive adhesive was remained to a polyethylene terephthalate film side, a sample was peeled in a direction making 180° at a rate of 300 mm/minute using a tensile tester AG-1 made by Shimadzu Corporation, and was measured for a peeling stress (N/25 mm) (25° C.).

(An amount of Peeling Electrification)

On a surface of the above-obtained pressure sensitive adhesive optical film was attached a surface protective film in which an acrylic based pressure sensitive adhesive was applied by 20-μm thickness onto a polyethylene terephthalate base material with a thickness of 38 μm. This sample was cut into a strip with 70 mm×100 mm, and the pressure sensitive adhesive optical film was attached on a glass plate through the pressure sensitive adhesive layer. The surface protective film was peeled at a fixed rate of 5 m/minute in a direction making 180° under an atmosphere of 23° C./50% RH. An optical film surface immediately after peeling was measured for electrification quantity (kV) with a digital electrostatic electric potential measuring instrument KSD-0103 made by Kasuga Denki, Inc. In addition, a peeling force of a surface protective film to each pressure sensitive adhesive optical film gave 0.01 to 1 N.

TABLE 1
ExistencePressure sensitive
of carboxyladhesive omission
Anchor layergroup ofMethod 2:
PercentagepressureMethodMethodNumber ofAdhesiveAmount of
Thick-of mixedsensitive1:1:sheets withpropertiespeeling
Opticalnessreactionadhesive(Evalua-Areaomission/(N/25electrifi-
filmKind(nm)layer (%)layertion)(mm2)50 sheetsmm2)cation (kV)
Example 1Polarizing*125100Included0.10/50250.5
plate
Example 2Retardation*125100Included0.11/50230.5
plate
Example 3Retardation*115095Included0.21/50240.1
plate
Example 4Polarizing*210090Included0.10/50230.3
plate
Example 5Retardation*112095Included0.30/50250.2
plate
Example 6Polarizing*310090Included0.10/50200.4
plate
Example 7Retardation*310090Included0.20/50230.4
plate
ReferentialPolarizing*1250NotΔ0.85/50170.5
Example 1plateincluded
ReferentialRetardation*1100020IncludedΔ1.17/50150.1
Example 2plate
ComparativePolarizingNot00IncludedX2.310/50 101.5
Example 1plateused
ComparativePolarizing*410040IncludedX1.912/50 111.3
Example 2plate
ComparativeRetardationNot00IncludedX3.220/50 71.4
Example 3plateused

In Table 1:
  • *1: EPOMIN P1000 manufactured by NIPPON SHOKUBAI Co., Ltd.;
  • *2: EPOMIN SP 200 manufactured by NIPPON SHOKUBAI Co., Ltd.;
  • *3: Poly allylamine (manufactured by Nitto Boseki Co., Ltd., PAA-10C); and
  • *4: Polyment NK 380 manufactured by NIPPON SHOKUBAI Co., Ltd.

INDUSTRIAL APPLICABILITY

The present invention is useful as polarizing plates, retardation plates, optical compensating films, brightness enhancement films, etc., and furthermore is useful as a pressure sensitive adhesive optical film applied to optical films laminated thereto. The invention is also suitably applicable for image viewing displays, such as liquid crystal displays, organic EL viewing displays, and PDPs.