Title:
Non-metallic masonry tie
Kind Code:
A1


Abstract:
A non-metallic masonry tie includes at least two longitudinal members of composite fibre. Composite fibre reinforcement extends between the two longitudinal members. The preferred composite fibre reinforcement is in the form of a bundle of composite fibres extending angularly between and wrapped around the two longitudinal members to form a symmetrical reinforcement pattern consisting of a plurality of triangles. This serves to equally distribute the forces acting upon the two longitudinal members.



Inventors:
Cyrson, John (Sherwood Park, CA)
Shrive, Nigel Graham (Calgary, CA)
Lissel, Shelley Lynn (Calgary, CA)
Application Number:
10/292389
Publication Date:
07/17/2003
Filing Date:
11/07/2002
Assignee:
CYRSON JOHN
SHRIVE NIGEL GRAHAM
LISSEL SHELLEY LYNN
Primary Class:
Other Classes:
52/513
International Classes:
E04B1/41; E04C5/07; (IPC1-7): E04B1/38; E04C1/40; E04C5/00
View Patent Images:
Related US Applications:



Primary Examiner:
CURINGTON, STEPHANIE H
Attorney, Agent or Firm:
CHRISTENSEN O'CONNOR JOHNSON KINDNESS PLLC (1201 Third Avenue Suite 3600, Seattle, WA, 98101, US)
Claims:

The embodiments of the invention in which an exclusive property or privilege is claimed are defined as follows:



1. A non-metallic masonry tie, comprising: at least two longitudinal members of composite fibre; and composite fibre reinforcement extending between the at least two longitudinal members.

2. The non-metallic masonry tie as defined in claim 1, wherein the at least two longitudinal members form part of a rectangular composite fibre frame.

3. The non-metallic masonry tie as defined in claim 1, wherein the composite fibre reinforcement is a single bundle of fibres wrapped around the at least two longitudinal members.

4. The non-metallic masonry tie as defined in claim 1, wherein the composite fibre reinforcement extends angularly between the at least two longitudinal members.

5. The non-metallic masonry tie as defined in claim 1, wherein the composite fibre reinforcement forms a reinforcement pattern consisting of a plurality of triangles.

6. The non-metallic masonry tie as defined in claim 5, wherein the triangles are equilateral triangles.

7. The non-metallic masonry tie as defined in claim 1, wherein the composite fibre reinforcement forms a symmetrical reinforcement pattern, thereby equally distributing the forces between the at least two longitudinal members.

8. The non-metallic masonry tie as defined in claim 1, wherein the composite fibre is glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP).

9. The non-metallic masonry tie as defined in claim 2, wherein two or more of the rectangular composite fibre frames are combined.

10. The non-metallic masonry tie as defined in claim 9, wherein two of the rectangular composite fibre frames are combined to form a “T” shape.

11. A non-metallic masonry tie, comprising: a rectangular composite fibre frame having two longitudinal members; and composite fibre reinforcement in the form of a bundle of composite fibres extending angularly between and wrapped around the two longitudinal members to form a symmetrical reinforcement pattern consisting of a plurality of triangles, thereby equally distributing the forces between the two longitudinal members.

12. The non-metallic masonry tie as defined in claim 11, wherein the triangles are equilateral triangles.

13. The non-metallic masonry tie as defined in claim 11, wherein the composite fibre is glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP).

14. The non-metallic masonry tie as defined in claim 11, wherein two or more of the rectangular composite fibre frames are combined.

15. The non-metallic masonry tie as defined in claim 12, wherein two of the rectangular composite fibre frames are combined to form a “T” shape.

Description:

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

[0001] The present invention relates to a non-metallic masonry tie used to join and reinforce masonry walls.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0002] Masonry ties are generally made of galvanized steel. Since the presence of moisture in the cavities of masonry walls is unavoidable, corrosion is a major problem experienced with steel masonry ties. In order to avoid corrosion, there have been attempts to use corrosion free advanced composite materials to make non-metallic masonry ties.

[0003] In shear testing of non-metallic masonry ties made from these advanced composite materials, the non-metallic masonry ties have not been able to perform at levels approaching galvanized steel. In most cases, the non-metallic masonry ties were no better or just marginally better than a masonry wall without masonry ties.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0004] What is required is a non-metallic masonry tie that is capable of withstanding shear forces approaching galvanized steel.

[0005] According to the present invention there is provided a non-metallic masonry tie which includes at least two longitudinal members of composite fibre. Composite fibre reinforcement extends between the two longitudinal members.

[0006] The non-metallic masonry tie, as described above, is capable of superior performance over strips of composite material made into masonry ties. As will be apparent from the test data which will hereinafter be provided. In making a composite fibre masonry tie, as described above, there are features which can be included to enhance performance.

[0007] Although beneficial results may be obtained through the use of the non-metallic masonry tie, as described above, even more beneficial results may be obtained when the composite fibre reinforcement is a single bundle of fibres wrapped around the longitudinal members. A continuous wrap provides greater strength than a discontinuous serious of reinforcement of shorter length.

[0008] Although beneficial results may be obtained through the use of the non-metallic masonry tie, as described above, even more beneficial results may be obtained when the composite fibre reinforcement extends angularly between the longitudinal members. Angular reinforcement is better able to resist relative axial movement of the longitudinal members and torsional forces on a common plane with the longitudinal members. For best results the composite fibre reinforcement must form a symmetrical reinforcement pattern which equally distributes the forces between the longitudinal members. A preferred reinforcement pattern that can be readily configured symmetrically is a reinforcement pattern consisting of a plurality of triangles. The triangles can be isosceles, but are preferably equilateral triangles.

[0009] There are enormous variety of composite fibres which could be used to fabricate non-metallic masonry ties, as described above. Beneficial results have been obtained through the use of glass fibre reinforced polymers (GFRP).

[0010] Although beneficial results may be obtained through the use of the non-metallic masonry tie, as described above, even more beneficial results may be obtained when the two longitudinal members form part of a rectangular composite fibre frame. The rectangular composite fibre frames can be used, by themselves for reinforcement or can be used as “building blocks” to make more complex reinforcement structures. It is preferred that two or more of the rectangular composite fibre frames be combined to form a reinforcement structure. Beneficial results have been obtained through the use of a “T” shape which provides reinforcement along both an “X” and “Y” axis.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0011] These and other features of the invention will become more apparent from the following description in which reference is made to the appended drawings, the drawings are for the purpose of illustration only and are not intended to in any way limit the scope of the invention to the particular embodiment or embodiments shown, wherein:

[0012] FIG. 1 is top plan view of a rectangular non-metallic masonry tie fabricated in accordance with the teachings of the present invention.

[0013] FIG. 2 is a perspective view, in section, of a masonry wall showing placement of the rectangular non-metallic masonry ties illustrated in FIG. 1.

[0014] FIG. 3 is a side elevation view, in section, of a masonry wall showing placement of the rectangular non-metallic masonry ties illustrated in FIG. 1.

[0015] FIG. 4 is a top plan view of a “T” shaped non-metallic masonry tie fabricated from two of the rectangular non-metallic masonry ties illustrated in FIG. 1.

[0016] FIG. 5 is a perspective view, in section, of a masonry wall showing placement of the “T” shaped non-metallic masonry ties illustrated in FIG. 4.

[0017] FIG. 6 is a side elevation view, in section, of a masonry wall showing placement of the “T” shaped non-metallic masonry ties illustrated in FIG. 4.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

[0018] Two preferred embodiments of non-metallic masonry tie will now be described. A rectangular embodiment of non-metallic masonry tie, generally identified by reference numeral 10, will be described with reference to FIGS. 1 through 3. A “T” shaped embodiment of non-metallic masonry tie, generally identified by reference numeral 100, will be described with reference to FIGS. 4 through 6.

[0019] Structure and Relationship of Parts of Rectangular embodiment:

[0020] Referring to FIG. 1, there is provided a non-metallic masonry tie 10 which includes a generally rectangular composite fibre frame 12 that has two longitudinal members 14. Composite fibre reinforcement in the form of a bundle of composite fibres 16 extends angularly between and wrapped around two longitudinal members 14 to form a symmetrical reinforcement pattern generally referenced by numeral 18. Symmetrical reinforcement pattern 18 consists of a plurality of triangles 20, thereby equally distributing the forces between two longitudinal members 14. In the illustrated embodiment, composite fibre 16 is glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP), however other types of composite fibre 16 could also be used. In the illustrated embodiment, triangles 20 are equilateral triangles 20, however symmetrical reinforcement pattern 18 could also consist of triangles 20 that are isosceles.

[0021] Operation:

[0022] The use and operation of rectangular embodiment of non-metallic masonry tie 10 will now be described with reference to FIGS. 1 through 3.

[0023] Referring to FIGS. 2 and 3, rectangular non-metallic masonry tie 10 as described above, is used to join and reinforce masonry walls, generally referenced by numeral 22. For example, rectangular non-metallic masonry tie 10 can be used to reinforce a connective portion 24 that extends between two wythes 26 of masonry wall 22. Depending on the manner of constructing connective portion 24, the placement of rectangular non-metallic masonry ties 10 differs. Referring to FIG. 2, if connectivity portion 24 is constructed of bricks 28 arranged in interlock pattern, generally referenced by numeral 30, then rectangular non-metallic masonry ties 10 are placed along an “X” axis 32 on each wythes 26. Referring to FIG. 3, if connective portion 24 between two wythes 26 is constructed of bricks 28 arranged in a “tied” pattern, generally referenced by 34, then placement of non-metallic masonry ties 10 is provided along an “Y” axis 36. Referring to FIG. 1, in either placement, it has been found that the angular reinforcement of rectangular non-metallic masonry tie 10, is better able to resist relative axial movement of longitudinal members 14 and torsional forces on a common plane with longitudinal members 14. The symmetrical reinforcement pattern 18 of equilateral triangles 20 equally distributes the forces between longitudinal members 14.

[0024] Variations and Alternative Embodiments:

[0025] A “T” shaped embodiment of non-metallic masonry tie, generally identified by reference numeral 100, will be now described with reference to FIGS. 4 through 6 Referring to FIG. 4, there is illustrated non-metallic masonry tie 100 wherein two rectangular composite fibre frames 112 are combined to form a “T” shape. Each fibre frame 112 of “T” shaped embodiment 100 has two longitudinal members 114. Composite fibre reinforcement in the form of a bundle of composite fibres 116 extends angularly between and wrapped around longitudinal members 114 to form a symmetrical reinforcement pattern generally referenced by numeral 118. Symmetrical reinforcement pattern 118 consists of a plurality of triangles 120, thereby equally distributing the forces between longitudinal members 114.

[0026] Operation:

[0027] The use and operation of “T” shaped embodiment of non-metallic masonry tie will now be described with reference to FIGS. 4 though 6. Referring to FIG. 5, “T” shaped embodiment of non-metallic masonry tie 100 can also be used to used to join and reinforce masonry walls 22. For example, during construction of masonry wall, “T” shaped non-metallic tie 100 is placed so as to provide reinforcement along both “X” axis 32 and “Y” 34 axis of each wythe 26 of masonry wall 22. Referring to FIG. 6, “T” shaped non-metallic tie 100 can also be used on masonry walls 22 where connective portion 24 between two wythes 26 is constructed of bricks 28 arranged in a “tied” pattern, generally referenced by 34. In the illustrated embodiment, “T” shaped non-metallic ties 100 have been placed on alternating rows 38 of bricks 28 on each wythe 26, rather than on the same rows 38 of bricks 28 so as to prevent the overlap of “T” shaped non-metallic ties 100 on connective portion 24, however if connective portion 24 is of a suitable length, it will be appreciated that “T” shaped non-metallic members 100 could also be placed the same row 38 of bricks 28 of each wythe 26 as well.

[0028] Comparative Testing Data: 1

TABLE 2
Test results: Values given are average of 3 replicates
Failure LoadShear Stress
Specimen Typea(kN)(MPa)
B1-ST36.9329.5
B2-ST20.7227.1
B3-ST21.5192.0
B4-ST34.3306.3
B1-GG32.868.3
B1-WG38.1146.7
B1-TGb20.8593.3
B1-GG-I90.84.23
B2-GG-I86.93.66
B3-GG-I89.94.53
B1-ST-I94.44.18
B2-ST-I94.74.01
B3-ST-I90.14.33
B1-N-I100.24.46
B2-N-I108.14.69
B3-N-I89.54.39
aB1 = peach brick, B2 = salmon brick, B3 = brown brick, B4 = speckled brick, ST = steel ties, GG = Grey GFRP ties, WG = white GFRP ties, TG = T-shaped GFRP ties, N = no ties, I = interlocked web/flange connection
bOnly one T-shaped tie was used in each connection, as opposed to the 2 used in all other tied specimens

[0029] In this patent document, the word “comprising” is used in its non-limiting sense to mean that items following the word are included, but items not specifically mentioned are not excluded. A reference to an element by the indefinite article “a” does not exclude the possibility that more than one of the element is present, unless the context clearly requires that there be one and only one of the elements.

[0030] It will be apparent to one skilled in the art that modifications may be made to the illustrated embodiment without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as hereinafter defined in the claims.