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Title:
High profile composition shingles for roofs
Kind Code:
A1
Abstract:
A high profile shingle for roofs includes a weather layer of composition material and a plurality of members of composition material arranged under said weather layer which are of varying lengths and arranged to cause the butt end of the shingle to be substantially thicker than the weather layer. In one embodiment, the members under the weather layer are a series of spaced, tapered strips arranged with their thick ends toward one end of the shingle and having an additional end strip abutted against the thick ends. Another embodiment uses a series of underlayers of the same width as the weather layer but of lengths varying from approximately one-half down to about one-eighth the length of the weather layer. A third embodiment uses a base layer of substantially greater width than the weather layer, a series of layers of progressively shorter lengths below the weather layer with the ends of the layers in registry at the butt end of the shingle with cut-out sections. A fourth embodiment comprises a weather layer and a plurality of underlayers of different lengths and the same width as the weather layer. The underlayers have one end aligned, their surfaces all bonded to its adjacent layer and fastened by staples with the outermost longest underlayment layer bonded to the underside of the weather layer. One edge of the weather layer and the common edges of the underlayment layers constituting the butt of the shingle.


Inventors:
Williams, Scott (La Canada, CA, US)
Application Number:
10/955864
Publication Date:
04/07/2005
Filing Date:
09/29/2004
Assignee:
WILLIAMS SCOTT
Primary Class:
International Classes:
E04D1/22; E04D1/28; (IPC1-7): E04D1/00
View Patent Images:
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Attorney, Agent or Firm:
John E. Wagner, Esq.;LAW OFFICES OF JOHN E. WAGNER (3541 Ocean View Boulevard, Glendale, CA, 91208, US)
Claims:
1. A high profile composition shingle for roofs comprising a weather layer of a composition material having a granulated surface: a plurality of members of composition material positioned under said weather layer, said members being of varying lengths and arranged such that the butt end of said shingle is substantially thicker than said weather layer; said layers below the weather layer being stapled together at the butt end region of said shingle.

2. A high profile composition shingle as claimed in claim 1 wherein said weather layer includes cut-outs extending from its outside edges over a substantial portion of its width.

3. A high profile composition shingle as claimed in claim 1 wherein said members of composition material below said weather layer are tapered from the butt end of different lengths.

4. A high profile composition shingle as claimed in claim 3 wherein a plurality of said layers of composition material have internal cut-out areas to provide internal recesses below said weather layers.

5. A high profile composition shingle as claimed in claim 3 wherein said shingle includes a base layer and said base layer is of substantially greater width than others of said layers.

6. A high profile composition shingle as claimed in claim 3 wherein said weather layer and said layers are tapered in length and are of substantially uniform width.

7. A high profile composition shingle for roofs comprising: a weather layer of composition material having a granulated surface; a plurality of tapered ribs of composition material spaced across the butt end of said weather layer, each said ribs having a thick end and all of the thick ends positioned near the butt end of said weather layer; and a butt end rib located adjacent the thick end of said spaced ribs below said weather layer.

8. A high profile composition shingle as claimed in claim 8 wherein selected ribs of said spaced ribs are longer than other said ribs.

9. A high profile composition shingle as claimed in claim 8 wherein the widths of the spaces between said ribs are greater than the widths of the ribs.

10. A high profile composition shingle as claimed in claim 8 wherein the thickness of said butt end rib is substantially greater than the thickness of said weather layer.

11. A high profile composition shingle as claimed in claim 8 wherein said tapered ribs abut against said butt end rib and the thickness of said tapered ribs adjacent said butt end rib is substantially the same as the thickness of said butt end rib.

12. A high profile composition shingle for roofs comprising: a generally rectangular weather layer; a plurality of underlayers secured to said weather layer, said underlayers together being progressively tapered in length with one end of each of said underlayers being stacked in registry to form the butt end of said shingle said plurality of underlayers being stapled together near said butt end.

13. A high profile composition shingle for roofs comprising: an elongated weather layer of granule-covered roofing composition; a plurality of different length underlayment layers bonded to each other at one end of each to form a tapered underlayment bonded to said weather layer, the longest of said underlayment layers being in the order of one half the length of said weather layer, one end of said underlayment layers being bonded to one end of said weather layer to form with said weather layer the butt end of said shingle.

14. A shingle in accordance with claim 13 wherein said underlayment layers are all mechanically fastened together at one end.

15. A shingle in accordance with claim 16 wherein the mechanical fastening is provided by at least one staple.

16. A shingle in accordance with claim 14 wherein said underment layers and said weather layers are of the same width at least in the weather region when installed.

17. A high profile composition shingle for roofs comprising: a generally rectangular weather layer; a first underlayer under said weather layer of substantially the same width as and approximately one-half the length of said weather layer; a second underlayer under said first underlayer of substantially the same width as and substantially shorter than said first underlayer; a third underlayer under said second underlayer of substantially the same width as and substantially shorter than said second underlayer; a fourth underlayer under said third underlayer of substantially the same width as and substantially shorter than the third underlayer; and a fifth underlayer under said fourth underlayer of substantially the same width as and substantially shorter than said fourth underlayer; said first through fifth underlayers all being of composition roofing material and all said underlayers being stacked together with one end aligned with one end of said weather layer to form a thickened butt end of said high profile composition shingle, said first through fifth underlayers being stapled together at said butt end.

Description:

REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION

This Non-Provisional Patent Application claims benefit of U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 60/507,994 filed Oct. 1, 2003, and hereby claims the benefit of the embodiments therein and of the filing date thereof.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The need for improved roofing materials as substitutes for actual slate or wooden shake shingles has been recognized for many years. The classic slate roofs commonly used abroad, and in some of the most expensive homes in the United States of America, are characterized by their expense and, most importantly, in the extreme weight of slate shingles which typically run to over 1000 pounds per square.

Wood shake shingles are quite attractive due to their irregularity and their depth presenting a high profile; however, they are significantly more expensive than composition shingles and do not meet the fire safety codes. Attempts have been made to fireproof them with varying degrees of success, but they still do not meet the fire codes that are easily met by granular covered asphaltic composition roofs. Some attempts to make simulated slate or wood shingle shakes have used cementitious materials. These materials, while not as heavy as slate, still have weight in the order of 600 pounds per square, and usually lack the irregularity and high profile of natural slate or wood shake.

Other attempts have involved the use of molded plastic materials to present the irregular surface of shake roofs or the shape and appearance of natural slate. These materials can be molded to provide the additional thickness found in shake shingles; however, they fail to meet the same fire safety standards as composition roofs.

U.S. Pat. No. 6,510,664 discloses a method of creating multi-layered composition shingles from a single sheet of asphalt material. This is accomplished by forming tabs on the sheet, which are folded over to provide three-layer sections.

U.S. Pat. No. 6,351,913 also shows an arrangement for forming multi-layered shingle of asphalt composition, particularly for ridge covers on roofs. Again, a single sheet of asphalt composition material is folded to form a triple thick shingle.

U.S. Pat. No. 6,058,670 shows a shingle containing a single sheet having an upper individual headlap portion and a lower butt portion divided into uniformly spaced tabs, with each tab having two opposing terminal corners defining the bottom boundary of the butt portion and an undivided top strip having indentations along its bottom edge conforming in outline to the boundary and corners of the tabs, this strip being laminated over the surface of the sheet headlap and positioned at the tab upper boundaries where the tabs depend from the headlap and situated so that the indentations of the strip are located above the tabs at approximately the mid point of their widths. In some versions, the strip is of a color contrasting with the color of the tabs.

U.S. Pat. No. 4,226,069 shows a flat strip of roofing material with a thin, flexible underlying plastic base sheet having a self-sealing asphalt mastic coating layer and a mineral granule front surface layer. The strip has on each of its opposite faces a longitudinally extending groove adjacent to and spaced from opposite ones of its longitudinally extending edges. The strip material is foldable along the grooves around the edge of an adjacent folded strip edge. In this manner, the butt edges have three layers of roofing material which are nailed to the underlying sheeting, plus one layer folded over the tops of the nails.

Other attempts to make multi-layered added thickness composition roofs have results in delamination due to wind alone or in combination with deterioration of adhesive due to solar heating or alternate freezing and thawing of moisture. Delamination destroys the illusion of thickness and is difficult, if not impossible, to repair.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

It occurred to the applicant that it might be possible to design wood shake and slate-appearing shingles completely from composition materials that would meet the fire-resistance standards of composition roofs, while at the same time presenting the external appearance of either a slate or wooden shake roof. In particular, it appeared possible to provide composition shingles with the irregular surface and the gaps characteristic of the shake shingles and the high profile and somewhat scalloped surface commonly found in slate shingles made from natural material.

It is possible to make such shingles solely from composition materials with multiple layers, adding greatly to the depth of the body and of the shingles, and providing a tapered appearance on the sides of the shingles, while maintaining a weight that is within the range of composition roofs and not exceeding the weight of other simulated slate or shake shingles. This roof meets all the fire code standards or exceeds the standards of a conventional composition roof.

One embodiment of this particular invention involves several composition layers, either the size of a single or multiple shingles, carrying a granular face and incidentally having identified nail positions for the installer. Three such nailing positions per single shingle may be adequate to meet building code standards and to insure integrity of the roof. Overlaying part of the concealed portion of the base layer are a series of graduated layers of composition roof material having cut-out portions which provide a cavity within the shingle. The cavity or cavities extend longitudinally with internal ribs supporting the weather layer between the ribs. The butt end of the shingle includes a number of exposed edges of the graduated layers, which can present a height and thickness in the order of one-half to three-quarters of an inch if desired. Any side of the shingle that is exposed will be graduated in the thickness below the base weather layer to give the appearance of a true graduated thickness shingle. The entire shingle, however, including the weather cover with or without any cavity, is of approved composition material.

In another and preferred embodiment, the shingle is formed of a weather layer backed by a series of graduated length, full width single layers. Each are adhered to adjacent layers by suitable roofing adhesive. The butt end has the greatest number of layers, e.g., six, including the weather layer. The underlayers may be granule covered or not. Granules can add depth and provide good bonding. Most important is by fastening means, for example, two large roofing staples which penetrate all underlayers and are crimped at their ends, partially embedded in the outer layers. This avoids any visible bumps on the weather layer.

The multiple layers provide an overall tapered appearance throughout the exposed length of the shingle as viewed from the side and a thick butt, e.g., six times the thickness of regular composition shingles.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

This invention may be more clearly understood with the following detailed description and by reference to the drawings in which:

FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a roof with a conventional prior art cementitious shingle roof simulating wood shakes;

FIG. 2 is a perspective view showing a prior art roof having cementitious shingles simulating slate shingles;

FIG. 3 is a perspective view of a roof section having composition shingles according to the invention;

FIG. 4 is a perspective view on an enlarged scale showing a part of the roof section of FIG. 3;

FIG. 5 is a perspective view showing a bottom perspective view of the shingle of the invention as shown in FIGS. 3 and 4;

FIG. 6 is a perspective view showing a side view of the shingle of FIG. 5;

FIG. 7 is a perspective view showing the lower or butt end view of shingles according to one embodiment of the invention;

FIG. 8 is a top perspective view of the shingle of the invention;

FIG. 9 is a longitudinal sectional view of the shingle of FIG. 8 taken along lines 9-9 of FIG. 8;

FIG. 10 is a transverse sectional view of the shingle of FIG. 8 taken along line 10-10 of FIG. 8;

FIG. 11 is a top plan view of the shingle of FIG. 8 with the weather layer removed to show the internal construction of the shingle of FIG. 8;

FIG. 12 is an exploded perspective view of the shingle of FIGS. 8-12.

FIG. 13 is a perspective view of the shingle of FIG. 8 after installation showing the natural undulations which develop in the shingle after placement;

FIG. 14 is a top plan view of another embodiment in this invention;

FIG. 15 is an enlarged side elevational view of the shingle of FIG. 14;

FIG. 16 is a butt-end elevational view of the shingle of FIG. 14;

FIG. 17 is a top plan view of the shingle of FIGS. 14-17 with the weather cover removed;

FIG. 18 is a perspective view of a shingle according to a third embodiment of this invention;

FIG. 19 is a side view, with weather layer exploded away, of the shingle of FIG. 18; and

FIG. 20 is an end view of the shingle of FIGS. 18 and 19, also with the weather layer exploded away.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

FIGS. 1 and 2 of this application are perspective views of two types of existing roofing materials which are man-made and are designed to simulate, in the case of FIG. 1, wood shake shingles marked by their irregularity and gaps that produce deep, regular shadows, as are illustrated in FIG. 1. The shingles of FIG. 1 are of cementitious material, which is significantly heavier than normal wood shakes but do provide effective roofing with no danger of flammability, as is a real problem for wood shakes.

In FIG. 2, simulated slate shingles made of cementitious material are shown having a depth noted by the shadows, even in the face of direct sunlight. This roof is greater in cost than normal composition roofs and comparable to some slate roofs.

Both the roofs in FIGS. 1 and 2 tend to be heavier than most composition roofs but do provide a reasonable replica of the appearance of wood shakes or slate roofs.

FIG. 3 shows a sample roof of this invention made totally with standard composition roofing material but having a significantly greater depth at the lower or butt end of each shingle. As illustrated in FIG. 4, which shows a portion of the roof of FIG. 3 on an enlarged scale, the lower or butt edges of the shingles appear to have a depth in the order of {fraction (1/2)} inch, thereby giving the desired look of depth and irregularity desired.

FIG. 5 shows a single shingle of one embodiment of the invention inverted in the form to be applied. The shingle 10 has a full weather layer 12 and includes a thick butt portion 25 that is bonded to the underside of the layer 12. The butt portion 25 extending along the full width of the shingle is in the order of ½-inch in thickness, ½-inch in depth, and is bonded securely to the butt end of the shingle 10.

Ranging away from the butt end, approximately two-thirds of the length of the shingle, are three wedge-shaped parts 26, 28, and 30 tapering from ½-inch of depth at the butt end to nearly zero thickness. The center wedge 28 is shown extending somewhat longer than the two-edge wedges 26 and 30, which adds to the textured effect of the roof when installed. Each of these wedges is thermally bonded to the weather layer as is the butt member 25. The regions between the wedges 54, 56 will rest above the level of the rough underlay, which is usually plywood covered with suitable felt roll material. Trapped inside the shingle are small air pockets between the wedges adding some insulating value to the roof in addition to that afforded by the roofing material itself. Also, these pockets may be filled with insulting foam to further enhance the insulating properties of the shingle 10.

Because of the fact that portions of the weather surfaces are unsupported between the wedges, the roof in time will develop small recesses which serve to give an added degree of irregularity to the roof to give it a more natural wood shake or slate irregular appearance.

FIG. 6 is a perspective view of a shingle 10 according to the invention, including an edge view of the top or weather layer 12, the shingle 10 being installed on a roof. The butt end 25 is visible as well as one side wedge 30.

FIG. 7 is a perspective view showing an alternate form of the shingle of the invention and is included because it shows the thickness of the butt-end portion 24. Thicknesses of the underlayers 24A making up butt end portion 24 on top of a base layer 24B and below a shaped weather layer 24W have been exaggerated for clarity.

FIG. 8 is a perspective drawing of a shingle 20 according to the invention. This view shows the weather or top layer 22, the butt portion 25, and a side wedge 26.

FIG. 9 is a sectional view taken along line 9-9 of FIG. 8. Shown are the weather layer 22, the butt portion 25, and wedge 28, which is a center wedge somewhat longer than side wedge 26.

FIG. 10 is a sectional view taken along line 10-10 of FIG. 8 and shows weather layer 22, center wedge 28, and side wedge 26. A second side wedge 30 is essentially identical to side wedge 26.

FIG. 11 is a plan view of shingle 20 with the weather layer removed and showing butt portion 25, side wedges 26 and 30, and the longer center wedge 28. Wedges 26, 28, and 30 and butt portion 25 define spaces 54 and 56.

While FIGS. 8-11 show a somewhat narrow shingle 20, which might be, e.g., 5 inches wide, the shingle of the invention would typically also be made in widths of 7 inches or 12 inches wide. Each such shingle would have one longer wedge 28 and other wedges 26, 30 spaced approximately every 2-{fraction (1/2)} inches.

FIG. 12 is an exploded perspective view of the shingle of FIGS. 8-11 showing the weather layer 22, wedges 26, 28, and 30 and butt portion 25.

FIG. 13 is a perspective view of a small section of shingles of the invention after installation showing the natural undulations which develop in the shingle after placement. The shingles 20 are shown with weather layers 22, butt portions 25, and side wedges 26. Shallow, hollow areas 32 appear over time in the weather layers 22 over spaces 54 and 56 where the weather layers are not supported by wedge members 26, 28, or 30.

One way to manufacture the above-described shingles is to utilize commercially available walking pads, which are of asphalt composition material of varying thickness. Available such pads are one-half inch thick and are 4 feet×3 feet in area. These pads have a granulated surface similar to that of typical composition shingles. By setting a shearing machine to cut wedges of the desired dimensions, these wedges can be cut quite rapidly. They are then turned 90° to orient the taper with the surface of the weather layers, which are, or may be, conventional composition shingles. By heating the wedges and the weather layer to 300° F. for 15-20 seconds, the wedges will be secured to the weather layer and the shingle is complete. Typically, the weather layer consists of a 21-inch asphalt composition shingle and the outside wedges are about 12 inches long with alternate inside wedges being 18 inches long to give the desired effect.

FIG. 14 is a top plan view of an alternate embodiment of the shingle of the invention. This shingle 33 includes a base layer 35 of greater width than the remainder of the shingle, a top layer 34 having cut-outs 36 and 38, and a second layer 40. There are several other underlayment layers below layer 40, discussed below. All layers are of the conventional asphaltic composition used in typical prior art composition roofs. Such composition shingles are formed of an organic resinous material, such as asphalt, containing greater than 60 percent filler of finely ground inorganic particulate material, such as clay particles, slate particles, shale particles, and glass fibers.

FIG. 15 is a side view of the shingle of FIG. 13. A number of layers have been included to build up the thickness of the butt end. Layers 42, 44, and 46 are below the outer or weather layer 40 and are shorter than layer 40. A layer 48 is approximately the length of second layer 40. An additional layer 50 is almost the length of the shingle and a layer 52 is the length of the shingle.

FIG. 16 is a butt end elevational view of the shingle of FIGS. 14 and 15. Again, it will be appreciated that the thicknesses of the various layers have been exaggerated for clarity.

All layers between layer 40 and base layer 32 are cut out to provide the recesses, as described above.

FIG. 17 is a plan view of shingle 33 with top layer 34 and second layer 40 removed to show the cut out areas of layers 42, 44, 46, 48, and 50.

Subsequent to filing the Provisional Patent Application referred to above, applicant devised a further embodiment shown in FIGS. 18, 19, and 20, and an improvement over the embodiment of FIGS. 14-16.

FIG. 18 is a perspective view, and FIG. 19 is a side view of this further embodiment with the weather layer exploded away. FIGS. 18 and 19 show a high-profile composition shingle 60 having a weather layer 62 and a series of composition layers 64, 66, 68, 70, and 72 of graduated lengths below the weather layer. Nailing locations may be marked on the shingle and nails 78, 80, and 82 are shown in phantom which would be placed in such locations. Layer 64 is the longest of the lower layers, being approximately one-half the length of the weather layer 62 and is positioned immediately below the weather layer 62.

Additional layers 66, 68, 70, and 72 are progressively shorter in length as shown in FIGS. 18 and 19. All of layers 64, 66, 68, 70, and 72 are of a usual composition material described above and are stapled together at the butt end of the shingle by means of staples 74 and 76. Staples 74 and 76 do not penetrate the weather layer 62.

In this embodiment, the entire weather or exposed portion of each shingle is solid roofing material and without voids or cutouts. The top or weather layer 62 is preferably 90# granule-covered composition material, such as 90# fiberglass cap sheet. The completed shingle, as shown in FIG. 18, constitutes a 480# per square shingle (600# max).

The staples 74 and 76 are preferably #16 gauge construction staples, which are driven and crimped over at the butt region of the shingle 60 through layers 64, 66, 68, 70, and 72, with sufficient force to crimp but not embed the ends into the upper stapled layer 64 to secure the underlayers together. The ends are invisible through the weather layer 62. Staples 74 and 76 added to the adhesive layer which bonds all layers together makes delaminating or shingle butt curling or lifting of little concern. Staples may also be used in the embodiments described above.

The adhesive used is preferably elastomeric roofing cement of the Henry Company of a dark or the same color as the body material of the layers 62-72 and thereby aids in presenting an appearance of a solid single piece of tapered thickness.

The above-described embodiments of the present invention are merely descriptive of its principles and are not to be considered limiting. The scope of the present invention instead shall be determined from the scope of the following claims including their equivalents.