Title:
Multi-level game
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
This game will allow different age groups to play together using different rules, yet giving each person a fair chance to win the game. For younger children, the object will be to move around the board from a “start” to a “finish”, building a picture puzzle along the way. The older the child/adult is, the more strategy will come into play. The game will educate older children and will grow with the child.



Inventors:
Rusnak, Mary Ann (Milford, NJ, US)
Hoffman, Joanne Carol (Frenchtown, NJ, US)
Rose, Kim (Washington, NJ, US)
Rose, Joseph David (Easton, PA, US)
Rose Werner, Susan Maybell (Washington, NJ, US)
Application Number:
10/403177
Publication Date:
09/30/2004
Filing Date:
03/28/2003
Assignee:
RUSNAK MARY ANN
HOFFMAN JOANNE CAROL
ROSE KIM
ROSE JOSEPH DAVID
ROSE WERNER SUSAN MAYBELL
Primary Class:
International Classes:
A63F3/00; (IPC1-7): A63F3/00
View Patent Images:
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Primary Examiner:
MENDIRATTA, VISHU K
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Mary, Ann Rusnak (10 Meadow Run Road, Milford, NJ, 08848, US)
Claims:
1. We claim this is a multi-level game that can be played by children/adults from 3 years and older. The game allows a child to have a fair chance of winning; there is no age advantage. The game will hold the interest of the younger child as well as help to educate the older children. The game is also challenging for adults. The board will remain the same, but the rules will change dependent on the age group. This prototype is intended as an example of a multi-level game, based on accumulating pirate's treasure; however, the concept of a multi-level game can be applied to other subject matters. It has been designed to allow easy conversion into a video game or other types of media.

Description:

(2) CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] Patents that are related to this application are:

[0002] 4,138,119 Card-Type Game and Apparatus for Playing Same

[0003] 4,834,388 Board Game

[0004] 4,948,146 Apparatus and Method of Playing a Menu Item Collecting Game

[0005] 6,394,454 Board Game

[0006] 6,419,228 Multi-level, Multi-difficulty Board Game

(3) STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT

[0007] Not Applicable

(4) REFERENCE TO SEQUENCE LISTING, A TABLE, OR A COMPUTER PROGRAM LISTING COMPACT DISK APPENDIX

[0008] Not Applicable

(5) BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0009] The Multi-Level game is covered in the U.S. Patent classification 236, Board Games, Pieces, or Boards Therefor. The sub-classes include 242 (Piece moves over board having pattern), 258 (Strategic race to a finish), 276 (Construction or Assembly games), and 287 (Game board structure). This invention is intended to allow children and adults to play together with different levels of difficulty, dependent upon the age group. The rules are harder for adults, thereby enabling the different age groups a more equal chance of winning.

(6) BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0010] The prototype game is based on accumulating pirate's treasure and is intended for children from 3 years old to adults. The board will remain the same, but the rules will change based on the age group. This prototype is intended as an example; the concept of a multi-level game can be applied to other subject matters and can easily be developed into a video game.

(7) BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE SEVERAL VIEWS OF THE DRAWING

[0011] FIG. 1—The wooden game board containing seven islands as well as the Retirement Village. There are spaces used to move between the islands and the Retirement Village.

[0012] FIG. 2—The wooden spinner with a bone attached to the center.

[0013] FIG. 3—The puzzle to be used by young children.

[0014] FIG. 4—The Treasure Chest used to hold the game board, spinner, cards, and other pieces.

(8) DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0015] The rules of the game will vary for the different age groups. The targeted age groups are 3 to 6, 7 to 12, 13 and older, or any combination thereof. The prototype is a pirate board game entitled “Fate & Fury”. This is just an example of a multi-level game that can be applied to any subject matter. In addition, this concept can be applied to video game(s) or other methods. The rules for the different age groups are covered below.

[0016] The prototype game board (FIG. 1) was created with two pieces of wood. Holes were bored into the straight side of each piece of wood and the pieces were sewn together with cord. Seven islands plus the Retirement Village with spaces between each have been drawn onto the board. The island in the center of the board contains an “X” and is where treasure can be buried.

[0017] The puzzles (FIG. 3) are cut from wood. A picture of a ship (each a different color) has been cut into 6 pieces. The game will include 4 separate ship puzzles.

[0018] The spinner (FIG. 2) was cut from a piece of wood with a bone attached in the center. The bone can be spun; the player will follow the directions indicated where the spinner lands. The spinner can be used in place of the die, if the players desire.

[0019] The die is a square piece of wood with numbers 1, 2 and 3 on each side. Each number will appear twice on the die.

[0020] The gold was created by painting stones the color gold.

[0021] The supply cards contain pictures of

[0022] 1. Medicine,

[0023] 2. Rum,

[0024] 3. Gems,

[0025] 4. Cannon Balls,

[0026] 5. Food, and

[0027] 6. Pieces of Eight.

[0028] The question cards contain the question about Pirate(s) on one side and the correct answer on the back. The answers are color-coded to assist younger children in participating in this phase of the game. The questions have been gathered from the book “The Sea Rovers Pirates, Privateers, and Buccaneers” by Albert Marrin and various websites on the Internet, including http://www.piratesinfo.com and the National Geographic Society. The information contained in the question cards is listed in Attachment A, “Facts Booklet”.

[0029] The box (FIG. 4) to hold the game and the supplies is in the shape of a treasure chest. 1embedded image

[0030] Object:

[0031] Imagine yourself as the Captain of your own pirate ship! You are traveling the seas in search of treasure. If you can collect all of your puzzle pieces and beat your opponents to the Retirement Village, you will win the game!

[0032] Contents:

[0033] Game Board (FIG. 1)

[0034] Puzzle with 6 pieces each (FIG. 3)

[0035] 1 Die

[0036] Playing piece (to move around the board).

[0037] Set Up:

[0038] Before starting the game, open up the board and place one piece of your puzzle on each island. Put your playing piece on Rose Island (Start). You are ready to play the game.

[0039] Starting the Game:

[0040] The youngest player goes first. Play will proceed to the left (clockwise).

[0041] Player roles the die. Move the number of spaces on the die.

[0042] When you land on an island, take a piece of your puzzle. The exact number is not required to land on the island.

[0043] Put the puzzle piece into your puzzle.

[0044] It's the next player's turn.

[0045] Rules for the Game:

[0046] Collect one piece of your color-coded puzzle per island.

[0047] You can land on the same island as another player.

[0048] You must land on the island in order to take your piece of the puzzle.

[0049] You can't take someone else's puzzle piece.

[0050] How to Win the Game:

[0051] Be the first player to complete your puzzle and go to the Retirement Village. You do not need to roll the exact number to land on the Retirement Village. 2embedded image

[0052] Object:

[0053] Imagine yourself as the Captain of your own pirate ship! You are traveling the seas in search of treasure, but you are surrounded by other pirates who want to take your loot away from you. If you can collect all of your treasure and beat your opponents to the Retirement Village, you will win the game!

[0054] Contents:

[0055] Game Board (FIG. 1)

[0056] Supply Cards

[0057] Action Cards

[0058] 1 Die or Spinner (FIG. 2)

[0059] Playing piece (to move around the board).

[0060] Set Up:

[0061] Before starting the game, place the Supply Cards on each of the main islands. All of the same cards (of the same color) will be on the same island.

[0062] Place the Action Cards on the board.

[0063] Put your game piece on Rose Island (Start).

[0064] Starting the Game:

[0065] The youngest person goes first. Play will proceed to the left (clockwise).

[0066] Player roles the die. Move the number of spaces on the die. If the spinner is used in lieu of the die, the player will spin the spinner and follow the instructions indicated where the bone points.

[0067] When you land on an island, take a Supply Card if you don't already have it. You do not need to roll the exact number to land on an island.

[0068] If you role or spin a 2, you pick up an Action Card. Do what the Action Card indicates.

[0069] It's the next player's turn.

[0070] Rules for the Game:

[0071] If you land on the same space as another player, you can attack them by taking one of their Supply Cards.

[0072] You can land on the same island as another player, but you can't attack someone who is on an island.

[0073] You must land on the island in order to collect your “supply” card.

[0074] Collect an Action Card when you roll a 2 on the die or spin a 2 on the spinner.

[0075] Players may not move onto or through the same space twice in one turn. For example, if you role or spin a 3, you cannot move forward 2 and back 1; you must move 3 spaces in one direction only.

[0076] You don't need the exact number to land on an island, but if you have anything left over when you land on the island, you do not get to use it. For example, if you role or spin a 3 and the island is only 1 space away, you can move the one space to land on the island or you can continue past the island, and your role is over.

[0077] If you attack someone, you take one of their Supply Cards. You must return the opponent's card to the island where they picked it up; you cannot keep the card.

[0078] If you lose a Supply Card during an attack, you need to return to the island to get another one.

[0079] The Retirement Village is NOT considered to be an island; it is the main land.

[0080] You can bury your treasure on the center island. If you bury treasure, no other player can take it from you.

[0081] If you bury treasure, you must return and collect it prior to going to the Retirement Village.

[0082] Supply Cards:

[0083] There are six types of Supply Cards, one for each main island:

[0084] Medicine,

[0085] Rum,

[0086] Gems,

[0087] Cannon Balls,

[0088] Food, and

[0089] Pieces of Eight.

[0090] You must go to each island to collect one of each card before proceeding to the Retirement Village.

[0091] Action Cards:

[0092] The Action Cards are:

[0093] 1. “Move ahead to the next island” card—instructs you to go to the next island. You should move your game piece to the nearest island. If you are equally close to more than one island, select which island you would like to go to.

[0094] 2. “Move back to the previous island” card—instructs you to go back to the last island you were on. If you have not been on an island yet, return to Rose Island (Start).

[0095] 3. “Move to any island” card—instructs you to go to any island. Move your game piece to the island of your choice.

[0096] 4. “The wind is with you” card—instructs you to take another turn. Roll the die or spin the spinner and move again.

[0097] 5. “Your food supply is gone” card—go to the island with the “Food” Supply cards. If you don't already have one, take a “Food” card.

[0098] 6. “Food is low” card—instructs you to lose a turn while you catch some turtles. Your turn is over.

[0099] 7. “Stock up on rum” card—go to the island with the “Rum” Supply cards. If you don't already have one, take a “Rum” card.

[0100] 8. “You need limes” card—go to the island with the “Medicine” Supply cards. If you don't already have one, take a “Medicine” card.

[0101] 9. “You are out of hens” card—go to the island with the “Food” Supply cards. If you don't already have one, take a “Food” card.

[0102] 10. “The seas are rough” card—move your game piece back to Rose Island (Start).

[0103] 11. “Crew has a fight” card—move your game piece back to Rose Island (Start).

[0104] 12. “Your ship is in need of repair” card—return any Supply card. If you don't have one, your turn is over.

[0105] 13. “You have run out of Cannon Balls” card—go to the island with the “Cannon Ball” Supply cards. If you don't already have one, take a “Cannon Ball” card.

[0106] 14. “Scurvy breaks out on your ship” card—Lose a turn while your crew recovers.

[0107] 15. “You lose your anchor in a storm” card—instructs you to go to the next island to buy a new one. Move your game piece to the nearest island. If you are equally close to more then one island, select which island you would like to go to.

[0108] 16. “Your parrot died” card—instructs you to go to the next island to buy a new one. You should move your game piece to the nearest island. If you are equally close to more than one island, select which island you would like to go to.

[0109] 17. “Your ship is no longer Sea Worthy” card—instructs you to trade ships with the closest ship. You should switch ships, including the treasure that is on board (not what is buried on the island). If you are equally close to more than one ship, select which ship you would prefer.

[0110] 18. “You are attacked by the closest ship” card—instructs you to give them ½ of your unburied treasure. If you have one or two treasures on board, give them one (your choice). If you have three or four treasures on board, give them any two (your choice). If you have five or six treasures on board, give them any three (your choice). If they now have duplicate treasures, they should return the duplicates to the original islands. If you are equally close to more than one ship, select which ship you would prefer. This card does not apply to any treasure that you have buried.

[0111] 19. “You attack the closest ship” card—instructs you to take ½ of their unburied treasure. If they have one or two treasures on board, take one (their choice). If they have three or four treasures on board, take two (their choice). If they have five or six treasures on board, take three (their choice). If you have duplicate treasures, return the duplicates to the original islands. If you are equally close to more than one ship, select which ship you would prefer. This card does not apply to any treasure that they have buried.

[0112] 20. “A fire breaks out on the deck” card—move your game piece back to Rose Island (Start).

[0113] 21. “The winds help you to move Faster” card—instructs you to go to any island you want. Go to an island and continue your turn.

[0114] 22. “You sail into the Bermuda triangle” card—instructs you to trade ships with any player. You should switch ships, including the treasure that is on board (not what is buried on the island).

[0115] 23. “You have acquired a lot of treasure” card—you get 2 new crew members. Save this card to use against an attack from another ship. If attacked, use this card to prevent the other ship from taking your treasure. The card is returned to the bottom of the Action Card pile after you use it.

[0116] 24. “Your crew is well rested” card—Go to the island with the “Rum” Cards. If you don't already have a “Rum” card, take one.

[0117] How to Win the Game:

[0118] Be the first player to collect one of each Supply Card and go to the Retirement Village. You do not need to roll or spin the exact number to land on the Retirement Village.

[0119] Strategy:

[0120] Attack your opponent in order to take treasure from them and to prevent them from getting to the Retirement Village before you do. 3embedded image

[0121] Object:

[0122] Imagine yourself as the Captain of your own pirate ship! You are traveling the seas in search of treasure, but you are surrounded by other pirates who want to take your loot away from you. If you can collect all of your treasure and beat your opponents to the Retirement Village, you will win the game!

[0123] Contents:

[0124] Game Board (FIG. 1)

[0125] Supply Cards

[0126] Action Cards

[0127] Question Cards

[0128] 1 Die or Spinner (FIG. 2)

[0129] Playing piece (to move around the board).

[0130] Set Up:

[0131] Before starting the game, place the Supply Cards on each of the main islands. All of the same cards (of the same color) will be on the same island.

[0132] Place the Action Cards on the board.

[0133] Place the Question Cards on each island (of the coordinating color).

[0134] Put your game piece on Rose Island (Start).

[0135] Starting the Game:

[0136] The youngest person goes first. Play will proceed to the left (clockwise).

[0137] Player rolls the die. Move the number of spaces on the die. If the spinner is used in lieu of the die, the player will spin the spinner and follow the instructions indicated where the bone points.

[0138] When you land on an island, answer a question correctly and you can take a Supply Card if you don't already have it.

[0139] If you do not answer the question correctly, you must move off of the island on your next turn. You will need to return to the island, but you can't stay there to answer another question.

[0140] If you roll or spin a 2, you pick up an Action Card. Do what the Action Card indicates.

[0141] It's the next player's turn.

[0142] Rules for the Game:

[0143] If you land on the same space as another player, you can attack them by taking one of their Supply Cards.

[0144] You can land on the same island as another player, but you can't attack someone who is on an island.

[0145] You must land on the island and answer a question correctly in order to collect your “supply” card.

[0146] Collect an Action Card when you roll a 2 on the die or spin a 2 on the spinner.

[0147] Players may not move onto or through the same space twice in one turn. For example, if you roll or spin a 3, you cannot move forward 2 and back 1; you must move 3 spaces in one direction only.

[0148] You don't need the exact number to land on an island, but if you have anything left over when you land on the island, you do not get to use it. For example, if you roll or spin a 3 and the island is only 1 space away, you can move the one space to land on the island or you can continue past the island, and your roll is over.

[0149] If you attack someone, you take one of their Supply Cards. You must return the opponent's card to the island where they picked it up; you cannot keep the card.

[0150] If you lose a Supply Card during an attack, you need to return to the island to get another one.

[0151] The Retirement Village is NOT considered to be an island; it is the main land.

[0152] You can bury your treasure on the center island. If you bury treasure, no other player can take it from you.

[0153] If you bury treasure, you must return and collect it prior to going to the Retirement Village.

[0154] Supply Cards:

[0155] There are six types of Supply Cards, one for each main island:

[0156] Medicine,

[0157] Rum,

[0158] Gems,

[0159] Cannon Balls,

[0160] Food, and

[0161] Pieces of Eight.

[0162] You must go to each island to collect one of each card before proceeding to the Retirement Village.

[0163] Action Cards:

[0164] The Action Cards are:

[0165] 1. “Move ahead to the next island” card—instructs you to go to the next island. You should move your game piece to the nearest island. If you are equally close to more than one island, select which island you would like to go to.

[0166] 2. “Move back to the previous island” card—instructs you to go back to the last island you were on. If you have not been on an island yet, return to Rose Island (Start).

[0167] 3. “Move to any island” card—instructs you to go to any island. Move your game piece to the island of your choice.

[0168] 4. “The wind is with you” card—instructs you to take another turn. Roll the die or spin the spinner and move again.

[0169] 5. “Your food supply is gone” card—go to the island with the “Food” Supply cards. If you don't already have one, take a “Food” card.

[0170] 6. “Food is low” card—instructs you to lose a turn while you catch some turtles. Your turn is over.

[0171] 7. “Stock up on rum” card—go to the island with the “Rum” Supply cards. If you don't already have one, take a “Rum” card.

[0172] 8. “You need limes” card—go to the island with the “Medicine” Supply cards. If you don't already have one, take a “Medicine” card.

[0173] 9. “You are out of hens” card—go to the island with the “Food” Supply cards. If you don't already have one, take a “Food” card.

[0174] 10. “The seas are rough” card—move your game piece back to Rose Island (Start).

[0175] 11. “Crew has a fight” card—move your game piece back to Rose Island (Start).

[0176] 12. “Your ship is in need of repair” card—return any Supply card. If you don't have one, your turn is over.

[0177] 13. “You have run out of Cannon Balls” card—go to the island with the “Cannon Ball” Supply cards. If you don't already have one, take a “Cannon Ball” card.

[0178] 14. “Scurvy breaks out on your ship” card—Lose a turn while your crew recovers.

[0179] 15. “You lose your anchor in a storm” card—instructs you to go to the next island to buy a new one. Move your game piece to the nearest island. If you are equally close to more than one island, select which island you would like to go to.

[0180] 16. “Your parrot died” card—instructs you to go to the next island to buy a new one. You should move your game piece to the nearest island. If you are equally close to more than one island, select which island you would like to go to.

[0181] 17. “Your ship is no longer Sea Worthy” card—instructs you to trade ships with the closest ship. You should switch ships, including the treasure that is on board (not what is buried on the island). If you are equally close to more than one ship, select which ship you would prefer.

[0182] 18. “You are attacked by the closest ship” card—instructs you to give them ½ of your unburied treasure. If you have one or two treasures on board, give them one (your choice). If you have three or four treasures on board, give them any two (your choice). If you have five or six treasures on board, give them any three (your choice). If they now have duplicate treasures, they should return the duplicates to the original islands. If you are equally close to more than one ship, select which ship you would prefer. This card does not apply to any treasure that you have buried.

[0183] 19. “You attack the closest ship” card—instructs you to take ½ of their unburied treasure. If they have one or two treasures on board, take one (their choice). If they have three or four treasures on board, take two (their choice). If they have five or six treasures on board, take three (their choice). If you have duplicate treasures, return the duplicates to the original islands. If you are equally close to more than one ship, select which ship you would prefer. This card does not apply to any treasure that they have buried.

[0184] 20. “A fire breaks out on the deck” card—move your game piece back to Rose Island (Start).

[0185] 21. “The winds help you to move Faster” card—instructs you to go to any island you want. Go to an island and continue your turn.

[0186] 22. “You sail into the Bermuda triangle” card—instructs you to trade ships with any player. You should switch ships, including the treasure that is on board (not what is buried on the island).

[0187] 23. “You have acquired a lot of treasure” card—you get 2 new crew members. Save this card to use against an attack from another ship. If attacked, use this card to prevent the other ship from taking your treasure. The card is returned to the bottom of the Action Card pile after you use it.

[0188] 24. “Your crew is well rested” card—Go to the island with the “Rum” Cards. If you don't already have a “Rum” card, take one.

[0189] Question Cards:

[0190] Question Cards will be placed on each island. These will contain questions with a True/False answer. When you select the correct answer, you will be awarded a Supply Card from the same island.

[0191] How to Win the Game:

[0192] Be the first player to collect one of each Supply Card and go to the Retirement Village. You do not need to roll or spin the exact number to land on the Retirement Village.

[0193] Strategy:

[0194] Attack your opponent in order to take treasure from them and to prevent them from getting to the Retirement Village before you do. 4embedded image

[0195] Object:

[0196] Imagine yourself as the Captain of your own pirate ship! You are traveling the seas in search of treasure, but you are surrounded by other pirates who want to take your loot away from you. If you can collect all of your treasure and beat your opponents to the Retirement Village, you will win the game!

[0197] Contents:

[0198] Game Board (FIG. 1)

[0199] Supply Cards

[0200] Action Cards

[0201] Question Cards

[0202] 1 Die or Spinner (FIG. 2)

[0203] Playing piece (to move around the board).

[0204] Set Up:

[0205] Before starting the game, place the Supply Cards on each of the main islands. Aloof the same cards (of the same color) will be on the same island.

[0206] Place the Level 1 puzzle pieces on each island.

[0207] Place the Action Cards on the board.

[0208] Place the Question Cards on each island (of the coordinating color).

[0209] Put your game piece on Rose Island (Start).

[0210] Starting the Game:

[0211] The youngest person goes first. Play will proceed to the left (clockwise).

[0212] Player rolls the die. Move the number of spaces on the die. If the spinner is used in lieu of the die, the player will spin the spinner and follow the instructions indicated where the bone points.

[0213] When you land on an island, you can take a Supply Card for Levels 2 and 3 if you don't already have it. Take a puzzle piece for Level 1.

[0214] Level 3 players will need to answer a question correctly in order to receive a Supply Card. If Level 3 players do not answer the question correctly, they must exit the island on their next turn before they can try again.

[0215] If you are a Level 2 or 3 player and you roll a 2, pick up an Action Card. Do what the Action Card indicates. Some Action Cards will only apply to other Level 2 or 3 players.

[0216] It's the next player's turn.

[0217] Rules for the Game:

[0218] If you land on the same space as another player, you can attack them by taking one of their Supply Cards. If you are a Level 1 player, you cannot be attacked; however, you can attack Level 2 or 3 players.

[0219] You can land on the same island as another player, but you can't attack someone who is on an island.

[0220] When you land on the island, collect your Supply Card or puzzle piece. Level 3 player must answer a Question Card correctly before they can receive a Supply Card.

[0221] Level 2 or 3 players will collect an Action Card when you roll a 2 on the die or spin a 2 on the spinner. Level 1 can opt to use these cards, too, with the help of an older child or adult.

[0222] Players may not move onto or through the same space twice in one turn. For example, if you roll or spin a 3, you cannot move forward 2 and back 1; you must move 3 spaces in one direction only.

[0223] You don't need the exact number to land on an island, but if you have anything left over when you land on the island, you do not get to use it. For example, if you roll or spin a 3 and the island is only 1 space away, you can move the one space to land on the island or you can continue past the island, and your roll is over.

[0224] If you attack someone, you take one of their Supply Cards. You must return the opponent's card to the island where they picked it up; you cannot keep the card.

[0225] If you lose a Supply Card during an attack, you need to return to the island to get another one.

[0226] The Retirement Village is NOT considered to be an island; it is the main land.

[0227] You can bury your treasure on the center island. If you bury treasure, no other player can take it from you.

[0228] If you bury treasure, you must return and collect it prior to going to the Retirement pillage.

[0229] Supply Cards:

[0230] There are six types of Supply Cards, one for each main Island:

[0231] Medicine,

[0232] Rum,

[0233] Gems,

[0234] Cannon Balls,

[0235] Food, and

[0236] Pieces of Eight.

[0237] If you are a Level 2 or Level 3 player, you must go to each island to collect one of each card before proceeding to the Retirement Village.

[0238] Action Cards:

[0239] The Action Cards are:

[0240] 1. “Move ahead to the next island” card—instructs you to go to the next island. You should move your game piece to the nearest island. If you are equally close to more than one island, select which island you would like to go to.

[0241] 2. “Move back to the previous island” card—instructs you to go back to the last island you were on. If you have not been on an island yet, return to Rose Island (Start).

[0242] 3. “Move to any island” card—instructs you to go to any island. Move your game piece to the island of your choice.

[0243] 4. “The wind is with you” card—instructs you to take another turn. Roll the die or spin the spinner and move again.

[0244] 5. “Your food supply is gone” card—go to the island with the “Food” Supply cards. If you don't already have one, take a “Food” card.

[0245] 6. “Food is low” card—instructs you to lose a turn while you catch some turtles. Your turn is over.

[0246] 7. “Stock up on rum” card—go to the island with the “Rum” Supply cards. If you don't already have one, take a “Rum” card.

[0247] 8. “You need limes” card—go to the island with the “Medicine” Supply cards. If you don't already have one, take a “Medicine” card.

[0248] 9. “You are out of hens” card—go to the island with the “Food” Supply cards. If you don't already have one, take a “Food” card.

[0249] 10. “The seas are rough” card—move your game piece back to Rose Island (Start).

[0250] 11. “Crew has a fight” card—move your game piece back to Rose Island (Start).

[0251] 12. “Your ship is in need of repair” card—return any Supply card. If you don't have one, your turn is over.

[0252] 13. “You have run out of Cannon Balls” card—go to the island with the “Cannon Ball” Supply cards. If you don't already have one, take a “Cannon Ball” card.

[0253] 14. “Scurvy breaks out on your ship” card—Lose a turn while your crew recovers.

[0254] 15. “You lose your anchor in a storm” card—instructs you to go to the next island to buy a new one. Move your game piece to the nearest island. If you are equally close to more than one island, select which island you would like to go to.

[0255] 16. “Your parrot died” card—instructs you to go to the next island to buy a new one. You should move your game piece to the nearest island. If you are equally close to more than one island, select which island you would like to go to.

[0256] 17. “Your ship is no longer Sea Worthy” card—instructs you to trade ships with the closest ship. You should switch ships, including the treasure that is on board (not what is buried on the island). If you are equally close to more than one ship, select which ship you would prefer.

[0257] 18. “You are attacked by the closest ship” card—instructs you to give them ½ of your unburied treasure. If you have one or two treasures on board, give them one (your choice). If you have three or four treasures on board, give them any two (your choice). If you have five or six treasures on board, give them any three (your choice). If they now have duplicate treasures, they should return the duplicates to the original islands. If you are equally close to more than one ship, select which ship you would prefer. This card does not apply to any treasure that you have buried.

[0258] 19. “You attack the closest ship” card—instructs you to take ½ of their unburied treasure. If they have one or two treasures on board, take one (their choice). If they have three or four treasures on board, take any two (their choice). If they have five or six treasures on board, take any three (their choice). If you have duplicate treasures, return the duplicates to the original islands. If you are equally close to more than one ship, select which ship you would prefer. This card does not apply to any treasure that they have buried.

[0259] 20. “A fire breaks out on the deck” card—move your game piece back to Rose Island (Start).

[0260] 21. “The winds help you to move Faster” card—instructs you to go to any island you want. Go to an island and continue your turn.

[0261] 22. “You sail into the Bermuda triangle” card—instructs you to trade ships with any player. You should switch ships, including the treasure that is on board (not what is buried on the island).

[0262] 23. “You have acquired a lot of treasure” card—you get 2 new crew members. Save this card to use against an attack from another ship. If attacked, use this card to prevent the other ship from taking your treasure. The card is returned to the bottom of the Action Card pile after you use it.

[0263] 24. “Your crew is well rested” card—Go to the island with the “Rum” Cards. If you don't already have a “Rum” card, take one.

[0264] How to Win the Game:

[0265] If you are a Level 1 player, you need to complete your puzzle and return to the Retirement Village. If you are a Level 2 or 3 player, you need to collect one of each Supply Card and go to the Retirement Village. You do not need to roll or spin the exact number to land on the Retirement Village. Be the first person to return to the Retirement Village with your completed puzzle (Level 1) or all of your Supply Cards (Levels 2 and 3) and you win the game.

[0266] Strategy:

[0267] Attack your Level 2 &3 opponent(s) in order to prevent them from collecting all of their Supply Cards and returning to the Retirement Village before you do.

(11) SEQUENCE LISTING

[0268] Not applicable.

ATTACHMENT A

[0269] FACTS

[0270] BOOKLET 1

TABLE OF CONTENTS
DescriptionPages
Avery, Henry27
Banners27
Bartolomeo the Portuguese27
Bellamy, Samuel27
Blackbeard (Edward Teach)27-28
Black Bellamy (Samuel Bellamy)28
Bonny, Anne28
“Calico Jack” Racham28
Captain George Wall28-29
Captain Kidd (William Kidd)29-30
Captain Thomas Tew30
Chinq Yih Saou30
Cimarrons30
Drake, Francis30-31
Esquemeling, John31
Flags31
Hawkins, John31
Hornigold, Benjamin31
Kidd, William31
Long Ben Avery (Henry Avery)31
Madagascar32
Mansvelt, Edward32
Miscellaneous32-37
Montbars37
Morgan, Henry37-38
Peter the Great38
Pierre Le Grand38
Queen Elizabeth38
Racham, Jack38
Reade, Mary39
Stevenson, Robert Louis39
Teach, Edward39
Tew, Thomas39
Vikings39
Wall, George39
Wall, Rachel39

[0271] Avery, Henry:

[0272] See Long Ben Avery.

[0273] Banners:

[0274] “Blackjack” is another name for a “pirate flag”.

[0275] When a red banner was raised on the pirate ship, it was a request to surrender peacefully and they would not be hurt.

[0276] A black banner was called the Jolly Roger. When a shipped raised the Jolly Roger, the captain intended to fight. No prisoners would be taken.

[0277] Bartolomeo the Portuguese:

[0278] Bartolomeo the Portuguese escaped from the Spanish governor's ship by using water wings (empty jugs of wine).

[0279] Bartolomeo the Portuguese's escapes were astonishing because he couldn't swim.

[0280] Bellamy, Samuel:

[0281] See Black Bellamy.

[0282] Blackbeard (Edward Teach):

[0283] Blackbeard's real name was Edward Teach.

[0284] Blackbeard was a seaman on a privateer before he became a pirate.

[0285] Blackbeard served under Captain Benjamin Hornigold.

[0286] Benjamin Hornigold taught Blackbeard how to be a pirate.

[0287] Blackbeard went out on his own in 1716.

[0288] The original name of Blackbeard's flagship was the Concord.

[0289] The name of Blackbeard's first flagship was the Queen Anne's Revenge.

[0290] Edward Teach got his “pirate” name because of his black beard which he plaited and tied in ribbons.

[0291] Blackbeard was six feet four and weighed over 200 pounds.

[0292] Blackbeard's home base was Outer Banks, N.C.

[0293] Blackbeard liked to drink rum with gunpowder in it. He would light it and drink it.

[0294] Blackbeard was an expert in psychological warfare.

[0295] Blackbeard was married at least 14 times.

[0296] Blackbeard was welcomed to sell his goods to the local town people, as long as he didn't cause trouble.

[0297] Blackbeard went into battle with pistols strapped to his chest, daggers, a cutlass, and fuses.

[0298] Blackbeard was as cruel to his crew as he was to his prisoners.

[0299] Blackbeard shot his first mate, Israel Hands in the knee because “if he did not now-and-then kill one of them, they would forget who he was”.

[0300] Blackbeard said, “Only he and the devil knew where his treasure was buried”.

[0301] Alexander Spotswood, Governor of Virginia, commissioned Robert Maynard to track Blackbeard down. He tracked him down in Oracoke Inlet, N.C. Maynard defeated Blackbeard in a hand-to-hand fight. Blackbeard suffered 20 cutlass wounds and 5 pistol shots when he was killed. Robert Maynard decapitated Blackbeard and hung his head from the ship. Maynard only found supplies and letters when he searched for Blackbeard's treasure.

[0302] Blackbeard's crew was tried, found guilty (except for one), and hanged.

[0303] Blackbeard's reign of fear lasted for two years.

[0304] Blackbeard's death marked the end of the “golden age” of piracy.

[0305] The secret of Blackbeard's treasure died with him.

[0306] Black Bellamy (Samuel Bellamy):

[0307] Samuel Bellamy was an English sailor who became a Spanish Nobleman.

[0308] Samuel Bellamy's pirate name was Black Bellamy.

[0309] Black Bellamy promised to return home with the longest ship ever.

[0310] The Whydah was the large ship that Black Bellamy captured.

[0311] The Whydah capsized off of Cape Cod before Bellamy returned home.

[0312] Bonny, Anne:

[0313] Anne Bonny left her husband for“Calico Jack” Racham.

[0314] Anne Bonny and Mary Reade were not hanged at their trial because they were both pregnant.

[0315] “Calico Jack” Racham:

[0316] “Calico Jack” Racham got his name because he dressed in brightly colored calico clothes.

[0317] Anne Bonny left her husband for “Calico Jack” Racham.

[0318] Captain George Wall:

[0319] Captain Wall and his crew captured their first ship by faking a distress signal.

[0320] Captain George Wall died in a violent storm.

[0321] Captain Kidd (William Kidd):

[0322] Captain Kidd was one of the most well known pirates.

[0323] Captain Kidd's first name was William.

[0324] William Kidd was born in Scotland, 1645.

[0325] William Kidd's father was a Presbyterian minister.

[0326] Captain Kidd was originally employed to get rid of pirates.

[0327] Captain Kidd's mission with the Adventure Galley was to capture all French ships and the pirates of Madagascar.

[0328] Captain William Kidd was sent to patrol the seas when requested by the East India Company. He couldn't turn down the expedition because it would have been considered disloyalty to the King.

[0329] Captain William Kidd was authorized to capture Captain Thomas Tew.

[0330] The Adventure Galley was the name of Captain Kidd's first ship.

[0331] Captain Kidd never used a Jolly Roger.

[0332] After Captain Kidd hired his crew and set out for New York, they were stopped by a man-of-war who took part of Kidd's crew.

[0333] Captain Kidd ended up recruiting a gang of cutthroats from New York.

[0334] Captain Kidd didn't find and pirates when he first arrived at Madagascar.

[0335] Captain Kidd fought one of his crewmembers; the crew was close to mutiny because Kidd wouldn't attack other ships, so they argued. Captain Kidd killed the chief gunner, William Moore.

[0336] The first ship attacked by Captain Kidd belonged to India, but it had raised a French flag.

[0337] On April Fools Day, 1699, Captain Kidd was in Anguilla. The locals refused to sell goods to them because they were pirates.

[0338] When Captain Kidd realized he was in trouble, he bought a smaller ship and headed toward Boston. The name of the smaller vessel that Captain Kidd purchased was called the Antonio.

[0339] Captain Kidd left most of his treasure with John Gardiner, near Montauk Point, when he headed for Boston. The Boston police went to Gardiner's Island to retrieve it.

[0340] Lord Bellomont pledged to “do everything in his power to see that Kidd got what he deserved”. When Captain Kidd arrived in Boston, he was arrested within hours.

[0341] Captain Kidd was captured.

[0342] Captain Kidd's former backers hid the documents that would prove his innocence during his trial.

[0343] Captain Kidd defended himself during his trial.

[0344] Captain Kidd was sentenced to die on May 23, 1701.

[0345] Captain Kidd was drunk on the day of his death.

[0346] The rope broke when they tried to hang Captain Kidd.

[0347] After Captain Kidd was dead, his body was dipped in tar, put into an iron cage and hung by chains by the Thames River to warn others off of piracy

[0348] Captain Thomas Tew:

[0349] Captain Thomas Tew was the first Red Sea man. He is best remembered for his 1st voyage to the Red Sea because the great treasures he acquired encouraged others.

[0350] Captain Thomas Tew was killed when he was struck in the stomach with a cannon ball.

[0351] Chinq Yih Saou:

[0352] The name of Chinq Yih Saou's ship was the Black Squadron.

[0353] Chinq Yih Saou's ship was cramped, dirty and uncomfortable.

[0354] Chinq Yih Saou sprinkled garlic water on her crew to make them bullet proof.

[0355] Chinq Yih Saou stopped being a pirate because the emperor gave her a pardon, money and land.

[0356] Chinq Yih Saou became the head of a large smuggling ring after she retired from piracy.

[0357] Cimarrons:

[0358] Cimarrons were slaves.

[0359] Cimarrons were people of the jungle.

[0360] Cimarrons helped Francis Drake because they wanted weapons.

[0361] Drake, Francis:

[0362] Sir Francis Drake was born in 1545, short, and the oldest of 12 children.

[0363] Francis Drake was a preacher's son.

[0364] Francis Drake was 10 when he first went to sea.

[0365] Francis Drake was 16 when he owned his first ship.

[0366] Francis Drake learned to navigate by the stars, never fall asleep during a storm, and steered clear of rocks.

[0367] Francis Drake started as a slave trader.

[0368] Francis Drake joined slave wars in Africa.

[0369] Francis Drake's greatest feat was Panama.

[0370] Cimarrons helped Drake because they wanted weapons.

[0371] “Never forget, never forgive, get even” was the motto of Sir Francis Drake.

[0372] Francis Drake and John Hawkins were two privateers knighted by Queen Elizabeth I.

[0373] Esquemeling, John:

[0374] John Esquemeling was known for writing about pirates and buccaneers.

[0375] Flags:

[0376] See banners.

[0377] Hawkins, John:

[0378] Francis Drake and John Hawkins were two privateers knighted by Queen Elizabeth I.

[0379] Hornigold, Benjamin:

[0380] Blackbeard served under Captain Benjamin Homigold.

[0381] Benjamin Homigold taught Blackbeard how to be a pirate.

[0382] Kidd, William:

[0383] See Captain Kidd.

[0384] Long Ben Avery (Henry Avery):

[0385] Henry Avery was the second famous Red Sea Man, next to Captain Tew.

[0386] Henry Avery's pirate name was “Long Ben” because he was tall.

[0387] Henry Avery went to sea when he was young because his family was poor and he didn't want to be a burden to them.

[0388] Henry Avery served as first mate on The Duke.

[0389] Henry Avery became Captain because he talked the crew into mutiny.

[0390] When Henry Avery took over the ship, he locked the loyal crewmembers below. Afterwards, the Captain and the loyal crew were taken ashore.

[0391] After Henry Avery attacked the Gunsway, he stole the treasure and allowed the crew and passengers to leave.

[0392] When Long Ben Avery returned from his attack on the Gunsway, his crew split up. Avery took his share in diamonds. Merchants took the diamonds to evaluate, but never returned. At the time of his death, Henry Avery was a pauper and couldn't even afford a coffin.

[0393] Madagascar:

[0394] Madagascar is 260 miles off of Africa's east coast.

[0395] The pirates built Forts or castles on the cliffs of Madagascar.

[0396] Mansvelt, Edward:

[0397] Edward Mansvelt was Henry Morgan's mentor.

[0398] Edward Mansvelt's death influenced Henry Morgan the most.

[0399] Miscellaneous:

[0400] “Angrage” is nails, nuts & bolts, and odd scrap metal.

[0401] Articles are the rules that pirates and privateers had to obey.

[0402] Barbarossa means “red beard”.

[0403] Barnacles are tiny hard-shelled creatures that cling to the ship's hull.

[0404] A bar shot is a small version of a weightlifter's barbells.

[0405] A Bilge is the bottom of the ship.

[0406] A blunderbuss is a short barrel of musket.

[0407] Boarding pikes are 8-foot spears used to poke at an enemy while boarding ships.

[0408] As much as one sixth of a pirate crew was made up of escaped slaves.

[0409] The boatswain was responsible for looking over the day-to-day running of the ship.

[0410] “Booty” refers to “stolen goods”.

[0411] Boucaniers are meat-curers.

[0412] A bowers anchor is one of the two anchors of a ship.

[0413] Breeching ropes are strong ropes used to secure cannons to the side of the ship.

[0414] A Brigantine is a merchant ship.

[0415] British sailors are called “Limeys” because they were made to drink Limejuice every morning to prevent scurvy.

[0416] Buccaneers brought back tobacco, perfumes, and pearls.

[0417] Buccaneers called themselves “Brothers of the Coast”.

[0418] Bukan is a meat-like corned beef.

[0419] Cannon instructions included ram gunpowder; roll iron ball and stuff with old rags.

[0420] A “capstan” is a revolving wooden cylinder used for winding up an anchor.

[0421] A Captain might get a ship by being elected by their crews, stealing it, or killing the captain.

[0422] A captain usually had five or six wives.

[0423] A captain was chosen for his fighting ability, shipping ability and luck.

[0424] If the captain were killed, the Lieutenant would take command of the ship.

[0425] Careening is turning a ship on its side to scrape barnacles off called.

[0426] Carpenters performed amputations if there were no surgeons on board.

[0427] A “Cat o'nine tails” is a whip with nine knotted ropes attached.

[0428] Chinese pirates called the Japanese “Dwarf people”.

[0429] Colonel Benjamin Fletcher, Royal Governor of NY, offered pirates protection for a price.

[0430] “Come about” is the order to prepare to tack.

[0431] Commands for the cannon included aim, fire, and jump clear.

[0432] The “drink” is the ocean or water.

[0433] The drinks that were among the pirate's favorites were Brandy punch and rumfustian (gins, beer, sherry wine, and spices).

[0434] The Emperor of China beheaded pirates. Their heads were displayed in public.

[0435] Few pirates were known, thousands existed.

[0436] A filibusterer, freebooter, corsair, and sea rover are other names for pirates.

[0437] The first penalty for going ashore without permission was to have your ears cut off.

[0438] Fruits rich in vitamin C prevent scurvy.

[0439] The Galley is the kitchen on the ship.

[0440] All goods in the 1500's were to be made in Spain, Spanish licensed and taxed by Spain.

[0441] The government gave money and land to anyone who would give up sea roving.

[0442] A grape shot is a canvas bag filled with musket balls.

[0443] The great age of piracy begin around the 1650's and ended around 1725.

[0444] The Great Antilles included Cuba, Puerto Rico and Jamaica.

[0445] The Greeks put a figurehead of a Holy bird on the bow of their ships because they believed it gave them sight and Holy protection.

[0446] Guerilla-style fighting is “striking and running before the enemy can catch his breath”.

[0447] Hog grease, moistened soap, and bushels of peas were used to prevent invaders from boarding a vessel.

[0448] The Hold is where the cargo is stored.

[0449] Hundred-year-old tortoises gave the pirates a ready source of meat.

[0450] If a man was caught stealing, he was marooned.

[0451] Important decisions were voted on by everyone.

[0452] Imprisonment was a punishment for privateering.

[0453] Indians called Haiti the “High Country”.

[0454] In the late 1500's, only those ships leaving Spain were protected.

[0455] An isthmus is a narrow strip of land, bordered by water on both sides, and joins two large pieces of land.

[0456] King William III replaced Fletcher with the Earl of Bellomont as governor of NY and New England.

[0457] A “letter of marque and Reprisal” is a license issued to a privateer. If you were caught with fake letter of marque, you were punished as a pirate.

[0458] A “lie by” is when you arrange a ship by the side of another.

[0459] “Life on account” is what pirates called their profession.

[0460] Loot is stolen goods.

[0461] A lost leg was worth 400 to 500 pieces of eight.

[0462] To maroon someone is to abandon them on a desolate shore.

[0463] A “mate lot” is French slang for mate or buddy.

[0464] The mission of privateers was to attack ships that were the enemy of the government.

[0465] Mule trains left Panama City twice a year.

[0466] A “murdering piece” is a swivel gun that fired chunks of scrap iron.

[0467] “Musickers” were musicians on the ship.

[0468] “Name of God” was a town in Panama.

[0469] The Navigation Acts made it legal for only England to sell goods to the Colonies. As a result of the Navigation Acts, the Colonists welcomed the pirates for their fair prices

[0470] “No quarter” means “no mercy”.

[0471] “Oakum” is strands of tarred rope between a ship's planks to stop any leaking.

[0472] Oarsmen were called “Rus”.

[0473] One of the pirate's favorite pastimes when on shore was Mock trials. Mock trials helped pirates to make fun of the possibility of being tried for piracy.

[0474] Panama City had chests of gold, gray pearls, and green emeralds.

[0475] A patch over the eye was a badge of honor.

[0476] A Periaqua is a large canoe.

[0477] The Phoenicians put horse's heads on their ships for speed and sight.

[0478] “Pieces-of-eight” are famous silver coins.

[0479] 600 pieces of eight would be worth about three dollars in the year 2000.

[0480] A Pink is a ship with a very narrow stem.

[0481] Pinnaces are small, lightweight vessels powered by sails or sweeps; used for a quick escape.

[0482] Piracy peaked around 1720.

[0483] Each pirate brought his share of gunpowder and bullets before going to sea.

[0484] A pirate is someone who robs and plunders the sea.

[0485] Pirates always divide their treasure as soon as possible because it was too risky to have it in one place.

[0486] Pirates brought rum, sugar, silk, spices, spools of silver, and indigo back from their travels.

[0487] The pirate's castle was his home. He relaxed there between his voyages.

[0488] Pirates didn't like to fire cannons because they didn't want the ship they were attacking to sink before they took the treasure.

[0489] Pirates give themselves nicknames so people would know where they came from.

[0490] Pirates kidnapped Julius Caesar.

[0491] Pirates reigned havoc for nearly two centuries.

[0492] Pirates sent messages ashore to sell slaves, pretending to need supplies.

[0493] Pirates soaked blankets in water to prepare for fires.

[0494] Pirates usually did not drink alcohol when they were at sea so they would remain alert.

[0495] Pirates were able to get close to other ships by raising the same country's flag.

[0496] Pirates were afraid of what weeping crocodiles, oyster trees, and kicking seahorses.

[0497] Pirates were attracted to the Moskito Coast because there were many unmappedinlets and harbors where they could hide.

[0498] Pirates were executed in public as a form of entertainment. In ancient times, pirates were beheaded, crucified, thrown to wild animals, and/or roasted alive.

[0499] Privateers were privately owned ships hired by the government during wartime.

[0500] Pirates would spread sand on the decks to soak up blood.

[0501] A poop is the highest deck of the ship.

[0502] The Population of Antilles dropped when people left to seek gold in Mexico.

[0503] Port Pleasant was named because the jungle was filled with brightly colored birds.

[0504] A “prize” referred to a captured ship and booty.

[0505] The Quartermaster was the second in Command. The Quartermaster divided the booty and punished troublemakers.

[0506] Quedagh Merchant was a ship containing the greatest pirate treasure.

[0507] Red Sea men were men who raided other ships in the Red Sea.

[0508] “Rigging” is the system of ropes supporting a ship's mast and sails.

[0509] Ringing ears, flame spitting and kick backs that snap legs are the dangers of cannons.

[0510] “Roger” is an English term for “rogue” or vagabond.

[0511] A rope tied around a pirate's wrist meant that he/she was a thief.

[0512] The sailing master was responsible for the navigation and setting of the sails.

[0513] Sailors called Africa the “Dark Continent”.

[0514] The sailors called the Guinea, West Africa the “Slave Coast”.

[0515] A Schooner is a small vessel with two masts.

[0516] A shallop is a large boat with two masts.

[0517] The ships were run by voting among the crew.

[0518] Shoes were made from pigskin.

[0519] The shores off of the Caribbean Islands were filled with what Bass, Tuna and Red Snapper.

[0520] Slaves were important to Great Antilles because they worked the plantations, they looked after the cattle, and they protected the land from the pirates.

[0521] A sloop is a 25-ton open sailing vessel.

[0522] Smoke screens were made by jars of yellow sulfur.

[0523] Spain claimed the waters of the New World in the 1699's.

[0524] Splinters always killed more men than direct hits.

[0525] Sweeps are long oars, used to fight.

[0526] Tack means to change course.

[0527] Tacks and broken bottles were used to prevent uninvited guests from boarding a vessel.

[0528] A Taffarel is the upper part of a ship's stem.

[0529] There are no recorded cases in history of any men who were blindfolded and made to walk the plank.

[0530] Tortuga is the Spanish name for Turtle Island.

[0531] The towns that wanted slaves pretended to fire at the ships.

[0532] The trip from America to Africa took 7 weeks.

[0533] A typical “plunder” is a few bales of silk and cotton, some barrels of tobacco, an anchor cable, sails, tools, and some slaves.

[0534] War junks are flat-bottomed boats designed for speed and shallow water.

[0535] A “Weevil” is a beetle.

[0536] West Indies islands extended for 2,000 miles.

[0537] The West Indies was one of the weakest possessions of Spain, the most important possession of Spain, and stretched from the Florida Keys to Venezuela.

[0538] Women weren't allowed on pirate ships because they were considered bad luck.

[0539] A “Yellow Jack” is a flag indicating that there was disease aboard the ship.

[0540] Montbars:

[0541] The “Exterminator” was the Frenchman, Montbars.

[0542] Morgan, Henry:

[0543] Henry Morgan was from Barbados.

[0544] Henry Morgan's father was a plantation owner.

[0545] Henry Morgan had Grey blue eyes.

[0546] Henry Morgan had a mustache.

[0547] Henry Morgan married his cousin, Mary Elizabeth.

[0548] Henry Morgan didn't have any children, but he was faithful to his wife.

[0549] Henry Morgan was considered a buccaneer and privateer.

[0550] Henry Morgan was known to be clever, courageous and calm under pressure.

[0551] Henry Morgan was elected captain on his first voyage.

[0552] Edward Mansvelt was Henry Morgan's mentor.

[0553] Edward Mansvelt's death influenced Henry Morgan the most.

[0554] Henry Morgan was made Admiral upon the death of Edward Mansvelt.

[0555] Henry Morgan and his crew lit candles by using gunpowder, were unlucky at sea, and ran into reefs.

[0556] Henry Morgan used priests and nuns to shield bullets and he stole from his men.

[0557] The most famous buccaneer raid on a major city was the attack on Panama led by Henry Morgan (1617).

[0558] Henry Morgan brought back gold thread, lace and rare wood.

[0559] Henry Morgan was an admiral, Lt. Governor and Governor of Jamaica.

[0560] King Charles knighted Henry Morgan.

[0561] Henry Morgan died in his bed 1688.

[0562] Henry Morgan was buried with honors.

[0563] Henry Morgan's last move was in 1692 when an earthquake moved his body to the sea.

[0564] Peter the Great:

[0565] See Pierre Le Grand.

[0566] Pierre Le Grand (Peter the Great):

[0567] The most famous French pirate was Pierre Le Grand (Peter the Great).

[0568] Queen Elizabeth:

[0569] Queen Elizabeth was also known as Good Queen Bess and Clever Queen Bess.

[0570] Francis Drake and John Hawkins were two privateers knighted by Queen Elizabeth I.

[0571] Racham, Jack:

[0572] See “Calico Jack” Racham.

[0573] Reade, Mary:

[0574] Mary Reade was a British Redcoat before she became a pirate.

[0575] Mary Reade deserted the Royal Navy and joined the British Army.

[0576] Mary Reade became a pirate when she was captured and was forced to join a crew.

[0577] Anne Bonny and Mary Reade were not hanged at their trial because they were both pregnant.

[0578] Stevenson, Robert Louis:

[0579] Robert Louis Stevenson was 30 years old when he began writing “Treasure Island”.

[0580] Teach, Edward:

[0581] See Blackbeard.

[0582] Tew, Thomas:

[0583] See Captain Thomas Tew.

[0584] Vikings:

[0585] Viking means pirate.

[0586] The Vikings put dragonheads on their ships to frighten their enemies.

[0587] Vikings looted churches, massacred people and were pirates.

[0588] Wall, George:

[0589] See Captain George Wall.

[0590] Wall, Rachel:

[0591] Rachel Wall is from Carlisle, Pa.

[0592] Rachel Wall met her husband, George Wall, in Harrisburg, Pa.

[0593] Rachel Wall was hung for stealing a bonnet.