Title:
Method of predicting the structural integrity of mamalian tissue
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
The invention claimed is a method of predicting the structural integrity of a mammalian tissue comprising the steps of measuring an amount of a heparanoid-like substance in a mammalian bodily excretion then referring to a predictive chart showing a correlation between the amount of the heparanoid-like substance in the mammalian bodily excretion in relation to an amount of the heparanoid-like substance in said mammalian tissue and then predicting the amount of heparanoid-like substance in said mammalian tissue from the amount of heparanoid-like substance measured in the mammalian bodily excretion.



Inventors:
Daniels, Bruce Alan (Oklahoma City, OK, US)
Application Number:
10/383888
Publication Date:
06/17/2004
Filing Date:
03/07/2003
Assignee:
DANIELS BRUCE ALAN
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
435/7.1
International Classes:
A61K31/715; A61K31/727; (IPC1-7): A61K31/727; G01N33/53
View Patent Images:



Primary Examiner:
WHITE, EVERETT
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Ali Kamarei, Esq. (INHOUSE IP Counsel 280 Colorado Avenue, Palo Alto, CA, 94301, US)
Claims:

What is claimed is:



1. A method of predicting the structural integrity of a mammalian tissue comprising the steps of: (a) measuring an amount of a heparanoid-like substance in a mammalian bodily excretion; (b) referring to a predictive chart showing a correlation between the amount of the heparanoid-like substance in the mammalian bodily excretion in relation to an amount of the heparanoid-like substance in said mammalian tissue; (c) predicting the amount of heparanoid-like substance in said mammalian tissue from the amount of heparanoid-like substance measured in the mammalian bodily excretion.

2. The method of claim 1 wherein the heparanoid-like substance is Rhamnan Sulphate.

3. The method of claim 1 wherein the bodily excretion is feces.

4. The method of claim 1 wherein the bodily excretion is urine.

5. The method of claim 1 wherein the chart is an equation.

6. The method of claim 1 wherein the mammal is human.

7. The method of claim 1 wherein the tissue is the endothelium.

8. The method of claim 1 wherein the tissue is the cellular matrix.

9. The method of claim 1 wherein the amount of heparanoid-like substance is measured in a volume of liquid to give a concentration of heparanoid-like substance.

10. The method of claim 9 wherein the predictive chart shows the correlation between the concentration of bodily excretion heparanoid-like substance in relation to a concentration of heparanoid-like substance in mammalian tissue.

11. The method of claim 10 wherein the mammalian tissue is the endothelium.

12. The method of claim 1 wherein a mammalian tissue heparanoid-like substance amount between an optimal range is indicative of desirable tissue structural integrity.

13. The method of claim 1 wherein a tissue heparanoid-like substance concentration outside of an optimal range is indicative of undesirable tissue structural integrity.

14. The method of claim 1 wherein the mammalian tissue structural integrity is used to predict the overall health state of the mammal.

15. The method of claim 14 wherein a desirable mammalian tissue structural integrity indicates desirable healthy state.

16. The method of claim 15 wherein a desirable healthy state indicates a reduced risk of thrombogenecity.

17. The method of claim 15 wherein the desirable healthy state indicates a reduced risk of heart attack.

18. The method of claim 15 wherein a desirable healthy state indicates a reduced risk of ischemia.

19. The method of claim 15 wherein a desirable healthy state indicates a reduced risk of arterial stenosis.

20. The method of claim 15 wherein a desirable healthy state indicates a reduced risk of cardiac cell hypertrophy.

21. The method of claim 15 wherein a desirable healthy state indicates a reduced risk of myocardial infarction.

22. The method of claim 15 wherein a desirable healthy state indicates a reduced risk of angina pectoris.

23. The method of claim 15 wherein a desirable healthy state indicates a reduced risk of hypertension.

24. The method of claim 15 wherein a desirable healthy state indicates a reduced risk of endothelial dysfunction.

25. The method of claim 15 wherein a desirable healthy state indicates a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease.

26. The method of claim 25 wherein the cardiovascular disease is atherosclerosis.

27. The method of claim 25 wherein the cardiovascular disease is arteriosclerosis.

28. The method of claim 25 wherein the cardiovascular disease is thrombosis.

29. The method of claim 14 wherein an undesirable mammalian tissue structural integrity indicates an undesirable healthy state.

30. The method of claim 22 wherein an undesirable healthy state indicates an increased risk of thrombogenecity.

31. The method of claim 22 wherein an undesirable healthy state indicates an increased risk of congestive heart failure.

32. The method of claim 22 wherein an undesirable healthy state indicates an increased risk of arterial stenosis.

33. The method of claim 22 wherein an undesirable healthy state indicates an increased risk of myocardial infarction.

34. The method of claim 22 wherein an undesirable healthy state indicates an increased risk of cardiac cell hypertrophy.

35. The method of claim 22 wherein an undesirable healthy state indicates an increased risk of angina pectoris.

36. The method of claim 22 wherein an undesirable healthy state indicates an increased risk of hypertension.

37. The method of claim 22 wherein an undesirable healthy state indicates an increased risk of endothelial dysfunction.

38. The method of claim 22 wherein an undesirable healthy state indicates an increased risk for heart attack.

39. The method of claim 22 wherein an undesirable healthy state indicates an increased risk of ischemia.

40. The method of claim 22 wherein an undesirable healthy state indicates an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

41. The method of claim 40 wherein the cardiovascular disease is atherosclerosis.

42. The method of claim 40 wherein the cardiovascular disease is arteriosclerosis.

43. The method of claim 40 wherein the cardiovascular disease is thrombosis.

Description:

CROSS REFERENCE

[0001] This application is a continuation in part of application Ser. No. 10/320,309 filed on Dec. 16, 2002, which is hereby incorporated by reference.

FIELD

[0002] This invention relates to a method for measuring the amount of heparanoid-like substance from a mammalian excretion and determining from a chart if the patient is within an optimal range of heparanoid-like substance in their tissue. This method is preferable because it is a noninvasive procedure for determining whether a mammal has an increased or reduced risk of developing or suffering from a cardiovascular disorder or disease, such as atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis, congestive heart failure, arterial stenosis, cardiac cell hypertrophy, thrombogenecity, myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular ischemia, peripheral vascular ischemia, angina pectoris, hypertension, or endothelial dysfunction.

BACKGROUND

[0003] Cardiovascular disorders and diseases resulting from cell surface thrombosis, and their associated complications are a principal cause of disabilities and deaths of individuals in the world. For example, in recent years more than 500,000 deaths have occurred annually in the United States alone as a result of coronary artery disease, and an additional 1,200,000 patients have been hospitalized for myocardial ischemia and infarction.

[0004] There has been significant and extensive research for effective long-term treatment for disorders and diseases of the heart and arteries, such as atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis, congestive heart failure, angina pectoris, and other diseases associated with the cardiovascular system. However, present treatments for such disorders are short-term treatments such as administration of vasodilators, angioplasty, and by-pass surgery. These treatments have serious shortcomings in long-term effectiveness, thus they have met with general disapproval due to the risks associated with them. The use of vasodilator drugs and mechanical treatments for acute and chronic occlusive vascular diseases of the heart central and peripheral vascular systems have to date been ineffective for favorable long-term results and do not treat the underlying molecular processes causal for the diseases.

[0005] None of these treatment methods is directed towards the underlying disease processes, the molecular causes of the disease or disorders, or towards restoring the structure and function of the blood vessels to levels that reduce or eliminate the danger posed by cardiovascular diseases. There is no treatment to reduce the level of obstruction in arteries that are not severely occluded or to enhance the arteries inherent ability to resist thrombus formation, leaving these patients still at significant risk of a heart attack.

[0006] Today, in order to determine whether a patient has an increased risk of cardiovascular dysfunction or disease due only cholesterol, a blood sample must be taken and run at a lab, which results in not only costly analysis but also discomfort for the patient. Cholesterol occlusion is only one of numerous risk factors for the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Increased clotting activity and decreased resistance to clotting activity are causally related to the processes of atherosclerosis, aging processes, and numerous other disease states.

[0007] In view of the foregoing, there is a significant need for a noninvasive method that determines whether a patient has an increased risk of coronary disease or other disease associated with thrombosis based on factors other than cholesterol.

[0008] It is an objective of the present invention to measure the amount of heparanoid-like substance in mammalian excretions, a noninvasive procedure.

[0009] It is another objective of the present invention to then use a chart to predict the amount of heparanoid-like substance in mammalian tissue.

[0010] It is yet another objective of the present invention to then predict whether the mammalian tissue has desirable or undesirable structural integrity.

[0011] It is yet another objective of the present invention to then predict if the patient has an increased or reduced risk of developing a cardiac disease or other disease associated with thrombosis other than cholesterol, from the predicted tissue structural integrity.

SUMMARY

[0012] The invention claimed is a method of predicting the structural integrity of a mammalian tissue comprising the steps of measuring an amount of a heparanoid-like substance in a mammalian bodily excretion; then referring to a predictive chart showing a correlation between the amount of the heparanoid-like substance in the mammalian bodily excretion in relation to an amount of the heparanoid-like substance in said mammalian tissue; and then predicting the amount of heparanoid-like substance in said mammalian tissue from the amount of heparanoid-like substance measured in the mammalian bodily excretion.

[0013] The heparanoid-like substance measured in the mammalian excretion may be Rhamnan Sulphate, where the bodily excretion is feces or urine and the mammal being examined is a human. Additionally, the chart for determining the amount of heparanoid-like substance in the tissue may be an equation or a software application. As an example, the predictive chart, equation, or software application correlates the amounts of Rhamnan Sulfate like material in the urine or feces to the amounts of Rhamnan Sulfate like material found in the endothelium or cellular matrix.

[0014] Alternatively, the amount of heparanoid-like substance is optionally measured in a volume of liquid to give a concentration or heparanoid-like substance. Therefore, the predictive chart alternatively correlates the heparanoid-like substance concentration in excretion in relation to heparanoid-like substance concentration in the tissue. This tissue is primarily the endothelium. Once the tissue heparanoid-like substance amount in the tissue has been predicted it can be determined if it is between an optimal range. An amount between the optimal range is indicative of desirable tissue structural integrity. And an amount outside of an optimal range is indicative of undesirable tissue structural integrity. The mammalian tissue structural integrity is then used to predict the overall health state of the mammal. A desirable healthy state is indicated when the mammal has desirable tissue structural integrity. A desirable healthy state indicates a reduced risk of thrombogenecity, heart attack, ischemia, arterial stenosis, cardiac cell hypertrophy, myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, and cardiovascular disease. The cardiovascular disease may be atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis, or thrombosis.

[0015] Furthermore, an undesirable healthy state is indicated when the mammal has undesirable tissue structural integrity. An undesirable healthy state indicates an increased risk thrombogenecity, heart attack, ischemia, arterial stenosis, cardiac cell hypertrophy, myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, and cardiovascular disease. The cardiovascular disease may be atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis, or thrombosis.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS

[0016] FIG. 1 is a graph comparing a control group to Heparin and groups of Rhamnan Sulphate at different dosages.

[0017] FIG. 2 is a graph comparing a control group to various groups of Rhamnan Sulphate and L-Arginine in various dosages.

[0018] FIG. 3 is a chemical representation of the salt of Rhamnan Sulphate-Arginine compound.

[0019] FIG. 4 is a dose response graph of the amount and concentration found of Rhamnan Sulphate measured in urine.

[0020] FIG. 5 is a dose response graph of the amount and concentration of Rhamnan Sulphate measured in feces.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0021] As has been previously described by the inventor, medical literature and thinking is pervasive with the assessment that high cholesterol levels cause occlusion of the coronary and other arteries, which then cause infarction and ischemia. The inventor, in U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,255,296 and 6,495,530, outlines the fact that endothelial cell surface thrombosis, rather than cholesterol occlusion is the proximate cause of ischemia and infarction and the specification of those patents are hereby incorporated by reference. The inventor's conception is that cholesterol accumulation in arteries results in loss of the surface antithrombotic effects of sufficient Nitric Oxide and Heparin Sulphate that, prevent endothelial and artery based surface thrombotic activity.

[0022] It is also a conception of the inventor that a cellular environment (cellular matrix or gel matrix) composed of charged polymers-highly charged peptide-water polymers, such as heparin-arginine-water is responsible for controlling the structure and ultimately the function of human cells within this cellular environment. As the human blood vessel is only one cell thick, it too operates within this charged polymer-highly charged peptide-water environment. Thus, this charged polymer-arginine-water environment impacts such important functions of the cells by effecting protein distribution and functionality, cell signaling processes, genetic or DNA-RNA transcription regulation, and the physical/chemical properties of cells, including blood vessel wall cells. It should also be noted that heparins or heparin domains within these polymer structures are members of the group commonly referred to as endogenous heparans. Exogenous heparans, including heparin, have functions, which protect the endogenous heparans.

[0023] The present invention is a method for predicting the health of a mammalian tissue by using the amount of heparanoid-like substance measured in a bodily excretion in relation to the amount in tissue. In accordance with the invention, a patient susceptible to or suffering from a cardiovascular disorder or disease such as atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis, congestive heart failure, angina pectoris, or other diseases associated with the cardiovascular system and thrombotic processes, will be identified and treated with a therapeutically effective amount of a substance characterized as Rhamnan Sulphate or its functional analogs or physiologically acceptable salts.

[0024] When absorbed into the charged polymer-highly charged peptide-water matrix, Rhamnan Sulphate protects and reinforces structure and roles of endogenous heparin. Whatever the mechanism, Rhamnan Sulphate absorption has a potent effect on surface antithrombotic effects on the cell surface rather than the plasma anticoagulation.

[0025] For example, the Rhamnan Sulphate is characterized such that it should be an amount sufficient to exert cell surface anti-thrombotic effects on the endothelial cells, while not increasing the patient's risk of internal or external hemorrhaging and effectively maintaining integrity and functionality of the cellular membranes and surrounding environments of the endothelial cells.

[0026] Again, effective doses of Rhamnan Sulphate vary with the particular patient condition and the method of administration. For example, it is noticed that subcutaneous injection of heparin results in greater concentration in the cellular and membrane domains than intravenous injection, and it is the inventor's observation that oral heparan sulphates localizes almost exclusively to cell surface membranes, especially the endothelium. Thus, the preferred method of administration of Rhamnan Sulphate is through the oral route, while the least preferred method is via intravenous injection.

[0027] Furthermore, the compound of the present invention is optionally used, either alone or in conjunction with other material that are currently used as capsules, to form a capsule shell. The capsule shell comprised of the compound of the present invention is then used to administer or deliver other pharmaceuticals, nutrients, or vitamins and minerals.

[0028] The inventor recognizes as integral to the invention, that cell surface based antithrombotic activity is distinctly different from plasma anti-coagulation. The invention achieves cell based antithrombotic activity without the inhibition of plasma anticoagulant factors. Thus, the invention avoids the risks of spontaneous hemorrhage or excessive bleeding due to vessel injury attendant to plasma anticoagulation with currently available anticoagulant treatments such as Coumadin® and heparin.

[0029] Localization of administered heparin or heparin analogues to cell surfaces (e.g. endothelial surfaces) by oral administration inhibits thrombotic activity within and on artery and blood vessel surfaces without the inhibition of plasma clotting factors seen with currently available anticoagulants.

[0030] An efficiently operating homeostatic system is crucial to cellular function within mammalian organisms. In a healthy state, there is formed a gel matrix of heparin, highly charged peptide and water polymers, which houses a plurality of other molecules by accommodating dynamic binding of and release of such molecules without reaching concentration levels which destroy the gel structure and its regulatory functionalities.

[0031] Rhamnan Sulphate is derived from plant sources such as algae. Typical plant sources of Rhamnan Sulphate and Rhamnan Sulphate analogs includes, Monostrom Nitidum. Such plants are considered to be an effective and efficient source of Rhamnan Sulphate compounds for use in the present invention.

[0032] Long chain charged polymer strands are an organizing determinant for membranes, proteins, receptors, ion channels, cell organelles, nuclear membranes, membrane pores, and other complex cellular constituents. The polymers and highly charged amino acids such as Arginine organize water into arenas for confining bilipid layer membranes, for example, creating cell turgor and form and limiting hydrolytic properties of water on other molecular structures.

[0033] Rhamnan Sulphate's high sulphate content imparts a high negative charge which attracts and binds positively charged substances like basic amino acids, basic domains of proteins and peptides, cations, water and other such charged molecules. Arginine has a high positive charge and strongly associates with heparin along membrane surfaces such as endothelium and basement membranes an in association with water, organize as gel matrix.

[0034] The gel may be in a constant state of change, including transitions from one state or phase to another. As such, conformation can change and derangements occur as different substances move in and out of the gel and as the gel properties change.

[0035] A healthy gel matrix is formed from endogenous charged polymers, endogenous arginine and water. An unhealthy state of a gel matrix has some of the highly charged peptides molecules cleaved out of the gel. Likewise, charged polymers have been removed from the gel. There are thus created gaps between charged polymers into which other molecules can embed or pass through.

[0036] The healthy gel matrix structure has a conformation that preferentially supports interaction and binding of foreign molecules. The capacity to accommodate intrusions of such molecules before the gel structure collapses and loses its functionality is an important characteristic of the gel system.

[0037] An example of polar molecules that heparin binds and inactivates, thereby modulating their activity, are serine proteases, other clotting factors and thrombolytic agents, antithrombin-thrombin, complement, apo-lipoproteins, growth-promoting factors, mitogens, heparinase, lipoprotein lipase, growth-inhibiting factors, chemotactic factors, super oxide dismutase, cytokines, numerous enzymes, and cytoskeletal proteins such as fibronectin.

[0038] As these intrusions accumulate locally or in a distributed fashion, they cause an interference within the gellular association of charged polymers and highly charged peptide. The interference can cause the gel structure to deteriorate, thus increasing its porosity or collapse altogether in a localized or distributed fashion. In addition, the intrusion may trigger a release of other bound polar molecules, such as calcium, which would induce a non-homeostatic event.

[0039] The permeability created by the interference of such molecules allows macromolecules or cells to enter and traverse the gel. For example, cholesterol, clotting factors and water traverse the gel reaching a bilipid layer, or other subendothelial locations. In addition, ionic strength, flow stress, heat, osmotic pressure or other forms of energy transfer to the gel can deteriorate the properties of the gel as described above.

[0040] These intrusions result in a displacement of arginine and decreased generation of nitric oxide as an additional effect. Intrusions limit the binding capacity of the heparin for arginine and other molecules within the gel.

[0041] In order to reverse this disruption of the gel matrix caused by the removal of arginine and/or heparin, Rhamnan Sulphate is administered to maintain and rejuvenate the gel matrix and its functionality. In this regard, Rhamnan Sulphate is utilized to give optimal pore closure and stabilization, and number and distribution of binding sites, wherein signaling, anti-proliferation, cell surface anti-thrombotic, and anti-inflammatory effects are maintained. Thus, the homeostasis-promoting functionalities of heparin, arginine, and charged polymer-highly charged peptide-water gel matrix, resultant from the herein-described composition, retard continuous and accumulative change and injury to cellular domains. By this retarding effect, cholesterol accumulations, generally referred to as “arterial plaques” are minimized.

[0042] Administration of Rhamnan Sulphate also leads to increased lipoprotein and lipase release and tissue factor pathway inhibitor release, with beneficial effects on plaque stability, growth, rupture, and regression.

[0043] Addition of Rhamnan Sulphate to the gel system protects the functionality of both heparin and the arginine in the gel matrix. In the extragellular medium, the ability of heparin to bind and quiesce molecules is augmented by simultaneous addition of Rhamnan Sulphate, wherein Rhamnan Sulphate binds to extragellular potentially-intruding molecules, thus allowing existing gellular charged polymers to associate with gellular arginine.

[0044] Nitric oxide produced from arginine is an important physiological mediator. The enzyme responsible for nitric oxide production, nitric oxide synthase, requires CA++ and Calmodulin. The functionality of the heparin-arginine gel includes its binding and regulation of CA++ and Calmodulin. By regulating Calmodulin activity, the effects of Rhamnan Sulphate on the charged polymer-arginine gel regulates nitric oxide synthase activity responsible for nitric oxide production.

[0045] The binding of water, small anions and cations within the charged polymer-arginine-water gel is facilitated by pi-bonding properties inherent in the saccharide ring structure within the charged polymers. Changes in the shared electron density and electrical charge variation regulated the state of solvation and conformation of the gel polymers. Thus, small anion and cation binding induces changes in the state of solvation, changes in catalytic and hydrolytic properties of water, and changes in capacity of the gel to bind water and other molecules. Low to high molecular weight Rhamnan Sulphate, preferably having a high degree of sulfation, is preferably used.

[0046] Endothelial cell injury and myocardial cell injury occur from free radicals. Heparin binds super oxide dismutase which absorbs high energy electrons and deactivates free radicals. Rhamnan Sulphate, heparin and nitric oxide bind free radicals preventing damages to endothelial cells.

[0047] Congestive heart failure is in part due to free radical injury to myocardial cells. Rhamnan Sulphate, heparin, super oxide dismutase and nitric oxide all attack and neutralize free radicals, therefore, diseases associated with cellular injury from free radicals are effectively treated and prevented by the present invention. Also, Rhamnan Sulphate aids in the reconstruction of damaged tissue by promoting the production of endogenous heparin, which then forms a complex with and removes extracellular matrix protein accumulations, e.g. fibronectin with consequent reversal or minimization of organ hypertrophy states. Rhamnan Sulphate enhances regeneration of endothelium following an injury to an endothelium surface.

[0048] Thus, this invention is directed to development of a diagnostic test for measuring the amount or concentration of heparanoid-like substance in mammalian excretions in order to predict the amount of heparanoid-like substance in mammalian tissue and especially the endothelium. Given that there is an optimal amount of heparanoid-like substance necessary for the structural integrity of cells, the cellular matrix, and the endothelium, the patient's risk for developing, or progression of, cardiac disease, cardiac disorder, or cardiac event such as an angioplasty or heart attack is predicted.

EXAMPLE 1

[0049] Dried green Algae (Monostrom Nitidum) was swollen in 10 Vols. of water at room temperature for one hour. Thereafter the swollen green algae was ground and refluxed for two (2) hours in a boiling water bath. The water extract was centrifuged (4500 g) for 30 minutes, and the water-soluble polysaccharide in the non-dialyzable fraction was obtained by lyophilization.

[0050] The crude polysaccharide was dissolved in water and was applied to a column (2.4×100 cm) of DEAE-cellulose (Whatman DE-52). Starch or neutral polysaccharides were removed by continuous water elution until the sample was completely free as determined by phenol-sulfuric acid detection. Afterwards, acid polysaccharide was fractionated by stepwise alteration of the ionic strength of KCL at 0.5. 0.7 and 2.0 M, and then each fraction was desalted and freeze dried. The 0.5 M KCL fraction (major fraction) successive purification procedures were performed by gel filtration chromatography on a Toyopearl HW-65 (fine) column (1.2×100 cm). The sample was eluted with water at a flow rate of 0.4 ml/min. The major fraction was collected and freeze dried. These procedures or variations of them for extraction of Rhamnan Sulphate is well known.

EXAMPLE 2

[0051] Rhamnan Sulphate was prepared as described in Example 1 and was tested for cell surface anti-thrombotic activity, as described below. Rhamnan sulphate was dissolved in water at concentrations 20, 10 and 5 mg/ml. For experiments utilizing L-Arginine, L-Arginine capsules were opened and contents were dissolved in water at 300 mg/ml for 4 hr studies and 150 mg/ml for the 28 day study. Rhamnan sulphate-arginine complex (RS-LR), where L-Arginine is covalently bound to Rhamnan Sulphate to form a physiologically acceptable salt of Rhamnan Sulphate, was dissolved in water at concentrations of 20, 10, 3 and 0.3 mg/ml. Bovine ung unfractionated heparin, 150 units/mg, Lot No ZX320, was obtained from Upjohn Ltd. Heparin was dissolved in water at a concentration of 20 mg/ml.

[0052] One hundred and two male Wistar rats, weighing 312±64 g (±SD), were handled and housed according to the Principles of Animal Care set out by the Canadian Federation of Biological Societies. The animals were fasted overnight prior to treatment and were anaesthetized with barbital and methoxyflurane for experimental procedures.

[0053] Rhamnan sulphate was administered to rats at 7.5, 4 and 2 mg/kg with 5, 20, and 5 rats/group respectively. Rhamnan sulphate (7.5 mg/kg) plus arginine (112.5 mg/kg) was administered to 5 rats. Rhamnan sulphate-arginine complex was administered to rats at 4, 1 and 0.1 mg/kg with 20 rats/group. The rhamnan-arginine complex was weighed fresh daily. All of the Groups and the administered compounds are shown in Table 1. Six to 8 rats were treated per day. A stomach tube was filled with 0.2 ml saline followed by 0.09-0.18 ml of the rhamnan sulphate solutions or 0.1 ml of arginine solution depending on rat weight. Thus when the stomach tube was placed in the stomach the drugs were first introduced into the stomach followed by saline to give a total volume of approximately 0.4 ml. In the heparin alone group, heparin was administered in a volume of 0.1-0.2 ml followed by 0.2 ml saline. Control group was saline alone. 1

TABLE 1
Group 1No Treatment
Group 2Heparin alone at 7.5 mg/kg
Group 3Rhamnan Sulphate alone at 7.5 mg/kg
Group 4Rhamnan Sulphate alone at 4 mg/kg
Group 5Rhamnan Sulphate alone at 2 mg/kg
Group 6Rhamnan Sulphate 7.5 mg/kg +
L-Arginine 112 mg/Kg
Group 7Salt of Rhamnan Sulphate 4 mg/kg -
L-Arginine
Group 8Salt of Rhamnan Sulphate 1 mg/kg -
L-Arginine
Group 9Salt of Rhamnan Sulphate 0.1 mg/kg -
L-Arginine

[0054] Thrombosis Test

[0055] The thrombosis test was performed by a modification of the procedure by Blake et al. For animals exposed to treatment for 4 h, a thrombus was initiated in the right jugular vein by application of 10% formalin in 65% methanol to the exposed adventitial surface. Immediately following, drugs were introduced into the stomach by stomach tube. At 4 h after thrombus initiation animals were again deeply anaesthetized and first examined for any external signs of bleeding. The jugular vein was exposed and examined for the presence of a plug using a cotton pledget. The clot was scored as + (hard clot) if the vessel is blocked and remained blocked despite examination with a cotton pledget. The clot was scored as +/− (soft clot) if the vessel appeared completely blocked on first examination and then opened as it was examined. The thrombus was scored as − (negative) if blood was seen to flow freely in the vessel.

[0056] Collection of Blood and Blood Vessels.

[0057] Immediately after examination of the jugular vein, a laparotomy was performed and a blood sample of approximately 10 ml (9 parts blood to 1 part 3.8% sodium citrate) was taken from the abdominal aorta. Plasma was prepared. As a source of endothelium, the thoracic aorta or vena cava was removed and placed in saline. Each animal was examined for signs of internal hemorrhage and the time when blood clotted in the body cavity was recorded.

[0058] Harvesting of Endothelium

[0059] Endothelium was removed from blood vessels according to the method of Hiebert and Jaques. The vessels were slit open, pinned to dental wax lumen side up, and rinsed in Locke's solution. Cellulose acetate paper was applied to the lumenal surface and when lifted, endothelium was removed. The length and width of the imprint were measured to the nearest mm.

[0060] Determination of Heparin-Like Compounds with Endothelium

[0061] Cellulose acetate paper was removed from endothelium by dissolving in cold acetone followed by centrifuging and discarding the supernatant. The precipitates were further processed by digestion with pronase (10 μl of 40 mg/ml in Tris buffer). Samples were then centrifuged at 10,000 rpm for 10 min, supernatant was collected and the precipitate washed twice with 100 uL 26.8% NaCl which was added to the supernatant. GAGs were precipitated from the supernatant with five volumes of methanol and the precipitate dried. Agarose gel electrophoresis was used to identify and measure rhamnan sulphate in endothelial extracts by previously published methods. The dried powders, dissolved in suitable volumes of water, were applied to agarose gel slides along with the administered rhamnan sulphate used as a reference. Following electrophoresis, gels were fixed in 0.1% hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide and air-dried. Slides were stained with 0.04% toluidine blue in 80% acetone and background color was removed with 1% acetic acid. Heparin was identified by electrophoretic migration as compared to reference material and amounts determined by densitometry.

[0062] Statistical Analysis

[0063] Thrombosis data is expressed as a percentage with 95% confidence intervals. X2 test for differences between proportions was used to compare the total thrombotic incidence and incidence of hard clots between groups. Other data is expressed as mean±SE. A one-way ANOVA with Tukeys post hoc test was used to compare the differences between groups when plasma coagulation tests and heparin-like concentrations in urine were examined.

[0064] Thrombosis Test

[0065] As shown in FIG. 1 an antithrombotic effect was observed with all oral doses of rhamnan sulphate alone, except 2 mg/kg. As well an antithrombotic effect was seen when arginine was added along with rhamnan sulphate or when rhamnan sulphate was complexed to arginine. At 2 mg/kg rhamnan sulphate there was a trend towards a significant reduction in hard clots versus controls although this did not reach significance. A dose response was evident with both rhamnan sulphate alone or when rhamnan sulphate was complexed to arginine. The rhamnan sulphate arginine complex was a significantly more effective antithrombotic agent than rhamnan sulphate alone as shown by a decrease in incidence of hard clots when comparing the compounds at 4 mg/kg. Further the incidence of hard clots and total thrombotic incidence was less for the rhamnan sulphate arginine complex at 1 mg/kg versus rhamnan sulphate alone at 2 mg/kg.

[0066] FIGS. 1 and 2 show antithrombotic activity of orally administered rhamnan sulphate or rhamnan sulphate and arginine as compared to oral unfractionated heparin. Error bars show 95% confidence intervals; upward bars for total clots, downward for hard clots. RS+LR is 7.5 mg/kg rhamnan sulphate +112.5 mg/kg arginine); RS-LR is 7.5 mg/kg rhamnan sulphate arginine complex. Numbers in bars show number of rats per group.

[0067] Plasma Levels

[0068] The Rhamnan Sulphate Groups at all doses did not have a significant effect on APTT or the Heptest (Table 2). Rhamnan sulphate alone or when complexed with arginine had little or no effect on anti-Xa or anti-IIa activity. Rhamnan sulphate alone had somewhat more anti-Xa activity than the rhamnan sulphate-arginine complex. When anti-Xa activity was measured in the plasma of rats there was a reduced optical density in the plasma samples from some of the rats given rhamnan sulphate or the rhamnan sulphate-arginine complex. (Data not shown). There was no evidence of bleeding or blood loss in the animals. 2

TABLE 2
Activation partial thromboplastin time and Heptest following oral
administration of rhamnan sulphate alone,
with arginine or as a rhamnan
sulphate-arginine complex.
DoseAPTT (sec)Heptest (sec)
Mg/kgMeanSEMeanSE
Controls19.50.936.30.8
Rhamnan7.520.20.632.52.2
Sulphate420.50.534.21.9
221.80.936.51.1
Rhamnan sulphate + LR7.520.40.831.80.9
Rhamnan Sulphate-422.61.536.91.0
Arginine118.50.730.80.7
Complex0.118.50.730.81.0

[0069] Rhamnan sulphate like material was also found on both aortic and vena caval endothelium. A higher concentration was found on the vena cava than on the aorta when all compounds were administered (Table 3) P<0.00003 one-tailed t-test. A dose effect was evident when venal caval concentrations of rhamnan sulphate were observed following rhamnan sulphate or rhamnan sulphate-arginine. A similar dose effect was seen for aortic concentrations of rhamnan sulphate following oral administration of rhamnan sulphate arginine but not rhamnan sulphate alone. Vena caval but not aortic concentrations were greater at 4 mg/kg for rhamnan sulphate but not rhamnan sulphate-arginine complex. 3

TABLE 3
Rhamnan sulphate - like material found on aortic and vena caval
endothelium following oral administration of rhamnan sulphate alone,
with arginine or as a rhamnan sulphate-arginine complex.
AortaVena Cava
Doseμg/cm2μg/cm2
Mg/kgNumbermean ± semean ± se
Rhamnan7.5 51.80 ± 0.7911.22 ± 3.20
Sulphate4202.05 ± 0.0815.97 ± 1.54*
2 52.32 ± 0.33 3.00 ± 0.43
Rhamnan sulphate +7.5 53.91 ± 0.65 7.16 ± 3.77
LR
Rhamnan Sulphate-4202.30 ± 0.07 4.41 ± 0.05
Arginine1200.12 ± 0.05 0.42 ± 0.10
Complex0.1200.52 ± 0.13 1.89 ± 0.43

[0070] FIG. 4 shows Rhamnan sulphate found in urine following oral administration. Mean±SEM is shown. Rhamnan sulphate-like material was also recovered from the urine and feces accumulated over the 4 hr period. The amounts and concentrations recovered after administration of rhamnan sulphate alone resulted in more being excreted in the urine than when given as a rhamnan sulphate-arginine complex. Amounts recovered were 3.0±0.4 and 1.6±0.4 (mean±SE) percent of dose for rhamnan sulphate alone versus rhamnan sulphate-arginine respectively and was significantly greater at 4 mg/kg, in a one tailed t-test.

[0071] FIG. 5 shows that amounts recovered from feces show that more is recovered when administered as rhamnan sulphate alone versus rhamnan sulphate-arginine. A dose effect was evident. Amounts recovered were 13.7±4.4 and 6.1±1.9 (mean±SE) percent of dose for rhamnan sulphate alone versus rhamnan sulphate-arginine respectively, these differences were not significant.

[0072] Values from FIG. 4 or 5 and Table 2 may then be used to form a predictive chart, whereby the amount of rhamnan sulphate in urine or feces will depict the relation of rhamnan sulphate in the tissue. If the amount in the tissue corresponds to the optimal range, then the mammal is in a desirable healthy state, and has a reduced risk of developing disorders and diseases of the heart and arteries.

[0073] In general, the results indicate that Rhamnan Sulphate provides vessel surface anti-thrombotic activity without appreciably increasing plasma anticoagulation activity. Hard clots and soft clots build from the inside surface of the lumen of the injured vessel and extend radially more central into the lumen of the vessel, but there is little or no change in the plasma coagulation activity as was measured by the standard plasma coagulation tests mentioned above. Thus, Rhamnan Sulphate is effective in preventing clot formation at the inside surface of the vessel, but it does not provide the patient with increased plasma anti-coagulation activity to render the patient a “bleeder” or to be at appreciably increased risk of hemorrhaging.

[0074] The results show that without any treatment, as a control group, saline had no effect on thrombosis with approximately a 90% incidence of thrombosis of which a very high percentage were hard clots. Heparin, which is commonly used as an anticoagulant, at 7.5 mg/kg showed little or no effect in total incidence of thrombosis, however it reduced the percentage of incidence of hard clots. Conversely, Rhamnan Sulphate at the same 7.5 mg/kg dosage showed a significant decrease in incidence of thrombosis with little or no hard clots. Reduction of the dosage of Rhamnan Sulphate to 4 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg resulted in the increase in incidence of thrombosis and in the re-appearance of hard clots from the 7.5 mg/kg dose.

[0075] FIG. 2 again compares the control group with the co-administration of Rhamnan Sulphate with L-Arginine, the structure of which is commonly known. RS+LR refers to the co-administration of Rhamnan Sulphate, whereas RS-LR refers to the salt of Rhamnan Sulphate with arginine as a compound, the chemical structure of which is shown in FIG. 3. Group 6, RS+LR at 7.5 mg/kg, showed little difference with administration of Rhamnan Sulphate by itself both in the incidence of thrombosis and in the non-occurring of hard clots. Group 7, RS-LR compound at 4 mg/kg, however, showed a significant reduction in the total incidence of thrombosis from 4 mg/kg of Rhamnan Sulphate alone and a reduction in hard clots. Even Group 8, LS-LR compound at 1 mg/kg showed a slight decrease in incidence of thrombosis than and hard clots than 4 mg/kg of Rhamnan Sulphate.

[0076] The result is that Rhamnan Sulphate by itself is more effective than Heparin in lowering the incidence of thrombosis and in reducing the number of hard clots. Further, that the blood anticoagulation activity is not appreciably increased. This further desired effect is opposite that of Heparin, which is known to increase plasma anticoagulation activity. Thus, the use of Rhamnan Sulphate in treatment of endothelial dysfunction, particularly cardiovascular disease, and more particularly atherescierosis and arteriosclerosis is desired. A second result is that the salt of Rhamnan Sulphate-arginine compound is more effective in lowering the incidence of thrombosis and hard clots than an equivalent dose of Rhamnan Sulphate alone.

[0077] It is therefore evident how the objective of the present invention is satisfied. First, the method of the invention is a noninvasive procedure to determine the amount of heparanoid-like substance in mammalian excretions.

[0078] Second, because there is a correlation between heparanoid-like substances in bodily excretions and the amount found in the mammalian tissue a chart may be constructed.

[0079] Third, since there is a correlation, the amount of heparanoid-like substance in the mammalian excretions is predictive of the amount in the mammalian tissue.

[0080] Fourth, the structural integrity desirability of the mammalian tissue can be predicted on whether the amount of heparanoid-like substance in mammalian tissue is within or outside an optimal range.

[0081] Fifth, an increased or decreased risk of the mammal developing a heart disorder or other disease processes associated with thrombosis other than cholesterol can be predicted from the structural integrity of the tissue.

[0082] It will be readily apparent to those skilled in the art that many modifications, derivations and improvements are within the scope of the invention. Such modifications, derivations, and improvements should be accorded full scope of protection by the claims appended hereto.